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Forthcoming
Kahiga RM, Gatumu JC, Nteere JS. "Sustainability of the implementation of the Preschool physical education curriculum in Nairobi and Nyeri counties.". In: Africa for Research in Comparative Education Society. Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Cheruiyot EK, Mito CO, Kaduki KA, Laneve G, Khoshelham K. "Aquatic vegetation prediction models based on water quality parameters and meteorological conditions.". Forthcoming.
Barasa L, Kimuyu P, Vermeulen P, Knoben J, Kinyanjui B. "Innovation and efficiency in manufacturing firms in sub-Saharan Africa." European Journal of Innovation Management. Forthcoming.
Kiiru J, Barasa L. "Securing inclusive growth: Mentorship, youth employment and employment creation in Kenya.". In: M. Ramutsindela, & D. Mickler ed., Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals.; Forthcoming.
Kiplagat D. STRATEGY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION AND ADOPTION OF E-PROCUREMENT IN KENYA PUBLIC SECTOR. Wausi D, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Forthcoming. Abstract

There is strong consensus among researchers and practitioners regarding the strategic importance of developing efficient purchasing techniques to increase transparency and fairness, reduce corruption, ensure competitiveness and reduce costs. An increasing number of government authorities are adopting e-procurement solutions to reap the above stated benefits (Panayiotou et al., 2004). E-procurement is the process of purchasing goods and services electronically , and can be defined as “the use of integrated (commonly web-based) communication systems for the conduct of part or all of the purchasing process; a process that may incorporate stages from the initial need identification by users, through search, sourcing, negotiation, ordering, receipt, payment and post-purchase review” (Presutti,2003).

In this research proposal I propose to comprehensively study through explorative case study five successful cases of e-procurement in the public sector in Korea, Australia, Italy, Ireland, Philippine's and use their experiences, challenges and strategies employed to come up with a multi-disciplinary framework for the successful implementation and adoption of e-procurement in the public sector in Kenya. In this research critical successes factors (CSFs) and diffusion of innovation theory will be used in the study. Explorative case study and qualitative research design methodology will be used in this research study although aspects on the attitude of the intended users will be analyzed quantitatively.

Kiai, Wambui and Ngugi M. Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Gona, George, Wambui Kiai, Muiru Ngugi (Eds.). Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Submitted
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Biesalski HK. " http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643811002659 http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/17023 .". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.

Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. "7) Kenyan Courts and Politics of the Rule of Law in the Post-Authoritarian State ." EAST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Submitted;18(357 ):2.
Kariuki S, Mirza N, Mitema ES, Olsvik O. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kabwana I. Alfa na Omega (Play). Nairobi: Oxford University Press; Submitted. Abstract

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Jani PG, Gill H, Kotecha V. "Difficult Gallbladder Surgery, Improving Patient Outcomes Through Appropriate Surgical Decisions." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Submitted;17(1).
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Peninnah M. Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens Reactions to HIV Diagnosis from Women Living with HIV in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Dr.Peninnah M.Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens; Submitted. Abstract

Background: HIV prevalence in Kenya stands at 7.8%, with women being most affected with infection rates being 2-3 times higher than that of their male counterparts.  Studies that focus on health needs of HIV-infected women in Kenya are needed and necessary. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. Methods: Narrative inquiry principles were employed to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions in April and May 2006.  Findings: Participants

Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
Kiseli J, Kitati EM. Factors That Affect Internal Control Systems In Public Institutions. Riga, Latv ia: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; Submitted. AbstractFactors That Affect Internal Control Systems In Public Institutions

Internal control is the process effected by an organization’s structure, to assist the organization to accomplish specific goals or objectives. It is a means by which an institution’s resources are directed, monitored and measured. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the organization’s resources. Internal Control mechanisms’ comprises of the control environment and control procedures. It includes all the policies and procedures adopted by the directors and management of an entity to help in achieving their objectives of ensuring, as far as practicable, the orderly and efficient conduct of its business, including adherence to internal policies, the safeguarding of assets, the prevention and detection of frauds and errors, the accuracy and completeness of the accounting records, and the timely preparation of reliable financial information. The internal control systems extend beyond those matters which relate directly to the accounting system. Internal control is concerned with the control operative in every area of corporate activity, as well as with the way in which individual controls interrelate.

Mungai NN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Guantai AN, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "Isolation, Characterization and Antiplasmodial Activity of Phytochemical Constituents from Monanthotaxis parvifolia (Oliv.) Verdc ssp. kenyensis Verdc." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Submitted;17:87-93.abstract__mungai_et_al._2014.pdf
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kilonzo P. Matata (Play). Nairobi: E.A. E. P; Submitted.
Omonge E;, Kyateesa; J, Otieno FCF;, Kayima, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Kayima, Joshua Kyateesa; McLigeyo AA, Omonge E;, Omonge E;, Otieno FCF;, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Chore Jane Njambi; Prof. Anna Karani Dr. Margaret Chege. Assessment of Challenges Facing Preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital Specialized Units.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Impress Communication Printers and Stationers; Submitted. Abstract

The main aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess challenges faced by preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units. The study was conducted among preceptors with more than one year experience at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units and combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using a self administered semi-structured questionnaire distributed to 113 randomly sampled preceptor nurses and an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from five unit managers. The data was coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS version 17 (qualitative data was analyzed manually).Commonly reported challenges by preceptors included; heavy patient workload 85.71%, lack of adequate resources 59.52% and a high number of students attached to a preceptor 59.52%. Chi square was used to establish relationships between variables. Motivation to serve as a preceptor was strongly associated with the number of years a participant had served as a nurse. (X=11.30; p=0.01).

