Publications

Found 908 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Desc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is R  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q [R] S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
R
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "R. Atieno and R. Hayanga (1992) The Role of Women in Agricultural Food Production in Kenya: A Case Study of Siaya District. In: Eastern African Social Sciences Research Review, Vol. VIII No. 2, 1992.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. In: African Review of Money Finance and Banking number 1-2/1995.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "The Role of Rural Infrastructure in Attaining Household Food Security:Research Issues and Policy Options With Reference to Kenya In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems, November 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Achievements and Constraints of Structural Adjustments on the Micro-Economy in Africa: "Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Formal and Informal Institutions.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "R. Atieno and R. Hayanga (1992) Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA.". In: Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit Lending Policies and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. Studien zur L.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "The Role of Rural Infrastructure in Attaining Household Food Security:Research Issues and Policy Options With Reference to Kenya In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems, November 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R., Mutungi, G.M. and Kanja, L.W. "Organochloride pesticide residues in swine tissues from abattoir material collected in Nairobi. Kenya", Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1994, Vol.53, pp.39- 45.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Jensen, N.E., "No effect of dieldrin on progesterone production in gilts", Toxicology, 1993, Vol. 81, pp.165-171.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Huddart, H. "Interaction of malathion with modulators of sarcoplasmic reticular function on tension generation in the rat uterus." Toxicological Letters Supplement. 2000.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rose N. Obae, Kanori EN, Cheloti SK. "PRINCIPALS' MANAGEMENT STYLES AND STUDENTS' UNREST IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI COUNTY,KENYA." Education and Practice. 2014;5(2222-288x):29-37.
Rose N. Obae, Selpher K. Cheloti, Mwangi G. "Influence of Free Day Secondary Education Subsidy On Completion Rates; A Case of Public Day Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya." International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS). 2017;7(2):2249-7382.
Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Nyumba TO. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11(5):e12564. Abstractconl.12564.pdfconbio.onlinelibrary.wiley

Conservation policy decisions can suffer from a lack of evidence, hindering effective decision‐making. In nature conservation, studies investigating why policy is often not evidence‐informed have tended to focus on Western democracies, with relatively small samples. To understand global variation and challenges better, we established a global survey aimed at identifying top barriers and solutions to the use of conservation science in policy. This obtained the views of 758 people in policy, practice, and research positions from 68 countries across six languages. Here we show that, contrary to popular belief, there is agreement between groups about how to incorporate conservation science into policy, and there is thus room for optimism. Barriers related to the low priority of conservation were considered to be important, while mainstreaming conservation was proposed as a key solution. Therefore, priorities should focus on convincing the public of the importance of conservation as an issue, which will then influence policy‐makers to adopt pro‐environmental long‐term policies.

Rose LJ, Okoth S, Beukes I, Ouko A, Mouton M, Bradley CF, Makumbi D, Viljoen A. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica . 2017:213-93.
Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Simmons BI, Wauchope HS, Kovacs E, Durán AP, Vadrot ABM, others. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11:e12564. Abstract
n/a
Rose D. CHARACTERISTICS OF DROPOUTS AMONG UPPER PRIMARY PUPILS - TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG; 2004.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):Pages 9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well to the observed cumulative MN at 16th week. No significant difference was observed between CF and SRF treatments for available P content in the 2nd week. Significantly higher P content was observed in CF compared to SRF treatment in the 4th week, whereas in the 8th week, some SRFs released significantly higher content than CF. Available P peaked in the 8th week in all the treatments and remained constant at 12th and 16th week. Availability of P in SRFs increased with increased content of soluble P and decreased content of nano-HA. Exchangeable K showed less variation during the incubation period, suggesting short release time. The data revealed reduced chances of leaching losses and toxic effect to the plant roots, as well as synchronized nutrient release and requirement by crops.

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop PBK, Nyamai PCM, Namwiba WH. Narrative Glossary of Fundamentals for Applied Geology. Scholars' Press; 2020.Website
Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop KV, KONDITI DBO, H.A. O, Musyoki S. "Parameter Optimization in Design of a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Technique." International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE). 2012;4(12):16-23. Abstract

Modern wireless systems are placing greater
emphasis on antenna designs for future development in
communication technology because the antenna is a key
element in the overall communication system. A
Microstrip Antenna is well suited for wireless
communication due to its light weight, low volume and
low profile planar configuration which can be easily
conformed to the host surface. In this paper, an
optimization method based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy
inference system (ANFIS) for determining the parameters
used in the design of a rectangular microstrip patch
antenna is presented. The ANFIS has the advantages of
expert knowledge of fuzzy inference system (FIS) and the
learning capability of artificial neural network (ANN). By
calculating and optimizing the patch dimensions and the
feed point of a rectangular microstrip antenna, this paper
shows that ANFIS produces good results that are in
agreement with Ansoft HFSS 13.0 simulation results.

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop KV, Langat PK, Ouma HA. "Spectrum Sensing on High Density Cognitive Radio Vehicular Ad Hoc Network." ,” Journal of Communications (JCM). 2021;16(7):259-266.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-composite NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of maize, kale and capsicum29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) held in Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town,Nakuru County from 18th-22nd Nov2019.". In: 29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) . Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town, Nakuru County ; 2019.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. Abstract

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "Evidence-based modeling of combination control on Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS dynamics." PloS one. 2020;15(11):0242491. AbstractWebsite

We formulate a sex-structured deterministic model to study the effects of varying HIV testing rates, condom use rates and ART adherence rates among Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Attitudes influencing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS control measures both positively and negatively were considered. Using the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) microdata we constructed our model, which we fitted to the UNAIDS-Kenya youth prevalence estimates to understand factors influencing Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. While highly efficacious combination control approach significantly reduces HIV/AIDS prevalence rates among the youth, the disease remains endemic provided infected unaware sexual interactions persist. Disproportional gender-wise attitudes towards HIV/AIDS control measures play a key role in reducing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. The female youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trend seems to be directly linked to increased male infectivity with decreased female infectivity while the male youth prevalence trend seems to be directly associated with increased female infectivity and reduced male infectivity.

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Oduol VK. "TV White Spaces in Africa: Trials and Role in Improving Broadband Access in Africa.". In: IEEE Africon. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; 2015.
Ronoh JK, Chaudhry S. "‘Root causes of environmental conflicts that undermine socio-economic development in Kuresoi Sub County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Law and Society,. 2019;1(2):242-261.
Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "MODELING DISPROPORTIONAL EFFECTS OF EDUCATING INFECTED KENYAN YOUTH ON HIV/AIDS." Journal of Biological Systems. 2020;28(2):311-349. AbstractWebsite

We formulate an age and sex-structured deterministic model to assess the effect of increasing comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS disease in the infected Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Mathematical analysis of infection through sub-network analysis was carried out to trace various infection routes and the veracity of various transmission routes as well as the associated probabilities. Using HIV data in Kenya on our model, disproportional effects were observed when dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS was preferred in one population over the other. Effective dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS in both the infected AGYW and ABYM populations significantly slows down the infection spread but may not eradicate it.

