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Geyer. S and Wairire GG, Lombard A, Wairire GG. "A comparative content analysis of South African and Kenyan drug policies from a social development perspective." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. Forthcoming.
Wasamba P. Contemporary Oral Literature Fieldwork: A Researcher’s Guide. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; Forthcoming.book_cover.docx
and Wairire GG, Muiruri J. "Handbook of Social Work and Social Development Practice in Africa.". In: Afrocentric strengths-based community work practice: The case of vyamas in Kenya . Ashgate Publishing Ltd; Forthcoming.
MONARI FRONICA, Wakoli P. "Internet Access, Uses and Gratifications among University Students: A Survey of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication.". In: African International Business and Mnagement (AIBUMA). Nairobi, Kenya; Forthcoming.
Wambui K, Muiru N, Amatsimbi M. "The Kenya Media: A Brief History.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Nyaga L, Warambo JP. Kiswahili Pevu: Isimu, Muundo na Sarufi .; Forthcoming.
Amatsimbi M, Wambui K. "Media Veterans in Kenya: Archival Records.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Ngugi M, Wambui K. "Media, Memory, History and the Evolution of Free Expression in Kenya.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections on 70 Years of Communication and Media in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Forthcoming.
Bailasha NK, Nteere JS, Rintaugu EG, Wanderi PM. Motivation orientation in sports - A study of athletes in Kenya .; Forthcoming.
With McCormick D, Chitere P, Orero R, Ommeh M. "Paratransit Business Strategies : A Bird’s Eye View of Matatu in Nairobi’ ." Journal of Public Transport. Forthcoming.
Kiplagat D. STRATEGY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION AND ADOPTION OF E-PROCUREMENT IN KENYA PUBLIC SECTOR. Wausi D, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Forthcoming. Abstract

There is strong consensus among researchers and practitioners regarding the strategic importance of developing efficient purchasing techniques to increase transparency and fairness, reduce corruption, ensure competitiveness and reduce costs. An increasing number of government authorities are adopting e-procurement solutions to reap the above stated benefits (Panayiotou et al., 2004). E-procurement is the process of purchasing goods and services electronically , and can be defined as “the use of integrated (commonly web-based) communication systems for the conduct of part or all of the purchasing process; a process that may incorporate stages from the initial need identification by users, through search, sourcing, negotiation, ordering, receipt, payment and post-purchase review” (Presutti,2003).

In this research proposal I propose to comprehensively study through explorative case study five successful cases of e-procurement in the public sector in Korea, Australia, Italy, Ireland, Philippine's and use their experiences, challenges and strategies employed to come up with a multi-disciplinary framework for the successful implementation and adoption of e-procurement in the public sector in Kenya. In this research critical successes factors (CSFs) and diffusion of innovation theory will be used in the study. Explorative case study and qualitative research design methodology will be used in this research study although aspects on the attitude of the intended users will be analyzed quantitatively.

W. MK. "Indigenous Languages, Performing Arts and the HIV/ Aids Pandemic." Hekima: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. III. No. ?; Forthcoming. Abstract
Wasamba P. Angela the Hammer. London: World Englishes Press; Submitted.
Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Janet Achieng Onyango CKM. "Artisanal fishing supports breeding of malaria mosquitoes in Western Kenya.". Submitted.
Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstracthiv.pdf

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Shiundu PM, Munguti SM, Williams KRS. "Practical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation.". Submitted. AbstractPractical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

Modification of ionic strength of an aqueous or non-aqueous carrier solution can have profound effects on the particle retention behavior in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These effects can be considered as either advantageous or not depending on the performance criteria under consideration. Aside from the general increase in retention time of particulate material (latexes and silica particles), our experiments indicate improvement in resolution with increases in electrolyte concentration. Absence of an electrolyte in the carrier solution causes deviations from the theoretically expected linear behavior between the retention parameter l (a measure of the extent of interaction between the applied field and the particle) and the reciprocal temperature drop across the channel walls. A negative interaction parameter d of about 20.170 was determined for 0.105- and 0.220-mm polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in either a 0.25 or a 1.0 mM TBAPcontaining acetonitrile carrier and for 0.220 mm PS in 0.50 and 1.0 mM NaCl-containing aqueous medium. This work also demonstrates that optimum electrolyte concentrations can be chosen to achieve reasonable experimental run-times, good resolution separations, and shifts in the steric inversion points at lower field strengths, and that too high electrolyte concentrations can have deleterious effects such as band broadening and sample loss through adsorption to the channel accumulation surface. The advantages of using ionic strength rather than field strength to effect desired changes are lowered power consumption and possible application of ThFFF to high temperature-labile samples.

Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Obiero JA, Mburu MN, Ndung’u BM, Waititu KK, Farah IO, Mwethera PG. "UniPron is A Fully Effective Non-hormonal Reversible Contraceptive in Baboon Model (Papio Anubis).". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of UniPron as a reversible contraceptive. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained before and after UniPron administration, cultured onto appropriate culture media and bacteria identification was done based on type of media used, Gram stain reactions, colony morphology and biochemical tests. Vaginal biopsy tissues were processed using paraffin wax method, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscopy to determine the effect of the product on vaginal tissues. The effect of UniPron on sperm was examined by mixing the product with electroejaculated spermatozoa in vitro at different concentrations. For efficacy studies, male baboons of proven fertility were mated with UniPron treated or untreated females of proven fertility during the fertile stages. Results All the five females (100%) that were treated with UniPron did not conceive and they regained total fertility when the treatment was stopped while all the controls conceived. At a concentration of 40%,UniPron completely immobilized spermatozoa in an in-vitro system. UniPron mechanism of action was by lowering the vaginal pH and on application in baboon, the pH was lowered for at least 3 h after which it went back to normal. Conclusions As we plan for a study to test UniPron as a microbicide to prevent STIs including HIV, our current study has established that this novel product is effective in contraception and harmless to vaginal tissues and vaginal microbial flora in a baboon model (Papio anubis).

Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Computerized tomography scan of the brain in a community study of neurological impairment in Kenya. Njuguna PW, Mungala-Odera V, Chong WK, Meehan RA, Newton CR. J Child Neurol. 2007 Jan;22(1):26-32.". In: J Child Neurol. 2007 Jan;22(1):26-32. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Neurological impairment is common in resource-poor countries, but its causes are not clear. Computerized tomography (CT) of the brain has been used to determine the cause of brain insults that may manifest as neurological impairments. The authors conducted a community survey in Kilifi of 10 218 children aged 6 to 9 years to detect neurological impairment. From this survey, 34 children were identified, of whom 16 had motor deficits, 11 complex partial seizures, 4 microcephaly or macrocephaly, and 3 severe developmental delay. These children were assessed with elicitation of history, physical examination, and CT scan of the brain. Sixteen (47%) of the scans showed abnormalities: cerebral atrophy (n = 9), schizencephaly (n = 3), periventricular leukomalacia (n = 2), porencephalic cyst (n = 1), and agenesis of the corpus callosum (n = 1). The minimum prevalence of abnormalities on the CT scan of the brain is 1.56 of 1000, and the prevalence of schizencephaly is 0.29 of 1000. Motor impairments were more likely to show abnormality than the other indications. CT abnormalities are common in children with neurological impairment in Kenya, but the appearances did not identify a major cause.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Coordination chemistry ( Module II book for open distance learning).". In: (Director, Centre for Open &Distance Learning, University of Nairobi). UoN; Submitted. Abstract
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "e-learning module II contents for 'Coordination Chemistry'.". In: A 3rd year BED Science course material. UoN; Submitted. Abstract
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Mr. Nicky Nzioki,Mrs.Catherine Kariuki: An Investigation into the process of Compulsory Acquisition and suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Preliminary Suggestions on the implementation of the Land Section of Chapter five of the Constitution of Kenya through Research and Training.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
The New Constitution of Kenya, Chapter five states that land in Kenya will be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. The construction also sets out a number of principles, which will be implemented through a national land policy that developed and reviewed regularly by the government and through legislation. The National Land Policy for Kenya is Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, it presents the issues and policy recommendations that were identified, analyzed and agreed by stakeholders. The sessional paper forms the foundation upon which administrative and legislative framework will be built. This is the framework that will drive the critically required land reforms for Kenya. This paper gives a detailed outline of the training and capacity building and research requirements in land management and administration. Its main emphasis being the setting up of a Land Policy research Centre in the light of the new institutional framework suggested in chapter 5 of the Constitution of Kenya and the Sessional paper No.3 of 2009. A suitable land policy centre will undertake research and training for the National Land Commission, in the light of the suggested functions. The paper concludes by suggesting the training and research programmes fro governments and individuals in Kenya and within the continent on land.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
WHO. {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness.; Submitted. Abstract

WHO fact sheet on blindness and visual impairment providing key facts, definitions, causes, who is at risk, global and WHO response.

In Press
Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton M. "Peek Community Eye Health - mHealth system to increase access and efficiency of eye health services in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial." Trials. 2019;20(1):502. AbstractWebsite

Globally, eye care provision is currently insufficient to meet the requirement for eye care services. Lack of access and awareness are key barriers to specialist services; in addition, specialist services are over-utilised by people with conditions that could be managed in the community or primary care. In combination, these lead to a large unmet need for eye health provision. We have developed a validated smartphone-based screening algorithm (Peek Community Screening App). The application (App) is part of the Peek Community Eye Health system (Peek CEH) that enables Community Volunteers (CV) to make referral decisions about patients with eye problems. It generates referrals, automated short messages service (SMS) notifications to patients or guardians and has a program dashboard for visualising service delivery. We hypothesise that a greater proportion of people with eye problems will be identified using the Peek CEH system and that there will be increased uptake of referrals, compared to those identified and referred using the current community screening approaches.

Wangai FK, Masika MM, Lule GN, Karari EM, Maritim MC, Jaoko WG, Museve B, Kuria A. "Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem." PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0212131. Abstract

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Situation Analysis and Technology Value Proposition for Geriatric Care for Philanthropic Social Homes in Kenya.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The growth of the graying population all over the world is showing a great need of incorporating ICT to ensure healthy living. Geriatric persons in philanthropic social homes (PSH) in developing countries are not favored in terms of infrastructure, housing, caregiving as well as privacy since they are in a controlled communal environment. These philanthropic homes, commonly known as `Nyumba za Wazee' in Kenya are slowly gaining reputation as more of the elderly are ostracized because of inheritance or even abandonment. The aim of this paper is to bring fourth the status quo of the geriatric persons living in PSH, the challenges they face, which have tremendous ramifications that leads to strong incentives to usage of low cost technology to alleviate the lives of the elderly towards healthy living in their higher ages. The researchers, through the social department and Board of management of these social homes, carried a research for a period of 3 months in two PSHs, in Nairobi County and Kiambu County. Interviews and storytelling were the two data collection techniques used. The findings from these two PSHs, categorized the challenges as; physical, and psychological challenges. This research argues that low affordable technology solutions will curb these challenges to ensure adequate care and provide decent standards of living for the elderly in PSH.

Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, Summerhayes CP, Odada E, Wagreich M, Draganits E, Edgewor M. "7 The Stratigraphic Boundary of the Anthropocene.". In: The Anthropocene as a Geological Time Unit: A Guide to the Scientific Evidence and Current Debate. Cambridge University Press; 2019. Abstract

Here we outline the basis on which a formal proposal should be made for potential inclusion of the Anthropocene in the Geological Time Scale, examining the scale and rate of human change to the Earth System to help recognise the point at which anthropogenic impacts became of sufficient scale to allow discrimination of the Anthropocene as a geological unit. This examination covers such factors as impacts from early hominin species, the first human artefacts, early ecosystem modification through agriculture, deforestation, the domestication of animals, urbanisation, metal mining and smelting and early globalisation. The Industrial Revolution, starting in the UK in the 18th century, and the global Great Acceleration of the mid-20th century, are investigated, as both provide popular narratives that explain the Earth System changes indicative of the Anthropocene, with the latter producing the near-synchronous stratigraphic signals most consistent with an effective geological time boundary. We assess which hierarchical level–age, epoch, period, era or eon–seems most suitable for the Anthropocene, and suggest that epoch (= series) level is conservative and appropriate. The Anthropocene might be defined via a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age or a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point, with the latter being most appropriate. Finally, we assess the kinds of geological environments, including anoxic marine basins, annually banded coral and bivalve skeletons, estuaries and deltas, lake floors, peat mires, anthropogenic deposits, polar ice, speleothems and tree rings, in which such a physical reference level might be placed.

NamayiMurichoa D, JakindaOtienoa D, WillisOluoch-Kosuraa, MagnusJirströmb. "Building pastoralists’ resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2019;Volume 34(ISSN):429-435.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Sewe S, Ngare P, Weke P. "Credit Scoring with Ego-Network Data." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(3):522-534. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates a stochastic filtering problem whereby the bor-rower’s hidden credit quality is estimated using ego-network signals. The hidden credit quality process is modeled as a mean reverting Ornstein-Ulehnbeck process. The lender observes the borrower’s behavior modeled as a continuous time diffusion process. The drift of the diffusion process is driven by the hidden credit quality. At discrete fixed times, the lender gets ego-network signals from the borrower and the borrower’s direct friends. The observation filtration thus contains continuous time borrower data augmented with discrete time ego-network signals. Combining the continuous time observation data and ego-network information, we derive filter equations for the hidden process and the properties of the conditional variance. Further, we study the asymptotic properties of the conditional variance when the frequency of arrival of ego-network signals is increased.

R. E, W. MR, Otieno DJ. "A Cultural Paradigm Shift in Central Africa: Sociocultural Determinants and Cultural Dimensions." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2019;14(1):19-37.
Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research


The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).
Keywords: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, isoflavone, cytotoxicity.