Parton WJ, Scurlock JMO, Ojima DS, Gilmanov TG, Scholes RJ, Schimel DS, Kinyamario JI. "Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide.". Submitted. AbstractObservations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide

Century is a model of terrestrial biogeochemistry based on relationships between climate, human management (fire, grazing), soil properties, plant productivity, and decomposition. The grassland version of the Century model was tested using observed data from 11 temperate and tropical grasslands around the world. The results show that soil C and N levels can be simulated to within ±25% of the observed values (100 and 75% of the time, respectively) for a diverse set of soils. Peak live biomass and plant production can be simulated within ± 25% of the observed values (57 and 60% of the time, respectively) for burned, fertilized, and irrigated grassland sites where precipitation ranged from 22 to over 150 cm. Live biomass can be generally predicted to within ±50% of the observed values (57% of the time). The model underestimated the live biomass in extremely high plant production years at two of the Russian sites. A comparison of Century model results with statistical models showed that the Century model had slightly higher r2 values than the statistical models. Data and calibrated model results from this study are useful for analysis and description of grassland carbon dynamics, and as a reference point for testing more physiologically based models prediction's of net primary production and biomass. Results indicate that prediction of plant and soil organic matter (C and N) dynamics requires knowledge of climate, soil texture, and N inputs.

MWANGI EN, KAAYA GP, ESSUMAN S, KIMONDO MG. "Parasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology.". Submitted. AbstractParasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology

Unfed Amblyomma variegatum F. nymphs were experimentally infected in the laboratory with a hymenopteran parasitoid, Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard). The parasitoid was originally obtained from ticks collected from cattle in the Trans-Mara area of Kenya where it naturally infects 50% of A. variegatum nymphs. In the field, nymphs collected from cattle were found to be infected, but not those collected from grass. The optimum temperature for emergence of parasitoids from the nymphs in the laboratory was 28°C, but emerged parasitoids were more active and survived longer at 22°C. There was a higher proportion of parasitoid nonemergence from laboratory-infected than from the field-infected nymphs. This study is the first record of infection of A. variegatum in the laboratory with a parasitoid. Possibilities of mass rearing and use of the parasitoid as a biocontrol agent for ticks are discussed.

Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Muma MK, Kimani K, Kariuki – Wanyoike MM, ILAKO DR, Njuguna MW. "Prevalence of Refractive errors among Primary School Pupils in Kilungu Division of Makueni District, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstract

To determine the magnitude and pattern of significant refractive errors in primary school children in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Design: A cross – sectional primary school based study. Setting: Eight (8) Primary school in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Target population: 1439 Primary school pupils aged between 12 and 15 years. Results: The prevalence of significant refractive error was 5.2%, 75/1439, (95% CI) being responsible for 92.6 % of all causes of poor eyesight. Hypermetropia accounted for 3.2% (95% CI), myopia 1.7% (95% CI) and astigmatism 0.3% (95% CI) of refractive errors. Myopia was more likely to be present in the pupils aged 14 to 15 years than those aged 12 to 13 years with OR 2.9 (0.1 – 9.2) which was statistically significant (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of significant refractive errors in pupils aged 12 to 15 years in Makueni's Kilungu division at 5.2% (95% CI) was high enough to justify a regular school eye screening in primary schools in Kenya.

Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Katende J, Pokhariyal G. "A study of Sasakian Manifolds." Far East Journal of Mathematical Sciences. Submitted.
Kihurani DO, Nantulya VM, Mbiuki SM, Mbithi PMF. "Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". Submitted.Website
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Akunda EM, Kumar B. "Using internal plant water status as a criterion for scheduling irrigation in coffee in east of rift valley Kenya.". In: Kenya coffee vol. 47. No. 560, 281- 284. Kisipan, M.L.; Submitted. Abstract