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Odongo W, Olwal T, Omwansa T. Firefly Algorithm based Power Control in Wireless TV White Space Network. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Ronoh M, Rym Jaroudi, Patrick Fotso, Victor Kamdoum, Nancy Matendechere, Wairimu J, Rose Auma JL. "A Mathematical Model of Tuberculosis with Drug Resistance Effects." https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=68984. 2016;7(12):1303-1316. AbstractWebsite

Despite the enormous progress in prevention and treatment, tuberculosis disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide and one of the major sources of concern is the drug resistant strain, MDR-TB (multidrug resistant tuberculosis) and XDR-TB (extensively drug resistant tuberculosis). In this work, we extend the standard SEIRS epidemiology model of tuberculosis to include MDR-TB. For that, we considered compartments of susceptible, exposed, infected, resistant to a first line of treatment and recovered humans and we modeled the natural growth, the interactions between these populations and the effects of treatments. We calculate the basic reproduction number, , using the next generation method. The DFE and the EE are established and their stability analysis done to show that they are locally and globally asymptotically stable. Numerical analysis for the model with and without delay is done and demonstrated that in the case of patients with both active tuberculosis and MDR tuberculosis, both strains will still persist due to lack of permanent immunity to tuberculosis while the recovered can still lose their immunity to become susceptible again

Rono S, Nzuve F, Muthomi J, Kimani J. "Combining Ability of Agronomic and Yield Traits in Rice Genotypes." Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology. 2018;6:2.
RONO MREDWINCHERUIYOT. "Concentration - dependent parsimonious releaser roles of gregarious male pheromone of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.". In: Journal of insect physiology. Edwin Rono; 2008. Abstract
The responses of (i) groups of crowd-reared mature males of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria to a choice of two columns of air, one permeated with different concentrations of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major component of gregarious-phase male-produced pheromone, and the other untreated, and (ii) individual crowd-reared mature males of the insect to varying concentration gradients of PAN, were studied in two different types of arena. In the choice assay, locusts preferred to be within PAN-permeated air column at low relative doses of the pheromone, but away from PAN at high relative doses. In the second assay, individual locusts were arrested close to PAN source at low PAN concentration gradients, but away from the source at high concentration gradients. The results are consistent with two reported releaser functions of the adult male-released pheromone that are dependent on different sensory thresholds: arrestment and cohesion at lower relative concentrations and male-male homosexual avoidance at higher relative concentrations.
Rono R, Khasakhala L, editor Ndetei D.M. "Personality and Personality Traits."; 2006.
Rono K, Ilako D, Kollmann M, Karimurio J. "Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):13-23. Abstract

Objectives: To determine whether height can be used as an alternative to weight in mass treatment of children aged 1-15 years with active trachoma using azithromycin and propose a height-based dose stick for Kenyan children.
Design: community based operational research Subjects: A total of 2,020 children were included: 987(48.9%) male and 1033 (51.1%) female. 369 (18.3%) were from Kajiado, 772 (38.2%) from West Pokot and 879 (43.5%) from Baringo.
Settings: The study was carried out in three trachoma endemic districts: West Pokot, Baringo and Kajiado. A baseline trachoma survey had been conducted in the three districts in preparation for the implementation of SAFE.
Results: Children from West Pokot were heavier and taller than those from Kajiado and Baringo (P < 0.001). The body mass index (BMI) of the children in the three study areas was comparable. There was a close relationship between weight and height and the distribution was near linear. Height explained 92.8% of the variance of weight. A height based dose stick that recommends the use of 40mg/ml suspension and 125mg (half tablet) incremental dosage predicted doses within tolerance limits (15-30mg/kg) to 98.8% of children and 100%
with extended dose range (13 -35 mg/kg). If 40mg/ml suspension and 1 tablet (250mg) incremental dosage were to be used, the height stick would predict doses within tolerance limits to 97.5% of the children and 99.9% with extended dose range (13 -35 mg/kg).
Conclusions: The theoretical model based on the use of 40mg/ml suspension and
125mg (half tablet) incremental offers better dosing ranges to all the children of West Pokot, Baringo and Kajiado districts when the extended dosage range (13-35mgs/kg) is applied.
Recommendations: Similar studies should be conducted in other trachoma endemic communities in Kenya to determine whether a single height-based dose stick can be used in the entire country. The manufacturer should look into the possibility of producing 125mg tablet for mass treatment.

Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton M. "Peek Community Eye Health - mHealth system to increase access and efficiency of eye health services in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial." Trials. 2019;20(1):502. AbstractWebsite

Globally, eye care provision is currently insufficient to meet the requirement for eye care services. Lack of access and awareness are key barriers to specialist services; in addition, specialist services are over-utilised by people with conditions that could be managed in the community or primary care. In combination, these lead to a large unmet need for eye health provision. We have developed a validated smartphone-based screening algorithm (Peek Community Screening App). The application (App) is part of the Peek Community Eye Health system (Peek CEH) that enables Community Volunteers (CV) to make referral decisions about patients with eye problems. It generates referrals, automated short messages service (SMS) notifications to patients or guardians and has a program dashboard for visualising service delivery. We hypothesise that a greater proportion of people with eye problems will be identified using the Peek CEH system and that there will be increased uptake of referrals, compared to those identified and referred using the current community screening approaches.

Rono R, Onene T, Kilonzo G, editor Ndetei, D.M., Obondo A. "Psychotherapy."; 2006.
Rong’uno SK, Okoth UA. "Supervision related factors influencing doctoral studies completion rates in education at public universities in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2016;5(10):462-477.
Ronen K, McCoy CO MFABDFEO-DJMMCRSRBAOSKWK, J. "HIV-1 Superinfection occurs less frequently than initial infection in a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women." PLoS Pathogen. 2013;9(8):e1003593.
Ronen K, Dingens AS, Graham SM, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, McClelland SR, Overbaugh J. "Comprehensive Characterization of Humoral Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Superinfection Acquisition in High-risk Kenyan Women." EBioMedicine. 2017;18:216-224. Abstract

HIV-1 superinfection, in which an infected individual acquires a second HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is one of the only settings in which HIV acquisition occurs in the context of a pre-existing immune response to natural HIV infection. There is evidence that initial infection provides some protection from superinfection, particularly after 6months of initial infection, when development of broad immunity occurs. Comparison of the immune response of superinfected individuals at the time of superinfection acquisition to that of individuals who remain singly infected despite continued exposure can shed light on immune correlates of HIV acquisition to inform prophylactic vaccine design. We evaluated a panel of humoral immune responses in the largest published group of superinfected individuals (n=21), compared to a set of 3:1 matched singly infected controls from the same cohort. The immune functions studied included plasma neutralization, plasma and cervical antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and plasma IgG and IgA binding to a panel of 18 envelope antigens, including correlates of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG binding to V1V2 and IgA binding to gp140. Association between each immune function and HIV superinfection was evaluated using conditional logistic regression. No significant associations were detected between any of the immune functions and superinfection acquisition. This study constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed characterization of multiple immune correlates of superinfection to date. The results suggest that immune responses not commonly measured in current HIV studies may be important in protection from HIV infection, and these or a more robust humoral response than that seen in naturally infected women may be needed for a protective vaccine.