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia


Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2019;130:1487-1504.
Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Yohannis MA, Agnes N. Wausi, Hutchinson MJ, Waema TM. "Enhancing Access and Use of Climate Information through ICTs." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2019;3(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

Although the role of ICTs in improving human life in Kenya is acknowledged widely, the focus of much
of ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for
communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to
address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human
life. This review paper, therefore, shall investigate the different situations where ICTs may be deployed
in relaying packaged and relevant localized climate information that can help rural farmers in Kitui
County, Kenya to make pertinent and timely decisions to improve their productivity and, ultimately, their
livelihoods. We hypothesize that rural communities' use ICT tools such as the mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts, and agroadvisories)
and that livelihood assets and livelihood strategies positively change with the increasing
availability and use of the ICT-based climate information. The idea of the paper presented is to merge
theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory of ICTs usage and the
practice of it, while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The review
of this paper shall be captured in social-scientific terms, and shall contribute to knowledge by helping
researchers and policymakers to determine climate information needs of rural ASAL communities,
knowledge on innovations related to ICTs, among others.

Wainaina Samuel Murigi, Mbaria James Mucunu, Wakonyu KL, Misonge OJ. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used For Management of Arthritis In Nyamira North Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya." The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. 2019;130(2019)(ISJN):1510-1531.
Aciita PM, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya: A case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):82-103. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Provision of water services is squarely a devolved function and counties have the bigger role of ensuring their residents have access to clean and safe water. In this regard many strategies have been put in place to ensure water available is adequate. These efforts have faced a myriad of challenges which has greatly affected service delivery. Water is one of the most important natural resource and the availability of safe water is critical not just for health reasons, but also for social and economic development. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors influencing implementation of augmentation of water treatment projects by county government in Kenya; a case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. The specific objectives of this research project were to determine the influence of financial resources, leadership, staff competency and political factors on the augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population was 135 management and heads of sections which included county executive committee members (CECM), Chief officers, county directors, MEWASS management/technical staff and Members of County Assemblies (MCA’s). The study adopted a census which allowed all the 135 respondents to participate in the study, however only 109 respondents returned their questionnaires representing an approximate response rate 81%. Data was collected using a questionnaire. To test reliability of this questionnaire Split half method was applied in Isiolo water and Sewerage Company.
Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and …

Gerrard CM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya: A case of prisons in Meru region." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(3):185-209. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

The prisons departments have been working with Non-Governmental Medical Organizations to implement health projects within the prison’s facilities in Kenya in order to improve the health of prisoners. However, successful implementation of health projects is a common problem in the Kenya Prisons Service not only with an immeasurable cost to society who benefits from these projects within the prisons but also with debilitating effects on the inmates. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya, Meru region Prisons. The study sought to achieve the following objectives; to evaluate the extent to which technical capacity, stakeholders’ involvement, source of funding and prisons leadership influences implementation of prisons health projects in the Kenya, Meru Region Prisons. The study was grounded on resource base view theory, agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and strategic leadership theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design with the target population comprising of Kenya Prison Staff. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires while secondary data was obtained using data collection sheet. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23.0) which is the most recent version. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. The qualitative data from the open-ended questions was analysed using conceptual content analysis and presented in prose. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple …

Kirimi H, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects: Case of Imenti North Sub County, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):572-602. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Regarded as a frequent occurrence, disputes in construction projects occasioned by substandard communication of impractical clients’ expectations, defective works and delays in architectural designs significantly contribute to adverse effects on project results. Despite these and the numerous demerits linked to litigation majority of clients, contractors and construction consultants in Kenya still opt for it as opposed to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) approaches to resolve disputes in construction projects. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects in Imenti North Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya. In particular it examined the influence of: lack of awareness, preservation of business relationships, cost minimization and communication and documentation issues on the use of ADR in construction projects disputes. The research was guided by two theories; Theory of Planned Behavior and Transaction Cost Economics Theory and will be support by the Stair-Step Model of Dispute Resolution. The research embraced use of descriptive survey research design. Target population is of 255 respondents. The sample size was of 45 (n= 45), Contractors, 12 (n= 12) Consultants (Architectures, Quantity Surveyors and Structural Engineers) and Construction Projects Clients 75 (n= 75) that was singled out to take part in the investigation. Stratified sampling and Simple random sampling were made use of to pick the sampled subjects. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data in the study locale. Data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by employing SPSS …

Ndinya FO, Kayima JK, Magabe PC, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Odinya GO. "Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Nephrology. 2019;22(1):72-76. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise.
Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related
morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal
management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention
must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients
undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates,
urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.
Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48%
achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88%
and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow
rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5%
and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not
haemodynamically significant.
Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered
dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis
dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine
surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Macharia FK, Mwangi PW, Yenesew A, Bukachi F, Nyaga NM, Wafula DK. "Hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina abyssinica Lam Ex Dc against Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Sprague Dawley Rats." BioRxiv. 2019:577-607. Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome recognized as the most prevalent chronic liver disease across all age groups. NFLD is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Extensive research efforts are geared, through pharmacological approach, towards preventing or reversing this. Erythrina abyssinica Lam ex DC is an indigenous tree used widely used in traditional medicine, including for the treatment of liver related diseases, and has been shown to possess hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and anti-plasmodia effects. The present study is aimed at establishing the effects of E. abyssinica on the development of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet in rats, in-vivo model. Methods: Forty rats (40) were randomly divided into five groups: positive control (pioglitazone), Negative control (high fat/high sugar diet), low test dose (200 mg/kg), high test dose (400 mg/kg) and normal group (standard chow pellets and fresh water). The inhibitory effect of the stem bark extract of E. abyssinica on the development of NAFLD was evaluated by chronic administration the herb extracts to rats on a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Biochemical indices of hepatic function including serum lipid profile, serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were then determined. Histological analysis of liver samples was carried out to quantify the degree of steato-hepatitis. Liver weights were taken and used to determine the hepatic index. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey9s post-hoc tests

JM.Kivai, Kayima JK, Were AO, Q.Zahida. "Impact of Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury on foetalsurvival: a single Centre Experience in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2019;18(7):13-17. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: Background: Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) is a heterogenous obstetric
complication, which can occur at any stage during pregnancy and in postpartumperiod. It often impacts
negatively on foetaloutcomes.
Objective: To determine impact of PRAKI on foetal outcomes at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi.
Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with viable pregnancies, gestation age equal to, or
above 28 weeks and postpartum women within six weeks after delivery admitted in labour ward or the postnatal
wards at KNH. The study started afterit was approved by the KNH- University of Nairobi Ethics and
Research Committee.Patient management was at the discretion of attending clinician.Data was obtained
fromthe participants and their medical records. Followupwas until dischargeor for a maximum of two weeksfor
those who remained in the wards.
Results: Total participantswere 66 out of2068 admissions. Their mean age was 28years with peak age between
26-30 years.The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. Sixty (91%) participants weredelivered andsix pregnancies
were ongoing past the follow-up period.The average gestation age at birth was 35 weeks. Forty-three (71.7%)
were life infants while 17(28.3%) were fresh still births. Comparing between participant women with PRAKI
and women without PRAKI, the ratio of fresh still births among participants was 1:4 and the ratio of fresh still
births among women without PRAKI was 1 in 23deliveries.
Conclusion: Wetherefore demonstrate that pregnancy related acute kidney injury was associated with a six (6)
fold increase in fresh still births at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya.
Key Words: PRAKI, KNH, Preterm births,Fresh still births,Nairobi, Kenya

