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Kyule MD. "Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behaviour." Hekima (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.. 2005;3(1):27-42. AbstractWebsite

Biotic and abiotic factors interact to influence plant and animal community structures, which in turn, influence human subsistence, land use, mobility, population density, territorial organization and social structure. This paper evaluates the extent to which human behaviors reflect adaptations to environments over time, as well as the relationship between these adaptations and the gradual evolution of human behavior from archaic to modern.

Kyule MD. "The Sirikwa economy: Further work at site II on Hyrax Hill." Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa . 1990;32:21-30.
Kyule MD. "Implications of a modification analysis of a Sirikwa faunal assemblage at Hyrax Hill.". In: 12th Biennial meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists (SAFA). Bloomington, Indiana, USA.; 1994.
Kyule MD. "Dogs and the Sirikwa at Hyrax Hill." East Africa Natural History Soc. Bulletin. 1992;22 :34-37.
Kyule MD. "Cultural heritage management: a review case for the Antiquities and Monuments Act (CAP 215) Laws of Kenya (1983).". In: Historical Association of Kenya Conference. Baringo, Kenya; 2004.
Kyule MD. The Game of Bao in East Africa’s Prehistory. Center for African Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA; 1994.Website
Kyule MD. CAC 202 Archaeology Field Methods. Nairobi: lecture module for the Center for Open and Distance Learning (CODL), University of Nairobi.; 2008.
Kyule MN;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, McDermott JJJ;, Okelo GBA. "Patterns Of Human Hydatid Disease In Kenya,."; 1992.
Kyule MD, Onyango-Abuje JC. "History of Prehistory in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper outlines both the archaeological and later prehistoric research that has so far been undertaken on the Kenyan side of the Lake Victoria basin. We introduce the regions current demographic distribution and geophysical setting to provide a background for the various prominent paleoanthropological findings and discoveries in the region. Significant aspects that require further research have also been highlighted.

Kyule MD. "Plant remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru. Nyame Akuma 36: 8-10 1991, , USA." Nyame Akuma (Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists).. 1992;36:8-10.Website
Kyule MD. The Sirikwa Culture: New evidence from Hyrax Hill. , Department of History, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya ed. Njoro; 1992.
Kyule MD. "Ecological and Behavioural implications of early Later Stone Age Fauna from Ntuka River 3, Southwest Kenya.". In: 4th World Archaeological Congress (WAC4) . University of Cape Town, South Africa: Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002.
Kyule MD. "Ecological and behavioural implications of early Later Stone Age Fauna from Ntuka River 3, southwest Kenya.". In: 4th World Archaeological Congress (WAC4). University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa ; 1999.
Kyule MD, Gona GM. "Introduction to Mizizi Book Project.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. University of Nairobi Press; 2013. Abstract

in M.D. Kyule and G. Gona (Eds), MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki, Nairobi University Press.

Kyule MD. "Plants remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru." Nyame Akuma: Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists. 1991;36:8-10. Abstract

This article reports a preliminary examination of plant remains and the tentative implications that have so far been deduced from them. The plant samples were acquired by archaeological excavations at one of the Hyrax Sirikwa sites within Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. Hyrax Hill has numerous prehistoric sites that represent occupations dating as far back as the Neolithic period. Several of the Neolithic sites have been studied (see Leakey 1945, Onyango-Abuje 1977, Merrick 1983). However, of specific relevance to this report are the Sirikwa culture sites that are found in a group throughout the lower northwestern portion of the hill. There are at least 13 of these Sirikwa occurrences comprising about 13 hollows and 13 mounds.

Kyule MD. "Aspects of modern human behavior during the late Pleistocene: insights from southwest Kenya.". In: Conference on Current Archaeology and Paleoanthropological research in Kenya . National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
Kyule MD. "Teachers' experiences in teaching evolution.". In: Building Bridges between Evolution and Religion. The Prehistory Clubs of Kenya/National Museums of Kenya ; 2011. Abstract

Although prehistory and evolutionary studies are included in the Kenyan secondary school biology and history subjects, lack of consistent up-dating of the syllabi and sheer ignorance by a very large cross-section of teachers has led to paucity of enthusiasm among students towards these subjects. Further, the educators do not have access to up-to-date information emanating from the recent prehistory research. The net effect of this is lack of knowledge and appreciation of prehistory particularly among the youth.