Ronald A, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Brunham R, Plummer FA. "Social epidemiology in Africa: slowing the heterosexual transmission of AIDS.". 1991. Abstract

Analyzing why the rate of transmission of AIDS varies widely in Africa is the basis for designing strategies for intervention. Promiscuity, i.e. high rates of sex partner change, is not the only reason for rapid transmission, but it is a prerequisite for the explosive spread seen in certain groups. High frequency groups include mobile single men and prostitutes. Research and strategies must focus on sex practices, concepts of personal vulnerability, and possibility of behavioral change. The sexually transmitted diseases that are thought to increase susceptibility to HIV, i.e., genital ulcer diseases, can be controlled with appropriate strategies. Male circumcision is associated with lower HIV seroprevalence. Thus strategies must be concentrate on sustained prevention among high STD transmitters, providing early, effective care for STDs, increasing economic alternatives for women, and offering voluntary circumcision where culturally acceptable.

Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Ngugi EN, Pamba H, Cameron DW. "A review of HIV-1 in Africa.". 1988. Abstracta_review_of_hiv-1_in_africa.pdf

As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.

Romanovsky AA. "Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation." Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England). 2014;210:498-507. AbstractWebsite

This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non‐glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non‐human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non‐hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat‐exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory‐related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non‐hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.

Roman F, Hensel O, Mbuge D. "Development of Grain Drying Facilities That Use Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP) to Optimise Drying and Control Aflatoxin Contamination in Kenya.". In: “Solidarity in a competing world — fair use of resources”. Vienna, Austria; 2016.
Rohwerder B. "Intellectual disabilities, violent conflict and humanitarian assistance: Advocacy of the forgotten." Disability & Society. 2013;28(6):770-783. Abstractmburugu.pdf

This article examines the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities in violent conflict who have been neglected in practice and academia. Such invisibility, combined with the disabling impact of society, their low priority, and the nature of their impairments, results in a disproportionately negative impact of conflict on people with intellectual disabilities. Drawing on a wide range of sources, including humanitarian workers, this article examines their experiences and analyses how much consideration has been given to people with intellectual disabilities in humanitarian assistance policy and practice in light of their increased need and vulnerability. Lack of awareness and recognition of their diverse experiences can result in their needs failing to be adequately met, which compounds their disproportionately negative experience of conflict. It is important to finally start paying attention in order to ensure their inclusion in humanitarian responses.

Rohrer GA;, Taylor TF;, Davis SK;, Waruiru RM;, Ravuna F;, Mwanndotto BAJ;, Rurangirwa F. "The use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers in analysis of susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia."; 1991.
Rogstad, KE; Ahmed-Jushuf IH; AMS; TG. "HIV disease in Africans of high social class.". 1993.
and Rogo, K.O. OMJOP. "Maternal Mortality.". In: Disease and Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: The World Bank; 2006.
Rogo L, Oguge N. "The Taita Hills forest remnants: a disappearing world heritage." AMBIO: 8, 522-523; 2000. Abstract
n/a
Rogo MO. Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial benzoxazines from natural products of Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016. Abstract

Natural products research has taken place in Kenya for decades. This has led to the explosion of data about natural products which largely remains scattered in theses, published articles and books of abstracts and proceedings. As a result, natural products of Kenya are not accessible for drug design studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to create a webbased database of natural products of Kenya and use it in molecular modeling studies for the design of antiplasmodial compounds. Currently the database contains 1112 compounds. It has been named Mitishamba, a Kiswahili word referring to herbal medicine and is hosted online at (http://mitishamba.uonbi.ac.ke). The compounds in the database were utilized in the generation of suitable fragments for molecular modeling studies using the OpenyEye scientific software suite. Benzoxazine scaffold was identified as a suitable molecular framework, due to its similarity to Primaquine (an existing antimalarial drug). Analogs of the scaffold were generated and subjected to docking against the target, 3D shape comparison and electrostatics studies with promising molecules synthesized and assayed. A validated Plasmodium falciparum enzyme target, Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH), was used in the docking studies. Three benzoxazines, 7- Methoxy-4H-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (25), (7-methoxy-3-oxo-1,4-benzoxazine-4- carbaldehyde (54) and 4-acetyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (56) were synthesized and then subjected to in vitro antiplasmodial assay against chloroquine resistant K1 and chloroquine sensitive 3D7 strains of P. falciparum. The results showed 7-methoxy-3-oxo- 1,4-benzoxazine-4-carbaldehyde had an activity of 11.05 μg/mL against chloroquine resistant K1 isolate while 4-acetyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one had an activity of 8.32ug/mL. The latter has activity classified by the WHO as active and should be pursued further through optimization to investigate its antimalarial potency. The results above demonstrate the potential use of the database in the identification of lead antiplasmodial compounds. Therefore more benzoxazine derivatives should be identified through virtual screening and synthesized to optimize their antiplasmodial activity.

Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects by Taking Corrective Action after Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Kitui County, Kenya. International journal of Innovative Research and Development. ISSN 2278-0211 (Online).". 2021. Abstract

