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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Group interpersonal psychotherapy for rural Uganda: six months follow-up (co-author).". In: British Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 188-567-573. EAMJ; 2006. Abstract
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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Performance evaluation of the Limuru Dairy Farmers Cooperative Society, May.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.,J.O. Barongo, N. Opiyo-Aketch, E.M. Mathu, i.O. Nyambok, (1996):Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". In: Joint Special Publication, Commission on Geosciences Education and Training of IUGS, AGID Special Publication Series No.10; 49-51. Balkema, Rotterdam. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
L N, J K, R O, H A. "Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a Nairobi urban population." East Afr Med J. 2006;83:69-72. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among Kibera slum dwellers.
Design: Population based Survey.
Setting: Kibera Slums, Kibera Division, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects: One thousand four hundred and thirty eight randomly selected slum dwellers.
Results: The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.0), and 6.2% (95% CI: 4.95 to 7.15) respectively. 37.5% of those found blind were due to cataract followed by refractive errors 25.0%. 58.1% of those with visual impairment had refractive errors while 35.5% had cataracts. Females had a higher prevalence of visual impairment compared to males but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.104).
Conclusions: Prevalence of blindness in Kibera slums is slightly lower than the estimated national average (0.7%) while that of visual impairment is almost three times higher. The leading causes of blindness are cataract followed by refractive errors. For visual impairment, refractive error was the leading cause followed by cataract.
Recommendation: Kibera slum dwellers are in need of comprehensive eye care services offering cataract surgery and low cost spectacles.

L M, MR A, F R, L DP, R G, V M, M G, B JR, C L, S B, Onyango N, Nyagol J, N A, M N, I N, K P, P PP, R B, de MM S, RB R, S L, R S, H S, Leoncini L. "Molecular switch from MYC to MYCN expression in MYC protein negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Blood Cancer J.. 2019;9(12).
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Evaluation of an urban sanitation project, January.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.; (): Copper mineralization in East Equatorial province, South.". In: A case Study of Aswa Shear Zone, Lugari, Chekalini Area Western Kenya. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
L O, J A. Impact of the National Council of Church’s Leadership Training Programme. Nairobi: Bread for the World and National Council of Churches of Kenya; 2010.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Root causes of environmental degradation in Kenya; paper published in the Baobab.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Guides and Techniques for Mineral Exploration,.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
L N. "Retinoblastoma: Promoting early diagnosis.". In: 5th Kenya Ophthalmic Nurses Conference. Jumuia Hotel,Nakuru, Kenya; 2014.njambi_l.retinoblastoma_promoting_early_diagnosis.pdf
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Reconciliation in Rwanda (co-author). In Together no. 64 (October - December).". In: Published by World Vision International, Monrovia 2000, pp (86-215). EAMJ; 1999. Abstract
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L K, WR M, WA H, T L, LW I, Orago AA, FH C. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatellite loci." Insect molecular biology. 1999;8(2):287-297. AbstractPubMed link

We analysed genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae populations using microsatellite loci to determine whether the Rift Valley restricts the flow of genes. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were significant, and were most likely to be due to the high frequency of null alleles observed. An. arabiensis populations occurring between 40 and 700 km apart across the Eastern arm of the Rift Valley were not differentiated (pair-wise F(ST) range: 0.0033-0.0265, P > 0.05). Neither were An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Ghana (F(ST): 0.0063, P > 0.05) despite a geographical separation of about 5000 km. In contrast, significant differentiation was observed between An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Kilifi (about 700 km apart; F(ST) = 0.1249, P < 0.01), suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow.

