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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "MOUNT KENYA AND ITS ENVIRONS: A Review of the interaction between Mountain and people in an Equatorial setting. Mountain Research and Development, vol.13, No. 3, pp 305-309.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F M, JJ C. "Clinical Learning Experiences: A study among Undergraduate Nursing Students, Kenya." Nursing Research and Practice Journal. 2018.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Desertification in Africa (abridged) in Chiri (Geography) Vol. 30, No. 12 pp. 22-30 (in Japanese).". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Drainage Evolution in Kenya. Chapter 12 of Studies in East African Geography and Development Ed.S.H. Ominde Heinemann. Pp.137-145.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1971. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. ""Tana River Delta and other deltaic rivers in Kenya. A contribution in fluvial and environmental geomorphology". In Geomorphology and enviromental changes in Tropical Africa, Case Studies in Cameroun and Kenya, pp. 165-178. (Eds.) Hiroshi Kadomura. Hokkai.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "F.F Ojany & R.B Ogendo. KENYA: A study in Physical and Human Geography, 228 pp. Longman, Naiobi/London.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1973. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "KENYA: A STUDY IN PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. NEW EDITION: fully revised and enlarged LONMAN KENYA December 1988. ISBN 9966 49 6130.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Geography of East Africa. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. New Edition. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. Eds. B.A. Ogot and J.A. Kieran.". In: Longman, pp.22-48, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Africa and the Islands by R.J. Harrison Church of Others.". In: A Review in Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 3 No.1, pp.145-147, March 1965. UN-HABITAT; 1965. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Francis F. Ojany (1992). Environemntal Management in East Africa: Resoruces, HUman Developemnt, Recreation and Biosphere Reserves.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "EAST AFRICA by W.T.W Morgan, Longman, A Review: in the Kenyan Geographer Vol.1, No. 1 pp.55-57, Nairobi.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Bechuanaland: Pan African Outpost or Bantu Homeland by E.S. Munger. Review in East Africa.". In: In Bull. Geog. Assoc. of Ghana, vol.II. No. 1, pp.15-26, January 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Environmental Management in East Africa: Resources, Human Development, Recreation and Biosphere Reserves, in MANAGING PROTECTED AREAS IN AFRICA. Compiled by W.J. Lusigi. UNESCO-World Heritage Fund. Chapter 8. pp56-61.". In: In 2nd proceedings of the African Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Strategies for Developing the Resources of the Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya: Introduction and an overview.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1983. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "S.H. Ominde & F.F. Ojany, The Kano Plains: A Geographical Challenge. African Sceientist, No.1 pp.7-20 (personal contribution being pp.7-14, Figures 1-7 Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1969. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "MOUNT KENYA AND ITS ENVIRONS: A Review of the Interaction between mountains and people in an Equatorial Setting. A paper presented at The Mountain Geoecology of the Southern Andes: Reseource Management and Sustainable Development. International Workshop, .". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "F.F. Ojany and G.C. Macoloo. The Impact of Urbanisation on the land use planning in selected urban centres in Eastern and Sourthern subregion.". In: UNESCO/ROSTA Technical Report 1985, pp. 52, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The African Environment and the Problems of Development (12 pp.) Paper read at the Regional Seminar on Human Environment. Addis Ababa, 23-38 August.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1971. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "H. Kadomura, N. Hori and F.F. Ojany, Radiocarbon ages ofalluvial and colluvial deposits in the Voi and Malindi areas, Southern kenya. Pp. 197-207. In Geomorphology and Environmental changes in Tropical Africa. Case Studies in Cameroun and Kenya. (Ed.) H. .". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Status of Kenya's Water Resources and their Development. In ABSTRACTS for papers. Proceedings of the First World. Congress on Water Resources, Sept. 24-28, 1973, CHICAGO.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1973. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F O, Nyangito MM, Wasonga OV, P. O. "Trend Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability in Arid Environment of Turkan, Kenya. Environ." Environ. Res. J. . 2014;8(2):30-43.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "KENYA: The Land and The People. Chapter in the 25th Silver Jubilee Commemorative Official Handbook of Kenya. Republic of Kenya. 1988. (with E.K. Mburugu).". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Status of Kenya's Water Resources and their Development.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Mozambique: East African Province of Portugal by C.F. Spencer, 147 pp.". In: A Review in East African Journal Nov. 1964. UN-HABITAT; 1964. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "IN NATIONAL ATLAS OF KENYA - 4TH EDITION: World, Sea and Air Communication. Kenya Airways and F.F. Ojany - page 1.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1991. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Water in the African Environment: An inventory and Implications. Paper presented at the Regional Preparatory Conference for Habitat. U.N. Conference of Human Settlements.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Physique of Kenya: A contribution in Landscape Analysis. Annuals Assoc.". In: Ameri Geographers, Vol.56 No.2 pp 183-196, June 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. ""Some Preliminary Observations on the Possible Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the Coastal Landforms and structures along the Kenyan Coasts" in IOC-SAREC-KMFRI Regional workshop on causes and consequences on Sea-Level changes on the Western Indian Ocean Coas.". In: In 2nd proceedings of the African Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F M, JG K. "Multifetal preganancies at a maternity hospital in Nairobi. ." ; East African Medical Journal. 2009;86 .((4)):162-5.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Denudation surfaces and the Origina of Stone-lines in the Machakos Area of Kenya. Proceedings of the 23rd International Geographical Congress. International Geography 1976, Vol.1, Geomophology. Moscow.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1976. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Geography of East Africa. Chapter 2 of ZAMANI: A Survey of East African History. Eds. B.A. Ogot and J.A. Kieran.". In: Longman, pp.22-48, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1968. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Indicators of accelerated land degradation in the Highland Areas of Eastern Africa: A paper presented at the IGU Commission on Mt. Geoeclogy and Resource Management, Sierra Nevada and White Mountains Symposium, Davis, California, U.S.A., 30 July to 8 Augu.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Geomorphology of the Kenya Coast with special reference to Kambe Limestones of Kilifi. In Natural and Man-induced Environmental in Tropical Africa: A Case Study in Cameroun and Kenya. Hokkaido University, Japan, (Ed.) Hiroshi Kadomura.". In: UNESCO/ROSTA Technical Report 1985, pp. 52, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F B, EAO D, K S. "Treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour by marsupialization." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "In the NATIONAL ATLAS OF KENYA 3rd Edition (Survey of Kenya) Test for KENYA PHYSICAL p.4 of Atlas.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1970. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Francis F. Ojany (1998) Editors. African Mountains and Highlands: Planning fr Sustainable Use of Mountain Resources. Proceedings of the 3rd African Mountains Association (AMA) 1993 - 421 pp. Published by the UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY , Tokyo, Japan.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Keya's Coastline. Chapter 94, pp. 691-701. In The World's Coastline, 1071 pp. (Eds. E.C./F. Bird and M.L. Schwartz). Van Nostrand Reinhold.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Unesco Regional Seminar on Applied Geomorphology and Integrated Surveys of River Basins. Bull. Of Unesco Field Science Office for Africa. Vol.VI. No. 1. Jan-March, pp.26-28, Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1971. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Desertification in Africa with special references to East Africa. GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS OF TOKYO Metropolitan University, No.21. The memorial volume of Prof. Hiroshi Toya. Pp. 23-34.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Physical and Biological Environment of Kenya. Being chapter 2 of Book called Health and Disease in Kenya. Edited by Vogel, et al. E.A.L.B. Nairobi (pp.9-26).". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Kenya in Relation to Africa - page 2.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1991. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Cairo, Egypt 21-26 June 1975. (I was invited by the Deputy Secretary, General of the U.N as one the UN EXPERTS TO ADVISE THE Governmental delegates in preparation of the Vancouver Congress.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Denudation Chronology of the Cannock Chase Area, Staffordshire.". In: The East Midland Geograper, Vol.4 pp.77-78, December, 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Francis F. Ojany (1992), Environmental Management in East Africa: Resources, Human Developemnt, Recreation and Biosphere Reserves.". In: Chapters 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed. W.J. Lusigi Unesco-World Heritage Fund Publishers, pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "GEOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION by N.J. Graces. A Review: in The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.2, No.2., Nairobi.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1976. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Mound Topography in the Thika and Athi Plains of Kenya: A Problem of Origin.". In: ERDKUNDE Archiv. Fur Wissenschaftliche Geographie, Band XXII, pp.269-275 Bonn. UN-HABITAT; 1968. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "African Mountains and Highlands: Topics for Research and Action with special Reference to the Kenya Scene.". In: In 2nd proceedings of the African Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "2nd Opening lecture on "Savanna and Woodland Ecosystems in Tropical America and Africa: Geomorphological concepts". Pp. 3-4 (see also Symposium on Savanna and Woodland Ecosystem in Tropics. University of Brasilia, BRAZIL, 2-7 October.". In: UNESCO/ROSTA Technical Report 1985, pp. 52, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Inselbergs of Eastern Kenya with special reference Ukambani Area. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, Band 13, Heft w. Seite 196-206, Berlin.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1969. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F M A BUTT, M L CHINDIA RANAF. "Oral squamous cell carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: clinicopathological audit." The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2012;n/a(126):276-278.scca_2012_butt.pdf
F M A BUTT, M L CHINDIA RANAF. "Oral squamous cell carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: clinicopathological audit." The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2012;n/a(126):276-278.scca_2012_butt.pdf
F Okumu, L Biswaro, E Mbeleyela, Killeen GF, R Mukabana, Moore SJ. "Using Nylon Strips to Dispense Mosquito Attractants for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae s.s." Journal of medical entomology. 2014;47(2):274-282.
F. O,.L. CJB, O. MJ. "Effects of Phenobarbital and carbon tetrachloride on liver enzymes." J. Appl. Biosci.. 2012;Volume 56(ISSN 1997 - 5902):4097-4107. Abstract