Abstract:
Food supply is less than food demand in Kitui County as population keeps increasing. This lack of food leads to
malnutrition, poor health and even death to human beings and animals both domestic and wild. Agriculture is the key
food source in Kitui County in the republic of Kenya. Occasionally residents buy food quantities from neighboring Arid
and semi-arid areas counties which is not a reliable source because they face similar challenge. Many interventions to
improve food security has been put in place and one such is irrigation by the local county and National government
initiated through National irrigation Board but sustainability of these projects is a great concern in Kitui County.
Despite the irrigation projects setup still biting is food insufficiency which persists. One approach to improve
sustainability of irrigation projects is carrying out participatory monitoring and evaluation and then taking
corrective action which could also lead to ownership and then improved sustainability. This was the objective of the
study which was to assess if taking corrective action after Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PME)influence
project sustainability. The study used descriptive survey and correlation designs in order to collect data from 316
respondents who were selected using stratification, judgmental and purposeful with strict randomization methods.
Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected respondents on appointed dates. Data
was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) version 25.0in order to get descriptive statistics also
correlation coefficients were got in order to get association and degree of strength. Testing of hypothesis was done
using linear regression. The study findings show thata big percentage (56.3%) of the respondents were aged between
31 to 40years.Majority of the respondents were females and their highest-level of education was up to primary school.
The respondents agreed that PME data collection and taking corrective action were not done. Taking corrective
action had a weak influence on sustainability with a correlation coefficient (r)of 0.33 which only explains 10.9% of
project sustainability. It’s recommended that farmers should be trained more through seminars and vocational
institutions in order to empower them with skills. Also, farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation
projects as they can have a sense of ownership. Infrastructure should be improved in order to access markets and a PM
& Eunit should be set up in irrigation projects in order to spear data collection and analysis and guide projects
towards sustainability. This is significant because it will improve sustainability and thus more food supply reducing
malnutrition rates and death among people and animals.
Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation, Food security, taking corrective action, irrigation,
Sustainability, Projects, management

Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Capacity Building in Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects. Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102.". 2020. Abstract

Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102
Abstract: health-related problems and even death among animals and human beings. Agriculture is the main food source; thus, many interventions are made such as that of irrigation by the local county and national government initiated through the National Irrigation Board (NIB). Despite the irrigation projects food insufficiency still persists, therefore their sustainability is questionable. One such approach to improving the sustainability of irrigation projects is participatory monitoring and evaluation which leads to ownership and then higher sustainability. In the study, the objective was to asses if taking corrective action after participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) influence project sustainability. The study used a descriptive survey and correlation designs to collect data from 316 respondents selected using stratification sand purposeful with strict randomization. Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected sample respondents on appointed dates. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 to get descriptive statistics, correlations coefficients were obtained to test association and degree of strength. Testing of the hypothesis was done using linear regression. The study findings were that a large number of respondents were between ages 31 to 40 years and most were female with their highest level of education being primary school. The influence of PME capacity building on the dependent variable and irrigation projects sustainability found that the farmers were not taken for exposure visits and project officers were not accountable for money use. Age, gender, and education level have very minimal influence on PME capacity building. PME capacity building had a weak positive influence of r = 0.290 and it explained only 8.4% of irrigation projects sustainability in Kitui County. The study recommends that to improve project capacity building: project revenue must be controlled on use, farmers must be taken for exposure visits to learn from successors, project officers should be accountable for funds use, and project guidelines should be improved to increase sustainability. Implementation of these recommendations will reduce the loss of Arid and Semi-Srid Lands (ASALs) and attain higher and longer sustainability in food projects, thus, reducing the recurrence rate of food shortage, improve and hasten the implementation of irrigation projects, show the need to involve primary stakeholders in project monitoring and appraisal for sustainability, better and efficient decisions by policymakers to increase chances of project's success. Keywords: Food security, Participatory monitoring and evaluation, irrigation, taking corrective action, capacity building, sustainability, funds management, projects

Rogers JH, Odoyo-June E, Jaoko W, Bailey RC. "Time to Complete Wound Healing in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men following Medical Male Circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study.". 2013. Abstract

While voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be protective against HIV-acquisition, the procedure may place men and their partners at risk of HIV infection in the period following circumcision if sex is resumed before the wound is healed. This prospective cohort study evaluates post-circumcision wound healing to determine whether the 42-day post-circumcision abstinence period, recommended by the World Health Organization and adopted by VMMC programs, is optimal. Methods and Findings Men were circumcised by forceps-guided method and their post-circumcision wounds examined weekly for seven weeks and at 12 weeks. Time to complete healing was recorded in completed weeks since circumcision, and its associations with baseline covariates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox Proportional Hazard Models. A total of 215 HIV-negative and 108 HIV-positive men aged 18–35 years (median 26, IQR 23–30) were enrolled. 97.1% of scheduled follow-up visits were completed. At week 4, 59.3% of HIV-positive men and 70.4% of age-matched HIV-negative men were healed. At week 6, these percentages rose to 93.4% in HIV-positive men and 92.6% in age-matched HIV-negative men. There was no difference in the hazard of healing between 108 HIV-positive and 108 age-matched HIV-negative men (HR 0.91 95% CI 0.70–1.20). Early post-operative infection was associated with delayed healing in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men (HR 0.48 95% CI 0.23–1.00). Conclusions Our results indicate that the WHO recommendation for 42-days post-circumcision sexual abstinence should be maintained for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. It is important to stress condom use upon resumption of sex in all men undergoing circumcision.

Roger B. Austin, Peter Q. Craufurd, Michael A. Hall, Edmundo Acevedo, da & BSP, Ngugi ECK. "Carbon isotope discrimination as a means of evaluating drought resistance in barley, rice and cowpeas." Bull. Soc. bot. Fr.l37, Actual. bot. 1990;1:21-30.carbon_isotope_discrimination_as_a_means_of_evalua.pdf
Rogena EA, Simbiri KO, Simbiri KO, Leoncini L. "Emily Rogena Emily Rogena [HTML] from springer.com Full View A review of the pattern of AIDS defining, HIV associated neoplasms and premalignant lesions diagnosed from 2000–2011 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Infectious Agents & Cancer. 2015;10(1):1-7. Abstract

Background: Sub-Sahara Africa hosts up to 71 % of all HIV infected people in the world. With this high incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) comes the burden of co-morbidities such as malignant and premalignant lesions. Aids defining malignancies have been listed as Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. People with HIV/AIDS(PLWAS) have a higher risk of developing these neoplasms than the rest of the population. The pathogenesis of these neoplasms in people with HIV has been linked to immune suppression, persistent antigenic stimulation and cytokine dysregulation. Current study analyzes and presents the patterns and trends in the presentation of HIV related malignancies in patients diagnosed through histopathology at Kenyatta National Hospital. Aim: To describe the patterns of AIDS- defining and non-AIDS- defining malignancies and premalignant lesions 10 years pre- and post HAART period at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya. Methods and techniques: This was a hospital based descriptive cross sectional study. The Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) blocks and histological reports of patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2011 were traced from archives. The patients' demographic data and clinical presentation was entered in an excel spreadsheet and the diagnosis and coding confirmed by a histopathologist. The data was then cleaned and analyzed using SSPS version 17.0 Ink. Results: A total of 173 lesions were reviewed and analyzed. Of these 118 (68 %) were from females and 55 from males (32 %). The male to female ratio was 1:2. The age range was from two to 56 years with a median of 36 years. Kaposi sarcoma is the leading AIDS defining malignancy in Kenya while invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is the leading non-AIDS defining malignancy. This is closely followed by invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and NHL. Conclusion: Kaposi sarcoma is the leading AIDS associated neoplasm in Kenya. Physicians and caretakers managing and following up on HIV/AIDS patients should look out for Kaposi sarcoma as a form of IRIS following the institution of HAART in all HIV/AIDS patients. The incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is increasing in PLWAS in Kenya. There is therefore a need to introduce early screening programs for squamous intraepithelial neoplasm of the conjunctiva in HIV/AIDS patients

