Publications

Found 483 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is Z  [Clear All Filters]
2007
Zarins CK, Xu C, Taylor CA, Glagov S. "Localization of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: MD RWA, MD LHH, eds. Vascular {Surgery}. Blackwell Publishing; 2007:. Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: * Arterial structure and function * Physiologic adaptation of the arterial wall * Human atherosclerotic plaque morphology * Mechanical determinants of plaque localization * Susceptible regions of the arterial vasculature * Conclusion

2006
J. S, N. N, Z. Q, M. N. "Does assessment of signs and symptoms add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy?" J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2006;32(1):27-9. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
A World Health Organization-endorsed algorithm, widely published in international guidance documents and distributed in the form of a 'pregnancy checklist', has become a popular tool for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients in developing countries. The algorithm consists of six criteria excluding pregnancy, all conditional upon a seventh 'master criterion' relating to signs or symptoms of pregnancy. Few data exist on the specificity to pregnancy among family planning clients of long-accepted signs and symptoms of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether reported signs and symptoms of pregnancy add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy.

METHODS:
Data from a previous observational study were used to assess the performance of the algorithm with and without the 'signs and symptoms' criterion. The study group comprised 1852 new, non-menstruating family planning clients from seven clinics in Kenya.

RESULTS:
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy were rare (1.5%) as was pregnancy (1%). Signs and symptoms were more common (18.2%) among the 22 clients who tested positive for pregnancy than among the 1830 clients (1.3%) who tested negative, but did not add significantly to the predictive value of the algorithm. Most women with signs or symptoms were not pregnant and would have been unnecessarily denied a contraceptive method using the current criteria.

CONCLUSIONS:
The 'signs and symptoms' criterion did not substantially improve the ability of the algorithm to exclude pregnant clients, but several reasons (including use of the algorithm for intrauterine device clients) render it unlikely that the algorithm will be changed.

Huong LQ, Reinhard F, Padungtod P, Hanh TT, Kyule MN, Baumann MPO, Zessin KH. "Prevalence of Salmonella in Retail Chicken Meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.". 2006. Abstract

Infection with Salmonella (S.) is the most frequently reported cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide. Poultry are a common source and, in recent years, much attention has been focused in determining the prevalence of Salmonella during the different stages in the poultry production chain. This article was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in retail chicken meat sold in Hanoi. A total of 262 samples were randomly collected from retail markets and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Of these samples, 48.9% were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. Predominant serotypes were S. Agona, S. Emek, S. London. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium was considered. These findings have highlighted the magnitude of Salmonella contamination in retail chicken meat in Hanoi. On the basis of these preliminary survey results, it is recommended that a cost-effective monitoring and surveillance system for Salmonella should be established in Hanoi. This system should be augmented by good agricultural and hygienic practices and well-designed longitudinal research activities on the whole poultry production chain.

Xia Y-J, Lin J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Gan F-X, Huang W. "High-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting devices with 4, 4′, 4 ″-tris (N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine as the hole/exciton-blocking layer." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2006;39:4987. Abstract
n/a
Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of Novel VHL Target Genes and Relationship to Hypoxic Response Pathways." The Journal of Urology. 2006;175:387. Abstract
n/a
ZEKE MRWAWERU. "Jointly edited a book on"Africa communication and the future".". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
ZEKE MRWAWERU. "Paper on"the issue of mass media and the Africa debt crisis (UNPUBLISHED).". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
2005
Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways." Oncogene. 2005;24(28):4549-58. Abstract

Upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 is frequent in human cancers and may result from tissue hypoxia or genetic mechanisms, in particular the inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene (TSG). Tumours with VHL inactivation are highly vascular, but it is unclear to what extent HIF-dependent and HIF-independent mechanisms account for pVHL tumour suppressor activity. As the identification of novel pVHL targets might provide insights into pVHL tumour suppressor activity, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in VHL-wild-type and VHL-null renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. We identified 30 differentially regulated pVHL targets (26 of which were 'novel') and the results of microarray analysis were confirmed in all 11 novel targets further analysed by real-time RT-PCR or Western blotting. Furthermore, nine of 11 targets were dysregulated in the majority of a series of primary clear cell RCC with VHL inactivation. Three of the nine targets had been identified previously as candidate TSGs (DOC-2/DAB2, CDKN1C and SPARC) and all were upregulated by wild-type pVHL. The significance for pVHL function of two further genes upregulated by wild-type pVHL was initially unclear, but re-expression of GNG4 (G protein gamma-4 subunit/guanine nucleotide-binding protein-4) and MLC2 (myosin light chain) in a RCC cell line suppressed tumour cell growth. pVHL regulation of CDKN1C, SPARC and GNG4 was not mimicked by hypoxia, whereas for six of 11 novel targets analysed (including DOC-2/DAB2 and MLC2) the effects of pVHL inactivation and hypoxia were similar. For GPR56 there was evidence of a tissue-specific hypoxia response. Such a phenomenon might, in part, explain organ-specific tumorigenesis in VHL disease. These provide insights into mechanisms of pVHL tumour suppressor function and identify novel hypoxia-responsive targets that might be implicated in tumorigenesis in both VHL disease and in other cancers with HIF upregulation.

Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
ZAHIDA DRQURESHI. "Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?" East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(1):1. AbstractWebsite

Safe motherhood refers to a woman's ability to have a safe and healthy pregnancy and delivery. The goal of safe motherhood is to ensure that every woman has access to a full range of high-quality affordable sexual and reproductive health services especially maternal care and treatment of obstetric emergencies to reduce deaths and disabilities

Muthoka, M. Rego A.B., Z.K R. "Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development." Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development. 2005.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Demo MS, Oliva MM, Zunino MP, Zygadlo JA. "Essential oil of Rhynchosia minima from Kenya: Composition and antibacterial properties." J. Essential Oil Research. 2005;17:230-231.
Zimmermann MB, Ito Y, Hess SY, Fujieda K, Molinari L. "High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes." The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;81:840-844. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways." Oncogene. 2005;24:4549-4558. Abstract
n/a
Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways." Oncogene. 2005;24:4549-4558. Abstract
n/a
2004
Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Guglielmino CR, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Gomulski LM, Zheng L, Quilici S, Gasperi G, Malacrida AR. "Population genetics of the potentially invasive African fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: T."; 2004.
2003
Moulton KS, Vakili K, Zurakowski D, Soliman M, Butterfield C, Sylvin E, Lo K-M, Gillies S, Javaherian K, Folkman J. "Inhibition of plaque neovascularization reduces macrophage accumulation and progression of advanced atherosclerosis." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003;100:4736-4741. Abstract

Plaque angiogenesis promotes the growth of atheromas, but the functions of plaque capillaries are not fully determined. Neovascularization may act as a conduit for the entry of leukocytes into sites of chronic inflammation. We observe vasa vasorum density correlates highly with the extent of inflammatory cells, not the size of atheromas in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. We show atherosclerotic aortas contain activities that promote angiogenesis. The angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin reduces plaque angiogenesis and inhibits atherosclerosis. Macrophages in the plaque and around vasa vasorum are reduced, but we detect no direct effect of angiostatin on monocytes. After angiogenesis blockade in vivo, the angiogenic potential of atherosclerotic tissue is suppressed. Activated macrophages stimulate angiogenesis that can further recruit inflammatory cells and more angiogenesis. Our findings demonstrate that late-stage inhibition of angiogenesis can interrupt this positive feedback cycle. Inhibition of plaque angiogenesis and the secondary reduction of macrophages may have beneficial effects on plaque stability.

Nelson KE, Zinder SH, Hance I, Burr P, Odongo D, Wasawo D, Odenyo A, Bishop R. "Phylogenetic analysis of the microbial populations in the wild herbivore gastrointestinal tract: insights into an unexplored niche." Environ. Microbiol.. 2003;5(11):1212-20. Abstract