RESUME
Introduction: Barbiturates and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) are known to have effects on liver enzymes. More ever, barbiturates which are used as sedative hypnotics, anticonvulsants, generally cause induction of liver microsomal enzymes while CCL4 cause hepatoxity releasing various liver enzymes.
Objective: To determine the effects of Phenobarbital and carbon tetrachloride on some selected liver enzymes.
Methodology and results: Rats treated with Phenobarbital had higher levels of activity of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and longer to gain writing reflex while CCl4 treated rats had reduced levels of the mentioned enzyme and shorter time to gain writing reflex .
Conclusion and application: Treatment with Phenobarbital needs continuous adjustment and regulation of dosage by the attending clinician. A history of the patient is required before administration of other drugs or carrying a therapeutic drug monitoring to confirm toxicology. It was therefore concluded that barbiturates are inducers of liver enzymes while CCl4 is a liver toxicant

F. M, J.W. K, Warinwa & F. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Chyulu Watershed Ecosystem, Makueni-Kajiado Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(3):17-26.
F. NJ, O LK. "Determinants of Commercial Mixed Farming on Small Farms in Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management . 2013;5(22):47-54. Abstract

Agriculture is a topic of concern for rural development programs in Kenya because of the high poverty incidents among farmers. Fundamentally, smallholder agriculture contributes substantially to total agricultural production and total employment. Despite the fact that Kenyan farmers largely practice mixed farming, some are unable to act commercially and consequently, unable to improve their livelihoods. This paper therefore aims at establishing the entrepreneurial indicators of farming activities that lead to improved rural livelihoods. Cross-sectional survey of 388 small farms in Thika was carried out to investigate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. The results show that the size of the farm, gender of the farmer, availability of electricity supply and running water on the farm are the main determinants of mixed farming. This study suggests that policies be put in place to discourage partitioning of farm land into uneconomical sizes. It also recommend that rural electrification and training programs on best farming practices be intensified in the rural areas to enable farmers to act commercially.
Key words: Commercial Mixed Farming, Farm Characteristics, Entrepreneurship, Logit and Probit models

F. M, J.W. K, F W, Wandera P. "Estimation of the Economic Value for the Consumptive Water Use Ecosystem Service Benefits of the Chyulu Hills Watershed, Kenya. ." International Journal of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(4):36-48.
F. NJ, O. LK. "An Investigation into the entrepreneurial behaviours and human capital formation among small-scale farmers in Kenya." Journal for Social Science. 2013;3(4):122-134. Abstract

Kenya is an agrarian economy and most people derive their livelihoods from smallholder agriculture but there is no consensus among policy makers and scholars on the viability of small scale farming in the country. There is a tendency for small farmers to ebeen made to identify entrepreneurial activities that result into human capital formation. This study addresses this problem by identifying the entrepreneurial
behaviour that lead to human capital collected from a survey of a sample size of 388 small farmers, drawn from Thika region of Kenya. Quantitative description was used to measure the extent of entrepreneurial behaviour while logit model was used to e
entrepreneurial behaviour on the human capital formation. The results show that
the entrepreneurial behaviour of blending agricultural and non
businesses have a significant effect on the small farmers’ ability to pay med
bills. However, commercial mixed farming and value addition in agriculture were
found to be more of survival strategies as they do not result in human capital
formation. Furthermore, availability of business opportunities and favourable government policies, has a positive influence on the human capital formation. The research recommends the government to come up with policies that can create a favourable environment for farmers to establish non agricultural businesses.

and F. A. Okalebo, I. O. Kibwage MTGCKGAN. "Isolation of Quercetrin from Clematis brachiata Thunberg." East African Journal of Botany. 2008;1 (2) :179-181. Abstract

Quercetrin (3-0-beta-L-rbamnosyl 3', 4', 5, 7 tetra hydroxy flavone) was isolated from the
stem of Clematis brachiata Thunberg. The yield was 0.029 % w/w of dried stem powder.

F. K M, W. O O;, F. M N, E. S M. "Tetracycline residue levels in cattle meat from Nairobi salughter house in Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

Two hundred and fifty beef samples were collected from five slaughterhouses in and around the city of Nairobi. The beef animals were sourced from various parts of the country. Samples of 50-100 grams were collected randomly from the liver, kidney and muscle of different beef carcasses. The samples collected were processed using multiresidue analytical methods that included liquid-gas partitioning and set-pat C18 cartridges chromatographic clean up. Chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline detection was done using Knauer Model 128 HPLC with an electron capture detector. Out of the 250 samples that were analyses for tetracycline residues 114 (45.6 %) had detectable tetracycline residues. Of the 114 samples with detectable tetracycline residues, 60 (24%) were liver samples, 35 (14%), were kidney samples and 19 (7.6%) were muscle samples. The mean (p>0.05) residue levels of tetracycline for the five slaughterhouses studied were as follows: Athi River 1,046 ug/kg, Dandora 594 ug/kg, Ngong 701 ug/kg, Kiserian 524 ug/kg and Dagoretti 640 /lg/kg. Of the 250 samples analysed 110 (44 % ) had oxytetracyclines while 4 (1.6 % ) had chlortetracyclines. The mean residue levels of the detected tetracyclines were higher than the recommended maximum levels in edible tissues. This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues in the various edible tissues. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal periods before slaughter. This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues in the various edible tissues. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before slaughter of the animals. Key words: Tetracycline residue, Nairobi, Kenya

F. K. Kamau, Thoithi GN, J. K. Ngugi, Kingondu OK, Kibwage IO. "Quality of amoxycillin preparations in the Kenyan market." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:57-60.
F. K. Mutua, C. E. Dewey, S. M. Arimi, S. M. Githigia, Schelling. E. "Indigenous pig management practices in rural villages of Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2011;23(144):1-15. Abstract

The management of indigenous pigs in rural villages of Busia and Kakamega district, Western Kenya, is discussed. Data on husbandry practices, challenges and farmers knowledge on T. solium taeniosis / cysticercosis were gathered using questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews. Pigs were examined for cysticercosis using the lingual palpation method. Data were managed in Stata®.

Majority of the farmers were aged 30-50 years (44%), and were mostly women (69%). Years of pig keeping experience was higher in Kakamega (11.4±8.7) than it was in Busia (6.3±5.6) (P<0.05). Pork (31%) and beef (51%) were the most preferred meat types in the villages. Families owned an average of 0.94±0.81 hectares of land. The mean number of pigs owned per farm was 5.0 (±3.4), 1.8 (±1.2) and 1.5 (±0.9) for the pre-weaned, growing and adult pig categories, respectively. Constraints faced by the farmers included feeding (65%), diseases (46%), fewer breeding boars (60 %), poor profits (61%) and conflicts with neighbours (53%). Parasite control was poor. The majority of farmers (73%) had no pig house. These farmers either lacked skills to build the houses (11%; 23/209) or had no money to purchase construction materials (45%; 93/209). Tethering of pigs was frequent (>50%) during the planting (91%; 263 / 290), growing (90%; 263 / 290) and crop harvesting seasons (78%; 227 / 290). Prevalence of pig cysticercosis was 4.5%. Piglets were significantly cheaper in Busia (Ksh 509±57) than in Kakamega (Ksh 777±174) (P<0.05). Indigenous pig management in Western Kenya is reportedly poor. Improved knowledge coupled with changes in local husbandry practices would improve productivity, increase family incomes and safeguard the community from potential health risks associated with pig rearing.