Roeder LW. "Gender and climate change outlining policy recommendations to mainstream gender and climate change.". In: Climate Change Threats: An NGO Framework for Action Report. NewYork: United Nations; 2008.
Roecker SW, Ebinger C, Tiberi C, Mulibo GD, Wambura RF, Muzuka A, Khalfan M, Kianji G, Gaulier S, Albraic J, Peyrat S. "Images of the East Africa Rift System from the Joint Inversion of Body Waves, Surface Waves, and Gravity: Investigating the Role of Magma in Early-Stage Continental Rifting.". In: American Geophysical Union. San Francisco; 2015.
Rodriguez JC, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "JC, R, CK O, AA A. 2014. A Rare Case of Crossed Renal Ectopia without Fusion. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 19(3):112-115.AJO." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(3):112-115.
Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Oyoo WS, Odundo FO, Wambu EW. "Socio-economic factors influencing the spread of drinking water diseases in rural Africa: case study of Bondo sub-county, Kenya." Journal of Water and Health. 2015;13(2):500-509. Abstract

Socio-economic and medical information on Bondo sub-county community was studied to help establish the relationship between the water quality challenges, community health and water rights conditions. Health challenges have been linked to water quality and household income. A total of 1,510 households/respondents were studied by means of a questionnaire. About 69% of the households have no access to treated water. Although 92% of the respondents appear to be aware that treatment of water prevents waterborne diseases, the lowest income group and children share a high burden of waterborne diseases requiring hospitalization and causing mortality. Open defecation (12.3%) in these study areas contributes to a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The community’s constitutional rights to quality water in adequate quantities are greatly infringed. The source of low-quality water is not a significant determinant of waterborne disease. The differences in poverty level in the sub-county are statistically insignificant and contribute less than other factors. Increased investment in water provision across regions, improved sanitation and availability of affordable point-of-use water purification systems will have major positive impacts on the health and economic well-being of the community.

Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Scott RPJ, Moturi CA, Okello OW. "Informatics in Higher Education Kenya Case Study."; 1990.
Rodrigues AJ, Moturi CA. Simulating Plant Pathogen Epidemics. Botswana: Printing and Publishing Company of Botswana; 1993. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Rodrigues JC, Mwango GN, Onyambu CK. "The prevalence of abnormal chest radiograph findings in HIV infected children." East Africa Medical Journal. 2018;95(6):1680-1686.
Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Moturi CA, Scott RJP, Okelo-Odongo W. "Informatics in Higher Education - Kenya Case Study." Higher Education Policy Journal of the International Association of Universities. 1993;6(3):41-49. AbstractWebsite

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Rodirigues JC, G.N Mwango, Onyambu CK. "The prevalence of chest radiograph findings among HIV infected children ." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(6):1680-1686.
Rodineau P. "[Elementary respiratory care in the postoperative period]." Anesth Analg (Paris). 1978;35(4):677-84.
Rodenburg, J; Diagne OFKPM; SKSOA; S; K;. Achievements and impact of NERICA on sustainable rice production in sub - Saharan Africa..; 2006. Abstract

In terms of production, rice is the fourth most important cereal (after sorghum, maize and millet) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It occupies 10 percent of the total land under cereal production and accounts for 15 percent of total cereal production (FAOSTAT, 2006). Approximately 20 million farmers in SSA grow rice and about 100 million people depend on it for their livelihoods (Nwanze et al., 2006). Rice is the staple food of a growing number of people in SSA: from 1961 to 2003 consumption increased at a rate of 4.4 percent per year (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). Among the major cereals cultivated, rice is the most rapidly growing food source in Africa: between 1985 and 2003, the annual increase in rice production was 4 percent, while production growth for maize and sorghum was only about 2.4 and 2.5 percent, respectively (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). The most widely grown rice species, Oryza sativa, is originally from Asia and was introduced into Africa only about 450 years ago. Another less well-known rice species, O. glaberrima (Steud), is originally from Africa and was domesticated in the Niger River Delta over 3 500 years ago (Viguier, 1939; Carpenter, 1978). As a result of their evolution, domestication and breeding history, both species have distinct and complementary advantages and disadvantages for use in African farming systems. The Asian rice (O. sativa) is characterized by good yields, absence of lodging and grain shattering, and high fertilizer returns – unlike its African counterpart (O. glaberrima). However, in contrast to Asian rice types, landraces of O. glaberrima often have good weed competitiveness and resilience against major African biotic and abiotic stresses (Koffi, 1980; Jones et al., 1997a). Dalton and Guei (2003) concluded that research into genetic enhancement of rice generated approximately US$360 million in 1998, compared with a total investment of just US$5.6 million. This is evidence that rice variety improvement has a potentially enormous impact on the economic development of SSA. Numerous conventional breeding efforts have been made to improve the performance of upland rice (O. sativa) for use in African farming systems. These efforts have had only limited success, partly because the Asian rice, O. sativa, lacks resistance or tolerance to many of the typical African stresses (Jones et al., 1997a).

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2013;3(3):183-189. AbstractWebsite

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K – 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell, Recombination, Series Resistance, Buffer Layer

Cite this paper: Robinson Musembi, Bernard Aduda, Julius Mwabora, Marin Rusu, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Martha Lux-Steiner, Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer, International Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 183-189. doi: 10.5923/j.ijee.20130303.09.

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Materials Sciences and Applications. 2013;4,2013:718-722. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Addition- ally, studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell; Light Soaking; Conversion Efficiency; TiO2; In(OH)xSy; Pb(OH)xSy

Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J. "Electronic Properties of Catechol Adsorbed on Rutile TiO2 and SnO2 (110) Surfaces." The African Review of Physics. 2016;(11:0021). Abstract