At present, there is little information on the phylogenetic diversity of microbial species that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of wildlife. To increase understanding in this area, we initiated a characterization of the bacterial diversity in the digestive tracts of three wild African ruminant species namely eland (Taurotragus oryx), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella rufifrons) and Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), together with a domesticated ruminant species, zebu cattle (Bos indicus), and a non-ruminant species, zebra (Equus quagga). Bacterial diversity was analysed by PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. A total of 252 full-length 16S rDNA sequences averaging 1,500 base pairs (bp) in length, and an additional 27 partial sequences were obtained and subject to phylogenetic analysis. Using a 98% criterion for similarity, all except for one of the sequences were derived from distinct phylotypes. At least 24 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTU's) could be identified, with the majority of these sequences representing hitherto uncharacterized species and genera. The sequences were generally affiliated with four major bacterial phyla, the majority being members of the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram-positives) related to the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. By contrast, with earlier studies using 16S rDNA sequences to assess biodiversity in Bos taurus dairy cattle, Gram-negative bacteria in the Bacteroidales (Prevotella-Bacteroides group) were poorly represented. The lack of redundancy in the 16S rDNA dataset from the five African ungulate species, and the presence of novel sequences not previously described from the gastrointestinal tract of any animal species, highlights the level of diversity that exists in these ecosystems and raises the question as to the functional role of these species in the gastrointestinal tract.

M. M. Oliva, Demo MS, Malele RS, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Faillaci SM, Scrivanti RL, Lopez AG, Zygadlo JA. "Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity and composition." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:61-63.
Kuria KAM, Abuga KO, Masengo W, Govaerts C, Roets E, Busson R, de Witte P, Zupko I, Hoornaert G, Hoogmartens J, Laekeman G. "In vitro Antimalarial Activity of Ajuga remota Benth (Labiatae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2003;6(2):26-30. Abstract

Ajuga remota Benth is the most frequently used plant to treat malaria by Kenyan herbalists. Both crude extracts and pure isolates of the plant were tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties. The activity was assessed by an enzyme assay method based on the measurement of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase activity. The IC50 of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 71 and 69 μg/ml against the chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum respectively. Ajugarin-1 was moderately active with IC50 of 23.0 ± 3.0 μM as compared to chloroquine (IC50 = 0.041 ± 0.003 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Ergosterol-5, 8-endoperoxide was about 4x as potent (IC50 = 5.4 ± 1.9 μM) while 8-0- acetylharpagide, a new isolate of A.remota and whose structure was established by spectroscopic evidence, was inactive.

Malele S, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Lopez AG, Lucini EI, Zygadlo JA. "Microbial activity and composition of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Essential oil from Tanzania." J. Essential Oil Research. 2003;5:438-440.
Malele S, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Lopez AG, Lucini EI, Zygadlo JA. "Microbial activity and composition of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Essential oil from Tanzania." J. Essential Oil Research. 2003;5:438-440.
Mburu J, Birner R, Zeller M. "Relative importance and determinants of landowners’ transaction costs in collaborative wildlife management in Kenya: an empirical analysis.". 2003. Abstract

Collaborative management of protected areas—which involves state agencies, local communities and other stakeholders—has been identified as a promising approach of organising nature conservation. However, as a complex governance structure, co-management can be expected to involve considerable transaction costs for the participating stakeholders. Empirical studies concerning the quantification of these costs are still scarce. Against this background, this paper empirically analyses the relative importance and the determinants of the landowners’ transaction costs arising from collaborative wildlife management, taking two wildlife sanctuaries in Kenya as examples. The empirical data presented in this paper was collected in the wildlife dispersal areas of Shimba Hills National Reserve and Amboseli National Park in Kenya. The results of this study show that—as compared to other cost categories—the landowners’ transaction costs incurred in wildlife co-management were relatively low. They also indicate that the magnitude of the transaction costs incurred by landowners is influenced by the attributes of transactions; bio-physical and ecological characteristics of the resource systems; landowners’ characteristics such as their human, social and financial forms of capital; losses resulting from human–wildlife conflicts; tenure security and benefits from conservation. Comparing the results of a two-stage least squares regression model of landowners’ characteristics of the two wildlife sanctuaries, it was found that the level of significance and the sign of most variables are not the same for both areas. This indicates that it is a specific combination of local factors that influences the transaction costs borne by the landowners.