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Depreciation in Rwanda: Perspective of depression in Rural Rwanda based on Symptom and function criteria (co-author).". In: Journal of Nervous mental Disorders (USA) 2002, 190(9) 631-637. EAMJ; 2002. Abstract
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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Transformed relationships with ourselves: In changing lives.". In: Published by WNI. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. & N.Opiyo-Akech, (1991): Structural environment of Gold Ore Deposits in Bondo-Asembo area, Western Kenya,.". In: Proceedings of 25 Years SGA Anniversary Meint, pp.461-464; A Balkema, Rotterdam. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "M.A. Thesis entitled Urban Land use and Environmental damage, June.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.; (1997): Copper mineralization in East Equatorial province, South Sudan, Brussels, Belgium.". In: presentment at the In. Conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "The Role of culture in the process of human development, paper presented at a seminar organised by the Amani Centre, March.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Natural Resources and Environment.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
L N, K K, Gallie B, Chan H, Dimaras H. "Kenya National Retinoblastoma Strategy: A model for developing countries.". In: Canadian Cancer and Research Conference. sheraton Hotel, Toronto, Canada; 2013.njambi_et_al_kenya_retinoblastoma_strategy-_a_model_for_developing_countries.pdf
L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. & B. Meissner, (1987): Fracture systems and mineralization in East Equatoria Province, South Sudan, Special volume by IGCP Project 247;.". In: Arusha Conference 1987; published in Dar Es. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1987.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Group Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in Rural Uganda. A Randomized controlled trial (co-author).". In: Journal of American Asociation (JAMA) Vol. 289 no. 23, June. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L., Earthquakes and strike slip faults in South Sudan,.". In: 15th Colloquium on African Geology in Nancy; France. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1990.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Preparation (with others) of an Urban Development Plan for Ruiru Town.". In: Winrock International, Morrilton, U.S.A. EAMJ; Submitted. Abstract
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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Evaluation of a Rural Water Project: Kibiko Water Supply, Ngong, September.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. (1997): The application of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Data and Aerial Photographs in the management and monitoring of Coastal areas and parks in Kenya,.". In: the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remote sensing And Costal Environment, Orlando, Florida, USA. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Mugamangi, I , P.L. Legge, J.O. Barongo, E.M. Mathu: Application of Remote Sensing in delineating geological structures ideal for Groundwater Development;.". In: A case Study of Aswa Shear Zone, Lugari, Chekalini Area Western Kenya. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "The myth of cultural conflict a Kenyan experience, a paper presented at a workshop organised by the School of International Learning, January.". In: Published by World Vision International, Monrovia 2000, pp (86-215). EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Rwanda: Telling a Different story, (co-author). In Complex Humanitarian Emergencies; lessons for Practitioners.". In: Published by World Vision International, Monrovia 2000, pp (86-215). EAMJ; 2000. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Geological Map, Juba Sheet 1:250 000; Geology and Land Use. .". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1986.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Adapting Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for a Develoing Country: Experience in Rural Uganda (co-author).". In: Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Vol. 2. No. 2 June 2003. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
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L O. Situational Analysis of Children in 10 Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Alliance for the Advancement of Children (KAACR); 2003.
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. The significance of Aswa Lineament in South Sudan; 15th Colloquium on Geology of Africa in Nancy, France,.". In: Published in: recent Data in African Earth Sciences; CIFEC. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1990.
L Mutombo, VH Monterroso KKMDDT-KSKM. "Cellular Targete of Linamarin and Cyanate: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Cassava-Associated Motor System Degeneration." Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 2011;50(5):739.
L Ngesu, LN Wachira MNBE. "Critical determinants of poor performance in KCSE among girls in Arid and Semi-Arid (ASAL) regions in Kenya." Journal of African Studies in Educational Management and Leadership. 2012.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Faces at Crossroad Edited. Nairobi. East African Literature Bureau:.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1971. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "East African Prose and Poetry, Authored, Nairobi University Press.". In: Edited by Jude J. Ongong'a and Kenneth Gray [Nairobi Masaki Publishers, 1989], 9-16.; 1987. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Singing with the Night, Edited, Nairobi, East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1975. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Literature in our Time and the University", in Trends and Future of University in Kenya in the 1990s and Beyond. Edited by Wanjala-Kerre and Kenneth Gray.". In: [Nairobi Masaki Publishers].; 1990. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Fossilized Black Martys: A Study of in the Fog of the Season's End, a novel by the late Alex La Guma, in Teaching of African Literature in Schools, [eds.] E. Gachukia and S. K. Akivage [Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1978], 201- 215.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Imaginative Writing Since Independence: in The East African Experience: Essays on English and Swahili Literature Second Janheinz Jahn Symposium, Edited by Ulla Schild [Sonderdunck: Dietrich Reiner Verlag, 1980] 9-24.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1980. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Notes on Grace Ogot's Land Without Thunder for O-levels, Authored, Nairobi.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. G, Njoroge K, Ininda J, Lorroki P. "Combining ability of grain yield and agronomic traits in diverse maize lines with maize streak virus resistance for Eastern Africa region." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2011;2(3):432-439.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "In 1985, collaborated with the Italian Cultural Institute in Nairobi on the issue of the Magazine Sinchron, dedicted to Africa and Kenya in particular.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1985. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Standpoints on African Literature, Ediated, Intro, Angus Calder Nairobi. East African Literature BureauFaces at Crossroads, ediated, Niairobi, East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1973. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Culture and the Nation State" in Bottlenecks to National Identity: Ethnic Co-operation Towards Nation Building.". In: Edited by Jude J. Ongong'a and Kenneth Gray [Nairobi Masaki Publishers].; 1990. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Attachments to the Sun, Edited with Dougal Blackburn, Alfred Horsfall et. Al, London Edwad Arnold: 1978.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. L, O. O, K. AF, J. G, J. N. "Risk factors for abandonement of Wilms tumor therapy in Kenya." Pediatric blood and cancer. 2015;62(2):252-256.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "For Home and Freedom, Authored, Nairobi, Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1980. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Twilight Years are the Years of Counsel and Wisdom", History and Culture in Western Kenya: The People of Bungoma District through Time, Edited by Simiyu Wandibba [Nairobi G.S. Were Press, 1982] 78 -90.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. K, Otanga H. "Challenges in provision of free primary education in public primary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education. 2015;2(5):20-30.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "La Litteratura Dopo L'Independenza, in Synchron Numero 5 - Anno 4 Decembre 1985, 53-65.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1985. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Edited, Nairobi, East African Literature Bureau, Vol. 1, 1, 2,.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1973. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Culture and the Nation State, in Bottlenecks to National Identity: Ethnic Co-operation Towards Nation Building.". In: Edited by Jude J. Ongong'a and Kenneth Gray [Nairobi Masaki Publishers, 1989], 9-16.; 1989. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "The Debtors, Edited, Nairobi , East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1977. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Discovering New East African Poets, Busara II, 2 (1969), 43-45. An extended version of it in E. Gachukia and S.K. Akivaga (eds.), Teaching of African Literature in Schools, Nairobi [Kenya Literature Bureau, 1978], 77-90.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. O, J. A. Evaluation of HelpAge Kenya’s Sponsor a Grandparent Programme. Nairobi: HelpAge International; 2012.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "The Growth of a Literary Tradition, in Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 2.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1988. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Regional Reflections in the Literature of Kenya in Adjoining Culture as Reflected in literatureand Languages,(eds.) John X. Evans and Peter Horwath (Phoenix: Arizon State University Press, 173 ff.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1983. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. M, Njoroge K, Bett C, Mwangi W, Verkuijl H, Groote DH. The Seed Industry for Dryland Crops in Eastern Kenya.; 2003.
L. Fusilli, M. O. Collins, G. Laneve, A. Palombo, Pignatti S, and Santini F. "Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2013;20:33-41.
L. O. OLANG, P.M. KUNDU OUMAANDFÜRSTGJ. "IMPACTS OF LAND COVER CHANGE SCENARIOS ON STORM RUNOFF GENERATION: A BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE NYANDO BASIN, KENYA." land degradation & development. 2012;DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2140(DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2140).land_cover_change_scenarios.pdf
L. Owiti, W. Musyoni JB. Rise Up and Act: A Resource Material on iolence Against Women. Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches; 2002.
L. W. Njagi., P. N. Nyaga. PGM, L. C. Bebora., J. N. Micheka. KJK, A. K.Munene. MUM. "Newcastle Disease Virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village hens." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2008;32(1):1-6.
L. Wangai, Butt. F, Mandela P. "Horizontal angle of inclination of the mandibular condyle in a kenyan population." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2012;1(1):46-49. Abstract

The horizontal angle of inclination, is important in maintaining the function of the temporomandibular joint. It should be maintained in the manufacture of condylar prostheses since deviation may lead to disk displacement and degeneration of the articular fossa. While inter-population variations exist in mandibular morphometry, published information on the horizontal angle of inclination in the African population is not available. This study therefore aimed to determine the normal range of the horizontal angle of inclination amongst Kenyans. Sixty three mandibles of African origin were used. The horizontal angle of inclination was measured as the angle between the medio-lateral axis and the coronal plane. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS v.17 for means and variance, and represented using tables, charts and photographs. The horizontal angle of inclination was larger on the right (22.55°) than on the left (20.01°) (p = 0.002). The mean angle was larger on the right (24.76° vs. 21.75° in males) but smaller on the left in females (17.80° vs. 20.37° in males), but the difference was not statistically significant. The difference between right and left angles was larger in females (6.96°, p < 0.05) than in males (1.38°, p > 0.05). It differed significantly between the left and the right. This difference was more pronounced in females than in males for unknown reasons. The horizontal angle of inclination in Kenyans was different from those reported in general literature, and manufacturers of condylar prostheses need to factor these variations during fabrication to avoid post-operative morbidity.
Key words: Mandibular condyle, angle of inclination