The incorporation of organic molecules such as catechol onto TiO2 substrate to enhance TiO2 photocatalytic activity has led to improved Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) efficiency. Nonetheless, it still remains low for most practical applications hence more detailed description of the electronic structure of catechol-TiO2 rutile surface, could provide insight for further improvement. In this work, adsorption of catechol on rutile TiO2 and SnO2 (110) surfaces has been studied using first principle methods. The study investigated the role played by catechol in varying the electronic structure of TiO2 and SnO2 (110) surfaces. Results obtained showed that both the clean and catechol-terminated stoichiometric (110) TiO2 four layer surface had a band gap of 2.1 eV. The energy gap increased by 0.32 eV which represents an 18 % increment from 1.7 eV for clean stoichiometric TiO2 to 2.02 eV following adsorption of catechol molecule on the TiO2 (110) rutile 5-layer surface. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in the four and five layered catechol terminated TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to be about 1 eV, above the valence band maximum edge but in SnO2 it nearly overlapped with bottom of conduction band. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in both TiO2 and SnO2 surfaces was located about 3 eV above the conduction band minimum, while the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. The presence of catechol related C-2p orbitals within the energy gap and conduction band suggests that the energy level alignment of catechol adsorbed onto TiO2 suits the electron transfer processes that occur in DSSCs. The overlap of fermi level and closeness of catechol's HOMO to conduction band minimum in catechol bound (110) rutile SnO2 surface shows that the surface may become conductive and hence, inappropriate for photocatalytic applications.

and Robinson J. Musembi, Bernard O. Aduda JMMRKF-ropoulos MCM. Transport Mechanism Analysis of TiO2/ Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer. Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India, February 11 – 13, 2010; 2010.
Robinson M, Bernard A, Julius M, Marin R, Kostantinos F, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Robinson JV, James AL. "Some observations on the effects produced in white mice following the injection of certain suspensions of corroding bacilli." Br J Exp Pathol. 1975;56(1):14-6. Abstract

Strictly anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic strains of "corroding bacilli" failed to produce any pathological symptoms when injected into white mice and no viable organisms could be recovered after 7 days. However, when these same strains were coupled with certain other living bacteria or certain sterile bacterial extracts, lesions developed from which corroding bacilli could be isolated even after 21 days.

Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Robertson MC, Murila F, Tong S, Baker LS, Yu VY WEM. "Predicting perinatal outcome through changes in umbilical artery Doppler studies after antenatal corticosteroids in the growth-restricted fetus." Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar;113(3):636-40. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318197bf4d.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate whether persistently absent umbilical artery end-diastolic flow in the intrauterine growth-restricted fetus after betamethasone administration is associated with altered perinatal outcomes.
METHODS:
This is a retrospective cohort study of 92 pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent end-diastolic flow in which antenatal betamethasone was given. Predefined maternal outcomes (maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis of absent end-diastolic flow, gestational age at delivery, preexisting medical conditions) and neonatal outcomes (including birth weight; perinatal mortality; duration of neonatal intensive care unit admission; requirement for intubation, assisted ventilation, inotropic support; duration of supplemental oxygen, assisted ventilation; respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage) were analyzed.
RESULTS:
Betamethasone administration was associated with a transient return of end-diastolic umbilical artery flow in 58 pregnancies (63%) and persistent absent end-diastolic flow in 34 (37%). Persistent absent end-diastolic flow was seen more frequently in women with prepregnancy medical disorders (59% compared with 24%, P<.001). Neonates from the persistent absent end-diastolic flow subgroup were more likely to require assisted ventilation (93.1% compared with 73.5%, P=.03) and to have longer durations of assisted ventilation (median time 30 days compared with 4 days, P=.03) and supplemental oxygen (median time 45 days compared with 4 days, P=.04).
CONCLUSION:
Betamethasone administration is associated with a transient return of end-diastolic flow in two thirds of pregnancies complicated by IUGR and umbilical artery absent end-diastolic flow. Persistent absent end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery after betamethasone administration may identify a subgroup of fetuses with IUGR at further heightened perinatal risk that, as neonates, are more likely to require assisted ventilation and a longer duration of ventilation and supplemental oxygen.

Robertson TW, Hickey TL, Guillery RW. "Development of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in normal and visually deprived {Siamese} cats." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1980;191:573-579. Abstract

Neuronal cell bodies in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and of monocularly-deprived Siamese cats have been measured. Seventeen normally reared Siamese cats, ranging in age between 20 and 120 days, were used to determine rates of normal geniculate cell growth. A second group of five adult Siamese cats reared from bith with the lids of one eye closed were used to study the effects of monocular visual deprivation upon geniculate cell size. For each of the normal and visually deprived Siamese cats, the cross-sectional areas of 600 lateral geniculate cells were measured from camera lucida drawings of Nissl preparations. During normal development the geniculate cells rapidly increase in size during the first postnatal month of life and reach their adult size sometime between days 28 and 56. While this course of geniculate cell growth is similar to that seen in normally pigmented cats, the pattern of change seen after monocular deprivation is quite different in Siamese cats from that found in normally pigmented cats. In Siamese cats the regions of the nucleus receiving a contralateral projection from the deprived eye appear to be shielded from the effects of binocular competition. Cells throughout lamina A and in the abnormal, contralaterally innervated segment of lamina A1 show only about a 10% reduction in cell size. There are no noticeable differences between the parts of lamina A in the binocular and monocular segments of the nucleus. Cells in the ipsilaterally innervated segment of lamina A1, in contrast, show deprivation-induced changes that average 27.1%. Two mechanisms are proposed to explain why some geniculate cells in Siamese cats appear to be shielded from binocular competition: one depends on possible interactions between geniculo-cortical cells lying in adjacent parts of the same geniculate lamina, and the other depends on an anatomical segregation of the cell type ("Y-cells") most heavily affected by the binocular competition. Each proposed mechanism is related to earlier observations on monocularly deprived, normally pigmented cats.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko District, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(24): 2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

Agricultural credit has been argued to be very important for sustainable agricultural development and poverty reduction in rural areas. This study seeks to identify and to analyze the determinants of smallholder farmers’ access to and use of credit in Suakoko district, Bong County, Liberia. This research is quantitative using a survey questionnaire distributed to 105 smallholder farmers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and causal analysis was performed using a binary Logit regression model. Results from regression indicate that 39% of the farmers were credit users. The marginal effects of bank account and other sources of income show significant and positive effects on access to credit. However, education, occupation and group membership are significant but have negative effects on access to credit by smallholder farmers. The results also show that 38% of credit users applied credit received for agricultural activities, while the rest utilized it for non-agricultural activities. It is recommended that a policy should be established to ensure older farmers gets adult literacy while younger farmers get formal education. Moreover, the government should issue a policy aimed at increasing opportunities for off-farm activities through creation of jobs and motivating self-employment. Finally, the government should promote the creation of development groups geared towards providing collateral support for members and also serve as guarantors for farmers to receive banks credit/loans in order to increase agricultural productivity in the study area.