Kyule MD. CTO 203 Hospitality Management. Nairobi; 2008.
Kyule MN;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, McDermott JJJ;, Okelo GBA. "Patterns Of Human Hydatid Disease In Kenya,."; 1992.
Kyule MD. "Archaeology of Pli-Pleistocene Hominids in Eastern Africa.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper reviews recent and continuing research undertaken in eastern Africa on aspects that characterize proto-human behavioral patterns. Flaked stone from amongst other places, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya, represent some of the earliest definite signs of modification of natural materials for use as tools. Fossil fauna from these sites show cut marks and other modification, which establish that hominids were using stone tools on animal tissues as early as the Lower Pleistocene; that hominids acquired meat based foods through scavenging rather than hunting; and that hominids and carnivores were in competition for carcasses and/or bones. Presently, there is no indisputable archaeological evidence for Plio Pleistocene hominid deliberate construction of habitation shelter. However, it is possible that Oldowan hominids may have used their most sophisticated organizational abilities in activities such as foraging, social relations or communication, but employed only simple organizations in the actual manufacture of stone tools.

Kyule MD. CAC 405 Tourism in the Internet Age. Nairobi; 2011.
Kyule MD. "Fifty years of archaeological research." Kenya Past and Present: Journal of the Kenya Museum Society . 1993;25 :47-53.
Kyule MD, Kamau J. Reporting Nyamathi: A Late Stone Age site in the Naivasha Basin, Kenya. Nairobi.: National Museums of Kenya ; 1991. Abstract

This article brings to notice the existence of a Late Stone Age (LSA) archaeological site in the Kinugi area near Naivasha, Kenya. Although no excavations were done, a brief survey of the site was undertaken and exposed surface material collected for examination. Results of the examination, in addition to information on the general surrounding environment at the site are presented.

Kyule MD, Ambrose SH, Noll MP, Atkinson JL. "Pliocene and Pleistocene sites in southern Narok District, southKenya." Journal of Human Evolution 1997, . 1997;32:A9-10. AbstractWebsite

Survey in southwest Kenya above the western margin of the Gregory Rift Valley since 1994 has led to the discovery of LSA, MSA, Acheulean and possible Oldowan occurrences, as well as fossil-bearing sites representative of the early Pliocene. A long sedimentary sequence of airfall and waterlain tuVs, fluvial and lacustrine sediments and paleosols is exposed in the region of the confluence of the Ewaso Ngiro, Narok, Seyabei, Ntuka and Olonganaiyo rivers. At Lemudongo, a total of 278 well-preserved fossil bones and teeth of a variety of species including carnivores, primates, suids, bovids, hippopotamids, crocodilians, hyracoids and rodents, were collected in one day along a 70 m area of sediment outcrop. Three potentially datable tuVs are stratified within this 6 m-thick fossil-bearing paleosol. The presence of Nyanzochoerus kanamensis suggests this locality is older than 2•5 m.y.a. Four Acheulean sites have low densities of handaxes and cleavers, mainly made on phonolite, basalt and quartz. None are clearly in primary context. Excavations at Ntuka River 3 have yielded a long sequence of new Early LSA microblade industries in discrete horizons that have high densities of well-preserved bones and teeth of equids, bovids, micromammals and humans. Paleosol stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis at this site demonstrate substantial environmental changes through time in the 7•5 m sedimentary section. In the Ntuka area, Late Quaternary sediments contain numerous in-situ early and late MSA and early LSA sites with well-preserved faunas, a penecontemporary fossil carnivore den site and other fossil-bearing sites with minimally fragmented faunas associated with low artefact densities. This provides a rare opportunity to compare faunal and lithic resource exploitation patterns through time during the Middle and Early Later Stone Age, and to compare faunal exploitation patterns of humans and carnivores on the same landscape.

and Kyule SAMHD. Chronology of the Middle and Later Stone Age, Kenya Rift Valley. Nairobi: Report to the Office of the President, Republic of Kenya, and the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2000. Abstract

The ultimate objective of the program of research on the chronology of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Early Later Stone Age (LSA) in the southern and central Rift Valley of Kenya is to document the emergence of modern human behavior in East Africa. Archaeological evidence suggests that behavioral innovations that characterize modern human behavior occurred during the later MSA and early LSA in eastern and southern Africa, at an earlier date than in other parts of Africa and the Old World.

