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K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kidula NA, Kamau RK, Ojwang SBO, et al. A survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii District, Kenya. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Cecilia M. Onyango1 and Jasper K. Imungi. 2008. Post harvest handling and characteristics of fresh-cut traditional vegetables sold in Nairobi .". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2008. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "M. J. Njenga, J. K. Wabacha, D. Lamba P. K. Gathuru. An analysis of community health risk to zoonoses in a slum setting in Nairobi.". In: Presented in International workshop on improving the well-being of resource poor communities-the contribution of small livestock. Everglades Hotel, Howick, South Africa 12-15 September 2005. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K KG. "Review of seismic catalogues for Kenya and adjoining areas.". In: GEM-AFRICA . Jupiter Hotel and African Union Head quarters, Ethiopia; 2016.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Ngatia, E. M., Nyanga, P. M., Imungi, J. K., Muita, J. W. and Ogard, B. 2001b. Association between breast/bottle feeding and sucking habits among 3-5 year olds in Nairobi. AJOHS 2(2): 44.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, T.A. Ngatia and J.K. Wabacha (2001). Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological findings of Oedema disease of Swine in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 79-81.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "2003 Grain Maize Yield Improvement using Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia Biomass at Maseno, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, Vol. 2: 1-11.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Rogo KO. Chronic ectopic pregnancy with perforation of posterior fornix: Case report. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 57-9.". In: East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 57-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Dhadphale M. Khat-induced paranoid psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294.". In: Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, L.C. Bebora, C.O. Bwanga, Z.M. Wamuri and P.M.F. Mbithi. Occurence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton Verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1998. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The effect of grass strips on terrace development and crop yield. Special Issue of E.A.A.F. Journal, Vol. 65 No. 1, 79 .". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1993. Storage and ripening of Kenyan mangoes. In: Post harvest Handling of Tropical Fruits. Eds. Champ BIR. Highley E. and Johnson, G.I. ACIAR Proceedings No. 50. Pp. ISBN 186320 1017.". In: Post harvest Handling of Tropical Fruits. Eds. Champ BIR. Highley E. and Johnson, G.I. ACIAR Proceedings No. 50. Pp. ISBN 186320 1017. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Flower abscission in three Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under irrigation gradient.". In: Proceedings of the 1st conference of the Crop Science Society of Kenya. Vol. 1:62- 77. Taylor & Francis; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Otieno CF, Vaghela V, Mwendwa FW, Kayima JK, Ogola EN.Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the Outpatient Diabetic Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c < 7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30 kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes. CONCLUSION: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1988. Possibility of extraction of Leaf Protein Concentrate from Kale Leaves.Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988.". In: Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1988. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi, J.K. and Bebora, L.C. (2000). The occurrence of aflatoxin in poultry tissues collected in Nairobi, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 48: 61-62.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd Kenya Livestock Technicians Association Scientific Conference held in KARI on 10-12th September, 2002. University of nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2):190-7. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kariuki J.N., C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, J. Van Bruchen and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of supplementing napier grass with desmodium and lucerne on DM, CP and NDF intake and weight gains of growing heifers. Livestock Production Science. 60:81-8.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "State Banditism, Social Bandits and the Moral Economy of Violence: Contesting Peripherial Citizenship in the Cradle of Man.". In: Claude Fievet (Ed) Invention Et Reinvention De La Citoyennete, Editions Joelle sampy 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Effect of source, time and method of nitrogen application on growth and yield components of potato in Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 8:1-8.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K., E.J. DePeters and R.A. Zinn. 1992. Effects of feeding supplemental fat (yellow grease) to lactating cows on milk composition and diet digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 75:171.". In: Technical report presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference, 5th-9th Dec 1994, Kampala, Uganda. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1992. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Okumu, A. M. Das, P. K. and Nganga, J. K., 1987: Some aspects of Somali current. @pp. 22- 126.". In: Some aspects of Somali current. @pp. 22- 126. SMA; 1987. Abstract
n/a
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A survey of knowledge, attitude and use of emergency contraception among undergraduate female students in two Kenyan universities. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44.". In: East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G.Thaiyah and C.M. Mulei (2006). An outbreak of acute bovine dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 54:144-147.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Dietary patterns and dental carries in nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "Wabacha J.K., J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin and W.Oluoch-Kosura. Piglet morbidity and mortality in smallholder herds in a peri-urban area in Kenya.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2002. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Negussie Adefus and Musuva, J.K. "Thermal Shock Resistance of some Ceramic Materials for Domestic Stove Linings" - Proceedings of 5th Disciplinary Area Seminar, Mechanical/Production Engineers Sub-Network for ANSTI, Harare, Zimbabwe February, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on surface soil water conservation on a sandy loam in semi-arid Kenya. Soil & Tillage Research 75, 173-184.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, et al. Barriers to contraceptive use in two areas of Kenya: rural and urban. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi and Family Health International, USA, 1993.". In: Health International, USA, 1993. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Muritu JW, Kibwage IO, Maitai CK, Hoogmartens J.Evaluation of tetracycline raw materials and finished products found on the Kenyan market. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994.". In: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994. African Crop Science Society; 1994. Abstract