Key words: Credit access, rural, farmers, smallholder, Suakoko district, Liberia.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko district, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(24)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2093-2100.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "A Review of the 1995/96 Budget.". In: Strathmore University Magazine, August. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Economic Reform Programs: No Ideal Models for stalled Economies" in Kasneb Newsline.". In: The Professional Journal of The Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Board, July- September. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
This article considers IMF economic reform programmes in the context of developing economies. The fundamental features of these programmes are considered and then a critical appraisal is conducted of the performance of economies implementing these programmes. The evolution of IMF programmes in developing economies is also considered. Many country case studies are used to demonstrate that there are no ideal models for stalled economies.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: book entitled Rethinking Ecology and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, ACTS Press, 2007, forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Book entitled Essays in Conflict and Peace Studies (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming.". In: (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published an article in Eastern Africa Law Review: A Journal of Law and Development, Vols. 35-40, entitled .". In: A Journal of Law and Development, Vols. 35-40, entitled. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "The Chilean Experience: Lessons for Kenyan Economic Policy in Kasned Newsline, The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September.". In: The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
The article is based on the premise that there are many valuable lessons that can be learnt from the experience of other developing countries. Chile has since the early 1990s been considered as one of the most successful developing countries, registering impressive rates of growth. It has also, unlike many developing countries been able to carry out economic reforms to significantly alleviate poverty without adversely affecting growth. The lessons for Kenya which is also attempting to pursue an export-oriented strategy are evaluated.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "A Chapter entitled .". In: book entitled Rethinking Ecology and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, ACTS Press, 2007, forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract

The chapter provides an overview of Kenya's key foreign policy dimensions both in African and globally. It emphasizes Kenya's role as a regional peacemaker and Kenya's contribution to several key regional integration blocs in Africa such as COMESA and the East African Community and also in various institutions of the African Union. The evolution in Kenya's foreign policy and future directions are also considered.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2008. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Economist Intelligence Unit Quarterly.". In: Country Report for Kenya for the period January-December. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
The researcher collaborated on with the lead researcher in the preparation of these published reports which analysed the fundamental economic and political trends in Kenya in the year 2001 and attempted to predict the future directions of these trends.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Modern Economics, 476 pages.". In: Nairobi: Focus Publications. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
This book provides an overview of fundamental concepts in microeconomics and macroeconomics. It is invaluable for introductory courses at university level and has many applications relevant to developing countries. A mathematical approach to many of the fundamental concepts is also provided to provide quantitative insights and formulation of key ideas. Fundamental concepts are often illustrated with up recent statistics. The book therefore advances the understanding of the key concepts in economics with a particular emphasis on developing country examples.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Berlin: German Council on Foreign Relations, 2008 pp. 11-22. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: aulines Publications Africa, 2009 pp. 75-89. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

RN. M. "Determinants of nutritional status in children." East Afr Med J. 2008 Oct;85(10):469-70. No abstract available. 2008.
RJ S, IJMwaniki. Mixed Poisson distribution in explicit form and their properties. Makere university Kampala Uganda; 2016.
RJ M, LW G, AM K. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." J Kenya Dent Assoc. 2015;2015; 6(2): 265-272(2015; 6(2): 265-272):2015; 6(2): 265-272.
RIVIELLO B, NEWTON M ACHIENGLETCHFORDLS. "CRITICAL CARE IN RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS. CRITCAL CARE MED." Critical care medicine. 2011;39(4):860-867.riviello_b.pdf
Rivas JJ, Lobato RD, Sarabia R, Cordobés F, Cabrera A, Gomez P. "Extradural hematoma: analysis of factors influencing the courses of 161 patients." Neurosurgery. 1988;23:44-51. AbstractWebsite
n/a
and Riungu G. M., J. W. Muthomi NWGRDJM. "Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and deoxynivalenol accumulation using antagonistic microorganisms." Plant Pathology Journal . 2008;7(1):13-19.
Riungu, W.K. BDM. "Influence of teaching and learning resources on enrolment of early childhood education in Imenti North Sub-county ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):144-155.
Riungu GM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha JM, Gathumbi JK. "Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and deoxynivalenol accumulation using antagonistic microorganisms." Plant Pathology Journal. 2008;7:13-19.
Riungu GM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Gathumbi JK. "Fusarium head blight, DON and Fusarium contamination of Wheat and Maize.". 2008.
Ritman EL, Lerman A. "The {Dynamic} {Vasa} {Vasorum}." Cardiovascular research. 2007;75:649-658. AbstractWebsite

The function of vasa vasorum is both to deliver nutrients and oxygen to arterial and venous walls and to remove “waste” products, either produced by cells in the wall or introduced by diffusional transport through the endothelium of the artery or vein. Although the relationship between changes in vasa vasorum characteristics and the development of atheromatous plaques is well documented, the role of vasa vasorum, especially in terms of their appearance and disappearance in disease processes such as atherosclerosis, are still not clearly understood in terms of their being causative or merely reactive. However, even if their proliferation is merely reactive, these new microvessels may be a source of disease progression by virtue of endothelial impairment and as a pathway for monocytic cells to migrate to sites of early disease. As both these features are aspects of the vasa vasorum function, this Review focuses on the following issues: 1) acute modulation of vasa vasorum patency due to surrounding compressive forces within vessel wall and due to variable tone in the smooth muscle within proximal vasa vasorum and 2) chronic angiogenic responses due to local cytokine accumulations such as occur in the wall of arteries in the presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, accumulation of lipids, extravasated blood products (e.g., red blood cells, macrophages, inflammatory products) which attract monocytes, and response of vasa vasorum to pharmacological stimuli.