L.C. B, P.G. Mbuthia, J.M.Macharia, Mwaniki G, L.W. Njagi. "Appraisal of the village chickens potential in egg production." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:10-13.abstract-appraisal_of_village_chickens-kvaj-2005.pdf
L.C. B, Nyaga P.N. "Productivity of local scavenging ducks under village management conditions in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi; 2002.2002_-productivity_of_scavenging_ducks_in_villages.pdf
L.C. B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G. "Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ; 2012.2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
L.C. B, Nyaga P.N., Mbuthia P.G. "Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi ; 2008.2008_-_localisation_of_nd_nucleoprotein_in_tissues_of_carrier_ducks.pdf
L.C. B, L.W. N, Mbuthia P.G., P.N N. "Importance of environmental hygiene in reducing bacterial load exposure to night-housed indigenous chickens.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi, ; 2008.
L.D.E. I. "Analysis of Census Data taking into consideration Gender Dimensions’.". In: Kenya National Seminar on Census Data Analysis,. Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
L.U. A, W.D. B, F.J. M, E.O. O. "Molecular characterization of a tsetse fly midgut proteolytic lectin that mediates differentiation of African trypanosomes.Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Apr;36(4):344-52. Epub 2006 Jan 19.". In: Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Apr;36(4):344-52. Epub 2006 Jan 19. MBA; 2006. Abstract

Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.

L.W. N, M.M. M. "Curriculum Development for Non formal Education.". In: A Distance Learning Module for Master of Education Programme. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.kimani_3.pdf
xviWekesaand L1, Maaalu J.K.2 GWJ 2 G. "Effect of Entrepreneur Characteristics on Performance of Non- Timber Forest Products Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review . 2016;6(3):16-26.
editor) Laban Ogallo FK(A, et al. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall anomalies." Journal of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2007;2(1-2).
Laban U. Shihembetsa K’AOA. "Stakeholder analysis for slum upgrading in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science. . 2018;Volume-12(1): (1-18, 2018. ISSN: 2454-1834).
Lachica EA, Crooks MW, Casagrande VA. "Effects of monocular deprivation on the morphology of retinogeniculate axon arbors in a primate." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1990;296:303-323. Abstract

Previous studies of the monocularly deprived (lid-sutured) primate (Galago crassicaudatus) have shown that magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells that receive input from the deprived eye are smaller than counterparts that receive input from the nondeprived eye; deprived koniocellular (K) cells show wide variability in size, but they do not differ from their nondeprived counterparts (Casagrande and Joseph, '80). Although deprivation results in cell-size changes, the physiological properties of deprived LGN cells do not change from normal (that is, P cells have normal X-like properties, M cells have normal Y-like properties, and K cells have normal W-like properties). Because of these findings, we were interested in determining how the morphology of retinogeniculate axon arbors is affected by deprivation. To this end, 104 horseradish-peroxidase-filled retinogeniculate arbors from galagos deprived from birth to maturity were completely reconstructed within the binocular segment of the LGN. These arbors were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with 56 arbors reconstructed from normal galagos as part of another study (Lachica and Casagrande, '88). Our main findings are as follows. Deprived M and P arbors are affected by deprivation in the same general manner: compared with normal arbors, they are altered in shape (rather than being round or columnar, respectively, both groups have terminals that are elongated parallel to laminar borders); they are smaller in area, and they have fewer boutons but innervate the LGN with a greater density of boutons. K arbors are affected by deprivation in the same manner, but less severely. Finally, our results show that nondeprived arbors are also affected by eyelid suture. Specifically, all nondeprived arbor groups are smaller in area than normal and possess more boutons/mm3. We interpret these changes in the morphology of deprived retinogeniculate axons to suggest that abnormal competitive interactions begin by affecting primarily immature LGN cells and their axons and that the retinogeniculate axons presynaptic to these cells experience secondary degenerative effects. Our results also show that similar manipulations of visual experience can result in changes that are not necessarily comparable across species such as cats and primates.

Lacroix, R., Mukabana, W.R., Gouagna LC, Koella JC. "Malaria Infection Increases Attractiveness of Humans to Mosquitoes." PlosBiology, . 2005;3(9):1590-1593 (e298).
Lacroix R, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Gouagna LC, Koella JC. "Malaria Infection Increases Attractiveness of Humans to Mosquitoes." PlosBiology, 3 (9), (e298).. 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. ." PLoS One. . 2016;11(8):e0160730. doi: 10.1371.peter_gichangi_differ_paper_2.pdf.pdf
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa." Trop Med Int Health. . 2016:doi: 10.1111/tmi.12761.
Lagerkvist CJ, Ngigi M, Okello J, Karanja N. "Means-End Chain approach to understanding farmers’ motivations for pesticide use in leafy vegetables: The case of kale in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Peri-urban farmers play a significant role in the production of vegetables consumed in the urban centers in most African countries. The production of vegetables in the peri-urban areas in these countries is strategic with most farmers targeting the lucrative and better-paying urban markets. However, the decline in agricultural land in the peri-urban due to competition from housing for urban workers has led peri-urban farmers to use intensive means of agricultural production. Decreasing land sizes imply that peri-urban lands are continuously under production resulting in the build-up of pests and diseases. Further, the tropical climate generally increases the outbreak and rapid multiplication of pests and diseases. These problems and the urban consumers’ demand for clean and spotlessness vegetables encourage the excessive use of pesticides. Additionally, the desire to reduce losses and waste can cause farmers to violate the recommended intervals between pesticide application and harvest. Consequently, there have been concerns about the excessive application of pesticides in vegetables produced in the peri-urban areas. The study applies the Means-End Chain (MEC) approach accompanied by the laddering technique to assess the motivations for peri-urban farmers to use pesticides as opposed to other crop protection methods in the production of fresh vegetables. It specifically examines the relevant attribute econsequenceevalue relations by setting up relevant hierarchical value maps. The study is based on a random sample of 54 kale farmers in three peri-urban areas of Nairobi. It finds that farmers apply pesticides at different times mainly for the purpose of improving their efficacy in protecting kale against pests and diseases. Protection of kale improves its aesthetic quality attributes resulting in higher prices and hence profit margins. Examination of the hierarchal value maps further reveals that the other motivations for pesticide use include benevolence value (being helpful and honest to trading partners), power (social recognition or good reputation as a good farmer), hedonism (happiness for being a successful farmer), security (having good health) and self-direction (independence or being self-supporting from vegetable income). Clearly, the motivations suggest a dilemma in safe use of pesticides. While some motivators dictate less use of pesticides, others can promote indiscriminate use of pesticides. The study discusses the implication of these findings for sustainable and environmentally friendly production of safe leafy vegetables in peri-urban areas.