Contents of tetracycline, its degradation products (epitetracycline, epianhydrotetracycline, anhydrotetracycline) and a fermentation impurity (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidotetracycline) were determined in four raw materials, 12 batches of six ointment products, four eye ointment products and nine batches of five capsule products, all sampled from the Kenyan market. The analytical method was liquid chromatography on a column packed with a poly(styrenedivinyl-benzene) material (8-microns PLRP-S 100 A). All raw materials and finished products had tetracycline contents and impurity levels within the prescribed compendial limits.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.M. Maribei, J.K. Wabacha, E.M. Njoroge (1999). Streptococcal meningitis in a five months old lamb. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 70 (1): 2.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennnial Scientific Conference 30th -1st September 2000. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Lloyd, I.J., Burnstyn P.G., Horrobin, D.F., Kahuho, S.K., Mulimba, J. and Webala, G.S.R.: .". In: J. Obst. and Gynae.Comm. 1970;77:928-931. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1970. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Academia .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vo. 19 No. 2 pp 30-34. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil moisture extraction by different cover crops. In (eds J.G. Mureithi, C.W. Mwendia, F.N. Muyeko, M.A. Onyango and S.N. Maobe) Participatory Technology Development for Soil Management by Smallholders in Kenya. Special Publication of Soil Management and.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Onyango, C.A., Keya, E.L. and Imungi, J.K. 1993. Aspects of cassava-cereal composite flour quality and appropriate use in some Kenyan food products. Discovery and Innovation 15:241.". In: Proc. 5th Symp. ISTRCAB. pp 332-335. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of Mucuna Planting Density and Time on Water and Light Use in Maize .". In: African Crop Science Proceedings 6: 536-540. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. Effect of cathinone on chick embryo heart. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1981 Mar;33(3):195.". In: J Pharm Pharmacol. 1981 Mar;33(3):195. African Crop Science Society; 1981. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Maritim M. C., Joshi M. D., Kayima J. K., Amayo A. and Jowi J. O. Prevalence of Peripheral arterial disease among chronic kidney disease patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. (Abstract) Cardiovasc J. Afr (Abstract) 2007; 18 (2): 112.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of occupational lead exposure. Olkalou in Nyandarua District was the covariate study area. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eight children and adults participated. RESULTS: Blood lead levels (BLLs) obtained for the entire sample (n = 308) ranged from 0.4 to 65 microg/dl of blood. One hundred and sixty nine (55%) of the total sample had levels equal to or below 4.9 microg/dl, while 62 (20%) of the sample had levels ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 microg/dl. Blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl were recorded in 77 (25%) of the total sample. Within Nairobi, 32 (15.3%) of the study subjects in areas meant for assessment of environmental lead exposure had levels above the WHO/CDC action levels of 10 microg/dl of blood. The mean BLL for the occupationally exposed (Ziwani Jua kali) was 22.6 +/- 13.4 microg/dl. Among the workers, 89% had BLLs above 10 microg/dl. In general, 15% of the entire sample (for both environmental and occupational groups) in Nairobi had BLLs above 15 microg/dl. The covariate group at Olkalou had a mean BLL of 1.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of environmental lead exposure to the general public is high in Nairobi compared to Olkalou where non exposure was reported. Occupational lead exposure has been identified to be at alarming levels and urgent intervention measures are recommended.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1989. Contribution of indigenous vegetables to nutrition in Kenya. Presented at the KENGO Symposium on Green Vegetation, Nairobi 20 - 23 September 1989.". In: Presented at the KENGO Symposium on Green Vegetation, Nairobi 20 - 23 September 1989. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1989. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Properties, management and classification of vertisols in Kenya. In: FAO World Soil Resources Report No. 56 FAO, Rome, 22-30.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1986. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi J.K. (2002). Immunological determination of mycotoxins in animal feeds: principles and application.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd Kenya Livestock Technicians Association Scientific Conference held in KARI on 10-12th September, 2002. University of nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima J.K. Strategies aimed at retarding the progression of renal failure. Medicus, 12:306-309, 1993.". In: Medicus, 12:306-309, 1993. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
K DRGITAUSAMSON. "Christian Environmentalism in Kenya in Bron R.Taylor(Ed.),The Encyclopeadia of Religion and Nature(BRISTOL,Thoemmes Continnum).". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. 2003; 2005. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
K, wa Gachigi. "Changes in Phytochemical content during different growth stages in tubers of five varieties of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(1):1-11. Abstractgeoffrey_kipkoech_kirui.pdfWebsite