Accurate chronometric dates for the MSA and the transition to the LSA will contribute to testing the hypothesis of an East African origin for modern human behavior.

The primary objective of the 1999 field season in the southern Rift Valley was to excavate MSA and Early LSA archaeological occurrences that contain volcanic tephra stratified for Single Crystal Laser Fusion (SCLF) 40Ar/39Ar dating. One paleontological and four archaeological sites were excavated. The paleontological site, apparently a fossil hyena den, contains cut-marked bones.

Two sites have typical MSA occurrences characterized by lithic assemblages with radial cores and faceted platform flakes, made predominantly on locally available lavas. Two sites have artifact occurrences with diagnostic features of both the MSA and LSA, including backed microliths and elongated triangular flakes with faceted platforms from levallois cores, predominantly made on obsidian. These sites have excellent faunal preservation. Twelve stratified tephra were sampled from these five sites. Samples from the four archaeological sites have been submitted for dating
and chemical fingerprinting by Al Deino at the Berkeley Geochronology Center. Three sites also contained ostrich eggshell, permitting dating by amino acid racemization by Gifford Miller.

Three hydroelectric dams will be constructed by KenGen in the heart of the survey area, and river discharge will be increased by diverting a major tributary of the Mara River. Construction will begin in 2001, and be completed by 2006. Many important fossil and archaeological localities will be inundated, so intensive survey and excavations must be undertaken in a timely fashion.

Kyule MD, Ambrose SH, Hlusko L. "History of Paleontological research in the Narok District of Kenya,." Kirtlandia, Journal of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio, USA. 2007;56:1-37. Abstractkirt-56-00-1.pdfWebsite

The geology of the Narok District of southern Kenya was first studied in the 1960s. From 1994 through 2005 more extensive paleontological and geological research was conducted on a series of late Miocene sediments of the Lemudong’o Formation in the region of Lemudong’o Gorge and Enamankeon where the Ntuka and Narok Rivers merge to form the Uaso Ngiro River. Numerous paleontological sites have been located, however all but one are poorly fossiliferous. The exception is the site of Lemudong’o Locality 1, near the village of Enkorika. Here we describe the geological and paleontological research that has been performed in the entire project area, with detailed information about the paleontology at Lemudong’o Locality 1

Kyule MD. "Excavations at the site of Hyrax Hill, 1990." Kenya Past and Present : Journal of the Kenya Museum Society. 1991;23:50-53.
Kyule MD, Ambrose SH, Noll MP, Atkinson JL. "Pliocene and Pleistocene sites in southern Narok District, southwest Kenya.". In: Paleoanthropology Society, 6th Annual Meeting. St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 1997.
Kyule MD. "Overview on Presentation and discussion of report on the General History of Africa Textbook project.". In: Fourth ordinary session of the conference of Ministers of Education of the African Union (COMEDAF- IV). Mombasa, Kenya; 2009.
Kyule MD, Oyamo M. "Cultural resource management in Kenya: a case for legislation review.". In: Kenya from Independence to early 21st century. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; In Press. Abstract

This paper builds a case for a reconsideration of Kenya’s legislation that relates to cultural and societal heritage resources management by briefly revisiting the circumstances that informed the enactment of the related laws. We present the view that existing legislation has tended to serve corporate, multinational and foreign interests at the expense of local and national interests, and that although these Acts may have somewhat served the country in the past, the legislations have turned the cultural heritage management in Kenya into a lame duck framework of abstractions of policy matters, that are irrelevant and unresponsive to changing local and international circumstances. We highlight contradictions between and within varied Acts, and offer suggestions for remedy that are geared toward the development of a cultural management policy with local ownership and universal compatibility.