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Nkonya E, Xiong W, Deustua J, Kato E. "Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from tak.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from taking advantage of yield and income enhancing agricultural practices. In this study we examine the relative merits of using a carbon payment scheme compared to a subsidy policy to help reduce the cost of specific land management practices with productivity and ecosystem benefits such as carbon sequestration. Using a 30-year crop simulation model, we examine the impacts of different soil fertility management treatments (SFTs) on yields and soil carbon and proceed to compute discounted incremental revenue streams over the same period. We find that the SFTs simulated are on average profitable given the conditions assumed in our DSSAT simulations. When carbon was priced at $8 or $12/t CO2e, the increase in incremental incomes generated from a carbon payment were invariably higher than those imputed from a 50% fertilizer subsidy. When carbon was priced at $4/Co2e, the increase was almost similar and sometimes higher than that from the imputed income transfer from a 50% subsidy. If these indications hold in further research, it could imply that using fertilizer subsidies as the sole mechanism for stimulating adoption of improved soil fertility management practices may unnecessarily forgo other complementary and possibly superior alternatives. Depending on the specific economic equity considerations, we conclude that either of these instruments can be used to help farmers break through resource barriers that prevent them from adopting productivity-enhancing and environmentally beneficial agricultural practices. However, given the fiscal burden on public finances and possible opportunity costs of any substantial subsidy program, it is possible that a carbon payment system can be a reasonable alternative assuming the range of carbon prices used in this study and especially if accompanied by measures to ameliorate the costs of fertilizer to farmers.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "1. Naruse Kazuko, Tashiro Junko, Sankyo Yumi, Ichikawa Wakako, Karani Anna Stakeholders.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. Blackwell Publishing Co.; Submitted. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved WHA 45.5 in 1992 addressing the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwifes to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased.  Therefore in Kenyan a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. ": PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING Prof. Anna K. Karani University of Nairobi, Stephen Kainga,(MScN) University of Nairobi Prof. Simon Kangethe Moi University. Diana Mwarania BScN (graduate.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal: Dec. KNJ Vol. 41(2) 23-33. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Academia .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vo. 19 No. 2 pp 30-34. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and political culture, S.K. Akivaga.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38(1) 24-31. Dr. Peninnah M. Kako,Univ.W1; Prof. Anna K. Karani,UoN & Prof. Patricia E. Stevens, Univ.W1; Submitted. Abstract

 Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study eilicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses sufferred by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for wellbeing and long life.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Clinical competence of Nursing Graduates in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. 1. Margaret Njambi Chege, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Anna Karani and Anseline Derese; Submitted. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Flow-Based Structural Modelling and Dynamic Simulation of Lake Water Levels.". In: Handbook of Research on Hydroinformatics: Technologies, Theories and Applications. Canadian Center of Science and Education; Submitted.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Geriatric Clinical Pharmacology. The Pharmacokinetic .". In: Journal of Medicine Vol. 2 No. 5 pp 2-8. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Integrating User Experience in Evaluating Cellular Network Coverage Planning Efficiency.". In: ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Cellular network coverage planning efficiency is traditionally evaluated through various network metrics assessing the Quality of Service (QoS). When it comes to coverage service, however, user satisfaction can be considered the logical metric of performance. This study presents a hybrid Quality of Experience (QoE) index that can be used as a basis of network coverage planning efficiency assessment. A spatial analysis framework is employed to evaluate the user perceived QoS offered by one of the leading cellular service providers in Kenya as perceived by consumers under everyday conditions of use. Regions where subscribers may be experiencing low service quality service were identified. The study shows that urban based consumers tend to have higher quality expectations than the rural users.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, MILE DRJUSTUSKITHEKA. "Justus K. Mile, Bernard M. Nzimbi and S.K. Moindi, On the characterization of Class R_1 of non-normal operators in a Hilbert space, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; Submitted. Abstract
Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behavior Hekima III (1) 27-42: (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi).
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental caries experience and knowledge on the causes and preventive measures for dental diseases. DESIGN: A community based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Elwak sub-district hospital, North Eastern Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty one adults who presented themselves during a dental check up at a sub-district hospital and gave written consent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries status and knowledge on its causes and preventive measures. The importance of outreach programmes in obtaining information as well as helping to alleviate the pain and suffering caused by dental diseases among communities living in remote areas is also revealed. RESULTS: Of the one hundred and forty one individuals, who were included in the study, 63.1% were women and 36.9% were men. Their ages ranged between 18 and over 65 years. 41.1% were in the 18-24-year age bracket. Regarding the oral health knowledge, 43% did not know any causes of dental diseases while 36%, 17% and 12% knew that diet, "dirt" on teeth and bacteria were possible causes, respectively. Fifty percent did not know any preventive measures for dental diseases while the rest indicated abstention from the consumption of sugary foods; and only 0.8% mentioned use of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the subjects were caries free. The mean DMFT for all ages was 3.4. Of those with caries 72.1% were women. CONCLUSION: There is a low level of oral health awareness and a moderately high level of dental caries experience in this community with women apparently carrying the biggest burden of dental caries.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Local Authorities in Kenya (H.E.B.) . forthcoming.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K. "Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques", Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A., Dec. 1991.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Microwave Route Surveying using Differential GPS.". In: Survey Review. Canadian Center of Science and Education; Submitted. Abstract
A microwave path survey is critical before any wireless communication infrastructure can be put into place. It is on the basis of this that the line of sight possibility between any pair of stations is established. This survey can also be used to determine whether there is sufficient space available on existing telecommunication towers, where additional telecommunication facilities can be hosted. This study has demonstrated that differential GPS techniques can successfully be used in microwave path surveys within the framework of telegeoinformatics. The adopted methodology simulated a levelling circuit for the defined observation network. This resulted in an acceptable misclosure of 0.039m which was distributed among the various stations in proportion to the relative length of each link. Natural and man-made obstacles (critical points) along the various telecommunication links were also determined.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte THE ROLE OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES IN HIV INFECTION AMONG ANTENATAL MOTHERS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT HOSPITAL.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte; Submitted. Abstract