F. M. A. Butt, M. L. Chindia RMFFG. "Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIVinfected patients in Kenya." Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 2008;37:907-911.head_and_neck_maniferstations_of_hiv_2008.pdf
and F. M. A. BUTT, Lecturer BDS(UN) FDSRCS(E) MDS-OMFS(UN)1 GUTHUAPDBDS(UN) MMEDS(H)SW. "Early outcome of three cases of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy." Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 2009;37:434-437.dec_progonoma_2009.pdf
F. Mwaura, Mavuti KM, and Wamicha WN. "Biodiversity characteristics of small high altitude tropical man-made reservoirs in the eastern Rift Valley, Kenya." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management. 2002;7:1-12.
F.A. O. Studies on occurrence, Transmission of camel trypanosomiasis in Northern Kenya,. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1989.
F.G M, Anne N. Educational Policy and Planning. NAIROBI: KTTC-VVOB; 2004.
F.G. M, Wagaiyu EG, EM N, Gathece L, Mutara LN, T.K M. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly in Nairobi popolation.". 2008.
F.G. M, Gathece LW, Wagaiyu EG, T.K M, E.K N, W. GS. "Oral Hygiene practices and Risk of oral Leukoplakia.". 2006.
F.G. M, S.W. G, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
F.G. M, Gathece LW, Guthua SW, Njeru EK, Wagaiyu EG. "Oral Hygiene practices and Risk of oral Leukoplakia.". 2006.
F.G. M, Ogwell AEO, Dimba EAO, Komu P. "cigarette smoking and oral health among health care students.". 2009.
F.G. M, odhiambo A W, Akama MK, W. GS. "Maxillofacial injuries caused by terorrist bomb attack in Nairobi.". 2001.
F.Kibegwa, Githui K, J.O.Jung'a, M.S.Badamana. "Mitochondrial DNA variation and maternal lineage of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo Counties of Kenya." ISSN 0931-2668. 2015;1-10.
F.Kibegwa M, Githui KE, Junga JO, Badamana MS, Nyamu MN. "Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo counties of Kenya." Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 2015:1-10.
F.N MJA, Kibera. "The influence of service quality management practices on the performance of Hotel firms in Kenya." European Scientific Journals. 2015;11:315-336. Abstract
n/a
F.N K. " “A Critical Review of Communication Theory”, ." Journal of African Management. 1982:2-8.
F.N. K. " The Impact of Print Communication of the Adoption of Innovations by Kenyan Farmers”." Nairobi Journal of Management, University of Nairobi. 1996;1(2):183-193.
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E..N.Kioko, P. N. Ndegwa, C.L. Häuser. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests.". In: In: Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya), pp. 47-61. Brandenburg, Germany: Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft; 2008. Abstract

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E.N. Kioko, Ndegwa PN, C.L. Häuser, L.Kühn. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica (Drury, 1773) in Kakamega Forest National Reserve (KFNR) Kenya." Metamorphosis. 2008;18(4):142-143. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

F.O. Ayuke, N.K. Karanja, E.M. Muya, B.K. Musombi, Mungatu J, Nyamasyo GHN. "Macrofauna diversity and abundance across land use systems in Embu, Kenya." Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems,. 2009:371-384.
F.W N, B.O A, Hilonga. "Organic Binders To enhance Fuel Efficiency Of Charcoal Stoves (JIKOS) and in Water Filters.". In: 7TH International Conference of the Africa Materials research Society (A-MRS). Addis Ababa, Ethopia; 2013.juami_conference_presentation_2013.pdf
F.W. Nyongesa, Rahbar N, Obwoya SK, Zimba J, Aduda BO, Soboyejo WO. "An Investigation of Thermal Shock in Porous Clay Ceramics." International Scholarly Research Network. 2011:9. Abstract

The thermal shock resistance of porous ceramic materials is often characterized by the Hasselman parameters. However, in other
scenarios, the room-temperature residual strengths after thermal shock are also used to quantify the damage due to thermal shock.
This paper attempts to link the measured residual strengths to the dominant crack features that are introduced due to thermalshock in porous clay ceramics produced by the sintering of clay powders with well-controlled size ranges. Residual strength estimates from bend tests are compared with fracture mechanics predictions. The implications of the residual strength results are then discussed for the characterization of damage due to thermal shock.

F.W.Mugo. "Relationship Between Household Food Access and Feeding Habits." Research journali.com. 2015.
FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
Fagiolini M, Pizzorusso T, Berardi N, Domenici L, Maffei L. "Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: dark rearing and monocular deprivation." Vision research. 1994;34:709-720. Abstract

Postnatal development of rat visual cortical functions was studied by recording extracellularly from the primary visual cortex of 22 animals ranging in age from postnatal day 17 (P17) to P45. We found that in the youngest animals (P17-P19) all visual cortical functions tested were immature. Selectivity for orientation and movement direction of visual stimuli was almost absent, most cells received binocular input and their mean receptive field size was 5-6 times the adult size. Visual acuity was half its adult value. These functional properties developed gradually during the following weeks and by P45 they were all adult-like. This functional development is affected by manipulations of the visual input such as dark rearing (DR) and monocular deprivation (MD). DR prevented the normal postnatal maturation of visual cortical functions: in P60 rats, dark reared from birth, their visual cortical functions resembled those of P19-P21 rats. MD from P15 to P45 resulted in a dramatic shift of the ocular dominance distribution (ODD) in favour of the open eye and in a loss of visual acuity for the deprived eye. To determine the sensitive period of rat visual cortex to MD (critical period) we evaluated the shift in ODD of visual cortical neurones in rats that were subjected to the progressive delay of the onset of fixed MD period (10 days). Our results show that the critical period begins around the end of the third postnatal week, peaks between the fourth and fifth week and starts to decline from the end of the fifth week.

Fagiolini M, Fritschy J-M, Löw K, Möhler H, Rudolph U, Hensch TK. "Specific {GABAA} circuits for visual cortical plasticity." Science (New York, N.Y.). 2004;303:1681-1683. Abstract

Weak inhibition within visual cortex early in life prevents experience-dependent plasticity. Loss of responsiveness to an eye deprived of vision can be initiated prematurely by enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated transmission with benzodiazepines. Here, we use a mouse "knockin" mutation to alpha subunits that renders individual GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors insensitive to diazepam to show that a particular inhibitory network controls expression of the critical period. Only alpha1-containing circuits were found to drive cortical plasticity, whereas alpha2-enriched connections separately regulated neuronal firing. This dissociation carries implications for models of brain development and the safe design of benzodiazepines for use in infants.

Fagiolini M, Pizzorusso T, Berardi N, Domenici L, Maffei L. "Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: {Dark} rearing and monocular deprivation." Vision Research. 1994;34:709-720. AbstractWebsite

Postnatal development of rat visual cortical functions was studied by recording extracellularly from the primary visual cortex of 22 animals ranging in age from postnatal day 17 (PIT) to P45. We found that in the youngest animals (P17-P19) all visual cortical functions tested were immature. Selectivity for orientation and movement direction of visual stimuli was almost absent, most cells received binocular input and their mean receptive field size was 5–6 times the adult size. Visual acuity was half its adult value. These functional properties developed gradually during the following weeks and by P45 they were all adult-like. This functional development is affected by manipulations of the visual input such as dark rearing (DR) and monocular deprivation (MD). DR prevented the normal postnatal maturation of visual cortical functions: in P60 rats, dark reared from birth, their visual cortical functions resembled those of P19–P21 rats. MD from P15 to P45 resulted in a dramatic shift of the ocular dominance distribution (ODD) in favour of the open eye and in a loss of visual acuity for the deprived eye. To determine the sensitive period of rat visual cortex to MD (critical period) we evaluated the shift in ODD of visual cortical neurones in rats that were subjected to the progressive delay of the onset of fixed MD period (10 days). Our results show that the critical period begins around the end of the third postnatal week, peaks between the fourth and fifth week and starts to decline from the end of the fifth week.

Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. "Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1992;12:3554-3567. Abstract

Injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into the eye, intravitreally or subretinally, delays photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, as does local injury to the retina (Faktorovich et al., 1990). To determine whether this heparin-binding peptide or local injury is effective in any other form of photoreceptor degeneration, we examined their protective roles in light damage. Albino rats of the F344 strain were exposed to 1 or 2 weeks of constant fluorescent light (115-200 footcandles), either with or without 1 microliter of bFGF solution (1150 ng/microliters in PBS) injected intravitreally or subretinally 2 d before the start of light exposure. Uninjected and intravitreally PBS-injected controls showed the loss of a majority of photoreceptor nuclei and the loss of most inner and outer segments after 1 week of light exposure, while intravitreal injection of bFGF resulted in significant photoreceptor rescue. The outer nuclear layer in bFGF-injected eyes was two to three times thicker than in controls, and the inner and outer segments showed a much greater degree of integrity. Following recovery in cyclic light for 10 d after 1 week of constant light exposure, bFGF-injected eyes showed much greater regeneration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments than did the controls. bFGF also increased the incidence of presumptive macrophages, located predominantly in the inner retina, but the evidence suggests they are not directly involved in photoreceptor rescue. Subretinal injection of bFGF resulted in photoreceptor rescue throughout most of the superior hemisphere in which the injection was made, with rescue extending into the inferior hemisphere in many of the eyes. Remarkably, the insertion of a dry needle or injection of PBS into the subretinal space also resulted in widespread photoreceptor rescue, extending through 70% or more of the superior hemisphere, and sometimes into the inferior hemispheres. This implicates the release and widespread diffusion of some endogenous survival-promoting factor from the site of injury in the retina. Our findings indicate that the photoreceptor rescue activity of bFGF is not restricted to inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, and that light damage is an excellent model for studying the cellular site(s), kinetics, and molecular mechanisms of both the normal function of bFGF and its survival-promoting activity. Moreover, the injury-related rescue suggests that survival-promoting factors are readily available to provide a protective role in case of injury to the retina, presumably comparable to those that mediate the "conditioning lesion" effect in other neuronal systems.