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) synthesizes a variety of bioactive metabolites including phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids that protects against insects and diseases, and may influence its nutritional quality. Phenolics provide valuable health promoting antioxidants, whereas glycoalkaloid concentrations exceeding the upper safety limit of 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (Fwt) are potential neurotoxins. Therefore, efficient selection for tuber nutritional quality is dependent upon safe and reliable analytical methods. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds during different growth stages in tubers of five selected potato varieties grown in Kenya. α-chaconine and α-solanine were separated and identified by HPLC. Total glycoalkaloids (TGA) and phenolics were determined by UV spectrophotometry. Recovery efficiencies for validation of analytical methods ranged from 85.9-93.5%. Significant differences in TGA and phenolic contents were detected among potato varieties. Tuber TGA content ranged from 6.80 to 10.56 mg/100g Fwt in vars. Dutch Robijn and Tigoni, respectively, and were within the upper safety limit. The corresponding values for chlorogenic acid contents in the examined varieties ranged from 46.39 to 58.04 mg/100 g Fwt. Total phenolic concentration in the examined tuber extracts varied ranged from 129.24 to 192.52 mg CGA/g Fwt. Glycoalkaloid and phenolic production were significantly reduced from time of initiation to maturity at 55 and 125 days, respectively, after planting (DAP). These results demonstrate that tuber phytochemicals were strongly influenced by variety and level of maturity. For nutritional safety and quality purposes, harvesting of mature potato tubers after 125 DAP is recommended

K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kariuki J.N., G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, K.R.G. Irungu and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of maturity on the mineral composition of napier grass. Trop. Sci. 39:56- 61.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "Technical Training and work experience in Kenya: A National Tracer Study of the leavers of Harambee Institutes of Technology and Youth Polytechnics.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Simulation of the influence of surface heterogeneity on air flow and convection over Nairobi area: Implication on airquality in the city.". In: Journal of the African Meteorological Society, Vol. 6 No.1 pp. 25-35. SMA; 2005.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of environment on Growth and Phenological Development of Pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan) in Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in Nairobi, Kenya 12th to 17th October. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Okeyo, A.M., B.A.O. Inyangala, N.E. Maingi, S.M. Githigia, S.J.M. Munyua, M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri, R.N. Kinuthia, M. Okomo and K. Osolo. 1994. Genetic studies of Galla and Small East African goats and their correlated growth and reproduction performa.". In: Technical report presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference, 5th-9th Dec 1994, Kampala, Uganda. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1994. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K MRSMARIKAMOGIKOYONANCY-, PROF. OCHANDA HORACE. "Impact of ICT on education.". In: International Journal of BioChemPhysics. Elsevier; 2012. Abstract
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K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., 1990: Air pollution problem in African cities. African Urban Quarterly. Vol 5: No. 1, pp. 30-33.". In: African Urban Quarterly. Vol 5: No. 1, pp. 30-33. SMA; 1990. Abstract
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K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, W. OLuoch-Kosura (2006). Evaluation of alternative health interventions against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Af.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
A study to evaluate alternative health interventions for the control of sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds was carried out in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. A total of 40 herds were randomly allocated, by a simple random strategy, to 3 treatment groups and 1 control group. Each group comprised of 10 herds. Herds in group 1 (control) were treated with a placebo, physiological saline. In group 2, control of nematodes and mange was attempted through the use of ivermectin, while in group 3, nematodes and mange were treated through the use of an anthelmintic (piperazine hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. In group 4, nematodes and mange were treated by using an anthelmintic (levamisole hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of ivermectin was not different (p>0.05) from that of levamisole. The proportion of pigs positive for mites was not different (p>0.05) between the ivermectin and the amitraz treatment groups. The overall costs for the treatments were US$0.50 for the ivermectin treatment, US$0.31 for the piperazine/amitraz combination treatment and US$0.26 for the levamisole/amitraz combination treatment. Amitraz/levamisole drug combination was the most cost-effective against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes of pigs in the studied smallholder herds.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK. Birth Interval and Family Planning. Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988.". In: Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kihurani, A. W. , S. Shibairo, J. K. Imungi, R. D. Narla, and E.E. Cartey, 2003. Susceptability of sweet potato germplasm to Rhizopus soft rot caused by Rhizopus Stolonifer and Rhizopus Oryzae in Kenya. MUARIK Bulletin 6: 30 .". In: MUARIK Bulletin 6: 30 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "S.J.M. Munyua and J.K. Wabacha. Community based animal Health in Kenya: Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2003. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K." Present and Future Railways Transport in Africa; The Example of Kenya Railways", Presented to the International Symposium on Transport and Communications in Africa, Brussels, Belgium held on 27th - 29th November, 1991, Published by Royal Aca.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Participatory evaluation of residue management effects of green manure legumes on maize yield in the central Kenya highlands. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 25(4), 49-68.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Muroki, N.M., Maritim, G.K., Karuri, E.G., Tolong, H.K., Imungi, J.K., Kogi- Makau, W., Mamman, S., Carter, E. and Maretzki, A.N. 1997. Women in the development of nutritionally improved weaning foods. A Nutribusiness strategy. J. Nutrition Education 29: .". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1997. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kidula NA, Kamau RK, Ojwang SBO, et al. A survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii District, Kenya. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai, C.K. The dynamic interplay between Man, Health and Medicine .". In: Inaugural lecture July 18, 1996, University of Nairobi, Kenya. African Crop Science Society; 1996. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, J.M. Maribei and P.M.F. Mbithi. An outbreak of Atrophic rhinitis in a medium scale pig farm in Kiambu.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Clark, G.P.M., Kahuho, S.K. and Ayim, E.N.: .". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1979; 56:362-367. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1979. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Dissociation of the Urinary Excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase (AG) and B2 .". In: M.Journal of applied Toxicology Vol. 1 No. 4 1981, 44-45. University of Nairobi Press; 1981. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Gachene, C.K.K., J.P. Mbuvi, H, Linner and N, Jarvis, 2000. Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions. Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) ISBN No. 9966-879-27-7, p 161-169.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Mathooko, F.M. and Imungi, J.K. 1994. Ascorbic acid changes in indigenous Kenyan leafy vegetables during traditional cooking. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 32: 239.". In: 2nd International Crop Science Congress, November 17 - 24, New Delhi, India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1994. Abstract

The ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents in three fresh green leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Kenya namely, Amaranthus hybridus, Gynandropsis gynandra and Solanum nigrum L. and the changes during traditional cooking were measured. In the fresh leaves, the ascorbic acid varied from 123.8 mg/100 g fresh weight in A. hybridus to 189.2 mg/100 g fresh weight in G. gynandra. Cooking for 20 min in boiling water led to losses of between 75 and 89%. Smaller losses in ascorbic acid were observed when the leafy vegetables were cooked in two and four volumes of water. The loss in ascorbic acid as a function of cooking time was highest in S. nigrum while its loss as a function of volume of cooking water was highest in A. hybridus. Using loss in ascorbic acid as an index, it is proposed that controlling the time and amount of water used in cooking without sacrificing palatability could help, at least in part, in preventing loss in other essential nutrients during traditional cooking of the vegetables.

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Weed management options for resource poor maize-dairy farmers in central Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the the British Crop Protection Council international congress held on 10 to 12th November at Glasgow, Scotland, Pp. 993-998. UK. ISBN 1 901396 63 0. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K PROFMAITAICHARLES, N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai AN, Maitai CK. Metabolism of cathinone to d-norpseudoephedrine in humans.J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8.". In: J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8. African Crop Science Society; 1983. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Properties, management and classification of vertisols in Kenya. In: FAO World Soil Resources Report No. 56 FAO, Rome, 22-30.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. and Wabule, M.N. 1990. Some chemical characteristics and availability of vitamin A and vitamin C from Kenyan varieties of papayas. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 24:115.". In: KARI/CIP Technical Workshop, Nairobi, 5th - 7th September 1990. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1990. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Ph.D. Thesis: "The Study of the effects of some Kenyan soils on the corrosion.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Evaluation and mapping of soil erosion susceptibility: an example from Kenya. Soil Use and Management Vol. II, 1-4.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Salah, A.M., Gathumbi, J., Vierling W. and Wagner, H. (2002). Estrogenic and cholinergic properties of methanol extract of Ruellia praetermissa Sceinf.ex.Lindau (Acanthaceae) in female rats. Phytomedicine 9: 52-55.". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in on October 12-17th, 2003. University of nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Mcligeyo SO, Kayima JK, Oliech JS, Monda SM.Chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a patient with end-stage renal disease following radiotherapy and surgery for transitional cell carcinoma. Nephron. 1996;74(2):495-6. No abstract available.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences V ol. 3(3):84-90, 1996. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1996. Abstract
Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.
K AH, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, R. L. Wabwile, J. Okonda, Irungu. JG. Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Spectral Diagnostics of Cancer.. Trieste (ICTP), Italy, 16-19 September 2013. ; 2013.poster_triestre_bon1.pptx
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Influence of irrigation and N fertilizer on maize growth, nitrogen uptake and yield in a semi-arid Kenyan environment. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal.69:99-108.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia E.M., C.K. Gachuiri, F. Klobasa and A.A. Abate. 1997. Effect of treatment with formaldehyde and formic acid on immunoglobulin content of stored bovine colostrum. Anim. Feed Sci Tech. 67:4 291-298.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAUCHRISTOPHER. "Amayo EO, Kwasa TO, Musau CK, Mugo N, Wambani J.Primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4. uon press; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Mati JKG. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 470-77.". In: Kamau RK, Mati JKG. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 470-77. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Abuye, C., K. Urga, H. Kinapp, D. Selmar, A. M. Omwega, J. K. Imungi and P. Winterhalter. 2003. A composition study of Moringa stenopetala leaves. East African Medical Journal 80: 247.". In: Prepared for FAO, Rome. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "A.G. Thaiya, S.M. Ndurumo, J.K. Wabacha. Suspected Nitrate/Nitrite poisoning in stall-fed dairy Cattle resulting from consumption of Amaranthus Plants.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva J.K. "Manual Methods - the Alternative of Length Gangs and Mobile Gangs in Track Maintenance" Proceedings of the Conference on Cost-effective Maintenance of Railway Track, organised by the Institute of Civil Engineers, U.K., held in London on 25th .". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID. Antibacterial Activity of Selected Plants used by the Maasai People in Kenya. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2014. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Gachene CKK and Mwangi H. 2006. Green manure cover crops for soil erosion control and and conservation agriculture in Central and Eastern highlands of Kenya. In Jg Muriethi, CKK Gachene, JW Wamuongo and M Eilitta (eds) Enhancing agricultural productivity .". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K MRMUTAIEMMANUEL. "Environmental Modelling in Poultry Structures. JEAE(3):24-31.". In: Journal of African Finance and Economic Development 1(2). Fall. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