This study was done at Machakos District Hospital in the Eastern province of Kenya between May and August 2007.Aim was to find out the role of hormonal contraceptives in HIV infection among antennal mothers. Analytical cross- sectional study design was used. Methodology. The sample size consisted of 144 antenatal mothers visiting the MCH clinic for PMTCT services among other services. The simple random sampling technique included every 8th antenatal mother visiting the PMTCT clinic who had no history of consisted condom use. All antenatal mothers who had not used condoms consistedly both contraceptive and non-contraceptive users who fell in the sampling frame acted as study subjects. This was on condition that they consented to participate in the study. A self

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the work force. However mentoring relationships have been faced by challenges such as inadequate knowledge and negative attitude. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitude and perceived benefits on mentorship among the nursing students in Kenyan universities. The study was conducted in September, 2009.  A descriptive cross sectional survey  used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information. The study participants were students from University of Nairobi (U.O.N) and Kenya Methodist University (K.E.M.U). A sample of 188 students was selected from a total population of 403 in both universities. The data were coded, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Presentation of data was done in form of descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and graphs. Pearsons chi square tests were used to compare the two groups. The tests level of significance was set at 5%. Results showed that there was a significance difference between mentorship programmes in the two institutions ( χ 2= 17.02,  d.f=1 , p < 0.001)           . Fourty four (72%) of the students at K.E.M.U felt that the program had positive impact on students

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PLACEMENT ON KRCHN GRADUATES PERFORMANCE IN THE NCK REGISTRATION EXAMINATION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

The study sought to establish the factors affecting the diploma graduates performance in the Nursing registration examination. Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this study was aimed at seeking to establish the reasons why. This was a descriptive study. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study from lecturers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege IMPACT OF STUDENTS AND TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS ON PERFORMANCE OF DIPLOMA NURSE GRADUATES.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this descriptive study sought to establish the impact of students and teacher characteristics on performance in the Nursing registration examination. The study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study guide from lecturers

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Mungai T.C. Kisumbi B.K Wakiaga J.M and Ireri S.K : Patients.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Mutave R.J. and Kisumbi B.K: Attitude of urban Kenyan population towards replacement of teeth. Preliminary findings. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference on 5th-7th Oct. 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College - Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

 Prof. Anna Karani on - Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Nyangena, E., Mutema, A. & Karani, A. Evaluation of clinical training in nursing in Kenya.". In: Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal - Dec. 2011 1(2) 22-30. Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal; Submitted. Abstract

 The  research evaluated clinical training provided by the academic institutions that offer Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) program. The purpose of the study was to describe the adequacy of clinical training and the graduates preparedness for nursing practice. The study was conducted from Sept. 2008 to March 2010. Design was cross sectional using questionnaires and focus group interviews (FGI) methods to collect data. The sample comprised of 232 subjects including pre-service BScN graduates and nursing supervisors at four teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Results revealed that clinical training provided by academic institutions was adequate but quality of training varied widely among the training institutions. The conclusion was that clinical training provided by BScN programs in Kenya was of high quality. The study recommends that urgent attention was required by nurse educators to address identified gaps in clinical training especially clinical instruction and supervision.   

KIRETI DRVICTORN. "Osgood Schlatter disease: An Audit Profile of 35 Adolescents.". In: The Annals of African Surgery Volume 6 . Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; Submitted. Abstract
BackgroundOsgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of anterior knee pain inthe adolescent. Treatment is usually conservative with surgery reservedfor those who do not respond to this treatment. There is little publishedwork regarding the experience with the disease in our local set up. This series documents the experience with 35 adolescents treated for the disease.DesignCase seriesSubjectsThirty five adolescents with clinical and radiological diagnoses ofOsgood-Schlatter disease at Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospitals,between 2001and 2007.MethodPatients were evaluated for demographics, knee involvement, activitiesassociated with pain and treatment outcomeResultsThere were 28 males and 7 females, aged 10 to 16 years (mean 12.8years). Thirteen had bilateral knee involvement. Twenty two were involved in active sports while the rest had constant pain and unable to sit or kneel. A family history of the disease was documented in one case.Thirty adolescents responded well to the conservative treatment. Inthe five adolescents who underwent surgery, the patella tendon wasedematous with thickening of the tendon sheath and neovascularisation.All the operated adolescents returned to active sports with 6 weeks after the surgery.ConclusionOsgood-Schlatter disease is a self-limiting condition in majority ofadolescents. Surgery when indicated has an excellent outcome.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani ; Stephen Kainga; Prof. Simon Kangethe; Diana Mwarania - PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING.". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani RE - DISCOVERING THE CHRISTIAN NURSE.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

The old nurse was there during the colonial  era. They were trained mainly by missionaries who were Christians. Therefore, they had the discipline and the Christian foundation principles. The joy of a Christian institution like Kijabe is that it still has that foundation. So all is not lost. We have to make sure that the lost PASSION, LOVE & CARE are back in the nursing profession. We have to restore that passion. That idea or feeling

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna Karani Facing Today.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

A leader is one who has the  Vision to see, Faith to believe, Will to learn, Humility to serve, Courage to do, Resilience to rise up in times of knock downs. What  is leadership? The ability to get things done through people.  What challenges have you encountered in leadership as you work? How have you overcome these challenges? What sets you apart from everybody else? What is it that you do differently from the nurse of to-day? It is your leadership. The way you do things for the community you serve. The commitment to serve selflessly. The way you are disciplined. It is not just money.  We all want to learn how to become more effective leaders in providing health care to the  community. We have to prepare for many challenges with the advanced technology, rapid development, and fast changing health systems, emerging diseases, rising poverty, hard economic times, changing social systems, Education , political , environment, climate among many others that affect the communities we serve. Facing Today