Falk E, Thim T, Kristensen IB. "Atherosclerotic plaque, adventitia, perivascular fat, and carotid imaging." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:183-186. Abstract
n/a
Falkenstrom F, Gee MG, Kuria MW, Othieno CJ, Kumar M. "Improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy in two public hospitals in Nairobi." BJP Psych. International. 2017;14(3).
Fanuel Mugwang'a Keheze, Karimi Mwangi Patrick, Walter N, WAITA SEBASTIAN. Copper Based Solar Cell Materials. London: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2013.
Farah Z;, Meyer J;, Wangoh J;, Eberhard P;, Gallmann P;, Rehberger. B. "Effect of Ultra - High - Temperature treatments on camel milk.".; 2010.
FARAH DRIBRAHIM. "SOMALIA: TWENTY YEARS AFTER.". 2010.
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor AA;, Ngugi RK, Musimba1 NK. "The Socio-economic and Ecological Impacts of Small-scale Irrigation Schemes on Pastoralists and Drylands in Northern Kenya."; 2001. Abstract

ABSTRACT Northern Kenya, as in other sub-Saharan arid and semi-arid regions, has faced challenges related to the prevailing socio-economy, ecology and polity in the last quarter of last century. In some of these areas, pastoralists have been settled on the peri-urban fringes of towns and have been exposed to flood-retreat cultivation; a culture that has been traditionally practised by the riverine Bantu communities. From the late 1960s these pastoralists started irrigation agriculture with assistance from the government and nongovernmental organisations. The outcome has been the mushrooming of irrigation schemes along rivers. This paper looks at the development of small-scale irrigation schemes and their sustainability. It also analyses their socio-economic and ecological effects on pastoral households and the drylands, taking Garissa District as a case. Interviews, a questionnaire and existing literature on irrigation schemes were used to collect data. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the socio-economic effects of irrigation on the pastoral households. The results show that irrigation farming plays a supplementary role in pastoral economies, takes away child labour from pastoralism and reduces pastoral mobility. The implication is that irrigation farming in arid areas does not seem to offer a long-term sustainable economic livelihood.

Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the camel: Ecology, management and economics."; 2004.
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics.". 2004. Abstractabstract7.pdfWebsite

The Somali are one of the multi-state communities of Eastern Africa. Somalia is their main state, but they also occupy a large part of Djibuoti, northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rangelands, loosely referred to as arid and semiarid lands (ASAL). Unpredictable rainfall, long periods of drought, limited water, and inadequate knowledge and technology of water resource management characterize the ASAL. There is also rapid population growth, coupled with low or declining real incomes, low nutritional levels, serious environmental degradation, and the externalities of modernization and economic development (Darkoh, 1996). Somali pastoralists are a camel community mainly because of the dry and harsh environment they live in; pastoralists, by definition, being those who primarily derive their living from the management of livestock on rangelands (Prior, 1994). There is no other community in the world where the camel plays such a pivotal role in the local economy and culture as in the Somali community. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1979) estimates, there are approximately 15 million dromedary camels in the world, of which 65% are found in the northeast African states of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya. The Somali community (in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia) has the largest population and highest density of camels in the world, and to the same extent this animal also pervades the Somali culture. Historically, the geographical area that is now Somalia may have been a focal point in the introduction and dispersal of the domesticated dromedary (Abokor, 1993). The possession of a certain amount of livestock and of physical strength are the primary requirements for survival and success in the demanding environment of Somali pastoral nomads. The climatic and geographic conditions prompt the Somali pastoral nomads to pursue animal husbandry with constant movement from place to place in search of better pasture and water. This economic system in part determines social relations and institutions and creates a division of labour whereby tasks essential for survival are allocated to particular groups of people. The camel is an important livestock species uniquely adapted to hot and arid environments (Schwartz, 1992) and therefore contributes significantly to the food security of the nomadic pastoral households. This unique adaptability makes it ideal for exploitation under the ASAL conditions. The contribution of camels to the human welfare of developing countries, including Kenya, is generally obscured by a combination of several factors, which tend to underestimate their true value. Firstly, the estimates of camel populations are usually inaccurate due to lack of regular census. Secondly, their products seldom enter a formal marketing system; thus their contribution to subsistence and the national economy tends to be grossly underestimated. As a consequence, less attention has been given to camel improvements for many years when planning national development. For example, the major livestock development effort in Kenya between 1969 and 1982 (funded by the European Community) aimed at developing range areas completely ignored the camel (Njiru, 1993). In Somali occupied northern Kenya, camels are raised under traditional management systems. However, the changing socio-economic and environmental conditions are leading to a change in pastoral production systems from mainly subsistence towards market orientation. Generally, there are few practical, result-oriented studies on camel production. Wilson and Bourzat (1988) stated that the vast amount of research in the last two decades has contributed little to increased productivity. This has been attributed to the fact that most studies have had little general application to the practical aspects of camel production under pastoral production systems. Pastoral camel production is under pressure because of multiple changes in the production environment. Increasing human population pressure on pastoral grazing areas and the economic implications resulting from diseases and lack of veterinary services are some of the factors that adversely affect traditional camel production. Additionally, reproductive performance is low in camels due to late first parturition, long parturition intervals, and high calf mortality. Improvement of the reproductive performance and reduction of animal losses by management measures that are applicable to a mobile system appear to offer possibilities of increasing camel productivity and capacity to support the increasing human population. An adequate understanding of traditional camel production practices forms the foundation upon which improvement and innovations could be based. Using Moyale District as a case, this study was carried out in order to understand the status of traditional camel production systems of the Somali camel keeping pastoralists.

FARAH DRIBRAHIM. "DEEGAAN, POLITICS AND WAR IN SOMALIA."; 2002.
Farbman AI, Brunjes PC, Rentfro L, Michas J, Ritz S. "The effect of unilateral naris occlusion on cell dynamics in the developing rat olfactory epithelium." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1988;8:3290-3295. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral naris occlusion on the cellular dynamics of developing olfactory epithelium was investigated in postnatal rats. Nares of rat pups, at 1, 5, and 10 d postnatally, were cauterized; after a 30 d survival period, the olfactory mucosa was examined histologically, and quantitative estimates were made of total number of receptor neurons (together with basal cells), supporting cells, and epithelial thickness. In each group, there were significant differences between occluded and patent sides in total numbers of neurons and in epithelial thickness but no difference in number of supporting cells. The differences were greater in the animals that had been occluded for 1–30 d than in the 5–35 or 10–40 d groups, suggesting that the earlier postnatal days are more sensitive to the effects of occlusion. We evaluated the number of mature olfactory neurons by staining immunohistochemically with an antibody against olfactory marker protein. There were no differences in the number of mature receptor neurons between the occluded and non-occluded sides, indicating the effect of naris occlusion was on the neurons in the immature and/or the “almost mature” population. Using 3H-thymidine autoradiography, we determined that there was a 40% reduction in the rate of neurogenesis in the animals occluded 1–30 d after birth. Further, the rate of cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium declined by approximately the same amount.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Farci, P; Osidiana MRZFJTWGV; CN;, et al. "Hepatitis delta virus infection in Kenya. Its geographic and tribal distribution.". 1986. Abstract

In 1982-1984, an epidemiologic survey of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in circulating blood (HBs-antigenemia) and of hepatitis delta virus infection was performed in Kenya. The distributions of hepatitis B virus and the delta virus were shown to be very variable. In southern Kenya, only two of 202 sera from HBsAg-positive individuals with no known liver disease and none from 123 HBsAg-positive patients with hepatitis B-related liver disease were positive for delta antibody. In contrast, in northern Kenya, there was an overall prevalence of delta antibody in healthy individuals of 31%. The distribution of delta infection is discussed in relation to lifestyle, ethnic group, and geographic area.

Faria PJ, Kavembe GD, Jung'a JO, Kimwele CN, Estes LD, Reilo PR, Mwangi AG, Bruford MW. "The use of non-invasive molecular techniques to confirm the presence of mountain bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci populations in Kenya and preliminary inference of their mitochondrial genetic variation." Conserv Genet. 2011;10. AbstractWebsite

The mountain bongo antelope Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci has rapidly declined in recent decades, due to a combination of hunting, habitat degradation and disease. Endemic to Kenya, mountain bongo populations have shrunk to approximately 100 individuals now mainly confined to the Aberdares mountain ranges. Indirect observation of bongo signs (e.g. tracks, dung) can be misleading, thus methods to ensure reliable species identification, such as DNA-based techniques, are necessary to effectively study and monitor this species. We assessed bongo presence in four mountain habitats in Kenya (Mount Kenya National Park, Aberdare National Park, Eburu and Mau forests) and carried out a preliminary analysis of genetic variation by examining 466 bp of the first domain of the mtDNA control region using DNA extracted from faecal samples. Of the 201 dung samples collected in the field, 102 samples were molecularly identified as bongo, 97 as waterbuck, one as African buffalo and one as Aders’ duiker. Overall species-identification accuracy by experienced trackers was 64%, with very high error of commission when identifying bongo sign (37%), and high error of omission for waterbuck sign (82%), suggesting that the two species’ signs are easily confused. Despite high variation in the mtDNA control region in most antelope species, our results suggest low genetic variation in mountain bongo as only two haplotypes were detected in 102 samples analyzed. In contrast, the analysis of 63 waterbuck samples from the same sites revealed 21 haplotypes. Nevertheless, further examination using nuclear DNA markers (e.g. microsatellites) in a multi-locus approach is still required, especially because the use of mitochondrial DNA can result in population overestimation as distinct dung samples can potentially be originated from the same individual.