Mwaura F, and Zech B. "Small man-made reservoirs and the future of integrated watershed management in Kenya." Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences . 2003;(2(1):67-79. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

2002
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Z.P. Q. "Current management of hypertensive disease in pregnancy." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(4):169-71. Abstract

Hypertensive disorders occur in 6-8% of all pregnancies with the incidence varying with geographic location. Studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital have noted a prevalence of 5.4% of hypertensive disease and 0.56% for eclampsia. Pregnant mothers with hypertension are predisposed towards the development of potentially lethal complications, notably abruption placentae, disseminated vascular coagulation, cerebral haemorrhage, hepatic failure and acute renal failure. The baby many have intra-uterine growth retardation, suffer the consequences of being born to early, or die in utero. Causes of hypertensive disease especially pre-eclampia remain unknown.

Wabacha JK, Mulei CM, Kyule MN, Zessin KH, Weda EH, Maribei JM. "Prevalence of sarcoptic mange in pigs in smallholder herds in a peri-urban area in Central Kenyan highlands." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2002;50:9-14.
Wabacha JK, Maribei JM, Mulei CM, Kyule MN, Zessin KH, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Sow Reproductive Performance And The Associated Herd- Level Factors In Small Holder Herds In A Peri-urban Area In Kenya.". 2002.
2001
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Juliani HR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew (Compositae) from Kenya has been studied for the first time. Analysis of the oil by GC and GC/MS reveals that the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (20.3%), γ-gurjunene (11.5%), limonene (8.5%) and δ-cadinene (6.1%)

Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN,(Jr.) JHR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa." J. Essential Oil Research. 2001;13:228-330.
J.W. M, Thoithi, G.N.,(Jr.) JHR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa. ." J. Essent. Oil Res.. 2001;13:229-230.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Zygadlo JA, Lopez ML, Olivia MM, Demo MS, and TM, Chalchat J-C. "Constituents of the essential oil of Cymbopogon afronardus Stapf." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2001;4:43-47.
Zaloga GP, Marik PE, Bhatt B. "Critical illness and systemic inflammation.". 2001.Website
Pennise DM, Smith KR, Kithinji JP, Rezende ME, Raad TJ, Zhang J, Fan C. "Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil.". 2001.Website
Zhou Z, Ogot M, Schwartz L. "A finite element analysis of the effects of an increasing angle on the tower of Pisa." Finite elements in analysis and design. 2001;37:901-911. Abstract

The Leaning Tower of Pisa has aroused admiration and curiosity throughout the
world for its beauty and unusual lean. This study investigates the effects of increasing lean
on the structural integrity of the tower. Employing a three dimensional finite element model,
two failure modes are investigated and discussed.

McAvaney BJ, C. Covey, S. Joussaume, V. Kattsov, A. Kitoh, W. Ogana, A.J. Pitman, A.J. Weaver, R.A. Wood, Zhao Z-C. "Model evaluation.". In: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Houghton, J.T., Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell and C.A. J. England: Cambridge University Press; 2001.
Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo JK;, Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
Milatovic D, Montine TJ, Zaja-Milatovic S, Madison JL, Bowman AB, Aschner M. "Morphometric {Analysis} in {Neurodegenerative} {Disorders}.". In: Current {Protocols} in {Toxicology}. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2001. Abstract