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe, Mr. Johannes Njagi, Njoka ,Media Resources in Medical Education: Critical issues and factors to consider in instructional media development in the training of health professionals.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; Submitted. Abstract

 Media resources are critical component in teaching and learning process. Studies indicate that media resources provide the substitute for direct learning experiences during instruction and enable educators to present the learners with the requisite experience necessary for the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.The researchers set out to explore the philosophical, psychological and educational basis that provides guidelines on the development of media resources in the effective education and training of health professionals. Methodology was a historical critique of information from books, journals,magazines and internet on media resources in Medical education.  The findings indicate that the process of media resources development and administration is highly creative venture according to Mason (1977).plan, prepare, present, preview and follow up activities after use of equipment. Therefore educators must be able to demonstrate these issues when developing and administering them. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Karani Anna : NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal - KNJ Vol. 41(2) 65-67. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Medical Educators,  spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: Asynchronous Content Development Workshop,Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya,31st March 2004. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted.
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38 (1) 55-59. Dr. Onditi Elias G.D, Prof. Anna K. Karani & Prof. Simon Kangethe; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Utrasound  technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%.Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology. 

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
In Press
S. Z, G. C, I. V, G. B, D.M. H, K.M. M, J.R. B. "Adaptive radiation of the endemic Alcolapia cichlids of the East African soda lakes: genetic and morphological perspectives." Journal of Evolutionary Biology. In Press.
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; In Press.
Etenyi JO, Okalebo FA, S.A. Opanga, K. A. Sinei, Osanjo GO, Kurdi A, Goodman B. Comparison of zidovudine and tenofovir based regimens with regard to quality of life and prevalence of syptoms in HIV patients in Kenya. Prague; In Press.
Kyule MD, Oyamo M. "Cultural resource management in Kenya: a case for legislation review.". In: Kenya from Independence to early 21st century. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; In Press. Abstract

This paper builds a case for a reconsideration of Kenya’s legislation that relates to cultural and societal heritage resources management by briefly revisiting the circumstances that informed the enactment of the related laws. We present the view that existing legislation has tended to serve corporate, multinational and foreign interests at the expense of local and national interests, and that although these Acts may have somewhat served the country in the past, the legislations have turned the cultural heritage management in Kenya into a lame duck framework of abstractions of policy matters, that are irrelevant and unresponsive to changing local and international circumstances. We highlight contradictions between and within varied Acts, and offer suggestions for remedy that are geared toward the development of a cultural management policy with local ownership and universal compatibility.

Kemoli AM. "Dilemma of managing multi-surface dental caries in the primary dentition using the atraumatic restorative treatment: renaissance or dimming hope." East Afr Med J . In Press. Abstract

Background: Alot of research work has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in the management of dental caries, but there are still unresolved issues surrounding the use of the technique particularly in very large carious lesions.
Objective: To determine the current survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations placed in the primary dentition and any consequences to the restored tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Study selection: Using a set of specific key words, a Pubmed/Medline search was carried out to retrieve all publications on ARTrestorations placed in primary teeth in the period January 2000 to December 2011. Only publications whose studies had multi-surface ARTrestorations as an item of study were retrieved and relevant data extracted.
Data synthesis: Twelve studies contained in 12 publications fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study. The selected publications were analysed by the author to establish the study follow-up period and the survival rate of the multi-surface ARTrestorations for the different follow-up periods. Further information was adduced on any other effects of restoration on the tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Results: The search findings indicated that the survival rate for most of the multi-surface restorations were generally very low. Further, there were indications that even after the premature loss of the ARTrestorations, most of the affected teeth survived for the period of the study with a number of them having shown no signs of secondary caries or associated dental abscessees.
Conclusion: While the survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations in the studies documenetd in the review were low, the ART restorations appeared to provide some beneficial effects to the retention-longevity of the restored tooth even after their premature loss.

KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Maloiy, G.M.O., Rowe, M.F., Towett, P.K. and Kanui, T.I. Temperature regulation and evaporative water loss in the bat-eared fox (Otocyion megalotis). J. Zoology, London (in press).". In Press. AbstractWebsite

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.

BeboraLillyCaroline, OdongoMahacla, Mbuthia P G, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW. Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; In Press.
Nzimbi BM, Kiratu BN, Sitati IN, Kipkemoi ST. "Remarks on the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of projections." International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(IJPMAS)-accepted June 6, 2016. In Press.
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho COA, Mukhwana S. "STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. In Press.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold." Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). In Press. Abstract

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2020
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Guthua SW, Kamau M, ABINYA N. "Management of Maxillofacial of Osteosarcomas in Kenya: A case Series." The Annals of African Surgery. 2020;17 (1).
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