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K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Abuye, C., Omwega, A.M. and Imungi, J.K. 1999. Familial tendency and dietary association of goitre in Gamo-gofa, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal 76: 447.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A prospective study on outcome of cesarean section at Chogoria Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, T.A. Ngatia and J.K. Wabacha. Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological findings of Oedema disease of Swine in Kenya.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K.: .". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 1988;2:81-83. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Potency ratios between Netilimicin/Gentamicin by J.K. Ndele. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Volume 17 No. 2 51-53 1991.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Volume 17 No. 2 51-53 1991. University of Nairobi Press; 1991. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Decomposition rates of biomass obtained from six month-old Tephrosia vogelii, Tithonia diversifolia and natural fallow vegetation at Maseno, Kenya. Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Murage, E.N., Chweya, J.A. and Imungi, J.K. 1996. Changes in leafy yield and nutritive quality of the Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) as influenced by nitrogen application. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 35: 149.". In: Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997.Mysore,India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1996. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Nitrogen use in maize-pigeonpea intercrop in semiarid conditions of Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the International Edible Legume (IELC)/4th World Cowpea Congress held on 17 . Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. The craze for additional vitamin intake. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):661-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):661-2. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K MRSASIEMAJOY. "Joy K. Asiema, " The Green Revolution in Africa", in the Biotechnology and Development Monitor.". In: Journal of the Department of International Relations and Public International Law of the University of Amsterdam. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract

Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus losses in eroded sediments from runoff plots on a clay soil in Kenya. Applied Plant Sciences, 12(3), pp. 72-76.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N., Oyunga, M. and Imungi, J.K. 1991. Determination of the potential use of potato flour for Chapati and Mandazi preparation. Proc. KARI/CIP Technical Workshop, Nairobi, 5th - 7th September 1990.". In: KARI/CIP Technical Workshop, Nairobi, 5th - 7th September 1990. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "The measurement of corrosion current in soil-water extracts" International Journal of Biochemiphysics Vol.10,2000 pg. 20-24.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K N, Omanga P, Mwangi W, Bett C, Muhammad L. "Meeting supply Challenges of quality seed in semi-arid eastern Kenya. In: CIMMYT and EARO Maize Production Technology for the Future: Challenges and Opportunities.". In: Sixth Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: CIMMYT) and EARO; 1999.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi J.K. and Ngatia T.A. (2003). An immunochemical survey of ochratoxin A in swine serum in central Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 51:64-66.". In: Proceedings of a WHO Experts group meeting on aflatoxins and health held on 24 . University of nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima J.K. Utility of mass screening programmes in health.East African Medical Journal(Editorial), 74(8): 465 - 466; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal(Editorial), 74(8): 465 - 466; 1997 Comment on: East Afr Med J. 1997 Aug;74(8):467-73. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia, E.M. and C.K. Gachuiri. 2003. Effect of inclusion of Mucuna pruriens and Dolicchos lablab forage in napier grass silage on silage quality and on voluntary intake and digestibility in sheep. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 1: 123-128.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1979. Physical and chemical changes taking place during extraction and concentration of clear guava juice, M.Sc. thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: M.Sc. thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1979. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Evaluation of Legumes as Cover Crops for Soil and Weed Management in Smallholder Coffee Cropping Systems in Central Kenya. Research Concept Note. Issue No. 11: 19-21.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K OE, V.O M, A A’oD, A O. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;3(5):205-213.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Odoi, A., J.M. Gathuma, C.K. Gachuiri, A. Omore, T. Gitau and S.W. Wanyangu 1998. Constraints to small ruminant production in small holder farms in Kiambu district, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:191-195.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "By Accident and Design, Contextualizing the Success and Dominance of the Kikuyu as Entrepreneurs in Kenya.". In: (IFRA) Nairobi. uon press; 1995. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K. 1987. Factors affecting mortality in free ranging Small East African goats. MSc thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Maina FW, Mati JKG, et al. The effect of low estrogen pill, mini-pill and depo provera on oral glucose tolerance test. East Afr Med J 1990; 67: 864-72.". In: East Afr Med J 1990; 67: 864-72. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J. K. 2006. Limitations to impact of fortified food .". In: Letter to the Editor. NutriView 2006/2: 8. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2006. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRNDERUFM. "Prevalence of antibodies of para-influenza 3 virus in various wildlife species and domestic cattle sharing the same habitat in Kenya.". In: journal. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1981. Abstract