Faridah H Were, Moturi CM, Wafula GA. "Chromium Exposure and Related Health Effects among Tannery Workers in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2014;4(7):25-35. Abstract

Background. There is increasing concern over the health effects of chromium (Cr) exposure stemming from various activities in tanneries in Kenya. Chromium is a toxic metal in its hexavalent form, and is widely used in the tanning process. Objectives. A detailed exposure assessment of Cr and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya was performed. Methods. Spot urine and 8-hour full-shift personal breathing zone air samples of the workers (N = 40) and control group (N = 40) were collected and subsequently analyzed for total Cr using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The medical history, respiratory, and dermatological condition of each of the selected workers was determined. Lung function was further investigated using a spirometer. Results. Tannery workers in various production lines had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean airborne Cr levels (± standard deviation [SD] of 63.0±11.6 µg/m3) compared to those in the control group (1.39±0.64 µg/m3), and general workers had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cr (66.8±13.1 µg/m3) than those in other lines of production. A significant positive association (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001) was also observed between urinary and breathing zone air Cr levels. Mean urinary Cr level exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists biological exposure index for Cr of 30 µg/g creatinine, and 78% of Cr levels of the general workers exceeded this limit. Tannery workers showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms (30% and 20%, respectively) compared to the control group (10% and 7.5%, respectively). It was further established that production workers had significantly reduced ventilatory function, with 17% experiencing pulmonary obstruction, 13% pulmonary restriction, and 7.5% both manifestations compared to 5% for each of the listed corresponding manifestations in the control group. Conclusions. Our study revealed inadequate engineering controls, work practices and personal hygiene, together with improper management of tannery wastes that has led to considerable exposures to Cr and related health effects among workers.

Key Words. Kenya; developing country; chromium; tannery workers; adverse health effects; respiratory diseases; dermatological condition

Faridah H Were, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation using bamboo to reduce the risk of chromium exposure from a contaminated tannery site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;7(16):12-25. AbstractJournal of Health and Pollution

Description
Background. This study examines an intervention strategy to reduce the risk of chromium (Cr) exposure. It follows a previous Cr exposure investigation, which revealed that large volumes of Cr-contaminated waste were burnt on site. The study site had a long history of land-based waste disposal since 1994.
Objective. The potential for phytoremediation using bamboo species to restore Cr-contaminated soil was evaluated.
Methods. Chromium levels and physico-chemical properties of the tannery and control soils were analyzed before transplanting six different bamboo species. Translocation, bio-concentration and bioaccumulation factors of the species were assessed for phytoremediation capabilities.
Results. Chromium levels in the tannery soils ranged from 1337.0 to 3398.0 mg/kg dw. The chromium levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control soils (0.20 to 2.34 mg/kg dw) and …

Faridah H Were, M CM, Wafula GA. "Respiratory Diseases Due to Occupational Exposure to Nickel and Chromium among Factory Workers in Kenya." Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education. 2013;3(7):1-7. AbstractWebsite

Inhalation of airborne nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) in workplaces causes a variety of respiratory ailments which
adversely affects the productivity of employees. A study was therefore conducted on production workers (N=233) from
six different types industrial plants, to investigate the influence of Ni and Cr exposure on their respiratory systems.
Breathing zone air and urinary samples were collected, and analyzed for total Ni and Cr using atomic absorption
spectroscopy. The medical history of the workers was obtained using questionnaires. Their lung functions were further
examined using a spirometer. Mean (± standard deviation) breathing zone air of 23.4 ± 11.6 μg/m3 Cr and 10.3 ± 4.3 μg/
m3 Ni was highest among the tanners and welders, respectively. The mean level of 35.2 ± 12.1 Cr and 28.4 ± 7.8 Ni in
μg/g creatinine were also highest in the urine of corresponding workers. A significant (P<0.01) correlation of r=0.86 Cr
and r=0.89 Ni was observed between airborne and urinary levels in all production workers. Approximately 26.6% of the
workers had respiratory diseases that were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, sneezing attacks among
other related symptoms. Most of these workers were welders, tanners and, to lesser extent, paint manufacturers. The
breathing zone air of the afflicted workers had significantly (P<0.05) high mean levels of 6.4 ± 4.4 μg/m3 Ni and 9.6 ±
5.3 μg/m3 Cr than those who were not affected (3.9 ± 3.2 μg/m3 Ni and 4.4 ± 3.8 μg/m3 Cr). A high proportion of the
workers had reduced ventilatory function measurements. We recommend comprehensive assessment of Cr and Ni in
related industries with significant exposures. Designing and developing of training programs and educative manuals
on safety and health procedures, and regular medical surveillance is also recommended.

Faridah H Were, Moturi CM, Wafula GA. "Chromium exposure and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya." Journal of Health Pollution. 2014;4(7):25-35. AbstractJournal of Health Pollution

Description
Background. There is increasing concern over the health effects of chromium (Cr) exposure stemming from various activities in tanneries in Kenya. Chromium is a toxic metal in its hexavalent form, and is widely used in the tanning process.
Objectives. A detailed exposure assessment of Cr and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya was performed.
Methods. Spot urine and 8-hour full-shift personal breathing zone air samples of the workers (N = 40) and control group (N = 40) were collected and subsequently analyzed for total Cr using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The medical history, respiratory, and dermatological condition of each of the selected workers was determined. Lung function was further investigated using a spirometer.
Results. Tannery workers in various production lines had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean airborne Cr levels (± standard deviation [SD] of 63.0±11.6 μg …

Faridah H Were, M Charles Moturi, P Gottesfeld, Wafula GA, Kamau GN, Shiundu PM. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene. 2014;11(11):706-715. AbstractWebsite

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m3 in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m3 in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m3 in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m3 in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m3 in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m3 in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m3 in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R2 = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.

Faridah H Were, Njue WM, Murungi J, Wanjau R. "Comparison of Some Essential and Heavy Metals in the Toenails and Fingernails of School-Age Children in Kenya." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009;23(1):117-122. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes the determination of the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn),
calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in the toenails and fingernails of children under the age of six years in urban and rural
areas in Kenya by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead levels in urban areas ranged from 8.0-49.0 μg/g in
fingernails and 7.0-62.0 μg/g in toenails as compared to those in rural areas (5.0-36.5 μg/g and 5.5-31.5 μg/g,
respectively). A similar trend was observed for Cd where significantly high levels were found in children in urban
areas than those in rural areas. The Fe and Zn levels were significantly higher in children in rural areas than those
in the urban areas. The levels of all the metals studied were higher in the toenails except for Fe and Ca where the
levels were higher in fingernails; however, the difference in the levels was not significant. These results indicate
that either the toenails or fingernails can be used as a reference for levels of metals environmental exposure.

Farquhar C, Nathanson N. "The Afya Bora Consortium: an Africa-US partnership to train leaders in global health." Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.. 2011;25(2):399-409. Abstract

The Afya Bora Consortium is a partnership of 8 academic health institutions, 4 in Africa and 4 in the United States. The Consortium is developing a Global Health Leadership Fellowship for medical, nursing, and public health professionals, largely drawn from the 4 African partner countries. The fellowship provides trainees with practical skills to prepare them for future positions leading the design, implementation, and evaluation of large, high-impact programs in governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and academic health institutions in their own countries. This article describes a Pilot of the proposed program.

Farquhar C, STEWART GRACEC, John FN, Kabura MN, Kiarie JN. "Pediatric HIV Type 1 Vaccine Trial Acceptability among Mothers in Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Vaccination of infants against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Successful trials and immunization efforts will depend on the willingness of individuals to participate in pediatric vaccine research and acceptance of infant HIV-1 vaccines. In a cross-sectional study, pregnant women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic for routine care were interviewed regarding their attitudes toward participation in research studies and HIV-1 vaccine acceptability for their infants. Among 805 women, 782 (97%) reported they would vaccinate their infant against HIV-1 and 729 (91%) reported willingness to enroll their infant in a research study. However, only 644 (80%) would enroll their infants if HIV1 testing was required every 3 months and 513 (64%) would agree to HIV-1 vaccine trial participation. Reasons for not wanting to enroll in a pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trial included concerns about side effects (75%), partner objection (34%), and fear of discrimination (10%), HIV-1 acquisition (8%), or false-positive HIV-1 results (5%). The strongest correlate of pediatric vaccine trial participation was maternal willingness to be a vaccine trial participant herself; in univariate and multivariate models this was associated with a 17-fold increased likelihood of participation (HR 17.1; 95% CI 11.7–25; p 0.001). We conclude from these results that immunizing infants against HIV-1 and participation in pediatric vaccine trials are generally acceptable to women at high risk for HIV-1 infection. It will be important to address barriers identified in this study and to include male partners when mobilizing communities for pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trials and immunization programs.