2019
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Rono H, Gichangi M, Mwangi A, Kefa R. "Is task-shifting of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from eye specialists to technicians accurate?". In: East African Community East African Health Research Commission 7th East African Health and Scientific Conference. Dar es Salaam; 2019.invitation_letter_7th_eahsc_pg1_jefitha_karimurio1.pdfuse_of_technology_to_taskshift__prof_jefitha_karimurio.pdf
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

omari HK, Kayeli E. "Comprehensive sex education in Kenya: Islamic perspective.". In: THE 2ND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MACHAKOS UNIVERSITY, KENYA. machakos university; 2019.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase FL, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Muriithi SW, Andagalu B, Mbinda WM, Soge OO, McClelland SR, Sang W, Mancuso JD. "gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Microbiol.. 2019;19(1):76. Abstractkivata_et_al-2019-bmc_microbiology.pdf

Phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was first reported in Western Kenya in 2009 and later in Coastal Kenya and Nairobi. Until recently gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in Kenya had not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to analyze mutations in both gyrA and parC responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolated from heterosexual individuals from different locations in Kenya between 2013 and 2017.

Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Wangai FK, Masika MM, Lule GN, Karari EM, Maritim MC, Jaoko WG, Museve B, Kuria A. "Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem." PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0212131. Abstract

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

Kalai, J.M., Mulu C. "Determinants of Female Teachers' Progression to Governance Positions in Public Primary Schools in Mutitu Sub County , Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
K O. "Institutional Independence & Accountability: Some Ideas for Enhancing Accountability of the Judiciary to Address Corruption.". In: Kabarak Law School International Conference on Corruption. Kabarak Law School, Nakuru, Kenya; 2019.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Mureithi SM, Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Karuku G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi, S.M., Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. AbstractJournal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

B.L. A, Onyango CM, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.
Ayuke FO, Kihara J, Ayaga G, Micheni AN. "Conservation agriculture enhances soil fauna richness and abundance in low input systems: examples from Kenya." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2019;7 :97.
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Midiwo MHJO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of Fagaramide Derivative and Canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) Species against Multidrug Resistant Leukemia Cells." Natural Products Research. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1587424:1-8.omosa_et_al_2019 pdf
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia.

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …
Scholar articles
Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells
V Kuete, LK Omosa, JO Midiwo, O Karaosmanoğlu… - Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 2019
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Kwadha CA, Janet Irungu, George Ongamo, Paul Ndegwa, Suresh Raina AFT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Kwadha CA, Mutunga JM, Irungu J, Ongamo G, Ndegwa P, Raina S, Fombong AT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Ogutu, S.O., Kabunga, N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/20421338.2019.1636489.
Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Bank Restructuring on Financial Performance Controlled by Customer Deposits: An Empirical Investigation of Commercial Banks in Kenya ." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD. 2019;5(1):13-19. Abstract

Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
enforcement create demand for its services in the financial markets. Commercial banks operating in Kenya have
undertaken restructuring so as to be more competitive, to restore bank solvency, to increase the banking sector
capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
of bank restructuring and financial performance found conflicting results and some of them did not include the
intervening effect of deposits on this relationship. The study is informed by the theory of financial intermediation,
agency theory, and the institutional theory. This study sought to investigate the relationship between bank
restructuring, deposits and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The population of the study was
the 44 commercial banks licensed and registered under the banking act to do business in Kenya but data availed
from financial statements of 39 commercial banks which were in operation for the period 2002 to 2014. Descriptive
and inferential data analysis methods were used to analyze the secondary data collected. The empirical findings
conclude that commercial banks use all the four types of bank restructuring which were financial, capital, operational
and asset restructuring. The findings of the first model revealed that capital restructuring, and asset restructuring
were the only variables found to have significant positive and negative influence respectively on the performance of
commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
restructuring was found to significantly cause an increase in the profit margin of commercial banks while operational
restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
of financial services was not found to have a significant effect. Therefore, the research disclosed that operational
restructuring, and deposits did not influence banks profitability. The research concludes that the performance of most
commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Bank restructuring is usually undertaken to address the problems in individual banks experiencing

Muia SM, Kariuki MI. "Effect of Financial Management Practices on Performance of Savings and Credit Co-Operative Societies in Mombasa County, Kenya. ." Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF). 2019;10(4):47-57.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Government Expenditure on Fiscal Deficits in Kenya." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLEDGE . 2019;7(2):122-125. Abstract

Abstract:
In many economies world over, accountability and transparency as well as fiscal discipline in public expenditures take
priority as the main catalysts to economic growth. However, large fiscal deficits have been reported in most developing
countries which lead to inflation and currency devaluations. In this case, Kenyan government is no exception as its
expenditures are consistently way above its revenues. This study therefore attempted to assess the relationship between
government expenditure and fiscal deficit in Kenya. This study used a causal research design. Secondary data was
obtained from the financial records of National Bureau of Statistics, The Economic Surveys, Kenya Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (KIPRA) and the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) ranging from year 2004/05 to
2010/11. Regression model was used to estimate the effect of government expenditure on fiscal deficits. The study
established that a unit increase in government expenditure, increases fiscal deficit of GDP. The study recommends that
the government of Kenya should come up with strong working policy to regulate the expenditure of its resources.