Johnson MA, Garland CR, Jagoe K, Edwards R, Ndemere J, Weyant C, Patel A, Kithinji J, Wasirwa E, Nguyen T, Khoi DD, Kay E, Scott P, Nguyen R, Yagnaraman M, Mitchell J, Derby E, Chiang RA, Pennise D. "In-Home Emissions Performance of Cookstoves in Asia and Africa." Atmosphere. 2019;10(5):290. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results from eight field studies in Asia and Africa on the emissions performance of 16 stove/fuel combinations measured during normal cooking events in homes. Characterizing real-world emissions performance is important for understanding the climate and health implications of technologies being promoted as alternatives to displace baseline cooking stoves and fuels. Almost all of the stove interventions were measured to have substantial reductions in PM2.5 and CO emissions compared to their respective baseline technologies (reductions of 24–87% and 25–80%, for PM2.5 and CO emission rates, respectively), though comparison with performance guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests that further improvement for biomass stoves would help realize more health benefits. The emissions of LPG stoves were generally below the WHO interim PM2.5 emissions target (1.75 mg/min) though it was not clear how close they were to the most aspirational ISO (0.2 mg/min) or WHO (0.23 mg/min) targets as our limit of detection was 1.1 mg/min. Elemental and organic carbon emission factors and elemental-to-total carbon ratios (medians ranging from 0.11 to 0.42) were in line with previously reported field-based estimates for similar stove/fuel combinations. Two of the better performing forced draft stoves used with pellets—the Oorja (median ET/TC = 0.12) and Eco-Chula (median ET/TC = 0.42)—were at opposite ends of the range, indicating that important differences in combustion conditions can arise even between similar stove/fuel combinations. Field-based tests of stove performance also provide important feedback for laboratory test protocols. Comparison of these results to previously published water boiling test data from the laboratory reinforce the trend that stove performance is generally better during controlled laboratory conditions, with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) being consistently lower in the field for respective stove/fuel categories. New testing approaches, which operate stoves through a broader range of conditions, indicate potential for better MCE agreement than previous versions of water boiling tests. This improved agreement suggests that stove performance estimates from a new ISO laboratory testing protocol, including testing stoves across low, medium, and high firepower, may provide more representative estimates of real-world performance than previously used tests. More representative results from standardized laboratory testing should help push stove designs toward better real-world performance as well as provide a better indication of how the tested technologies will perform for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: household energy; solid fuel; biomass; stove performance; emission factors; black carbon

Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR, Khan ZR. "Influence of socio‐economic and agronomic factors on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;00:1-11.
Waweru JN, Odenyo F. "Innovative content Delivery for library patron 2.0.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Simonich CA, Doepker L, Ralph D, Williams JA, Dhar A, Yaffe Z, Gentles L, Small CT, Oliver B, Vigdorovich V, Mangala Prasad V, NNduati R. "Kappa chain maturation helps drive rapid development of an infant HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody lineage.". 2019.
Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Wiggers FT, Muhammad I. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(6):91-95. Abstract

Introduction: Treatment of microbial infections has become complicated
due to increased resistance of microbes to the current drugs. The current
study investigates crude extracts and seven compounds from root and
stem bark of Cordia africana Lam. for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.
Methods: Extraction was done using 50% methanol in dichloromethane,
followed by chromatographic separation of compounds, whose structures
were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data. The in vitro
susceptibility of selected microbes to the crude extracts and pure compounds was determined. Cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 was determined against
the drug sensitive, CCRF-CEM and resistant CEM/ADR-5000 cells, with
doxorubicin used as the standard. Results: The root bark extract of
C. africana yielded six known compounds: oleanolic acid (1), 3-β-lup-20(29)-
en-3-ol (2) stigmast-5,22-dien-3β-ol (3), 2-(2Z) -(3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta2,6-dienyl)-1,4-benzenediol (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- benzaldehyde (5)
and 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone (6). The stem bark extract resulted to
1 and 2 alongside, ubiquinone-8 (7) and 1-octacosanol (8). Compound 1
showed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecium (IC50 of 14.44 µg/
mL), with vancomycin being inactive. Compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed cell
viability >50% against CEM/ADR5000 and CCRF-CEM cells at 10 µM and
therefore were considered inactive. Surprisingly, 1 was relatively more active compared to the standard, with cell viability of 57.93% against CEM/
ADR5000, versus 78.97% for doxorubicin. Conclusion: To the best of our
knowledge, this is the first report of the eight compounds from C. africana.
The cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 are reported here for the first time. Traditional
use of the plant extract in management of various infections may be attributed to presence of 1, which displayed moderate antimicrobial activity.
Key words: Cordia africana, Ubiquinone-8, Oleanolic acid acid, 7-hydroxy4′-methoxyisoflavone, VRE.
Rahab W. Kamau
Department of Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100-Kakamega, KENYA.

Karanja DN, Wahome RG, Kunyanga CN, Onyango CM. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Kenyan Universities ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2019;7(4):375-386.
M.W. G, Mwaura F, Wamalwa J. "Pollution along the Altitudinal Gradient of the Likii River, Laikipia County, ." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, . 2019;7(1) :39-52.
Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezen VO. "Regeneration-Competent and -Incompetent Murids Differ in Neutrophil Quantity and Function.". 2019.
Yohannis M, Agnes Wausi, Waema T, Hutchinson M. "The Role of ICT Tools in the Access of Climate Information by Rural Communities." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):32-38. AbstractWebsite

This paper, seeks to explore how rural communities especially women in Kitui county use
ICT tools to access localized climate information and how Digital Capital facilitates or
impedes the process. Our view is that the continued access to, and use of, ICT tools like
the mobile phone and radios offer diverse opportunities for rural communities to use
timely and relevant climate information to enhance their livelihood strategy. We
hypothesize that rural communities’ use ICT tools such as mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts
and agro-advisories). A household survey of 419 respondents was adopted for data
collection and analysis, guided by the sustainable livelihood framework. The research
findings disclosed that the radios combined with the mobile phone are commonly
available, accessible and cost-effective ICT tools that have played a role in improving
rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information
reducing information asymmetry in rural settings. The study is motivated by the
increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change that are global. Kitui
County has had its share of climate variability and climate change related problems such
as drought which create problems such as food insecurity.

Addisu A, Olago D, Wandiga S, Oriaso S, Amwata DA. "Smallholder Farmers Vulnerability Level to Climate Change Impacts and Implications to Agricultural Production in Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, Academic Research Publishing Group . 2019; 5(12): 237-250.