Farquhar C, Newman LP, Mashalla Y, O'Malley G, Odero T, Gachuno O. "Theresa Mary Awuor Odero Theresa Mary Awuor Odero The Afya Bora Fellowship in Global Health Leadership: dual mentorship to strengthen the next generation of African health leaders." Annals of Global Health. 2015;81(1):25. AbstractWebsite

Mentorship is critical to develop effective leaders. The Afya Bora Fellowship in Global Health Leadership program, a consortium of four African and four US universities formed in 2008, has incorporated a robust dual mentorship component into its training of over 70 fellows. Each Fellow was assigned two mentors to guide professional growth over the fellowship period. Here, we evaluate 39 Fellows' experiences with their mentors between 2012 and 2014, and identify how these relationships prepare Fellows to lead major health programs

Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC, John FN, Kabura MN, Kiarie JN. "Pediatric HIV type 1 vaccine trial acceptability among mothers in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2006;22(6):491-5. Abstract

Vaccination of infants against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Successful trials and immunization efforts will depend on the willingness of individuals to participate in pediatric vaccine research and acceptance of infant HIV-1 vaccines. In a cross-sectional study, pregnant women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic for routine care were interviewed regarding their attitudes toward participation in research studies and HIV-1 vaccine acceptability for their infants. Among 805 women, 782 (97%) reported they would vaccinate their infant against HIV-1 and 729 (91%) reported willingness to enroll their infant in a research study. However, only 644 (80%) would enroll their infants if HIV- 1 testing was required every 3 months and 513 (64%) would agree to HIV-1 vaccine trial participation. Reasons for not wanting to enroll in a pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trial included concerns about side effects (75%), partner objection (34%), and fear of discrimination (10%), HIV-1 acquisition (8%), or false-positive HIV-1 results (5%). The strongest correlate of pediatric vaccine trial participation was maternal willingness to be a vaccine trial participant herself; in univariate and multivariate models this was associated with a 17-fold increased likelihood of participation (HR 17.1; 95% CI 11.7-25; p < 0.001). We conclude from these results that immunizing infants against HIV-1 and participation in pediatric vaccine trials are generally acceptable to women at high risk for HIV-1 infection. It will be important to address barriers identified in this study and to include male partners when mobilizing communities for pediatric HIV-1 vaccine trials and immunization programs.

Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R, Bermudez C, Mbori-Ngacha D, Lohman-Payne B, Nduati R, Otieno P, John-Stewart G. "Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya.". 2008.
Farquhar C;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Overbaugh J;, Wamalwa D;, Harris J;, Bosire R;, John-Stewart G. "Illness during pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis are associated with in-utero HIV-1 transmission.". 2010. Abstract

HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20-30% of vertical transmission events in breast-feeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in-utero HIV-1 transmission [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.8] and bacterial vaginosis with a three-fold increase (95% CI 1.0-7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of transmission during pregnancy

Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;37(5):1620-6. Abstract

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions.

Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Harris J, Bosire R, G. J-S. "Illness during pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis are associated with in-utero HIV-1 transmission." AIDS. 2010 Jan 2;24(1):153-5. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832326d8.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20-30% of vertical transmission events in breast-feeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in-utero HIV-1 transmission [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.8] and bacterial vaginosis with a three-fold increase (95% CI 1.0-7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of transmission during pregnancy.

Farquhar C, Selig S, John-Stewart G, Mabuka J, Majiwa M, Sutton W, Haigwood N, Wariua G L-PB. "Immune responses to measles and tetanus vaccines among Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy and revaccination." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Apr;28(4):295-9. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181903ed3. 14. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
: HIV-1-infected children have lower response rates after measles and tetanus immunization than uninfected children. We determined the extent to which highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) augments vaccine immunity and promotes responses to revaccination.
METHODS:
: Previously immunized, antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected children were evaluated for immunity against measles and tetanus. After 6 months on HAART, children meeting CD4% criteria (>15%) who were persistently antibody negative were revaccinated and immunity was reassessed.
RESULTS:
: At enrollment, among 90 children with mean age of 4.9 years, 67% had negative measles IgG and 22% negative tetanus IgG. Among 62 children completing 6 months on HAART, 17 (40%) of 43 without protective measles IgG converted and 10 (53%) of 19 positive children lost measles responses (P = 0.3). Children who lost responses had significantly lower measles antibody concentrations than those who remained measles IgG positive during follow-up (7.1 vs. 20.3 mg/mL; P = 0.003). Three (23%) of 13 children negative for tetanus IgG spontaneously seroconverted on HAART, while 15 (31%) of 49 children lost tetanus antibody (P = 0.008). There was a nonsignificant trend for an association between spontaneous measles seroconversion and lower baseline HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.06). Tetanus seroconversion was associated with older age (P = 0.03). After revaccination, positive responses were observed in 78% and 75% of children reimmunized against measles and tetanus, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
: After 6 months of HAART, more than half of previously immunized children still lacked positive measles antibody. With increased use of HAART in pediatric populations, revaccination against measles and tetanus should be considered to boost response rates and immunization coverage.

Farquhar C, Nduati RW, JN. W. "Ethical Obligations in Short-Term Global Health Clinical Experiences: The Devil Is in the Details." Ann Intern Med.. 2018; 1;(168(9):):672-673.
Fawzia A, Karuri EG, Hagenimana V. "Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production costs in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup sauce made by substituting tomatoes with sweet potatoes. The final product, in which up to 80% tomatoes were substituted with sweet potato, was found to be organoleptically acceptable in Nairobi, Kenya. The yellow flesh colour of the sweet potato had a good influence on the final consumer preference of the product. Adding sweet potato to the ketchup formulation had little influence on the final pH, which ranged from 3.8 to 4.1. Titratable acidity values ranged from 0.36 to 0.60 g (acetic acid) per 100 g sauce. Shelf life test indicated that ketchup sauce incorporating sweet potato could safely be stored for 2 to 3 months. The addition of sweet potato in the ketchup formulation significantly reduced the production cost of the sauce.

and Fawzia M. A. Butt, BDS(UoN) FDSRCS(ENG) MDS-OMFS(UN) JO’o BS(UN) MBCBPD(UN) JBBDS(UN)* *. "Pattern of Odontogenic and Nonodontogenic Cysts." Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2011;22:2160-2162.nonodontogenic_cyst_and_odontogenic_cyst_2011.pdf
Fawzia M. Afrid Butt1*, Julius Ogengo1 JB2 MC3 ED4 EW5LAO. "A 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2012;2:54-59.benign_tumours_2012.pdf
Fawzia M.A. Butt, BDS FDSRCSMDS-OMFSSWGBDSMMEDSDOMSFCSFIAOMSPNBDSMDSPD* Þ. "One-Stage Treatment of Acquired Facial Deformity Caused by Severe Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia: A Case Report." Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2011;22:5.accepted_cmj_2011.pdf
Fawzia M.A. Butt, BDS FDSRCSMDS-OMFSSWGBDSMMEDSDOMSFCSFIAOMSPNBDSMDSPD* Þ. "One-Stage Treatment of Acquired Facial Deformity Caused by Severe Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia: A Case Report." Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2011;22:5.accepted_cmj_2011.pdf
Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
n/a
FB A, PM M, PI M, J O’o. "Variant anatomy of the jugular Foramen: An osteological study." Academia Anatomica International. 2016;2(2):38-43. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_jugular_foramen_an_osteolog.pdf

Background:
Jugular foramen lesions are among the major complications
of skull base surgery. Morphological variations in the structure are pertinent
during interpretation of skull base radiographs and in surgical procedures
within the foramen. This study therefore aimed at describing the
morphology of the jugular foramen in a Kenyan population.
Methods:
One
hundred and five adult skulls from the Nairobi National Museums were
used. Jugular foramen septation, dome and dimen sions were studie d
extracranially. Statisti cal analysis was performed using SPSS (Version
21.1 IBM).
Results:
Septation was present in 202 (96.2%) jugular
foramina, type I partial septation being the most common (78.7%). A
dome was observed in 81 (38.6%) jugular foramina. Respectively, the
mean right and left anteroposterior dimensions were 11.17
±
2.05mm
vs.8.88
±
2.30mm (p <0.001), mediolateral dimensions 17.47
±
2.18mm vs.
15.30
±
2.53mm (p <0.001), jugular dome depth 12.38
±
2.64 mm vs.
11.25
±
2.15 mm (p=0.054), posterior wall thickness7.95
±
2.20mm vs.
9.68
±
1.98mm (p <0.001) and medial wall thickness 3.73
±
1.10 mm vs.
3.73
±
0.98mm (p = 0.992).
Conclusion:
Partial septation, asymmetry in
dimensions and a wide range in the dome depth of the jugular foramen
were frequent. Preoperative imaging of jugular foramen morphology is
therefore recommended to avoid inadvertent injury to its contents and
surrounding structures owing to variability.