The study of dendritic length and spine density has become standard in the analysis of neuronal abnormalities, since a considerable number of neurological diseases have their foundation in alterations in these structures. One of the best ways to study possible alterations in neuronal morphometry is the use of Golgi impregnation. Introduced more than a century ago, it is still the standard and state-of-the-art technique for visualization of neuronal architecture. We successfully applied the Golgi method to mouse, rat, monkey, and human brain tissues for studying both the normal and abnormal morphology of neurons. We were able to discover subtle morphological alterations in neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines in different brain areas. Although Golgi preparations can be examined by electronic microscopy, we used light microscopy and reconstruction using Neurolucida software to quantitatively explore the relationship between total dendritic length and spine density in different types of neurons. This unit summarizes the methodology used to quantify neuronal abnormalities and discusses the utility of these techniques in different models of neurodegeneration. Curr. Protoc. Toxicol. 43:12.16.1-12.16.14. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2000
Magoha GAO, Z.W.Ngumi. "Cancer of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." East Afr Med J.. 2000;77(10):526-30. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine how common cancer of penis is in this locality compared to all other malignant tumours and urological malignancies, and to determine and comment on the various methods of treatment available at KNH.
DESIGN: A retrospective case study.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS: All patients with histologically confirmed cancer of penis at the Kenyatta National hospital between January 1970 and December 1999.
RESULTS: There were 55 patients with penile cancer representing 0.1% of all malignancies during the study period. The mean age was 47.9 years with a peak incidence between 40-61 year age groups. Penile cancer was the most rare urological tumour representing 5.1%. The most common was prostate cancer (56.0%), followed by bladder cancer (25.0%), kidney cancer (7.9%), and testicular cancer (6.1%). Thirty eight patients (69.1%) presented with advanced disease, Jacksons stages III and IV. The majority (96.4%) of the patients had glandular and preputial involvement. Histologically, 56.4% had well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, (23.6%) had moderately differentiated and (20.0%) had undifferentiated carcinoma. Forty patients (72.7%) were circumcised, nine patients (16.4%) were circumcised as adolescents and three patients (5.5%) circumcised as adults. Twenty five patients had partial penectomy with radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Eight patients had total penectomy and radiotherapy while four patients had local excision and radiotherapy. Eleven other patients had radiotherapy either alone or combined with chemotherapy. Two patients had circumcision only and inguinal lymphadenectomy was effected on five patients after penectomy and radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is rare and the least common urological malignancy in this locality. It occurs in younger men with a mean age of 47.9 years, and presents as advanced Jackson's stages III and IV disease. The majority of patients had penectomy and local excision followed by radiotherapy.

Zheng JW, Qiu WL, Zhang ZY, Lin GC, Zhu HG. "[{Anatomical} and histologic study of the cervical vessels in goats]." Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology. 2000;9:39-41. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the normal anatomic relations and histologic features of the cervical arteries and veins of goat, with the aim of providing a basis for resection and reconstruction of the common carotid artery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical dissection was performed on 15 healthy adult goats under general anaesthesia. The external diameters of the common carotid artery (CCA) and external jugular vein(EJV) were measured at their midpoints. 1 cm of the CCA and EJV was subject to light microscopic examination. Direct carotid angiography was performed on 2 selected goats to observe the course and branches of the carotid artery and normal blood flow mapping of the CCA was recorded using Laser Doppler Flowmeter. RESULTS:The average external diameter of the EJV was 5.4 mm for the left side and 5.3 mm for the right side. The average external diameter of the CCA was 3.8 mm for the left side and 3.6 mm for the right side. Histologic examinations found that the media of the carotid artery had 10-15 layers of smooth muscles. The EJV had valvulae, its wall was thin, only 1-2 layers of smooth muscle were contained in its medium. CONCLUSION:The CCA and EJV of the goat had a longer course in the neck, and a larger diameter (3-5 mm). Their histologic structures were similar to that of the human being, which makes it advantageous to be more often used as an animal model in experimental surgery.

1999
Dinsmore CE, Daugherty S, Zeitz HJ. "Teaching and learning gross anatomy: {Dissection}, prosection, or “both of the above?”." Clinical Anatomy. 1999;12:110-114. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Viallon A, Zeni F, Lafond P, Venet C, Tardy B, Page Y, Bertrand JC. "Does bicarbonate therapy improve the management of severe diabetic ketoacidosis?" Critical Care Medicine. 1999;27:2690-2693. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The use of bicarbonates in the treatment of severe diabetic ketoacidosis remains controversial, especially regarding the benefit/risk ratio. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy during severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textless}7.10). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The emergency unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: The records of 39 patients consecutively admitted for severe diabetic ketoacidosis were analyzed (pH {\textless}7.10). The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 24; patients with bicarbonate treatment) and group 2 (n = 15; patients without bicarbonate treatment). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We compared two groups of patients presenting with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH values between 6.83 and 7.08) treated with or without bicarbonate. A group of 24 patients received 120+/-40 mmol sodium bicarbonate. The two groups were similar at admission with regard to clinical and biological parameters. No difference could be demonstrated between the two groups concerning the clinical parameters or the normalization time of biochemical parameters. If the number of patients with hypokalemia was comparable between the two groups, the potassium supply was significantly more important in group 1 compared with group 2 (366+/-74 mmol/L vs. 188+/-109 mmol/L, respectively; p {\textless} .001). CONCLUSIONS: Data from the literature and this study are not in favor of the use of bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with pH values between 6.90 and 7.10.