Keywords: Government expenditure, fiscal deficits, recurrent expenditures, development expenditures, budget deficits

Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." SCi. 2019;1(28)(MDPI):1-19.
Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):Pages 9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. Abstract

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Onyango OS, Mukoya-Wangia SM, Kinama JM, Olet PA. "Factors affecting farmers’ Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis control methods in Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 2019;4(2)(ISSN):21-29.
Kirimi H, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects: Case of Imenti North Sub County, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):572-602. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
Regarded as a frequent occurrence, disputes in construction projects occasioned by substandard communication of impractical clients’ expectations, defective works and delays in architectural designs significantly contribute to adverse effects on project results. Despite these and the numerous demerits linked to litigation majority of clients, contractors and construction consultants in Kenya still opt for it as opposed to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) approaches to resolve disputes in construction projects. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects in Imenti North Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya. In particular it examined the influence of: lack of awareness, preservation of business relationships, cost minimization and communication and documentation issues on the use of ADR in construction projects disputes. The research was guided by two theories; Theory of Planned Behavior and Transaction Cost Economics Theory and will be support by the Stair-Step Model of Dispute Resolution. The research embraced use of descriptive survey research design. Target population is of 255 respondents. The sample size was of 45 (n= 45), Contractors, 12 (n= 12) Consultants (Architectures, Quantity Surveyors and Structural Engineers) and Construction Projects Clients 75 (n= 75) that was singled out to take part in the investigation. Stratified sampling and Simple random sampling were made use of to pick the sampled subjects. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data in the study locale. Data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by employing SPSS …

Ndinya FO, Kayima JK, Magabe PC, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Odinya GO. "Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Nephrology. 2019;22(1):72-76. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise.
Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related
morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal
management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention
must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients
undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates,
urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.
Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48%
achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88%
and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow
rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5%
and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not
haemodynamically significant.
Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered
dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis
dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine
surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Katuva J, et al. "How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya?" Science of the Total Environment. 2019;694:133634. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

The industrialization process taking place in Africa has led to an overall increase in groundwater abstraction in most countries in the continent. However, the lack of hydrogeological data, as in many developing countries, makes it difficult to properly manage groundwater systems. This study presents a real case study in which a combination of different hydrogeological tools together with different sources of information allow the assessment of how increased competition for water may be affecting groundwater systems by analysing the sustainability of new abstraction regimes under different real climatic condition (before, during and after La Niña 2016). The area where this approach has been applied is Kwale County (in Coastal Kenya) in a hydrogeological context representative of an important part of the east coast of the continent, where new mining and agriculture activities co-exist with tourism and local communities. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information. Most of the time, water-reliant users collect specific hydrogeological information that can contribute to defining the overall hydrogeological system, since their own main purpose is to exploit the aquifer with the maximum productivity. Therefore, local community water usage, together with different stakeholder's knowledge and good corporate water management act as a catalyst for providing critical data, and allows the generation of credible models for future groundwater management and resource allocation. Furthermore, complementary but simple information sources such as in situ interviews, Google Earth, Trip Advisor and easy-to use analytical methods that can be applied in the African context as in many developing countries, and enables groundwater abstraction to be estimated and the sustainability of the aquifer system to be defined, allowing potential future risks to be assessed.

JM.Kivai, Kayima JK, Were AO, Q.Zahida. "Impact of Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury on foetalsurvival: a single Centre Experience in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2019;18(7):13-17. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: Background: Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) is a heterogenous obstetric
complication, which can occur at any stage during pregnancy and in postpartumperiod. It often impacts
negatively on foetaloutcomes.
Objective: To determine impact of PRAKI on foetal outcomes at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi.
Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with viable pregnancies, gestation age equal to, or
above 28 weeks and postpartum women within six weeks after delivery admitted in labour ward or the postnatal
wards at KNH. The study started afterit was approved by the KNH- University of Nairobi Ethics and
Research Committee.Patient management was at the discretion of attending clinician.Data was obtained
fromthe participants and their medical records. Followupwas until dischargeor for a maximum of two weeksfor
those who remained in the wards.
Results: Total participantswere 66 out of2068 admissions. Their mean age was 28years with peak age between
26-30 years.The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. Sixty (91%) participants weredelivered andsix pregnancies
were ongoing past the follow-up period.The average gestation age at birth was 35 weeks. Forty-three (71.7%)
were life infants while 17(28.3%) were fresh still births. Comparing between participant women with PRAKI
and women without PRAKI, the ratio of fresh still births among participants was 1:4 and the ratio of fresh still
births among women without PRAKI was 1 in 23deliveries.
Conclusion: Wetherefore demonstrate that pregnancy related acute kidney injury was associated with a six (6)
fold increase in fresh still births at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya.
Key Words: PRAKI, KNH, Preterm births,Fresh still births,Nairobi, Kenya