Vulnerability to climate change impact is the most pressing issues for less developed countries whose economy mainly depends on the agricultural sector. The demand for food is growing swiftly whereas impacts of climate change on the global food production are increasing. More area specific research outputs and evidences-based policy directions are needed to tackle the ever changing climate and to reduce its impacts on the agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate subsistence farmer household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and its associations with household’s agricultural production. Then primary data was collected from 400 households from Kolla Temben District, Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Multistage sampling techniques were applied to select households for interview from the district. In the first stage, 4 Kebelles (Kebelle - administration unit) were selected randomly out of 27 Kebelles and then400 households were selected for interview through systematic random sampling techniques (Figure 1). Multiple regressions were used to examine the associations between household’s vulnerability to climate change impacts and agricultural production. Grounded theory and content analysis techniques were use to analyze data from key informant interviews and focus group discussions. For every single unit increase in household vulnerability to climate change impacts, there was an average agricultural production decrease between 16.99 and 25.83 (Table 4). For single unit increase in household’s vulnerability to climate change impact, there was a decrease of total crop production, Total income, total livestock, total food consumption and food consumption per adult equivalent. Rainfall decrease, small farmland ownership, steep topography, frequent flood occurrences and large family size are among the major factors that negatively affect household’s agricultural production and total income. The more the vulnerable the households, the less in total annual crop production, total livestock size, total income from agricultural production and the more dependent on food aid). There is a negative association between household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and agricultural production (crop production, total livestock ownerships and total income from crop production). More access to irrigation and agricultural fertilizers, improved varieties of crops, small family size, improve farmland ownership size, more access to education and Agricultural Extension services are an effective areas of intervention to improve household’s resilient, reduce households vulnerability level to climate change impacts and increase household’s total agricultural production.

Wanjala BG; IM. "Staffing Practices of the Teachers’ Service Commission and Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Merti Sub-County, Kenya." East African Scholars Journal of Education, Humanities and Literature . 2019;2(11):683-691.
and Werikhe, G. KORCNMW. "Status and process analysis of koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2019;9(6).
and Wanjala OGLP. "Teacher Perception of Performance Appraisal and Development Tool in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya." East African Scholars Journal of Education, Humanities and Literature . 2019;4(6):69-78.
Wamwea C, Ngare P, Bidima MLDM, Mwelu S. "Valuation of Quanto Caps and Floors in a Calibrated Multi-Curve Cross-Currency LIBOR Market Model." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(4):698-725. AbstractWebsite

Interest rate derivatives form part of the largest portion of traded financial instruments. Hence, it is important to have models that describe their dynamics accurately. This study aims at pricing Quanto caps and floors using the multi-curve cross-currency LIBOR market model (MCCCLMM) dynamics. A Black Scholes MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula is first derived. The MCCCLMM parameters are then calibrated to exactly match the USD and GBP cap market prices. The estimated model parameters are then used to price the Quanto options in the Black MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula. These prices are then compared to the Quanto cap and floor prices estimated via Monte Carlo simulations so as to ascertain its pricing accuracy

Otieno CA, Wairimu S, Madadi VO, Kimani E, Jama HH, Ayah R. "TO DETERMINE THE USE OF LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZEOLITE FOR OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR .". In: 1st Annual Conference on Science for Development: Supporting Manufacturing, Affordable Housing, Universal Healthcare and Food Security . Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Masese L, Simoni JM, Shafi J, Adala L, Overbaugh J, Jaoko W, Richardson BA, McClelland RS. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Fertility Desire, Unprotected Sex, and Detectable Viral Load in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2018;78(3):276-282. Abstract

Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers. Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it was associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

Subramanian S, Gakunga R, Kibachio J, Gathecha G, Edwards P, Ogola E, Yonga G, Busakhala N, Munyoro E, Chakaya J, Ngugi N, Mwangi N, Von Rege D, Wangari L-M, Wata D, Makori R, Mwangi J, Mwanda W. "Cost and affordability of non-communicable disease screening, diagnosis and treatment in Kenya: Patient payments in the private and public sectors." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(1):e0190113. Abstract

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya, disproportionately to the rest of the world. Our objective was to quantify patient payments to obtain NCD screening, diagnosis, and treatment services in the public and private sector in Kenya and evaluate patients' ability to pay for the services.

Onyango CM, Kunyanga CN, Karanja DN, Wahome RG. " EMPLOYER PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY TRAINING IN KENYA ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2018;6(1):175-185.
Wondimu W, Bogale A, Babege T. "AJPS Articles." Evaluation. 2018.
Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256.
Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256. Abstract


Unsustainable industrial development has created negative impacts to global ecosystem quality and biodiversity due to increased load of chemical and biological contaminants released into environment. Ecological sustainability of Nairobi River Basin in Kenya, hangs in the balance between socioeconomic exploitation and environmental management. Nairobi, Ngong and Mathare rivers constitute the three main tributaries of Nairobi River Basin. The basin has witnesssed increased pollution load, destruction of the wetlands and encroachment of the buffer zones due to rapid urbanisation. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contamination in Mathare and Ngong rivers. We collected water from eight sampling sites constituting the upstream, midstream and downstream of the two rivers. The samples were extracted using HPLC grade dichloromathane and analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) using a Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionisation Detector. TPH in Mathare River ranged from 59.66±8.64 to 463.92±2.63 µg/L, whereas levels in Ngong’River ranged from 11.85±0.10 to 1,219.95 µg/L. The concentration increased downstream indicating the influence of industrial and urbanistion on the pollution load. The results suggest that industries and municipal activities in the City are contributing to TPH contamination in the Nairobi River Basin tributaries and therefore they are likely to jeopardize ecological quality of the rivers ecosystems if protective measures are not taken.

WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

Ogallo LA, Omondi P, Ouma G, Wayumba G. "Climate Change Projections and the Associated Potential Impacts for Somalia." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(2):153. Abstractclimate_change_projections_and_the_associated_potential_impacts_for_somalia.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Somalia has faced severe challenges linked to climate variability, which has been exacerbated by conflict and limited governance that persisted for decades. Today climate extremes such as floods, drought, and coastal marine severe systems among others are always associated with the destruction of property and livelihoods; losses of lives lost, migrations, and resource based conflicts among many other miseries. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is real and requires sound knowledge of local future climate change scenarios. The study attempted to provide projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. This was done using the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated temperature and rainfall data derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble were compared with the observed data. The study focused on the IPCC projected periods of
2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Analysis of the projected rainfall indicated a decreasing trend in rainfall leading up to 2030 followed by an increase in rainfall with the 2050 and 2070 scenarios. In the case of temperature, the projections from all the models showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods, like being observed by temperature projection over other parts of the world. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios show that Somalia future development and livelihoods will in future face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate smart adaptation systems form integral components of national development strategies.