Lagerkvist, Carl Johan; Hess, Hess, Sebastian; Ngigi MOJJW;, Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ. "Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Food Safety in Nairobi: The Case of Fresh Vegetables."; 2011. Abstract

Large urban areas in developing countries represent currently the most dynamically growing markets for food products. This study investigates the willingness to pay of consumers in Nairobi for safer leafy vegetables. We survey individuals’ perceived food safety across four major market categories, while also considering the explanatory role of trust and behavioral, psychological, and socio-demographic covariates. Results show that willingness to pay is market-specific and multi-faceted, with trust and perceived risks as important drivers, while income plays only a subordinate role. We conclude that policy makers should aim to reduce asymmetric information within the value chain without raising food prices such that safer vegetables would become unaffordable for the poor.

Lagerlöf J, Ayuke F, Bejai S, Jorge G, Lagerqvist E, Meijer J, Muturi John J, Söderlund S. "Potential side effects of biocontrol and plant-growth promoting Bacillus amyloliquefaciens bacteria on earthworms." Applied Soil Ecology. 2015;96:159-164.
Laila A, Mwangi C, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 . 1 (1): 19-23 A KeSoBAP Publication ©2012 . All rights reserved. 19 Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbe s and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic s ubstances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential s ource of promising antimicrobial compounds with nov el mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extrac ts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro . Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted u sing methanol and chloroform and tested for activit y against Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli , Shigella sonnei , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by a ssaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells . Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observ ed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was p resent in the methanol extracts compared to chlorof orm extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against h uman erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echino derms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.

Lajoie J, Boily-Larouche G, Doering K, Cheruiyot J, Julius Oyugi, Broliden K, Kimani J, Fowke KR. "Improving Adherence to Post-Cervical Biopsy Sexual Abstinence in Kenyan Female Sex Workers." Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.. 2016;76(1):82-93. Abstract

Cervical biopsies offer a unique opportunity for studying local immune response. To investigate hormonally induced immune fluctuations in cervical tissues of Kenyan female sex workers, we improved biopsy sampling protocol safety. Here, we report on steps taken to minimize exposure to HIV following two cervical biopsies.

Laker CD;, Mukhebi AW;, Ssenyonga GSZ;, Gathuma JM. "The economic impact of East Coast Fever on cattle in Mbarara district, Uganda."; 1995.
Lalah JO, Wandiga SO. "The Persistence and Fate of Malathion Residues in Stored Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Maize (Zea mays).". 1999. AbstractThe Persistence and Fate of Malathion Residues in Stored Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Maize (Zea mays)

Two experimental models simulating the traditional storage conditions prevalent in Kenya, i.e. the open basket model and the modern wooden box model, were used to study the rate of dissipation and fate of malathion residues in maize grains and beans stored for periods of up to one year at ambient temperatures averaging 23°C. The grain samples were initially treated with 10·36 mg kg−1 of radiolabelled malathion dust prior to storage and portions analysed at regular intervals for malathion, malaoxon and the transformation products isomalathion, malathion α-monocarboxylic acid and malathion β-monocarboxylic acid using a combination of chromatographic, radioisotopic and mass-spectrometric techniques. The findings showed a gradual penetration of malathion into the grains in amounts which were slightly higher in maize than in beans irrespective of the method of storage. After 51 weeks of storage, 34–60% of the initial residues persisted in all the grains. The total residual levels were slightly higher in beans than in maize irrespective of the storage methods though the persistence was a little higher in the wooden box than in the open basket. The rates of dissipation of the pesticide from the grains decreased with storage time and followed a biphasic pattern. Applying first-order reaction kinetics, the following half-lives were obtained: maize grains stored in open basket: 194 days; maize grains stored in closed wooden box: 261 days; beans stored in open basket: 259 days; beans stored in closed wooden box: 405 days. Beans stored in the wooden box had higher levels of bound residues than those sampled from the open basket. This trend was similar in maize grains although the concentrations were lower. The analysis of malathion metabolites confirmed the degradation trend of the residues.

LALAH JO, chieng EZ, Wandiga SO. "Sources of heavy metal input into Winam Gulf, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Water and surface sediment from rivers Kisat, Nyamasaria, Nyando, Sondu-Miriu, Kuja, Awach, Yala, and Nzoia, which flow into Winam Gulf, were analyzed for heavy metals in order to assess the influence of the catchment activities on heavy metal input into the lake. Sampling was done both upstream and at river mouths where the rivers entered in to the lake. The mean sediment concentration of exchangeable cations (in microg/g) for Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn ranged from 0.01 to 263 (for Mn at Kuja). Ag, Cr, and Cd were poorly leachable with 0.1 MHCl but the other cations were found to be fairly exchangeable. Most exchangeable cations in sediment ranged between 2% and 20% of the total heavy metal content obtained by digestion with strong acid. The mean total dissolved metal (0.45 microm filter cut-off) and mean total sediment concentrations ranged from nd-16 (Ag), nd-8 (Cd), nd-23.3 (Co), nd-50 (Cr), 5-157.5 (Cu), 50-3276 (Mn), nd-54.1 (Ni), 7-93.6 (Pb), 25-219.5 (Zn) in microg/L and from nd-8.34 (Ag), 0.48-1.75 (Co), nd-1.78 (Cd), 2.92-5.36 (Cr), 3.90-150.2 (Cu), 133.5-7237 (Mn), 4.33-42.29 (Ni), 3.09-66.06 (Pb), 23.39-7.83 (Sn) and 23.39-350.8 (Zn) in microg/g dry weight, respectively. The rivers analyzed were found to be non-polluted in terms of sediment loads except river Kisat which was found to be polluted because of elevated levels of Pb, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Nyamasaria and Nyando were also found to have higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn than those reported previously in the lake sediment. The dissolved metal concentrations were acceptable by WHO maximum limits in drinking water except Mn which was above WHO limit in Kisat, Nyando, and Nyamasaria waters. Enrichment of Cd and Pb was found in all the river sediment samples with factors ranging from 2.12 at Kisat river mouth to 4.41 at Awach (for Cd) and from 1.49 (at Kisat river mouth) to 2.38 (at Nyando river mouth).