J. S, Z. Q, C S-K, B. G, T N. "Checklist for ruling out pregnancy among family-planning clients in primary care." Lancet. 1999;354(9178):566. Abstract

Abstract

Where pregnancy tests are unavailable, health providers, fearing possible harm to fetuses, often deny contraception to nonmenstruating clients. In Kenya, a trial of a simple checklist to exclude pregnancy showed a good negative predictive value, which could improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae.

PIP:
This report presents Kenya's checklist (consisting of six simple questions) for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients; the questions are intended to improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae. The checklist includes questions on most recent birth, duration and frequency of breast-feeding, duration since last menstrual period, duration since last abortion or miscarriage, abstinence from sexual relations, and current contraceptive practices. The checklist was administered and followed by dipstick pregnancy tests at seven family planning clinics in order to test its validity. The checklist ruled out pregnancy for 88% of women. The checklist¿s high negative predictive value (99%) should be regarded as the relevant statistic. Widespread use of this checklist could lessen restriction to contraceptives in many countries.

Zeyhle E, T W. "Hepatic Hydatid Cyst in a Turkana Woman - Case Report." African Journal of Health Sciences . 1999;6(1):31-32.
J S, T N, J G, Z Q. "Menstruation Requirements as a Barrier to Contraceptive Access in Kenya E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999." E.A.M.J. . 1999;76(3):124-126. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In many countries, non-menstruating women are routinely denied contraceptive services even when pregnancy can easily be ruled out.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether menstruation requirements in Kenya constitute a barrier to access for potential family planning clients.

DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective observational study.

SETTING: Nine family planning clinics in western Kenya.
SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at Ministry of Health family planning clinics.

INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking and retrospective record reviews to compare the menstrual status of women presenting for family planning services with that of women who received methods in family planning clinics.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dichotomous outcomes (menstruating versus non-menstruating women).
RESULTS:
During the eight-week period that tally sheets were used in the one hospital and eight health centres, 45% of the 760 women presenting for services as new clients were not menstruating (clinic range = 19%-70%). In contrast, information from clinic registers and client records in the same nine clinics showed that the (weighted) proportion of registered new clients who were menstruating was 85% (n = 102). We estimated that 78% of non-menstruating women (35% of all potential new clients) were sent away without services.

CONCLUSION: For most women turned away, it is likely that pregnancy could be ruled out easily with a history and an examination. Menstruation as a pre-condition for provision of contraception wastes valuable resources and denies women their right to contraception.

Njogu A, Owiti GO, Persson E, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.Website
Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.
1998
GW DRJALDESA, ZP DRQURESHI, SMH DRWANJALA, C PROFSEKKADE-KIGONDU. "Factors Enhancing the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation among the Kenyan Somalis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998. 1998;14(2):110-114. AbstractWebsite

This is a descriptive cross sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 300 respondents who had infibulation as a form of female genital circumcision.The interviews were conducted at Garissa General Hosptial Gynaecology out-patient clinic. The objective of this study was to establish the factors that enhance the practice of female circumcision.
Female circumcision was performed between 3 to 14 years of age with the peak age of 7 years. In 83% of the respondents the event was arranged by the mother of the respondents. The three leading reasons why the practice was carried out in the community were, religious demand(66.3%), prevention of enlargement of clitoris(51%), and protection of virginity (48.3%).
In conclusion FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is traditionally justified but has no medical support.

Zeyhle E, T. W, et al. "Hydatid disease in the East African countries." Parasitology International . 1998;47:410.
Z.M K, Narla RD, Waudo SW. Pyrethrum Wilt Caused by Fusarium Oxysporum in Kenya.; 1998.
1996
Macpherson CNL, Wachira TM, Zeyhle E, Romig T, Machpherson C. "Hydatid disease-research and control in Turkana." Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1996;80:196-200.
1995
Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

1994
Maj M, Janssen R, Starace F, Zaudig M, Satz P, Sughondhabirom B, Luabeya MA, Riedel R, Ndetei DM, Calil HM, et al. WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I.; 1994.
Maj M, Satz P, Janssen R, Zaudig M, Starace F, D'Elia L, Sughondhabirom B, Mussa M, Naber D, Ndetei MD, et al. "WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase II."; 1994.
1993
1991
Zanchetti A, Mancia G. "Cardiovascular reflexes and hypertension." Hypertension. 1991;18:III13-21. Abstract