Sera from various wildlife ruminants coexisting in the same habitat with cattle had hemagglutiation-inhibition antibodies as high as those in cattle.  Sera from wildebeest, Kongoni, Thomson's gazelle, eland and African buffalo had titres ranging from 64 to 128.  Zebra, Bushbuck, Warthog and Oryx were negative to the H I test.  It was suggested that some of the wild ruminants with high titres could be possible reservoirs of para-influenza 3 virus.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, W. Oluoch-Kosura. Evaluation of relative cost-effectiveness of alternative health interventions against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal helminthosis on smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu .". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K. "The Need for Inter-Railways Cooperation in East Africa and Beyond" presented to the IRCA/Spoonet Seminar on Freight Railways Markets, Quality and Profitability held in Cape Town.South Africa 15th - 17th November, 1995.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID. "Alternative Energy Sources in Kenya, A Case of Coal.". In: Journal of Coal Science. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract

While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK, Rutunga V, Karanja NK. "Decomposition rates of biomass obtained from six month-old Tephrosia vogelii, Tithonia diversifolia and natural fallow vegetation at Maseno, Kenya. Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 1.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract

A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Okoth, M.W., Kaahwa, A.R. and Imungi, J.K. 2000. The effect of homogenization stabilizer and amylase on cloudiness of passion fruit juice. Food Control II (2000): 305.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
K, wa Gachigi. "• Effects of Farm Pesticides on water quality in Lake Naivasha, Kenya." American Journal of Plant Physiology. 2013;8 ( 1557-4539):105-113.kaoga_e_tal_water.pdf
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "S.J.M.Munyua, D.I. Karioki, D.M. Chibeu, J.K. Wabacha, A.G. Thaiya, and J.M. Njenga, J.M. Gathuma, B. Mitaru, B (2000). Prognostic indicators of postpartum viability of kids born of E.coli vaccinated or unvaccinated does.". In: Journal of south Africa Veterinary Association 71(1):47-52. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
The short-term farm level economic impact of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in a large-scale dairy scale dairy farm was assessed during the quarantine period (35 days) and 60 days after lifting of the quarantine. Direct and indirect areas that contributed to the financial losses were identified for the period of observation (85 days). The greatest direct financial impact was due to milk losses (42.0%) followed by purchase pf additional feeds (13.65) and culling of milking cows that developed chronic mastitis (12.5%). The other direct costs were; extra labout inputs (8.9%), veterinary fees (3.350, transport (3.05), death (3.0%), drugs (2.9%), abortions (1.4%) and chemicals (0.5%). The indirect costs (9.4%) were associated with the effects of the quarantine period on other farm enterprises. During the quarantine period there were no sales of pigs and hay, and the retained additional feeds. The overall short-term farm level direct and indirect costs associated to US$16,026 (1US$=75ksh). This colossal economic loss within such a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is of paramount economic importance in the diary farming sector in Kenya. The factors that would determine the magnitude of the financial losses due to an outbreak of FMD are discussed
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Incorporation of green manure cover crops in maize based cropping system in semi-arid and sub-humid environments of Kenya. In (eds) J.G. Mureithi, C.K.K. Gachene, F.N. Muyekho, M. Onyango, L. Mose and O. Magenya. Participatory technology development for s.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1997. Commercialization of Traditional Foods in Kenya - A Case Study of Fermented Milk. Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997.Mysore,India.". In: Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997.Mysore,India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1997. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK. Birth Interval and Family Planning. Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988.". In: Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Kahunyo J.M., Maitai C.K., Froslie A. Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey. Poult Sci. 1986 Jun;65(6):1084-9.". In: J Toxicol Environ Health.1986;19(4):449-64. African Crop Science Society; 1986. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, E.B.Songa, B. Najib. I. Roditi and R. Hamers. Procyclin gene activation in Trypanosoma Evansi.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Effects of tillage and mulching on soil moisture conservation and crop production. Applied Plant Sciences, 12 (1), pp 5-9.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1991. Post harvest processing and storage of maize, beans and cassava by small holders in Kenyan. Report prepared for GTZ, Hamburg, Germany.". In: Report prepared for GTZ, Hamburg, Germany. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Electrochemistry, Text book for Distant Learners, 2004.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2004. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi J.K (2005). An overview of methods for detection of aflatoxins in foods.". In: Proceedings of a WHO Experts group meeting on aflatoxins and health held on 24 . University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Joshi MD.Platelet functions in patients with meningococcal meningitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7.". In: East African Medical Journal, 79(7): 390-393; 2002. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Indigenous camel mineral supplementation knowledge and practices on manyatta based camel herds by the Rendille pastoralists of Marsabit district, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Developm.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. and Muroki, N.M. 1984. Utilization of legumes in alleviation of protein malnutrition in Kenya. Promotion of Science and Technology 10:14.". In: Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, USA. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1984. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi, J.K. (1993). A survey of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds. MSc Thesis. University of Nairobi.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 1993. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Nitrogen use in maize-pigeonpea intercrop in semiarid conditions of Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the International Edible Legume (IELC)/4th World Cowpea Congress held on 17 . University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Muli, A.N., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of water sources and watering frequency for dairy cattle on water offered and milk production in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 208-211.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Review of poverty in Kenya.". In: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research/Action Aid, 1997 with Alois B. Ayako. uon press; 1997. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Flower abscission in three Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under irrigation gradient.". In: Proceedings of the 1st conference of the Crop Science Society of Kenya. Vol. 1:62- 77. University of Nairobi; 1988. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri C.K., Carles A.B. and Schwartz, H.J. 1987. Factors affecting survival in adult does on a semi arid thornbush savanna at Isiolo.". In: Proceedings of the KVA/ SR-CRSP Kenya workshop, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., and Ngugi, G. K, 1986: Indices of comfort in some Towns in Kenya, w. pp. 190- 199.". In: Indices of comfort in some Towns in Kenya, w. pp. 190- 199. SMA; 1986. Abstract
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K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Githiru PK, Kamau RK, Ndavi m, et al. Value of erect lateral pelvimetry in management of patients with one previous cesarean scar. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 13-15.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 13-15. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Onyango, C. M., Shibairo, S. I., Imungi, J. K. and Harbinson, J. 2008. The physico-chemical characteristics and some nutritional value values of vegetable amaranth sold in Nairobi. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 47: 382 .". In: Ecology of Food and Nutrition 47: 382 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2008. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 26:29-34.". In: Presented in International workshop on improving the well-being of resource poor communities-the contribution of small livestock. Everglades Hotel, Howick, South Africa 12-15 September 2005. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "J.K. Musuva, D.W. Odette and S. Ouna, " Restructuring of Railway : Kenya Railways Experience " Proceedings of MAPS Seminar on Railways Restructuring, Why and How?, Rabat, Morocco, 20th-25th May 1996.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1996. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K KG. "Status of seismicity and Kenya's National Data Center.". In: National Data Center training and Workshop. Vienna International Center, Austria; 2016.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Mziray, Rajabu, S., Jasper K. Imungi and Edward G. Karuri, 2001. Nutrient and antinutrient contents of raw and cooked amaranthus hybridus. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 40: 53.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K MRKIRAGUFRANCIS. "Socio-Cultural and Socio-Economic Impact on African Family Today.". In: Held at the Third Pan African Association of Anthropologists Conference Yaounde Cameroon. 1983; 1992. Abstract
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K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, J.K. Wabacha and P.M.F. Mbithi (2001). Short-term Economic impact of Foot and Mouth disease outbreak in a large dairy Farm in Kiambu District, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 76-78.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
The short-term farm level economic impact of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in a large-scale dairy scale dairy farm was assessed during the quarantine period (35 days) and 60 days after lifting of the quarantine. Direct and indirect areas that contributed to the financial losses were identified for the period of observation (85 days). The greatest direct financial impact was due to milk losses (42.0%) followed by purchase pf additional feeds (13.65) and culling of milking cows that developed chronic mastitis (12.5%). The other direct costs were; extra labout inputs (8.9%), veterinary fees (3.350, transport (3.05), death (3.0%), drugs (2.9%), abortions (1.4%) and chemicals (0.5%). The indirect costs (9.4%) were associated with the effects of the quarantine period on other farm enterprises. During the quarantine period there were no sales of pigs and hay, and the retained additional feeds. The overall short-term farm level direct and indirect costs associated to US$16,026 (1US$=75ksh). This colossal economic loss within such a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is of paramount economic importance in the diary farming sector in Kenya. The factors that would determine the magnitude of the financial losses due to an outbreak of FMD are discussed
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The Role of Green Manure Legumes in Smallholder Farming Systems in Kenya: The Legume Research Network Project. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, Vol. 1 : 57-70.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Mati JKG. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 470-77.". In: Kamau RK, Mati JKG. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 470-77. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. A review of dietary supplementation with trace minerals. East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, G.K. Gitau, and A.G. Thaiyah (1994). Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial organisms isolated from eye swabs of cattle with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pink eye). Indian Journal of animal science 64(7): 739-741.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1994. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Tithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, Western Kenya. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 3(4), 237-246.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1992. Post harvest handling of perishable crops. Presented at the Seminar of Post harvest Management of Food Crops. Nairobi, 29 - 30 January 1992.". In: Presented at the Seminar of Post harvest Management of Food Crops. Nairobi, 29 - 30 January 1992. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1992. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 26:29-34.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
K MRMBOBUMATHEW. "THE PLACE OF THE MILIANGOS CASE IN ANGLO-AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE: Unpublished paper for LL.M Degree Course, Georgetown University, Washington D.C,.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1992. Abstract