Lally R, Moreira AS, Germaine K, Galbally P, Culhain J, Otieno N, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. "Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species.". In: Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Conference 2013 - Positive plant microbial interactions: their role in maintaining sustainable agricultural and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, Brigg, North Linconshire, U.K; 2013. Abstract

Endophytes are bacteria present in plants that form a symbiotic relationship with
their hosts and may promote plant growth and health (Ryan et al., 2008). We extracted
Pseudomonas endophytes from Miscanthus × giganteus; a series of strains were selected
for application to two oilseed rape (OSR) trials. Endophytes colonise plants (including
the root-surface) and allow the plant to utilise nutrients present in the rhizosphere. This
potentially provides a yield boost for colonised plants, allowing for efficient fertiliser
strategies and improved yield performance (Redondo-Nieto et al., 2013). This study has
provided evidence that the application of specialised live microbial biofertilisers can
enhance aspects of crop development when applied in the field. The results show that
there was a significant increase in crop stem and leaf of “Compass” a variety of Oilseed
rape. The results did not indicate that there was a significant increase within the overall
yield of the crop.

Lambert, C, Murhead, J., Ebinger, C. J, Tiberi, C., Roecker SW, Ferdnard WR, Kianji, G., Mulibo, G.D. "The importance of magmatic fluids in continental rifting in East Africa.". In: American Geophysical Union. San Francisco; 2014.
Lamberti GA, Lavens P, Lokken P, Maitho TE. "volume 234 (1992), author index.". 1992.
Landais E, Huang X, Havenar-Daughton C, Murrell B, Price MA, Wickramasinghe L, Ramos A, Bian CB, Simek M, Allen S, Karita E, Kilembe W, Lakhi S, Inambao M, Kamali A, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Edward V, Bekker L-G, Tang J, Gilmour J, Kosakovsky-Pond SL, Phung P, Wrin T, Crotty S, Godzik A, Poignard P. "Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort." PLoS Pathog.. 2016;12(1):e1005369. Abstract

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

Lang'o MO, Githanga JN, Yuko-jowi CA. "Prevalence Of Iron Deficiency In Children With Cyanotic Heart Disease Seen At Kenyatta National Hospital And Mater Hospital Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To establish the prevalence of iron deficiency among children with cyanotic heart disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital from August to December of 2007. A total of 112 children meeting the eligibility criteria were recruited from the wards and the cardiac clinics. SUBJECTS: These were children less than 18 years of age, with cyanotic heart disease confirmed on ECHO, presenting at the paediatric cardiac clinic of the two hospitals or admitted in the wards at Kenyatta National Hospital. These were patients who had not undergone surgical correction. RESULTS: The prevalence of iron deficiency was found to be 16.9% (95% CI 9.8-24.1%). CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of iron deficiency among patients with congenital heart disease with cyanosis in the two institutions. Routine screening for iron deficiency is recommended for these children and those found to be deficient should be treated.

Lang'o MO, Githanga JN, CA. Y-J. "Prevalence of iron deficiency in children with cyanotic heart disease seen at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital Nairobi. ." East Afr Med J. 2009 Dec;86(12 Suppl):S47-51.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To establish the prevalence of iron deficiency among children with cyanotic heart disease.
DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.
SETTING:

The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital from August to December of 2007. A total of 112 children meeting the eligibility criteria were recruited from the wards and the cardiac clinics.
SUBJECTS:

These were children less than 18 years of age, with cyanotic heart disease confirmed on ECHO, presenting at the paediatric cardiac clinic of the two hospitals or admitted in the wards at Kenyatta National Hospital. These were patients who had not undergone surgical correction.
RESULTS:

The prevalence of iron deficiency was found to be 16.9% (95% CI 9.8-24.1%).
CONCLUSION:

There is a high prevalence of iron deficiency among patients with congenital heart disease with cyanosis in the two institutions. Routine screening for iron deficiency is recommended for these children and those found to be deficient should be treated.

PMID:
21591509
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Langa FP, Muiru WM, Mbuge D, Ragwa LRM, Olubayo FM, Muthomi JW. "Influence of Endosperm Types, Seed Moisture Content and Threshing Methods on Germination and Seedling Vigour of Sorghum." World Journal of Agricultural Sciences . 2016;12(5):378-383.
Langat S, Mbuge DO, Mutai EBK. " Determination of the Parameters for Design of Flexible Plastic Tank." AJST. 2010;Vol. 11(No. 2):37-45.
Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

Langat SK, Onyatta JO. "The changing conceptions and focus of health research in East Africa ." Africa J. Health. 2006;13:1-5.
Langat A, Benki-Nugent S, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Ngugi E, Diener L, Richardson BA, GC. J-S. "Lipid Changes in Kenyan HIV-1-Infected Infants Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy by One Year of Age." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 2013. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:: Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended for HIV-1 infected infants. There are limited data on lipid changes during infant HAART. METHODS:: Non-fasting total (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were measured at 0, 6 and 12 months. Correlates of lipid levels and changes post-HAART were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS:: Among 115 infants, pre-HAART median age was 3.8 months, CD4% was 19%, and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was -2.42. Pre-HAART median lipid levels were: TC, 108.7 mg/dl, LDL, 42.5 mg/dl, HDL, 29.4 mg/dl and TG, 186.9 mg/dl. Few infants had abnormally high TC (6.2%) or LDL (5.6%), but many had low HDL (76.5%) or high TG (69.6%). Higher pre-HAART WAZ and HAZ were each associated with higher pre-HAART TC (P=0.04 and P=0.01) and LDL (P=0.02 and P=0.008). From 0-6 months post-HAART, TC (P<0.0001), LDL (P<0.0001), and HDL (P<0.0001) increased significantly, and 23.1% (P=0.002), 14.0% (P=0.2), 31.3% (P<0.0001), and 50.8% (P=0.2) of infants had abnormally high TC, high LDL, low HDL, and high TG, respectively. Changes in TC and HDL were each associated with higher gain in WAZ (P=0.03 and P=0.01) and HAZ (P=0.01 and P=0.007). Increased change in LDL was associated with higher gain in HAZ (P=0.03). Infants on protease inhibitor (PI)-HAART had smaller HDL increase (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:: Infants had substantive increases in lipids, which correlated with growth. Increases in HDL were attenuated by PI-HAART. It is important to determine clinical implications of these changes.
PMID:
23385950
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Langdon J, Patel M, Brennan P. Operative {Oral} and {Maxillofacial} {Surgery} {Second} edition. 2nd ed. CRC Press; 2010. Abstract

Operative Maxillofacial Surgery was first published in 1998, and within a very short period it became the standard text for trainees in oral and maxillofacial surgery preparing for their exit examinations.For this second edition, the contents have been extensively revised not only to include all aspects of oral surgery but also to reflect the changes in maxillofacial practice that have occurred since 1998. In particular, the role of osseointegrated implants, the management of craniofacial trauma and facial aesthetic surgery including 'cosmetic' surgery and bone distraction have all moved on since the first edition was written. The editors have made a careful selection of contributors representing current practice from throughout the world including continental Europe, the United States, Asia and Australia. Operative Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery represents international best practice in the specialty. Each chapter has been written by an internationally recognised expert and represents a 'how I do it' master class. It is illustrated with clear line diagrams supplemented where appropriate with clinical photographs showing the essential steps in all the surgical procedures in current clinical practice. Authors have kept to a standard template, ensuring a minimum of discussion and an emphasis on surgical technique.The definitive surgical manual in the field, Operative Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery will appeal to trainees, young specialists and established experts not only in oral and maxillofacial surgery but also the related specialties of otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery.