Fehr J, Hatz C, Soka I, Kibatala P, Urassa H, Battegay M, Jeffrey Z, Smith T, Mshinda H, Frei R, others. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infections in a rural sub-{Saharan} hospital." Clinical microbiology and infection. 2006;12:1224-1227. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Félix A-E, Calatayud P-A, LeRu B, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Ong’amo G, Silvain J-F, Frérot B. "To be or not to be a species: use of reproductive isolation experiments and genetic analysis to clarify the taxonomic status of two Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France . 2013;49(3):345-354. Abstract

Phylogenetic analysis combined with chemical ecology can contribute to the delimitation of closely related insect species, particularly in Lepidoptera. In this study, the taxonomic status of a species in the genus Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was discussed using morphological data, cross-mating experiments, sex pheromone chemistry, field-trapping, and molecular classification. The results of the chemical ecology experiments corroborated those from the phylogeny studies. It was concluded that several reproductive isolation components, namely host plants, geography, pheromone emission time, pheromone blend, and post-zygotic isolation factors, led to the separation of Busseola n. sp. from its closely related species B. segeta. Molecular data showed a strong difference between these two species, regardless of the marker used. The new species named Busseola nairobica was morphologically described and a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of the studied species was put forward.

FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei. (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 29-33.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA. "P.M.F Mbithi, E.M. Njoroge, J.M.Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo, S. Njiru and E. Zeyhle (2005). Evaluation of Ethyl Alcohol in Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis using Puncture Aspiration Introduction Reaspiration (PAIR) Technique. Journal of Animal a.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA, K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua (1998). An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium-scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. J.S. Afr. Vet. Med. Ass. 69 (2) 61-64.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA, K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua (1998). An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium-scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. J.S. Afr. Vet. Med. Ass. 69 (2) 61-64.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference held at Kabete in August 1998. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Feller MB. "Visual system plasticity begins in the retina." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. Abstract

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Feller MB. "Visual {System} {Plasticity} {Begins} in the {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. AbstractWebsite

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Feng H, O. OL. "Multilevel Analysis of the Interconnection between Divorce and Labour Force Participation in Canada, 1931-1991." International Journal of Marriage and Family 1, 2: 12-23; 1996. Abstract
n/a
Feng H, O. OL. "Risk Factors Associated with High Birth Orders among Canadian Women." Canadian Studies in Popultion 2, 3: 8-19; 1996. Abstract
n/a
Ferdowsian HR, Durham DL, Kimwele C, Kranendonk G, Otali E, Akugizibwe T, Mulcahy JB, Ajarova L, Johnson CM. "Signs of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Chimpanzees.". 2011. Abstractabstract_signs_of_mood_and_anxiety_disorders_in_chimpanzees.pdf

In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders?

Ferren LG, Ward RL, Campbell BJ. "Monoanion inhibition and 35Cl nuclear magnetic resonance studies of renal dipeptidase." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5280-5. Abstract

Kinetic analyses of monoanion inhibition and 15Cl nuclear magnetic resonance at 5.88 MHz were employed to study monoanion interactions with the zinc metalloenzyme, renal dipeptidase. The enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycyldehydrophenylalanine exhibited competitive inhibition when the reaction rate was determined in the presence of the monovalent anions fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, azide, nitrate, or thiocyanate or upon the addition of the divalent anion, sulfate. Competitive inhibition was produced by these anions. One anion was bound per enzyme molecule, and except in the case of fluoride all of the anions appeared to bind at the same site. Cyanide ion produced a much more effective inhibition of renal dipeptidase than the other monoanions, and it was shown that two cyanide ions were bound per enzyme molecule. An investigation of the effect of pH upon monoanion inhibition suggested that the anion inhibitors bind to the group with a pK of approximately 7.8. Complete dissociation of this group (approximately pH 8.4) eliminates the inhibitory effect of anions. The 35Cl line broadening produced by renal dipeptidase in 0.5 M NaCl solutions was 100 times more effective than that produced by equivalent concentrations of aquozinc(II). The line broadening was dependent upon the concentration of the metalloenzyme and independent of the frequency of the exciting radiation. When zinc ion was removed from the metalloenzyme by dialysis or when chloride was titrated from the metalloenzyme by cyanide, line broadening was decreased. Treatment of renal dipeptidase with saturating concentrations of the competitive inhibitor, guanosine triphosphate, in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl also produced a significant decrease in the 35Cl line width. The 35Cl line broadening produced by renal dipeptidase was shown to decrease with increasing pH through the range pH 5.8-10.8. This line-width variation with pH appeared to result from the titration of a site on the metalloprotein with an approximate pK of 7.4. Temperature studies of 35Cl line broadening by the metalloenzyme in the presence of chloride and cyanide inhibitors suggest that the fast exchange process pertains and that the dominant relaxation mechanism is quadrupolar in nature.

Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Odida J, Custodio E. "Groundwater hydrodynamics of an Eastern Africa coastal aquifer during the recent La Niña 2016-17 drought." Science of The Total Environment. 2019;661:575-597. AbstractWebsite

In 2016–17 much of East Africa was affected by a severe drought which has been attributed to Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions. Extreme events such as this have immediate and knock-on effects on water availability for household, agricultural and industrial use. Groundwater resources can provide a buffer in times of drought, but may themselves be stressed by reduced recharge and increased usage, posing significant challenges to groundwater resource management. In the context of East Africa, groundwater management is also hampered by a lack of information on aquifer characteristics. With the aim of addressing this knowledge gap, this study shows the hydrogeological behaviour before and during La Niña 2016/17 drought in southern coastal Kenya on a groundwater system which sits within a geological structure which is representative of an important portion of the East African coast. Diverse hydrochemical and isotopic campaigns, as well as groundwater head variation measurements, were carried out to study the groundwater hydrodynamics and thus characterize the aquifer system under climatic conditions before and during the La Niña event. This information is complemented with an estimation of changes in local recharge since 2012 using local data sets. The main consequence of the drought was a 69% reduction of recharge compared to an average climatic year. There was reduced recharge during the first rainy season (April–June) and no recharge during the second wet season (October–December). There was a concurrent increase in seawater intrusion even during the wet season.

Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Katuva J, et al. "How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya?" Science of the Total Environment. 2019;694:133634. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

The industrialization process taking place in Africa has led to an overall increase in groundwater abstraction in most countries in the continent. However, the lack of hydrogeological data, as in many developing countries, makes it difficult to properly manage groundwater systems. This study presents a real case study in which a combination of different hydrogeological tools together with different sources of information allow the assessment of how increased competition for water may be affecting groundwater systems by analysing the sustainability of new abstraction regimes under different real climatic condition (before, during and after La Niña 2016). The area where this approach has been applied is Kwale County (in Coastal Kenya) in a hydrogeological context representative of an important part of the east coast of the continent, where new mining and agriculture activities co-exist with tourism and local communities. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information. Most of the time, water-reliant users collect specific hydrogeological information that can contribute to defining the overall hydrogeological system, since their own main purpose is to exploit the aquifer with the maximum productivity. Therefore, local community water usage, together with different stakeholder's knowledge and good corporate water management act as a catalyst for providing critical data, and allows the generation of credible models for future groundwater management and resource allocation. Furthermore, complementary but simple information sources such as in situ interviews, Google Earth, Trip Advisor and easy-to use analytical methods that can be applied in the African context as in many developing countries, and enables groundwater abstraction to be estimated and the sustainability of the aquifer system to be defined, allowing potential future risks to be assessed.

Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta LA, Akcakaya HR, Brotons L, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Harhash KA, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Lundquist C, Obersteiner M, Pereira HM, Peterson G, Pichs-Madruga R, Ravindranath N, Rondinini C, Wintle BA. The methodological assessment report on scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bonn, Germany: IPBES; 2016.2016.methodological_assessment_report_scenarios_models.pdf
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta-Michlik L, Akçakaya HR, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Summary for policymakers of the assessment report of the methodological assessment of scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services.". In: Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES Secretariat. Bonn, Germany; 2016.
Festus W Ihwagi, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina, Chira RM, Douglas‐Hamilton I, Kironchi G. "The impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana, on woody vegetation through selective debarking in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2010;48(1):87-95.
Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Nyangito MM, Asfaw Z. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2010;3(1). Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security.