Ritho CN, Irungu P, Korir JK, Affognon HD, Kingori WS, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S. "Grower adoption of an integrated pest management package for management of mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Embu, Kenya ." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015:35, 80-98.
Ritho CN, Nzuma JM, Mwololo HM, Ogutu SO, Kabunga N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya,." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019.
Ritho, N C, Nzuma J, Moyo S, Herrero M. "An assessment of the factors influencing household willingness to pay for non-marketed benefit of cattle in the agro-pastoral systems of Mozambique." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(18).
Ritho C, Ng’ang’a SK, Herrero M, Fraval S, Journal TR. "Household-oriented benefits largely outweigh commercial benefits form cattl in Mabalane District, Mozambique." The Rangeland Journal. 2018;(40)6: 565-576.
Ritho C, Mwololo H, Nzuma J. ". Do farmer demographic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?". In: Global Food Symposium . Gottingen University Germany; 2017.
Ritho CN, Mutoko MC, Benhin JKA, Mbatia OLE. "Technical and allocative efficiency gain form integrated soil management in maize farming system in Kenya." ournal of development and Economics. 2015;(7)4:143-152 .
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations and Institutions in Nairobi.". In: 30th Southern African Transport. South Africa; 2011.
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Assessing Progress with the Implementation of the Public Transport Policy in Kenya.". In: 31st Southern African Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Ris MM, Deitrich RA, Von Wartburg JP. "Inhibition of aldehyde reductase isoenzymes in human and rat brain." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(20):1865-9.
Riogi B, Odhiambo K, Ogutu O. "Lithopedion Causing Intestinal Obstruction." The Annals of African Surgery . 2010;vol 8(No 7).lithopaedon.docx
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Assessment of physical fitness components as prediction factors of long jump performance." International Journal of Current Research. 2013;5(1):17-21.
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK, Kamande IM. "Determinants of alcohol consumption of university- student athletes: The case of University of Nairobi,Nairobi,Kenya." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;4(5):354-361.
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Availability and adequacy of sport facilities and equipment in selected secondary schools in Kenya." The Fountain,Journal of Education. 2011;5(1):84-96.
Rintaugu EG, Mwangi PW, Mwisukha A. "The influence of mass media in Socialization into sports of Kenyan secondary school athletes." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(11):471-475.
Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Motivational orientations in sport: A study of college athletes in Kenya." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(8):168-171.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Onywera VO. "Analysis of Factors that affect the standard of soccer in Africa. The case of East African countries." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES). 2012;12(1):135-139.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Mundia F. "International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;1(17):162-167.
Rintaugu EG, Bailasha NK. "Coach-Leadership behaviour exhibited by volleyball Coaches in Africa." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(9):135-139.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Amusa LO. "Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol consumption among university athletes." African Journal of Physical Heath Education Sports and Dance. 2012;18(4:2):939-954.
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Motivational gender differences in sport and exercise participation among university sport science students." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES) . Submitted;12(2):180-187.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A. "Retirement from competitive sport: The experiences of Kenyan soccer players." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2011;3(6):477-482.
Rintaugu EG, Munayi S, Mwangi I, Ngetich EDK. "The Grand coalition Government in Kenya: A recipe for sports Development." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;1(18):305-311.
Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives." American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2012;2(12):126-135.
Rinsland CP, Devi MV, Benner DC, Blake TA, Brown RL, Kleiner I, Dehayem A. "Multispectrum analysis of the ϑ4 band of CH3CN: Positions, intensities, self and N2 broadening and pressure-induced shifts." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer . 2008;109:974-994.
Rinkanya AN. "Mixed Marriages in Kenyan Women’s Novel // Under Africa’s Sky." Moscow: Kluch Publishers. 2015;9:21-27.
Rinkanya AN. "Fifty years of female short story in Kenya ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. Forthcoming.
Rinkanya AN. "Is There Literature for Adolescents in Kenya? ." The Journal of Children's Literature Studies, Staffordshire. 2007;4(3):1-19.
Rinkanya AN. "Generic Innovations in Kenyan Anglophone Novel after the Year 2000 // Under Africa’s Sky." Moscow: Moscow State University Press. 2012;6:174-191.
Rinkanya AN. "Evolution of female identity in Moyez Vassanji’s novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall //Awaaz Voices." . Institute for Kenyan South Asian History and Culture. 2014;11(2):28-30.
Rinkanya AN. "Code Switching in Kenyan Women’s Literature after 2000 // Matatu 46." Brill: Leiden-Boston. 2015:169-184.
Rinkanya AN. "Kenyan Women’s Literature in the Last Two Decades of the Twentieth Century ." Egerton Journal, Njoro, Kenya. 2006;VI(2 & 3):17-34.
Rinkanya AN. "Short Story in Kenya ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2010;6:29-39.
Rinkanya AN. "• Woman for president? ‘Alternative’ future in the works of Kenyan women writers // Tydskrif vir Letterkunde." Pretoria: University of Pretoria Press. 2014;51(2):144-155.
Rinkanya AN. "• “ She would never be a doormat”: ideal female characters in Margaret Ogola’s novels // Pathways to African Feminism and Development." Journal of African Women’s Studies Centre, University of Nairobi. 2015;1(3):36-47.
Rinkanya AN. "Sheng Literature in Kenya: a Revival? ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2005;3:41-45.
Rinkanya AN. "Conservation of Wildlife As Presented in Kenyan Fiction // To Save Wild Animals." Kwani Trust, The Society of Korea Literary Creative Writing. 2007:43-44.
Rinkanya A. "Evolution of Social Ideals in Meja Mwangi’s Novels of 1980's-1990's." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2004;2:29-45.
Riha SJ;, Blume LE;, Barret CB;, Kinyangi JM;, Lehmann CJ;, Marenya PP;, Mbugua DM;, Nicholson CF;, Ngoze SO;, Parsons D;, Verchot LV;, Pell AN. "Long-Term Human and Biophysical Dynamics of Soil Degradation in the Kenyan Highlands.".; 2006. Abstract

Agroecosystems are among the most tightly coupled of human and natural systems, as farmers make conscious decisions regarding land use and improvement, cropping systems, livestock management and labor allocation. These decisions can profoundly impact the natural resource base, which can then lead to changes in farmers' behaviors. The focus of this study is to understand the long term human and biophysical dynamics of soil degradation. We are especially interested in the role that soil degradation plays in creating poverty traps and in interventions that will strongly impact the dynamics of these systems. We have developed an integrated economic and biophysical systems dynamic model to understand and predict the long term behavior of farms in the Kenyan highlands. Additionally, we have established a chronosequence in western Kenya of farms converted from primary forest to agriculture 100, 70, 50, 30, 15, 5, and < 3 years ago. This chronosequence includes three blocks that contain all time conversions, with 3 farms per conversion. Soil chemistry and soil organic matter fractions have been measured from fields that have never received fertilizer additions. An extensive set of fertility experiments to examine the response of maize to amendment with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, manure and green manure have been established on these soils. Socioeconomic data for these farms has been collected. The chronosequence data is being used to both parameterize and evaluate the model. Preliminary findings indicate that both soil organic matter and maize yields decline after conversion from primary forest, but not at the same rates. As the soil degrades and maize yields decrease, farms become more diversified by shifting some land into perennials. This change in land use is associated with a stable, though decreased, soil fertility level. The relationship of these changes in cropping systems and soil fertility to off farm activities and income will be discussed, as well as the implications of these dynamics for preventing soil degradation and restoring fertility.

Riechi A, Otieno M. The impact of HIV and AIDS on teachers in Kenya: A pilot study in Nairobi, Machakos and Siaya districts. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Riechi ARO, Mbiti DM, Kisilu B. Policy gaps and suggested strategies of enhancing access to early childhood development and education in Kenya. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Riechi A, Rasugu GK. "Increasing access to free primary education in Kenya for children in especially difficult circumstances." Perspectives (Nairobi, Kenya). 2007;1:122-137. Abstract
n/a
RIECHI ANDREWR. "DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS: A KENYAN CASE STUDY." Internationalisation of African Higher Education: Towards Achieving the MDGs. 2013:151. Abstract
n/a

UoN Websites Search