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K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Mwendwa FM, Otieno CF, Kayima JK, Amayo EO, Otieno PO.Risk factor profile and the occurrence of microvascular complications in short-term type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Nutrient contents of cured potatoes from Kenyan highland varieties. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 20: 51-58.". In: Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. and Siegenthaler, E.J. 1986. Manpower survey of the Food Industry in Kenya. Report prepared for Directorate of Personnel Management (DPM), Kenya.". In: Presented at the 2nd KBS National Food Control Seminar, Nairobi, and 6 - 9 October 1987. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1986. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi, J. K., Usleber, E. and M.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K L, J NM, H AI. "Pro-Poor Mobile Financial Services." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2015;Vol.6(No.11(1)): 167-176.pro_mobile.pdfpro_mobile.pdf
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Kamau J. K., Macharia I. M.,Odhiambo P. A Bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2001;. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbugua, P.N. and C.K. Gachuiri. 1998. Livestock production in Nyanza Province: Dairy Production.". In: Paper presented to Nyanza Provincial Agricultural Board, Migori. June 1997. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Uganda and Rwanda's involvement in the DRC: The pursuit of national interests.". In: L. uon press; 2000. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Informal Apprenticeship Training and Skill Acquisition: A case study of Informal Technical Training in Nairobi Kenya.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K M, L O. Evaluation of the Impact of the Programme Activities of the Former NCCK Women’s Programme. Nairobi: National Council of Churches of kenya; 1994.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of fodder legume species on germination, infestation and parasitism of Striga hermonthica (DEL) Benth. on maize.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri, C.K. and Schwartz, H.J., 1988. A comparison of goat mortality in two pastoral herds in northern Kenya. In: P. Singh, V. Shankar and A.K. Srivastava (Eds), Abstracts of the 3rd International Rangeland Congress, Range Management Soci.". In: In: P. Singh, V. Shankar and A.K. Srivastava (Eds), Abstracts of the 3rd International Rangeland Congress, Range Management Society of India, Jhansi, pp. 440-. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1988. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, et al. Barriers to contraceptive use in Kenya. East Afr Med J 1996; 73: 651-59.". In: East Afr Med J 1996; 73: 651-59. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "E.G.M. Mogoa, J.K. Wabacha (2005) P.M.F. Mbithi, S.G. Kiama. An overview of animal welfare issues in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 29:48-52.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Ngatia, E.M., Nyanga, P.M., Imungi, J.K., Muita, J.W. and Ogarrd, B. 2001a. Artificial sucking habits and malocclusion in 3-5 year-olds in Nairobi. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences (AJOHS 2(2): 27.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract

To determine the prevalence of sucking habits and its association with anterior open bite, posterior cross-bite and transverse dimensions of the Jaws In 3-5-year-olds in Nairobi. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and four children aged 3-5 years (155 boys and 149 girls). Results: The prevalence of digit suckers was 15.8%, nd pacifier users 1.0%. Those with anterior open bite constituted 7.6%. The average intercanine archwidth between 53-63 was 3d.8mm and between 73-83 was 25.4mm. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson!)was observed between digit-sucking and anterior open bite (P<0.01). Concluslon: The present study forms a baseline for future trends in sucking habits among children in Nairobi, Kenya. Low prevalence of sucking habits was found. The average difference between the upper and lower intercanine arch widths was relatively high and prevalence of postenor cross-blte was low. A significant correlation was observed between anterior open bite and digit sucking. The need for orthodontic treatment due to sucking habit was low among children in Nairobi.

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, J.M. Maribei and M.N. Kyule (2001). Farm demographics and pig management practices of smallholder pig farms in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 72-75.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K. and Rading, G.O. "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Proc. 4th Disciplinary Area Seminar, Mechanical/ Production Engineering Sub-Network, Ibadan, Nigeria (January, 1984), pp. 14 - 42.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1984. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Promotion of Marejea cultivation in the Ruvuma Region of Tanzania: Experiences of the Catholic Missionaries at Peramiho Mission Centre. In (eds) M Eilitta, J Mureithi and R Derpsch. Green manure/cover crops systems of smallholder farmers: Experiences from.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Maina FW, Mati JKG, et al. The effect of low estrogen pill, mini-pill and depo provera on oral glucose tolerance test. East Afr Med J 1990; 67: 864-72.". In: East Afr Med J 1990; 67: 864-72. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Kibwage IO, Ogeto JO, Maitai CK, Rutere G, Thuranira J, Ochieng' A. Drug quality control work in Daru: observations during 1983-1986.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992. African Crop Science Society; 1992. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "S.J.M. Munyua, S.J. Kassim O. Farah and J.K. Wabacha. Alternative Veterinary Service Delivery Systems In Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya: Suggested Satructural, Policy and Legal Amendments.". In: Proceedings of PINEP National Workshop, ' Sustainable Pastoral Production Systems and Environmental Securities in the Drylands of North -eastern Kenya' 14-15th Octomber 1999; Machakos, Kenya pp 79-95. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Geriatric Clinical Pharmacology. The Pharmacokinetic .". In: Journal of Medicine Vol. 2 No. 5 pp 2-8. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Community capacity building as an opportunity for sustainable land management: lessons from Ndome and Ghazi in Taita-Taveta District, Kenya. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, Vol 101 pp 181-189.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.

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