Both arterial baroreceptor reflexes and cardiopulmonary reflexes are modified in human hypertension. The arterial baroreceptor reflex regulation of heart rate, when tested by both vasoactive drug injection and the neck chamber technique, has been shown to be reset and blunted. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of blood pressure, studied by the neck chamber technique, has been found to be reset to more effectively buffer increases in blood pressure than blood pressure falls, but without any loss of overall reflex sensitivity. Cardiopulmonary reflexes, tested by passive leg raising and by application of lower body negative pressure, are also blunted, and their dysfunction involves not only control of peripheral vasoconstriction but also that of renin release. These readjustments of arterial and cardiopulmonary reflexes make buffering of blood pressure falls or of blood volume changes less effective in hypertension. These readjustments appear to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of hypertension. In particular, the blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes is induced more by left ventricular hypertrophy than by hypertension. It is very marked in hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and very significantly improves when left ventricular hypertrophy is made to regress by prolonged antihypertensive therapy; significant blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes has also been found in young athletes with marked left ventricular hypertrophy but normal blood pressure. Whether structural changes in the carotid and aortic wall and possibly in the heart are equally important in the readjustment of arterial baroreceptor reflexes is incompletely clarified at the moment, although there are indications that functional and structural modifications may both be involved.

ZAHIDA DRQURESHI, C S-K. "A Survey determine the knowledge attitude and practice of Family Planning among the Nursing Staff of Kenyatta National Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991. 1991;9(1):41-45. AbstractWebsite

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

Maj M, Janssen R, Satz P, Zaudig M, Starace F, Boor D, Sughondhabirom B, Bing EB, Luabeya MK, Ndetei MD, et al. "The World Health Organization's cross-cultural study on neuropsychiatric aspects of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).". 1991.
Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Friedrich A, Ziegert W, Brückner G, Schober W. "Development of the rabbit retina. {I}. {Size} of eye and retina, and postnatal cell proliferation." Anatomy and Embryology. 1991;183:287-297. Abstract

Measures of rabbit eyes and retinal wholemounts were used to evaluate the development of retinal area and shape. The retina is shown to have a horizontal axis about a third longer than the vertical axis just before birth, and to adopt an almost symmetrical shape during postnatal development to adulthood. In general, retinal thickness is shown to decrease after birth, but differently in particular retinal regions: the reduction is marked in the periphery, and less pronounced in the visual streak. As an exception, the myelinated region–after it becomes really myelinated, from 9 days p.p.–even increases in thickness. In all regions of the retina, the absolute and relative thickness of the nuclear layers decreases, whereas the relative thickness of plexiform and fibrous layers increases. Proliferation of cells within the rabbit retina was studied during the first three postnatal weeks. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to demonstrate DNA synthesis autoradiographically in histological sections as well as in enzymatically isolated retinal cells. A first proliferation phase occurs in the neuroblastic cell layer and ceases shortly after birth in the retinal center, but lasts for about one week in the retinal periphery. We found, however, a few 3H-thymidine-labeled cells as late as in the third postnatal week. These late-labeled cells were found within the nerve fiber layer and in the inner plexiform layer. The latter cells were shown to express antigens detected by antibodies directed to the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin, which are known to label Müller cells and neuroepithelial stem cells. This was confirmed in our preparation of enzymatically isolated cells; all cells with autoradiographically labeled nuclei revealed a characteristic elongated morphology typical for Müller radial glia (and also for early neuroepithelial stem cells). 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the nerve fiber layer were most probably astrocytic. In analogy to the brain, we conclude that the mammalian retina undergoes a series of proliferation phases: first an early phase producing both neurons and glial cells, and then a late phase producing glial cells, e.g., in the nerve fiber layer. Most probably, the late phase within the inner nuclear layer is glial as well, i.e., consists of dividing Müller cells; it cannot be excluded, however, that there may remain some mitotically active stem cells.