Feyssa, Debela H, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Nutritional Value of Berchemia discolor: A Potential to Food and Nutrition Security of Households.". 2012. Abstract

Drylands have a multitude of livelihood problems where food insecurity is one of the serious impediments. Both transhumance and settled farmers make their living in the semiarid parts of east Shewa, Ethiopia. They adapt partly to food shortage by using natural resources. The study objective was to determine nutritional value of fruit of Berchemia discolor and analyse the use and management practices and associated indigenous knowledge. Data were collected from three study sites each in Fantalle and Boosat districts in East Shewa Zone. Before the laboratory analysis of fruit, the species was identified through focus group discussions and field observations. Mineral elements and phosphorus were determined in dry matter basis. Vitamin A and C were determined by spectrophotometer and redox titration respectively. Analysis of variance was done and means were separated by LSD at 0.05. Berchemia discolor is a candidate for dry land agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. Ten major uses of B. discolor (food, medicine, fuel wood and others) and food value were the highest. Total carbohydrates, crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and total ash contents of the fruit pulps ranged from 4.17-4.35%. The calculated energy from total carbohydrates was 314.50 kcal/100 g. Transhumance conserves Wild Edible Plants (WEPs) in pasture land and protect of vegetation, while settled farmers in traditional dryland agroforestry, in live fence and farm boarders. Berchemia discolor is one of the potential resources to enhance people’s livelihoods. Technologies for improved use and market chain need policy attention.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Seasonal availability and consumption of wild edible plants in semiarid Ethiopia: Implications to food security and climate change adaptation." Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2011;3(5):138-149. Abstract

Quantitative ethnoecological analysis of seasonal availability and implication to food security of wild edible plants (WEPs) was conducted in Boosat and Fantalle districts of semiarid east Shewa, Ethiopia from October, 2009 to September, 2010. Semistructured interview, focus group discussions, key informants discussions, seasonal record of fruits abundance were used to collected data on gathering and consumption of WEPs to cope with food shortage and adapt to climate change. Collected data was summarised into frequency tables, graph and qualitatively described under each subtopic. Thirty seven WEPs were identified for use as human food, and livestock feed and other multipurpose uses. About 24.3 % of WEPs were locally marketed, 75.7% were not marketed. All wild fruits were not included in official production system in the study area. It has indicated the underutilized existing potential of WEPs. Wild edible plants were preferred by local people of the study area not only for their food value, but also for their availability during dry seasons and shortage of food, potential for dryland agrobiodiversity and multipurpose to human wellbeing, livestock and environmental services they provide. Pairwise ranking by key informants was in agreement with direct matrices ranking for multiple uses of WEPs. The pairwise ranking, market survey and participant observations, community preference has confirmed the real potential of top seven priority WEPs species for dryland agrobiodiversity and agroforestry. Hence, these WEPs can be potential for dryland agrobiodiversity and agroforestry, to enhance people’s livelihoods in semiarid areas. This result can shed light on further research and promotion work on WEPs utilization and management.

Key words: Wild, edible plants, seasonal, availability, food security, use, management.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Research Journal of Forestry. 2011;5 (1):1-16. Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Analysis of multipurpose uses and management of Zizphus spina-christi (L.) desf. in semi-arid Ethiopia: Implications for food security." Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting . 2010. Abstract

Quantitative ethnobotanical study of Ziziphus spina-christi
was undertaken in six areas of east Shewa, Ethiopia. Both
structured questionnaire and focus-group interviews were
conducted with about 200 households. Arable land cultivation,
and increased frequencies of drought are reducing areas under
Z. spina-christi. The multi-purpose tree is highly nutritious,
helps main soil fertility, and is an important source of income in
the region. Research and policy support are needed to exploit
the potential of this agroforestry tree species.
Key words: East Shewa, food security, nutrition, wild fruits,
Ziziphus spina-christi

Feyssa DH, JNT, Nyangito MM, Asfaw Z. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Research Journal of Forestry. 2011;5(1):1-16. Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Wild Edible Fruits of Importance for Human Nutrition in Semiarid Parts of East Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Associated Indigenous Knowledge and Implications to Food Security." Pakistan journal of Nutrition. 2011;10(1):40-50. Abstract

Nutrient value assessments and ethnobotanical studies of three wild edible fruit species [Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Grewia flavescens A. Juss.], were carried out from October 2009 through June 2010 in east Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Field data collection was combined with laboratory food content analyses with the aim of identifying promising wild edible fruit plants. Also, optimal use of preferred wild edibles particularly in addressing future food security issues of rural people in the drylands was assessed. Composite fruit samples randomly collected in six sites of Fantalle and Boosast districts were subjected to standard laboratory chemical analyses. Values for total carbohydrates, crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and total ash contents of the fruit pulps ranged from 76.67-86.12%, 1.45-4.20%, 3.58-4.02%, 35.18-57.41%, 8.11-16.40% for Z. spina-christi, 85.55-89.61%, 0.001-003, 49.03-68.26%, 10.18-12.88% for B. aegyptiaca; 83.74-93.68%, 0.64-3.14%, 18.90-61.35%, 3.16-7.25% for G. flavescens, respectively. The calculated energy (based on total carbohydrates) was highest for G. flavescens (373.6 Kcal/100 g), followed by B. aegyptiaca (354.24) and Z. spina-christi (344.48 Kcal/100 g). The results indicated that these fruit species, which are popularly used by the local communities, contain appreciable amounts of nutrients and energy and thus are useful food supplements. These species should be integrated into dryland agroforestry systems for sustainable use and conservation, as well as, preservation of the associated knowledge through the positive practice of the indigenous bio-cultural knowledge. In this case, lessons can be drawn from some farmers of Boosat District, who are currently using two of the species in traditional agroforestry practices.

FG M, SW G, LW G. "Challenges in tobacco control in Kenya." KDA News letter (2002).
FH W, MC M, P G, A WG, GN K. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." PubMed. 2014;11(11):706-15. Abstract

Abstract

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m(3) in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m(3) in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m(3) in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m(3) in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m(3) in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m(3) in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m(3) in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.
KEYWORDS:

airborne lead; blood lead; industrial workers; occupational exposure;  blood pressure

FH W, GN K, PM S, A WG, CM M. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." J. Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9(5):340-344. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

Field CB, Barros VR, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Opondo M, Poloczanska ES, Pörtner HO. "Technical summary Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment ….". 2014:35-94. Abstractpure.iiasa.ac.at

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems. The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation.

Field CB, Aalst MV, Aalst MV, Opondo M, Poloczanska E, Pörtner H-O, Redsteer MH. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects: Volume 1, Global and Sectoral Aspects: Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. USA: IPCC; 2014. Abstractresearch-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. [WGI AR5 2.2, 6.3, 10.3-6, 10.9] Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems (Figure TS.1). The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation. [INSERT FIGURE TS.1 HERE Figure TS.1: Climate-related hazards, exposure, and vulnerability interact to produce risk. Changes in both the climate system (left) and development processes including adaptation and mitigation (right) are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability. [19.2, Figure 19-1]] Section A of this summary characterizes observed impacts, vulnerability and exposure, and responses to date. Section B examines the range of future risks and potential benefits across sectors and regions, highlighting where choices matter for reducing risks through mitigation and adaptation. Section C considers principles for effective adaptation and the broader interactions among adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development. Box TS.1 introduces the context of the WGII AR5, and Box TS.2 defines central concepts. To accurately convey the degree of certainty in key findings, the report relies on the consistent use of calibrated uncertainty language, introduced in Box TS.3. Chapter references in square brackets indicate support for findings, paragraphs of findings, figures, and tables in this summary.

Fifková E. "Effect of visual deprivation and light on synapses of the inner plexiform layer." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:458-469. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral lid closure on synaptic contacts of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) has been studied. The operation was carried out on 14-day-old albino rats which survived for 8 weeks and were kept in a room illuminated 8 hr a day. The open eye as well as the deprived one are affected by unilateral lid closure. The presence of two processes caused by unilateral deprivation was postulated: the effect of deprivation itself, which stimulates the formation of new amacrine contacts in the IPL of the closed eye; the effect of an assumed excess of light to the open eye with the consequent damage to receptors. Because of direct connection between receptors and bipolar elements the damage of the receptors seems to induce changes in the bipolar terminals that decreases the density of bipolar contacts in the IPL of the open eye.

Fifková E. "Effect of light and visual deprivation on the retina." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:450-457. AbstractWebsite

The effect of light and unilateral visual deprivation (achieved by lid-suturing) on the retina of albino rats has been studied. Lid-sutured and unoperated animals were illuminated daily for 8, 11, or 16 hrs. With increasing time of illumination a progressive decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers was observed in undeprived animals and in the open eye of the monocularly deprived rats. The shrinkage was greater in the outer plexiform than in the outer nuclear layer. In the lid-sutured eye considerably less change was found in the outer nuclear layer. The difference in thickness of the outer retinal layers of the sutured and companion open eye was 2.5 times greater after 16 than after after 8 hr of light exposure. The loss of receptors seems to be a function of the length of illumination. The decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers in the open eye of the deprived animals was greater than in the undeprived ones suggesting that more light enters the former eye. It was assumed that an animal which has only one eye available keeps it open for longer periods of time than when both eyes are used.

Fifková E. "The effect of monocular deprivation on the synaptic contacts of the visual cortex." Journal of Neurobiology. 1969;1:285-294. AbstractWebsite

The effect of visual deprivation on synaptic contacts in the visual cortex was studied with the electron microscope. The deprivation was achieved by unilateral lid suture in 14-day old white rats before eye opening after which the animals were kept for 8 weeks. The density and the size of synaptic contacts in the upper part of the visual cortex (from the surface of layer II up to V) were estimated. The mean density of synapses of the visual cortex supplied by the deprived eye was 20% less than on the control side, the upper levels of the cortex being more affected. The mean size of synaptic contacts was larger (+7.5%) in the upper levels of the deprived cortex. No right left difference in density and size were found in control animals.

Fikir Alemayehu, Onwonga Richard MJK, V WO. "Assessment of Shoreline Changes in the Period 1969-2010 in Watamu area, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: H Environment & Earth Science. 2014;14. Abstract
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Finch B, Bjørnstad G, Shanni I, Muchai M, Bishop A, Hanotte O, Bishop R. "High levels of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence diversity are present within the Anthus similis complex in sub-Saharan Africa." Ostrich. 2013;84:145-151. Abstract
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