Kyule MD. Reconstruction of subsistence economic patterns of the Iron Age Sirikwa, Hyrax Hill, Kenya.. Department of History, University of Nairobi ed. Nairobi, Kenya; 1990.
Kyule MD. "The Sirikwa Economy: Further work at site on Hyrax Hill Nakuru." Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa . 1997;32:21-30.
Kyuma RK, Wahome RG, Kinama JM, Wasonga VO. "Temporal relationship between climate variability, Prosopis juliflora invasion and livestock numbers in the drylands of Magadi, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2016;10:129-140. Abstract
Kyuvi EM, Ogolla K. "FACTORS DETERMINING THE SLOW GROWTH OF REVENUE OF INSURANCE BROKERAGE FIRMS IN KENYA." International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship . 2013;1(7):296-303.kyuvi_and_ogollah_2013.pdf
K’Akumu OA. "Evaluation of housing statistics in Kenya.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

This paper reviews published official statistics in Kenya. It begins with a theoretical study of statistics in general and housing statistics in particular. From here it undertakes a comparative study of housing statistics in other countries especially the US for which statistical programmes are found to be comprehensive, objective oriented and rational. The review proceeds to the Kenyan scene, where in contrast, statistical programmes are found to be unfocussed, at times erroneous, irrelevant, incomplete, or stale, and generally deficient. This deficiency is observed to have serious implications for policy decision making, housing development, housing investment, capacity building, and policy analysis. In this regard proposals are made for development of statistical system for Kenya whose main feature should include a housing statistics strategy. Recommendations are also made for institutional development for housing statistics.

K’Akumu OA, Jones, B; Yang J. "Factor analysis of the marketenvironment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a study involving the market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya. Taking the point of view of exchange relationships within a market systems framework it maps out economic interactions involving actors in this market such as suppliers of raw materials, producers, marketers and users of artisanal dimension stone. This strategy enabled the study to understand the enabling environment for the production and use of artisanal dimension stone that is characterized by the following factors: a rising population that sustains the demand for the built environment products, a vibrant construction market, building regulations that favour the use of stone, availability of cheap and abundant unskilled labour and low standards of stone finish involved, availability of natural rock, a regulatory system that can compromise, lack of support by government institutions and an informal system of transaction that is non-compliant with conventional requirements such as labour and environmental laws but ensures ease of entry into the market environment. Such understanding brings potential for rectifying the negative perceptions about this market environment through policy development and change

K’OBONYO PROFPETERO, MONARI FRONICA, ANDOLLO AGNESSANYANGO. "The Influence of Time Management Tendencies on the Relationship Between Employee Empowerment and Organizational Performance: A Study of the University of Nairobi Employees.". In: AIBUMA. Vol. n/a.; 2012:. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of time management tendencies on the relationship between employee empowerment and organizational performance. Preference-driven variations in the temporal pattern of employees’ activities affect their strategic decision processes and, consequently firm performance. It is potentially beneficial to understand the differences in workplace attitudes and behaviors which affect use of time so that the "right" mix of individuals may be hired to fit an organization’s situation. The present study was informed by Attention-based theory and the theory of reasoned action. This was a survey of the University of Nairobi. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of respondents for the study. Service quality, rate of innovation and employee satisfaction were used measure to organizational performance. The results showed that efforts that University management has made to empower employees have not been successful. Organizational empowerment practices that have a significant impact on time management tendencies were found to be management’s commitment to organizational feedback, management’s emphasis on a congenial and friendly atmosphere, its emphasis on greater cooperation, teamwork, and support, and a free and open communication environment. There was negative relationship between the rate of innovation and employees being forced to complete their work within time allocated. Monochronic tendencies were positively and significantly correlated with organizational performance while the polychronic orientation had positive significant correlation with customer satisfaction.

K’Odhiambo DAK, Khanani BS, Njogu GN. "Hermeneutics of Pythagoreanism in relation to the historicity of holistic African philosophy of education that starts from Egypt." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;Vol. 3(No. 2):311-324.
K’Odhiambo AK, Gunga SO, Ngesu LM, Muriithi EM, Wachira LN. "iv) Contributions of women to the philosophy of education: Hermeneutics of the proverbs." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013.

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