Kataliko RK, Kimani PM, Muthomi JW, Wanderi SW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Combining ability of resistance to pod shattering and selected agronomic traits of soybean." International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research. 2018;6(10):176-188.
Quinlan MM, Birungi J, Coulibaly MB, Diabaté A, Facchinelli L, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, M J. "Containment studies of transgenic mosquitoes in disease endemic countries: The broad concept of facilities readiness." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2018;18(1):14-20.
Yaouba S, Valkonen A, Coghi P, Gao J, Guantai EM, Derese S, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Crystal Structures and Cytotoxicity of ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoids from Two Aspilia Species." Molecules. 2018;23(12):31-99. Abstract

A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Aspilia pluriseta led to the isolation of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and additional phytochemicals (1–23). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configurations of seven of the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3–6, 6b, 7 and 8) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Eleven of the compounds were also isolated from the roots and the aerial parts of Aspilia mossambicensis. The literature NMR assignments for compounds 1 and 5 were revised. In a cytotoxicity assay, 12α-methoxy-ent-kaur-9 (11), 16-dien-19-oic acid (1)(IC 50= 27.3±1.9 µM) and 9β-hydroxy-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3)(IC 50= 24.7±2.8 µM) were the most cytotoxic against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell line, while 15α-angeloyloxy-16β, 17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (5)(IC 50= 30.7±1.7 µM) was the most cytotoxic against adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells.

Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

Wachege PN, Cherono F. "Discourse on Ecumenical Implications of Pneumatological Vital Force Towards University Students' Welfare." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2018;23(7):62-73.prof_wachege__cherono_article.pdf
Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru. RM. "Effects of Anticoccidial Drugs on Gross and Histopathological Lesions Caused by Experimental Rabbit Coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences. 2018;4(3): 1-10.symbiosis.pdf
O. ER, W MR, Otieno DJ. "The Effects of Sociocutural Determinants on Cultural Dimensions: A Case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4):19-37.
Ogolla KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kitala PM, Chebet J. "Efficacy of Sulphachloropyrazine, Amprolium Hydrochloride, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole, and Diclazuril against Experimental and Natural Rabbit Coccidiosis." Journal of veterinary medicine. 2018;1:11.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM, Wagura J. "Efficiency of aphid and thrips vectors in transmission of viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research . 2018;6(4):144-152.
Musungayi EM, Ngugi K, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Were VW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Evaluation of resistance of cassava half-sib progenies to cassava mosaic disease and their agronomic performances in Western Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(12):78-91.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Factors affecting Birth Preparedness among Pregnant Women attending Public Antenatal Clinics in Migori County, Kenya." Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research. 2018.
MUGAMBI FREDKIRIMI, Wanjohi JM. "FACTORS AFFECTING IMPLEMENTATION OF REVENUE COLLECTION SYSTEMS IN COUNTY GOVERNMENTS IN KENYA, A CASE OF MERU COUNTY." International Journal For Research In Business, Management And Accounting (ISSN: 2455-6114). 2018;4(8):09-30. Abstract

Revenue collection is a key source of income to all governments. The purpose of this study was to establish factors affecting revenue collection systems at the county governments of Kenya with specific reference to Meru County. The study sought to determine the effect of financial management system on revenue collection systems. The design for the study was cross-sectional mixed method. The target population was 150 respondents comprising employees at county revenue department of Meru County. The sample size was 62 respondents. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires. Data was analyzed Using SPSS version 25 and STATA version 12. From pilot test Cronbach’s alpha tested reliability. While Regression analysis, ANOVA, Correlation, descriptive statistics, presented the data results and findings. It was expected that; the outcome of the study could be used to develop strategies to be used in facilitating efficiency in revenue collection. The study found that ability to make payments using mobile money Platforms and tax payer’s ability to pay rates, fees through different bank accounts were very good. The study found out that revenue collection systems used have achieved expected revenue targets and revenue collection system available have improved taxpayers’ compliance in a greater extent. The study found out that the respondents strongly agreed that they are encouraged to take up responsibility for their personal development, learning and career growth. In addition, the study found out that respondents agreed that they have been trained on revenue collection systems available in the last one year and that …

Wycliffe O, Richard O, Hillary N, Wangia S, Chimoita E. "Farmers knowledge, attitude, and perception of video-mediated learning vis-a-vis Farmers Field School on Striga weed management in Western Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT). 2018;14(2)(ISSN):195-210.
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J.. "Impact of Socio-Psychological Work Environment on Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." In International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences . 2018;5(5):19-28.this__abstractijhsse.pdf
Udomkun P, Wossen T, Nabahungu NL, Mutegi C, Vanlauwe B, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay. "Incidence and farmers’ knowledge of aflatoxin contamination and control in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo." Food Science & Nutrition. 2018.
Mbui JN, Wanjohi JM. "Influence of community participation on project performance of Ruiri water projects, Meru County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2018;3(2):331-344. Abstract

Nearly 16% of the global population has no access to adequate, clean and safe water. Kenya, like numerous other Sub-Saharan African countries, is water scarce. Community water projects exists to supplement or complement government efforts to avail water to rural citizens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of community participation in the performance of community water projects in Ruiri Area, Meru County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to establish the influence of community participation in financial management, project governance, operations and maintenance and monitoring and evaluation on performance of Ruiri-Thau Water Project. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population was 413 respondents comprising 400 heads of household that were benefitting from Ruiri-Thau Water Project, 11 project committee members and two project donors (Catholic Diocese of Meru and Meru County Government). Proportionate stratified sampling was used to derive a sample of 211 respondents–196 household leaders, 11 project committee members and two donors. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire (for household heads and project committee members) and an interview schedule (for project donors). Data analysis and presentation was conducted using descriptive statistics with the help of IBM Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), Version 20. The study established that community participation in financial planning had a moderate positive influence on project performance; community participation in project governance had a moderate positive influence on …

Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J., MATULA P.D. "Institutional Factors Influencing Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):1-18 .abstarct1.pdf
Muthomi JW, Wafula GO, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Integration of Seed Dressing, Bio-pesticides and Intercropping to Reduce Pesticide Use in Snap Bean Production." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 2018;5(1):12-20.
Wachege PN, Syengo SN. "An Investigation of Blending Inculturation and Liberation Approaches Towards New Evangelization in Contemporary Africa." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2018;8(7):74-88.wacheg__nduto_article.pdf
Akinyi 10. OJ, Sigana DAO, Wang’ondu V, Wambiji N, Ong’anda H, Orembo B. "Length-weight relationship of selected teleost fishes from Kilifi County, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2018; 17 (1):125-135.
Wairire G. "Living but Leaving: Therapy in Light and Right of Life and Death in Traditional-Cum-Contemporary Societies." International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;10(4):79-94.
Wairimu J, Chirove F, Ronoh M, Malonza DM. "Modeling the effects of insecticides resistance on malaria vector control in endemic regions of Kenya." Elsevier. 2018;Volume 174:49-59. AbstractWebsite

We present a model to investigate the effects of vector resistance to control strategies. The model captures the development of resistance as well as loss of resistance in mosquitoes and how these affect the progress in malaria control. Important thresholds were calculated from mathematical analysis and numerical results presented. Mathematical results reveal the existence of the disease free and endemic equilibria whose existence and stability depends on the control reproduction number, R c. The disease persist when the R c> 1 and dies out when R c< 1. Control strategies use and adherence needs to be highly efficacious to thwart the effects of insecticides resistance. Moreover, it is not enough to just eradicate resistant mosquitoes

Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2018;9(1):: NU 20198-20203 doi:
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study ." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review . 2018. Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) constitute physical, sexual, social or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Many researchers have observed that intimate partner violence is directly associated with negative maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess nurse’s perception on non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant women. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and a Likert scale was used to collect quantitative data. A structured interview schedule was used to gather qualitative data. 125 nurses and midwives were voluntarily recruited for this study. The results of this study showed that 52% (n=65) of the respondents had worked for more than 12 years and a majority (62.6%, n=77) were community health nurses. The nurses perceived that non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant was because of various barriers. Majority (n=86, 69.9%) agreed that the reason why they did not disclose IPV was because the abused survivor would still stay with the abuser after disclosure, and 66.7% (n=82) agreed that stigmatizing attitudes towards the IPV survivors from the society prevented disclosure. About 65.3% of the respondents agreed that survivors are not aware of their rights in regard toIPV reporting and that survivor’s view IPV abuse as normal. The results from this study point to the need of addressing barriers that emanate from the survivors of IPV themselves if IPV screening is to be achieved.
Key words: Nurse, Perception, Non-disclosure, Intimate Partner Violence, Pregnant women, Screening

Korir PC, Salim AM, Odalo JO, Waudo W, Gitu LM, Yusuf AO. "Optimization of Extraction Condition and Characterization of Malva Verticillata Root Bark Mucilage." International Journal of Chemistry. 2018;10(2):1-9. AbstractInternational Journal of Chemistry

The study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions and establishing the physicochemical properties of the mucilage obtained from root bark of Malva verticillata. Effects of temperature, time, particle size and amount of water as a solvent on the yield and composition of mucilage were established. Micrometric, physical, chemical and structural properties were used to characterise the extracted mucilage. Result showed significant correlation between extraction conditions and mucilage yield. Low temperature and short extraction time results into pharmaceutically valuable mucilage with low protein content, high viscosity and good dispersion in aqueous solvent. Large and small size particles of the plant material results into low mucilage yield without significant difference (p= 0.054). The mucilage shows mixed cohesiveness with less tendencies to flow. It exhibits vibration bands in FTIR that are associated with the presence of polysaccharides and proteins. The mucilage contains 2.65% protein, 13.83% inorganics, 1.85% fats, and the rest carbohydrates. High extractive value˃ 80% and moisture content˃ 12% implies that mucilage has high tendency to microbial attack. Optimized extraction conditions results into high yield of the mucilage with the same physicochemical properties and mineral composition regardless of the plant material sampling sites.

Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "The Parenting Environment in the Contemporary Agĩkũyũ Community of Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2018;8(8):138-151.prof_wachege_and_rugendo - 3rdarticle.pdf
Wetendea E, Olago D, Ogarac W. "Perceptions of climate change variability and adaptation strategies on smallholder dairy farming systems: Insights from Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya." Environmental Development. 2018;27:14-25. AbstractWebsite

Climate change and variability is bound to impact Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems as a result of overreliance on rainfed fodder production; yet climate models project increased frequencies of droughts that have a bearing on the Length of Growing Period. Similarly higher environmental temperatures are partly attributed to biome-range shifts, implying a likelihood of emerging and re-emergence of livestock and fodder diseases and pests. Nonetheless not much is documented of perceptions and adaptation strategies employed by Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems geared towards resilience to climatie shocks. By employing a mixed method approach that included household surveys, focused group discussions and statistical data analysis using SPSS package, this study aimed to bridge some of the existing gaps in adaptation strategies on Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems in Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya. Survey results obtained from 100 households and Focused Group Discussions revealed that the climate of the study location was perceived to have changed, with droughts singled out as the most frequent. These perceptions were consistent with long-term climate data analysis which affirmed that all seasons, i.e. MAM, JJA, and DJF with the exception of SON showed longterm drying trends. Similarly, environmental temperature showed upward trends in both maximum and minimum temperatures that were perceived to be the cause of proliferation of noxious weeds previously associated with hotter areas of the Sub-County. Typologies of adaptation strategies used in the study showed that adaptation options were limited since these were viewed through a narrow lens of disease control by regular spraying and maize stovers as supplementary livestock feed during fodder dearth periods. This study recommends that besides awareness creation of adverse impacts of climate change and variability, facilitation for ease of access to technologies that ameliorate its adverse effects ought to be put in place. Additionally, empirical studies on consequences of biome range shifts on pasture and fodder productivity, and future possible impacts of diseases on Bos taurus breeds associated with climate change and variability should be undertaken.

Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Odongo DO, Tiampati CM, Mulinge E, Mbae CK, Bishop RP, Zeyhle E, Magambo J, Wasserman M, Kern P, Romig T. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya." Parasitology research. 2018;117(7):2065-2073.
Wambui A, ODHIAMBO A, Achieng L, Otieno CF, Bhatt SM. "Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Human 
Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Persons at District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):70-75.vitamin_d_deficiency_in_hiv.pdf
Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Ogola KO, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Wanyoike M, Aboge GO. "Prevalence, control and risk factors associated with rabbit mange in Kiambu and Nyeri counties, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2018;30(6).rmwa301081_2.pdf
Wachege PN, Mulunda JB. "Problems between Migrant Ethnic Groups and Indigenous Agikuyu Community in Ruaka, Kiambu County." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;23(1):76-87.wachege_and_bukokhes_2018_article.pdf
Wambu EW, Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, wabomba J. "Removal of heavy-metals from wastewater using a hydrous alumino-silicate mineral from Kenya." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 2018;32(1):39-51. AbstractAJOL Journal


Heavy metals’ discharge into the environment continues to pose grave concerns around the world. The efficacy of a hydrous alumino-silicate clay (AlSiM) coming obtained from some regions of Kenya to sorb heavy-metal ions from water has been evaluated in batch tests taking into account changes in adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, and temperature. Complete metal removals, from water containing up to 66 mg/L of Pb (II) was achieved using this material at pH value of 5 over a temperature range of 289–333 K. The adsorption data fitted both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms with R 2> 0.99. The DR adsorption energy (− 11.7 kJ/mol) indicated that chemisorption was the primary reaction in the adsorption process and the derived∆ G 0 value (− 7.45 kJ/mol) was consistent with the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The kinetic analyses indicated a film-diffusion and surface-chemisorption controlled process. Verification of the initial results on heavy metals-containing wastewaters obtained from a tannery and a leather processing industries revealed excellent adsorption efficacies of AlSiM for Cr 3+(99− 100%), Fe 3+(96− 98%), Mn 2+(85− 97%) and Zn 2+(78− 86%). The use of AlSiM as a plausible low-cost adsorbent for heavy-metal decontamination of industrial effluents has therefore been demonstrated.

Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
Wanjohi LM, Moturi CA. "Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. Oxfordshire: CAB International; 2018.
P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.kiuru_et_al_2018.pdf
Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.
Wilson Karibe, Catherine Kunyanga JI. "Storability and Physico-Chemical Quality of Ready to Eat Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(8):370-382.
Cheruiyot I.K, Kipkorir V, Henry B.M, Munguti J, Cirocchi R, Odula P.O, Wong L.M, B O, J.A W. "Surgical anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve: a systematic review and meta-analysis." angenbecks Archives of Surgery. 2018;10.1007/:s00423-018-1723-9.
Wambugu SK, Karugia JT, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. 2018;978-0-19-879928-3(ISBN):978-0-19-879928-3.
Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Arasio RL, Kaufman B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2018;119(2)(ISSN 2363-6033):53-66.
Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Odundo Paul Amolloh, Wanjiru KG, Lilian GK. "Work-based Learning, Procedural Knowledge and Teacher Trainee Preparedness towards Teaching Practice at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. . 2018;17(3):96-110.
Omollo EO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi MY, Mnene WN. "Determinants of pastoral and agro-pastoral households." Pastoralism. 2018;8:9. Abstract
Willy E Mwangi, Eddy M Mogoa JMPMSMNGW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World. 2018;11:1725-1735. Abstract
Olago D, Verschuren D, Daele MV, Wolff C, Waldmann N. "ICDP project DeepCHALLA: reconstructing East African climate change and environmental history over the past 250,000 years.". In: 19th EGU General Assembly, EGU2017. Vienna, Austria; 2017. Abstract

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-meter deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change. The near-equatorial location and exceptional quality of this natural archive provide great opportunities to study tropical climate variability at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and the influence of this climate variability on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the East African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) evolved and have lived ever since. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered the sediment record of Lake Challa down to 214.8 meter below the lake floor, with almost certain 100% cover of the uppermost 121.3 meter (ca.150,000 year BP to present) and estimated 85% cover over the lower part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector in the available seismic stratigraphy. This reflector represents a 2 meter thick layer of volcanic sand and silt deposited ca.250,000 years ago, and overlies still older silty lacustrine clays deposited during early lake development. Down-hole logging produced continuous profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth scale to both the recovered cores and their three-dimensional representation in seismic stratigraphy. As readily observed through the transparent core liners, Lake Challa sediments are finely laminated throughout most of the recovered sequence. Combined with the great time span, the exquisite temporal resolution of these sediments promises to greatly increase our understanding of tropical climate and ecosystem dynamics, and create a long-awaited equatorial counterpart to the high-latitude climate records extracted from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.

Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Towards a Deployment Model for eMonitoring of Geriatric Persons in Rural Developing Countries: Case of Kenya.". In: Vol. 1. Namibia; 2017. Abstract

The United Nations and the African Union considers a person aged 65
years and above as a geriatric person. The graying population over the past decades
is showing an exponential growth rate compared to the declining fertility rate. This
population in the developing countries is not boastful of active ageing (successful,
independent ageing) as they are challenged by various health issues and
psychosomatic conditions. They require constant care and in some cases, specialized
care in familiar environments (their homes with relatives) or nursing homes (called
Nyumba za Wazee in Kenya). The researchers with support from literature believe
that technology can offer this specialized care (E-monitoring). This would be offered
in the comfort of their homes through continuous assessment of the geriatric person
relaying information to both the formal and informal caregivers. The objective of this
paper is to explore, summarize and analyse the various technologies in gerontology,
acceptance and adoption models, with the aim of identifying a suitable deployment
model that could be adopted in the context of a developing country.

LNW, Njogu REN, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "”Synthesis of Tris Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes under Green Conditions for Photoredox Catalysis” Trends in Green Chemistry.". In: Trends in Green Chemistry. Stockholm University; 2017.
Wall KM, Rida W, Haddad LB, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Kilembe W, Allen S, Inambao M, Yang AH, Latka MH, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Bekker L-G, Edward VA, Price MA. "Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries." Epidemiology. 2017;28(2):224-232. Abstract

Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women.

Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite


In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Newman LP, Njoroge A, Magaret A, Chohan BH, Gitomea VW, Wald A, Gorstein J, Overbaugh J, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017. Abstract

There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

Goyette MS, Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese LN, Shafi J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, McClelland SR. "Brief Report: Association Between Menopause and Unprotected Sex in High-Risk HIV-Positive Women in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2017;74(5):488-492. Abstract

Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest that they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared with premenopausal visits.

Nordstrom MPC, Westercamp N, Jaoko W, Okeyo T, Bailey RC. "Medical Male Circumcision Is Associated With Improvements in Pain During Intercourse and Sexual Satisfaction in Kenya." J Sex Med. 2017;14(4):601-612. Abstract

Two cohort studies using data from randomized controlled trials in Africa offer the best evidence to date on the effects of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) on male sexual function and satisfaction, suggesting no significant impairments in sexual function or satisfaction and some improvements in sexual function after male circumcision.

Dziuban EJ, DeVos J, Ngeno B, Ngugi E, Zhang G, Sabatier J, Wagar N, Diallo K, Nganga L, Katana A, Yang C, Rivadeneira ED, Mukui I, Odhiambo F, Redfield R, Raizes E. "High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017;36(8):758-760. Abstract

A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

Lydia W. Njenga, Rachael E.N. Njogu, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes as Photoredox Catalysts in Organic Synthesis.". In: Oorgandagarna - Inorganic Days,. Nynäshamn, Sweden; 2017.
WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Polymer based TiO2 films for Photovoltaic Applications.". In: Solar World Congress, 2017. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2017.
Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Waters CN, Barnosky AD, et al. " Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective." The Anthropocene Review. 2017;4(1):9-22. AbstractFull Text

We assess the scale and extent of the physical technosphere, defined here as the summed material output of the contemporary human enterprise. It includes active urban, agricultural and marine components, used to sustain energy and material flow for current human life, and a growing residue layer, currently only in small part recycled back into the active component. Preliminary estimates suggest a technosphere mass of approximately 30 trillion tonnes (Tt), which helps support a human biomass that, despite recent growth, is ~5 orders of magnitude smaller. The physical technosphere includes a large, rapidly growing diversity of complex objects that are potential trace fossils or ‘technofossils’. If assessed on palaeontological criteria, technofossil diversity already exceeds known estimates of biological diversity as measured by richness, far exceeds recognized fossil diversity, and may exceed total biological diversity through Earth’s history. The rapid transformation of much of Earth’s surface mass into the technosphere and its myriad components underscores the novelty of the current planetary transformation.

Mburu MM, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Alexandra Hiscox, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "2-Butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):351.
Wanjala, G., Akumu Maurice O. "Adminstrative Strategies Towards Disaster Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." International Journal of Development Research . 2017;7(10):16420-16423 .abstract3.pdf
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husks: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. AbstractWebsite

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto rice husks: Kinetic and equilibrium studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. Abstract

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "African Socio-religio Cultural Understanding of Family and Parenting: A Case of the Agikuyu, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(3):23-28.wachege_cherono_article2.pdf
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

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