Langman VA, Bamford OS, Maloiy GMO. "Respiration and metabolism in the giraffe.". 1982. Abstract

Measurements have been made on respiration of three resting unstressed adult giraffe under normal conditions. Tracheal dimensions and body dimensions have also been measured in a large number of giraffe and other mammals. The results indicate that contrary to statements in the literature the giraffe does not have an abnormally large dead space, though the trachea is abnormally long and narrow. The respiratory measurements indicate that the giraffe breathes as predicted by published scaling equations, and at rest shows no abnormalities of rate or depth. The respiratory evaporative water loss is very small. Body temperature is labile with a range of at least 3.3 degrees C, and oxygen consumption, respiratory frequency, minute volume and respiratory evaporative water loss are all strongly correlated with body temperature.

Lankinen A, Kiboi S. "Pollen Donor Identity Affects Timing of Stigma Receptivity in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): A Sexual Conflict during Pollen Competition?" The American Naturalist. 2007;170(6):854-863. AbstractWebsite

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Theory predicts that, during pollen competition, selection may favor a pollen trait that increases donor competitive ability at the expense of the female reproductive function. One such pollen trait could be manipulation of the onset of stigma receptivity. We evaluated the potential occurrence of this kind of sexual conflict by testing female control of the timing of stigma receptivity in the self-compatible annual Collinsia heterophylla. By performing one-donor crosses in the greenhouse, we found that differences in both recipients and pollen donors influenced when stigmas became receptive. Because we did not detect an interaction effect, our result suggests that some donors were consistently better than others at germinating pollen and siring seeds earlier. Unexpectedly, self-pollen was able to fertilize seeds earlier during floral development compared with outcross pollen. These results suggest that female control on timing of stigma receptivity is not complete in this species. In addition, fertilizations that occurred early during floral development resulted in fewer seeds than later fertilizations, possibly indicating a cost of lost control over the onset of receptivity. The ability of pollen donors to influence the timing of stigma receptivity might reflect a conflict between the sexual functions in C. heterophylla.

Largerkvist CJ, Ngigi MW, Karanja N. "Means-end chain analysis explains soil fertility management decisions by peri-urban vegetable growers in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Past studies of the use of soil fertility management strategies by farmers usually model input use decisions based on the neoclassical utility/profit maximization principle in which farmers use soil fertility management inputs primarily to increase revenues and profits. However, there is, to date, no study that explains exactly how this decision-making process occurs and the role which personal values play in driving the choice of soil fertility management inputs. This article systematically maps the relationship between choice of soil fertility management strategy (attributes), its outcomes (consequences) and the personal values that motivate the choice. It specifically uses the means-end chain approach to construct hierarchical value maps that relate the attributes to consequences, and ultimately to the personal values. The study finds that the use of soil fertility management strategies by peri-urban fresh vegetable growers is driven by five personal values, namely happiness, comfortable life, independence, good/healthy life and achievement of life goals. It also finds that while farmers seek to increase profit (hence incomes), profit maximization is not the end driver of the use of soil fertility management inputs. It concludes that a lot more goes into farmers’ decision-making process relating to the use of soil fertility management practices than can be explained by the neoclassical profit/utility maximization principle. The study discusses the policy implications of these findings.

Larry Wangai, Pamela Mandela FBKO. "MORPHOLOGY OF THE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE IN A KENYAN POPULATION." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):70-79.larrymandible_2013.pdf
Larry Wangai, Pamela Mandela FBKO. "MORPHOLOGY OF THE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE IN A KENYAN POPULATION." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;1(2):70-79.larrymandible_2013.pdf
Latif KA, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Qureshi N. "The use of alkali therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2113-2114. Abstract
n/a
Lau KC, So W-F, Tay D. "Effects of visual or light deprivation on the morphology, and the elimination of the transient features during development, of type {I} retinal ganglion cells in hamsters." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1990;300:583-592. AbstractWebsite

Intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow (LY) was used to study the detailed morphology of the normal, visually deprived, and light-deprived superior colliculus projecting Type I retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in hamsters. The soma size of the normal Type I cells ranged from 337 to 583 pm2 with a mean of 436 pm2. Two to six primary dendrites were observed in these cells. The mean dendritic field diameter was 495 km and ranged from 309 to 702 pm. The dendritic field diameter of this population of cells exhibited an eccentricity dependence. Quantitative comparisons between the normal and visually deprived or light-deprived Type I RGCs indicated that the morphology of these three groups of cells were similar to each other in terms of the soma size, dendritic field diameter, branching pattern, and total length of the dendrites. During the normal development of cats and hamsters, several transient features, such as exuberant dendritic spines and intraretinal axonal branches, have been observed in the developing RGCs. The complete elimination of these transient features occurs at about 3 and 2 weeks after the opening of the eyes in cats and hamsters, respectively. In the present study, the hypothesis whether visual experience or light stimulation is required for the elimination of these transient features during development was examined. After studying a total of 115 mature Type I RGCs, which included cells from the normal, visually deprived, and light deprived animals, no transient feature was observed. We conclude that visual or light deprivation has no effect on the morphological develop- ment of superior colliculus projecting Type I RGCs in hamsters, and the elimination of the transient features on the Type I RGCs during development does not depend on visual experience or light stimulation.

LaVail MM, Battelle BA. "Influence of eye pigmentation and light deprivation on inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat." Experimental eye research. 1975;21:167-192. Abstract
n/a
Lavender T, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi." Midwifery. 2013;29(8):876-84. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.