1987
Macaques R, Ott-Joslin JE, Lasiey BL, Zucker EL, Miller TJ, Bennett B, Stover J. "Zoo Zoology.". 1987.Website
1986
Zaja JO. "Short Distance Runners .". 1986.Website
Zaja JO. "Translating The Language Of Development Communication Into Kiswahili: A Case Of Mediating Meaning, Difference And Ambiguity In Cross-cultural Communication .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

Communicating the concepts and practices of development by way of translation across languages and cultures is always intertwined with linguistic and conceptual tensions which blur meaning, distort communicative intention and nurture conceptual ambiguity in target paradigms. In order to create linguistically viable and functional cross-cultural communication, translation has to rely on myriad strategies entailing mediating meaning, that is, rendering cross-cultural communications in ways that make intended meaning accessible and usable. Meanings of concepts and their practices are subtly nuanced and understood in different languages and cultures. Meaning nuances as such denote tensions between incongruent linguistic and cultural interests and in situations of such tensions, translation provides a forte for mediating both linguistic and cultural differences of the interacting languages. This paper seeks to argue that translations of specialized terminologies in any field of human activity do not always result in explicit meaning equivalences, but rather in meanings that are contextually situated and culturally nuanced. Translating in such situations requires that we identify and account for how people and language communities make meaning of concepts on the basis of their own circumstances, worldviews and in their local languages. Thus, lack of linguistic equivalencies and the presence of meaning indeterminacy in translation is not a reflection of translational failure but rather, a calling to attention of the differences in the perceptions and interpretations of concepts across languages, which in subtle ways represent modes of thinking and communicating (Hoppers 2002). Successful and functional translation of specialized terminologies must be underpinned by the realization that conceptual meanings are always situated in cultural, contextual and temporal terms. Their transmission through translation into ‘new’ contexts can never be straightforward but rather mediated.

1985
Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle, E; Romig T,; Mwangi, M.; Rees P,; McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
1979
Zipf WB, Bacon GE, Spencer ML, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, Hawker CD. "Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 1979;2:265-268. Abstract

The effects of intravenous administration of potassium phosphate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis were studied in nine children, ages 9 9/12 to 17 10/12 yr. During phosphate infusion (20–40 meq/L of fluid), all children maintained normal serum concentrations of phosphorus. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in six and transient hypomagnesemia in five patients. One child developed carpopedal spasms refractory to intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate but responsive to intramuscular injection of magnesium sulfate. In three patients, serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were low at the time of hypocalcemia, an observation that suggests transient hypoparathyroidism. This study indicates that the use of potassium phosphate as the sole source of potassium replacement might potentiate ketoacidosis-induced hypocalcemia through multiple mechanisms.

1978
Zuzarte JC;, Kasili EG. "Hepatitis B antigen--a review.". 1978.
1977
Michieka RW, Ilnicki RD, Justin JR, Zublena J. "Response of kenaf to some preemergence herbicides.". 1977.
1976
Zegers PV, Harmet KH, Hanzely L. "Inhibition of IAA-induced elongation in Avena coleoptile segments by lead: a physiological and an electron microscopic study." Cytobios. 1976;15(57):23-35. Abstract

A high resolution growth measuring apparatus was used to demonstrate the inhibition of auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments (Avena sativa L. var Holden) by lead at concentrations ranging from 2 x 10-6 M to 2 x 10-3 M. The inhibition was immediate, having no measurable lag period. Electron micrographs of lead-treated and control segments revealed that in the treated material, lead became localized as electron-dense granules in the cell walls and in vesicles associated with dictyosomes. These granules were found to be lead hydroxide phosphate by electron diffraction techniques. The possible significance of this localization and identification with regard to phosphatase activity is discussed.

1975
Zemek J, Bílik V, Zákutná L. "Effect of some aldoses on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibited with molybdenum." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(6):467-9. Abstract

The inhibitory effect of molybdenum ions on growth of yeasts at pH 5.5 was found to be decreased by aldoses in the following order: D-talose greater than L-mannose greater than L-ribose greater than D-lyxose greater than L-galactose greater than L-arabinose greater than L-glucose greater than L-xylose. Increased concentrations of molybdenum brought about morphological changes of yeast cells. Cells grown under these conditions were smaller, had thicker walls and formed clusters.

1970
Muchai K, Gathuma J, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 1970.

UoN Websites Search