Musau PM, Ojwang BO, Kiprotich M. "Improving Frequency Stability for Renewable Energy Power Plants with Disturbances.". In: 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). Bangkok, Thailand; 2019.improving_frequency_stability_for_renewable_energy_power_plants_with_disturbances.pdf
Johnson MA, Garland CR, Jagoe K, Edwards R, Ndemere J, Weyant C, Patel A, Kithinji J, Wasirwa E, Nguyen T, Khoi DD, Kay E, Scott P, Nguyen R, Yagnaraman M, Mitchell J, Derby E, Chiang RA, Pennise D. "In-Home Emissions Performance of Cookstoves in Asia and Africa." Atmosphere. 2019;10(5):290. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper presents results from eight field studies in Asia and Africa on the emissions performance of 16 stove/fuel combinations measured during normal cooking events in homes. Characterizing real-world emissions performance is important for understanding the climate and health implications of technologies being promoted as alternatives to displace baseline cooking stoves and fuels. Almost all of the stove interventions were measured to have substantial reductions in PM2.5 and CO emissions compared to their respective baseline technologies (reductions of 24–87% and 25–80%, for PM2.5 and CO emission rates, respectively), though comparison with performance guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests that further improvement for biomass stoves would help realize more health benefits. The emissions of LPG stoves were generally below the WHO interim PM2.5 emissions target (1.75 mg/min) though it was not clear how close they were to the most aspirational ISO (0.2 mg/min) or WHO (0.23 mg/min) targets as our limit of detection was 1.1 mg/min. Elemental and organic carbon emission factors and elemental-to-total carbon ratios (medians ranging from 0.11 to 0.42) were in line with previously reported field-based estimates for similar stove/fuel combinations. Two of the better performing forced draft stoves used with pellets—the Oorja (median ET/TC = 0.12) and Eco-Chula (median ET/TC = 0.42)—were at opposite ends of the range, indicating that important differences in combustion conditions can arise even between similar stove/fuel combinations. Field-based tests of stove performance also provide important feedback for laboratory test protocols. Comparison of these results to previously published water boiling test data from the laboratory reinforce the trend that stove performance is generally better during controlled laboratory conditions, with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) being consistently lower in the field for respective stove/fuel categories. New testing approaches, which operate stoves through a broader range of conditions, indicate potential for better MCE agreement than previous versions of water boiling tests. This improved agreement suggests that stove performance estimates from a new ISO laboratory testing protocol, including testing stoves across low, medium, and high firepower, may provide more representative estimates of real-world performance than previously used tests. More representative results from standardized laboratory testing should help push stove designs toward better real-world performance as well as provide a better indication of how the tested technologies will perform for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: household energy; solid fuel; biomass; stove performance; emission factors; black carbon

Chepkonga DS, Kinanu T. "Influence of Financial Corporate Governance Practices on School Development in Primary Schools in Igembe South Sub County." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):16.
Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR, Khan ZR. "Influence of socio‐economic and agronomic factors on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;00:1-11.
Lockwood NM, Lypen K, Shalabi F, Kumar M, Ngugi E, Diener L, GW. H. "'Know that You are not Alone.' Influences of Social Support on Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV in Kibera, Kenya: A Qualitative Study Informing Intervention Development." Int J Environ Res Public Health.. 2019; 4;(16(5):. pii: E775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050775.
Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, ABINYA N, Khainga S. "Management of Maxillofacial Osteosarcomas: A Kenyan experience (case series)." Annuals of African Surgery Journal. 2019.
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, NGANGA P. "Maxillary Alveolar cleft grafting in cleft lip and palate: Options of bone graft and soft tissue coverage." Kenya Dental Association Journal. 2019.
Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Minnaard W, Abuga K, Okungu V, Kibwage I. "Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in private health facilities in low-income settlements in Nairobi county, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(2):40. Abstract

Medicine prices are a major determinant of access to healthcare. Owing to low availability of medicines in the public health facilities and poor accessibility to these facilities, most low-income residents pay out-of-pocket for health services and transport to the private health facilities. In low-income settlements, high retail prices are likely to push the population further into poverty and ill health. This study assessed the retail pricing, availability, and affordability of medicines in private health facilities in low-income settlements within Nairobi County. Medicine prices and availability data were collected between September and December 2016 at 45 private healthcare facilities in 14 of Nairobi’s low-income settlements using electronic questionnaires. The International Medical Products Price Guide provided international medicine reference prices for comparison. Affordability and availability proxies were calculated according to existing methods. Innovator brands were 13.8 times more expensive than generic brands. The lowest priced generics and innovator brands were, on average, sold at 2.9 and 32.6 times the median international reference prices of corresponding medicines. Assuming a 100% disposable income, it would take 0.03 to 1.33 days’ wages for the lowest paid government employee to pay for treatment courses of selected single generic medicines. Medicine availability in the facilities ranged between 2% and 76% (mean 43%) for indicator medicines. Prices of selected medicines varied within the 14 study regions. Retail medicine prices in the low-income settlements studied were generally higher than corresponding international reference prices. Price variations were observed across different regions although the regions comprise similar socioeconomic populations. These factors are likely to impact negatively on healthcare access.

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. Abstractjwarp_2019042514420797.pdfWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "The Minamata Convention on Mercury and its implications for management of dental caries in low‐and middle‐income countries." International Dental Journal. 2019:doi: 10.1111/idj.12461.
L M, MR A, F R, L DP, R G, V M, M G, B JR, C L, S B, Onyango N, Nyagol J, N A, M N, I N, K P, P PP, R B, de MM S, RB R, S L, R S, H S, Leoncini L. "Molecular switch from MYC to MYCN expression in MYC protein negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Blood Cancer J.. 2019;9(12).
Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Frank T. Wiggers IM. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia Africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):91-95.rahab_et_al_2019_pharmacognosy.pdf

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