LAVERA DRLEVI. "Text Book for Christian Religion Education Form II.". In: God Meets us Bk II. ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
LAVERA DRLEVI. "Teachers Guide for Bk II.". In: Teachers Guide. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
LAVERA DRLEVI. "A text book for Christian Religious Education Form I.". In: God meets Us, Bk I. ISCTRC; 1988. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
LAVERA DRLEVI. "God Meets us Bk I.". In: New 8.4.4. New Syllabus. ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
LAVERA DRLEVI. "Teachers Guide for Bk I.". In: Teachers Guide. ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
LAVERA DRLEVI. "God Meets us in St. Luke Bk 11.". In: New Syllabus. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Laving AMR, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO, Revathi G. "Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(9):456-62. Abstract

Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital.

Lawrence PO, Mwaengo DM. "Sequence analysis of a putative DNA helicase and four peptides encoded by ORFs of the Diachasmimorpha longicaudata entomopoxvirus (DlEPV.". 2003. Abstract

DlEPV is a symbiotic entomopoxvirus (EPV) of the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata(Dl). It has a double stranded DNA genome of 250-300 kb and is >60% A-T rich. We describe five DlEPV open reading frames (ORFs) within the first 2.87 kb of the 5’ region of clone #35 (RI-35) from a DlEPV EcoRI genomic library. Our goal was to identify unique motifs and compare them with others in the database, particularly those of poxviruses, using Sequencher, PROSITE, and SwissPROT. RI-35-I encodes a putative nuclear peptide of 113 aa, contains a late promoter (TAAATG) and an early transcription stop sequence (TTTTTCT) three nucleotides downstream of the stop codon, and is likely an early/late gene. RI-35-2 is a late gene that presumably encodes a 117 aa cytoplasmic peptide and contains a leucine zipper-like sequence that is predicted to bind DNA, and is probably a transcription factor that regulates viral gene expression. RI-35-3 is a presumed DNA helicase gene whose protein of 480 aa is highly homologous to those of Melanoplus sanguinipesEPV (72%), Amsacta mooreiEPV (72%) and vaccinia virus (69%). DNA helicases unwind the DNA helix during replication and transcription. The DlEPV-encoded enzyme contains six conserved motifs that characterize helicases and is likely a member of the DEXH DNA and RNA helicases. Like its homologs, the RI-35-3 protein has a predicted cytoplasmic location and is probably an intermediate/late gene. RI-35-4 and –5 encode 81 and 106 aa respectively, and are predicted to be cytoplasmic proteins expressed during the intermediate phase of viral morphogenesis. Our results provide additional evidence that DlEPV is a member of the Entomopoxvirinae and is the first symbiotic EPV described to date. Support from the National Science Foundation grants, IBN 9514583 and 9986076 to POL is gratefully acknowledged.

Lawrence FG, Mutembei HM, Lagat J, Mburu J, Amimo J, Okeyo AM. "Constraints to Use of Breeding Services in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2015;4(4):211-215.
Lawrence FG, Mutembei H, Job Lagat, John Mburu OM. "A cost-benefit analysis of usage of sexed invitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology. 2015;1(4):53-58.cost_benefit_paper_2015.pdf
Lawrence FG, HM Mutembei LAAMOJJ. "Constraints to use of breeding services in Kenya." Inter J Vet Sci. 2015;4(4):211-215.mutembei-gacheri_2015-breeding_constraints.pdf
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, Chege M. "Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016. Abstract

East African Medical Journal 2016

Open Access Subscription or Fee Access
Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, M Chege

Abstract

Objective: To establish the determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children brought to Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A cross-sectional hospital-based quantitative and qualitative study
Setting: Kenyatta National hospital which is the largest teaching and referral hospital in East and Central Africa situated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: The respondents were the parents/guardians of children less than two years of age attending immunisation services at KNH and those admitted in the peadiatric wards with pneumonia.
Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, CI 1.5-22.4, p=0.01), parity (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.7, p=0.017), occupation (OR 6.5, CI 1.5-27.6, p=0.011), family income (OR 8.8, CI 1.4-55.6, p=0.001), knowledge (OR 6.5, CI 1.1-15.2, p=0.011) and attitude (OR 6.3, CI 1.9-26.8, p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that factors of the caregivers/parents that are statistically significant to the uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine uptake are Income, parity, education leve, age and occupation. Also a friendly attitude from health personnel was shown to motivate parents/guardians’ adherence to vaccination schedules

Leaper DJ. "Risk factors for surgical infection." Journal of Hospital Infection. 1995;30:127-139. AbstractWebsite
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Leasher JL, Braithwaite T, Furtado JM, Flaxman SR, Lansingh VC, Silva JC, S R, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2018. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment for distance and near in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2015 and to forecast trends to 2020.

METHODS: A meta-analysis from a global systematic review of 283 cross-sectional, population-representative studies from published and unpublished sources from 1980 to 2014 in the Global Vision Database included 17 published and 6 unpublished studies from LAC.

RESULTS: In 2015, across LAC, age-standardised prevalence was 0.38% in all ages and 1.56% in those over age 50 for blindness; 2.06% in all ages and 7.86% in those over age 50 for moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI); 1.89% in all ages and 6.93% in those over age 50 for mild vision impairment and 39.59% in all ages and 45.27% in those over 50 for near vision impairment (NVI). In 2015, 117.86 million persons were vision impaired; of those 2.34 million blind, 12.46 million with MSVI, 11.34 million mildly impaired and 91.72 million had NVI. Cataract is the most common cause of blindness. Undercorrected refractive-error is the most common cause of vision impairment.

CONCLUSIONS: These prevalence estimates indicate that one in five persons across LAC had some degree of vision loss in 2015. We predict that from 2015 to 2020, the absolute numbers of persons with vision loss will increase by 12% to 132.33 million, while the all-age age-standardised prevalence will decrease for blindness by 15% and for other distance vision impairment by 8%. All countries need epidemiologic research to establish accurate national estimates and trends. Universal eye health services must be included in universal health coverage reforms to address disparities, fragmentation and segmentation of healthcare.

Lee H, Muirhead JD, Fischer T, Kattenhorn SA, Ebinger C, Thomas N, Kianji G, Ongu B. "Fault-related soil efflux of mantle-derived CO2 in the Magadi and Natron Basins, East African Rift.". In: American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, Volume: Eos, Trans. AGU 95, Fall Meet. San Francisco, CA,; 2014.
Leebmann J, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Spatio-Temporal Knowledge Representation and Analysis for Earthquake Disaster Management."; 2001. Abstract

This paper examines the importance of integrating different spatial and temporal knowledge representations in order to structure disaster relevant information. Special focus is made here on the human-machine interface. An overview for structuring the knowledge is presented within the framework of a technical information system. The idea of configuring the relevant knowledge with templates for spatial reasoning is extended for collaborative spatial decision making. The architecture of a system for co-operative decision making is then outlined. This provides a means for co-operative disaster management. A central part of this system is the messaging system. The specifications and main characteristics for such a messaging system are presented. An example implementation is then given.

Lees P;, Maitho TE;, Millar JD;, Taylor JB. "Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in Welsh Mountain ponies."; 1982.
Legge PL, Barongo JO, Opiyo-Aketch N, Mathu EM, Nyambok IO. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
Legge PL, Barongo JO, Opiyo-Aketch N, Mathu EM, Nyambok IO. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
Lehman, Dara A.; Chung MSGJ; RBKJ; KJ; OJH; CA. "HIV-1 persists in breast milk cells despite antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission.". 2008. Abstract

Background: The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined. Methods: Women in Kenya received short-course zidovudine (ZDV), single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), combination ZDV/sdNVP or short-course highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Breast milk samples were collected two to three times weekly for 4–6weeks.HIV-1 DNA was quantified b yreal-time PCR.Cell-free and cell associated RNA levels were quantified by the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay. Results: Cell-free HIV-1 RNA levels in breast milk were significantly suppressed by sdNVP, ZDV/sdNVP or HAART therapy compared with ZDV between day 3 and week 4 postpartum (P0.03). Breast milk HIV-1 DNA levels (infected cell levels) were not significantly different between treatment arms at any timepoint during the 4–6-week follow-up. At 3 weeks postpartum, when the difference in cell-free RNA levels was the greatest comparing HAARTdirectly with ZDV(P¼0.0001),medianlog10 HIV-1 DNA copies per 1106 cells were 2.78, 2.54, 2.69, and 2.31 in the ZDV, sdNVP, ZDV/sdNVP and HAART arms, respectively (P¼0.23). Cell-associated HIV-1 RNA levels were modestly suppressed in HAART versus ZDV/sdNVP during week 3 (3.37 versus 4.02, P¼0.04), as well as over time according to a linear mixed-effects model. Conclusion: Cell-free and,to a lesser extent,cell-associated HIV-1 RNA levels in breast milk were suppressed by antiretroviral regimens used to prevent MTCT.However,even with HAART, there was no significant reduction in the reservoir of infected cells,which could contribute to breast milk HIV-1 transmission.

Lehman DA, Chung MH, Mabuka JM, John-Stewart GC, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Overbaugh J. "Lower risk of resistance after short-course HAART compared with zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine used for prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2009;51(5):522-9. Abstract

Antiretroviral resistance after short-course regimens used to prevent mother-to-child transmission has consequences for later treatment. Directly comparing the prevalence of resistance after short-course regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/sdNVP) will provide critical information when assessing the relative merits of these antiretroviral interventions.

Lehman DA, Chung MH, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 persists in breast milk cells despite antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission." AIDS. 2008;22(12):1475-85. Abstract

The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined.

Lehman DA, Ronen K BCABJMJ-LJMRBAMCRSOZWK. "Systemic cytokine levels show limited correlation with risk of HIV-1 acquisition." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . 2014;66(2):135-9.
Lehmann K, Lowel S. "Age-{Dependent} {Ocular} {Dominance} {Plasticity} in {Adult} {Mice}." PLoS ONE. 2008;3. AbstractWebsite

Background Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. Methodology/Principal Findings We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90–100 days, 109–158 days, 208–230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90–100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109–158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Lehmann K, Löwel S. "Age-dependent ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice." PloS one. 2008;3:e3120. Abstract

BACKGROUND Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90-100 days, 109-158 days, 208-230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90-100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109-158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Leitich RK, Arinaitwe W, Mukoye B, Omayio DO, Osogo AK, Were HK, Muthomi JW, Otsyula RM, Abang MM. "Mapping of Angular Leaf Spot Disease Hotspot Areas in Western Kenya Towards Its Management." American Journal of Applied Scientific Research. 2016;2(6):75-81.
Lelan JK, Ndurumo MM. "Technology in education of physically impaired children in inclusive settings.". The Management Digest: ISSN 2074-4730; 2011. Abstract
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Lelan JK, Ndurumo MM. "Technology in education of physically impaired children in inclusive settings.". The Management Digest: ISSN 2074-4730; 2011. Abstract
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Lelei JK, Kariuki CN. "Application of perational Research in Public Project Management.". In: The First ORSEA Conference held in Nairobi. African Crop Science Society; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Lelei DK, Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Kibunja CN, Vanlauwe B. "Effects of soil fertility management practices on soil aggregation, carbon and nitrogen dynamics." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;78(1):113-118. Abstract

Poor resource farmers cultivate steep slopes without soil conservation measures and apply insufficient plant nutrients thus degrading the soils. Use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients is one of the approaches being advocated to farmers as a way of improving soil health and increasing crop production.
A study was conducted from a 31 year-old long-term trial at Kabete, Central Kenya to investigate the effect of inorganic and organic inputs (maize stover and farmyard manure) on soil aggregates, carbon, and nitrogen in a humic nitisol soil under annual maize-bean crop rotation. The treatments for this study were: i) Inorganic fertilizer; ii) Farmyard manure plus or minus inorganic fertilizer; iii) Maize stover plus or minus inorganic fertilizer and iv) control (no inputs applied). The treatments were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. Soil samples were collected and subjected to wet sieving and fractionation analyses to assess for water stable aggregates. Carbon and total nitrogen were measured for all aggregate fractions and whole soil. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance.

The results showed significant increase in macroaggregates in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths under manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatment. Also, there was significant increase in mean weight diameter of soil aggregates, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in macroaggregates and microaggregates, in treatment with farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizer.
Long-term use of manure plus inorganic fertilizer improved the stability of the macroaggregates and increased mean weight diameter in both 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths. Thus integration of farmyard manures and inorganic fertilizers would result in buildup of soil organic matter in the long-term, thus contributing to carbon sequestration in soils.

Key words: Soil aggregate fractions; carbon; nitrogen

Lelei DK, Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Kibunja CN, Vanlauwe B. "EFFECTS OF SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL AGGREGATION, CARBON AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS." E. Afr. agric. For. J. 113-118. 2012;78(1):113-118.
Lelei JK. "Insight inot management information, Management Vo. 13 No.1.". In: The Nairobi Journal Management Vol. 4 No October. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Lelei JJ, Mochoge BO, Onwonga RN. "Effect of lime, urea and triple super phosphate on nitrogen and phosphorus mineralisation in an acid soil during incubation." African Crop Science Journal. 2000;8(3):327-336).
Lelei JK. ""Insight into Management Information",(contd.).". In: Management.Vol. 13 No.2,Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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