J.G.N., K, J. NI.  2022.  Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). Accepted on 14th August, 2022
Kithure, JGN.  2022.  ). Statistics for Chemists (Questions and Answers). , Moldova Europe: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, trade mark of Dodo Books Indian Ocean Ltd., member of the OmniScriptum S.R.L Publishing group. Str. A. Russo 15, of 61, Chisinau-2068, Republic of Moldova Europe. Printed by Printforce, United Kingdom. ISBN: 978-620-0-5490preface.pdf
A., K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W.  2022.  Voltage Recovery from Pesticides Doped Tomatoes, Cabbages and Loam Soil Inoculated with Rumen Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells. . International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET).. 9(2):172-180.
A., K, Mbugua J. K., A.G. W, Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W.  2022.  Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Anaerobic.. Digestion Bio-Slurry Microbes. Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences.. 2(5):03-12.
A., K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J.G.N. K, I. M, S.O. W.  2022.  Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Microbial Fuel Cells. . International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemistry (IJSRCH). . 7(2):22-32.
J.K.M., A.K., M. DN, K JGN, S.O.W, A.G.W..  2022.  Microbial Fuel Cell Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos on Loam Soil Inoculated with Bio-Slurry. . American Journal of Environment and Climate. 1(1):34–41.


G.N., KJ, G.W. N, K.K. E.  2021.  How Safe is the Water Consumed in Different Parts of Nairobi, Kenya? International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). VI(VII):ISSN2454-6194..abstract.pdf
Kinyua A. P., Mbugua J. K., Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., J.G.N. K, S.O. W, I. M.  2021.  Current and voltage data logging from microbial fuel cells using Arduino based sensors.. International Robotics & Automation Journal. 7(3):90‒93.abstract.pdf
G.N.Kithure, J, M.W. K.  2021.  Canning Food Processes may be a source of threat to the Consumer. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT).. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT).. 8(3)abstract_2.pdf


Kithure, JGN, Musundi KW, Waithaka KM.  2020.  The Effectiveness of the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants in Kenya.. EJERS, European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. DOI: . 5(9):1143-1154.abstract.pdf
Nkunu, Z, M GP, J.G. K.  2020.  Electrocatalytic reduction and characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in acetonitrile-water (1:1) media in presence of cyanocobalamin. Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 4:xxxx. Abstractabstract.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences


This work investigates a possible electrocatalytic degradation of tetrachlorvinphos pesticide in acetonitrile-water media using cyanocobalamin as the catalyst. The catalyst and its derivatives are employed in some organic synthesis due to their ability to form and selectively cleave Co-C bonds. There is inadequate data from previous related works. This study explores possible electrocatalytic route for degradation of tetrachlorvinphos using the catalyst at temperature of 24 ± 1° by cyclic voltammetry method. Tetrachlorvinphos exhibited two consecutive reduction peaks at ~-0.710 ± 0.004 V and ~ -1.096 ± 0.029 V Versus Ag/AgCl. The second reduction peak registered a diffusion coefficient value of 3.68 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and current density of be 5.83 x 10-5 A/cm2. The reduction potential for tetrachlorvinphos in presence of cyanocobalamin was observed to be -0.923 ± 0.03 V versus Ag/AgCl. The diffusion coefficient and current density value was reported at 3.37 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and 2.56 X 10-5 A/cm2 respectively for an electro-reduction process. This implies that, catalytic reduction of the pesticide occurred at a significantly lower potential compared to direct reduction. The over potential saving of about 0.168 V is an indication of the catalyst efficiency on the pesticide degradation.


J.G.N., K, W.I. T.  2019.  Assessment of Aflatoxin B1 contamination on Commercial Maize and Ground nuts in selected Markets in Nairobi County, Kenya.. Journal of Chemical, Biological & Physical Sciences (JCBPS). JCBPS; Section A; . 9(3):161-169.abstract.pdf
J.G.N., K, K.W. M.  2019.  Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in effluentd emanating from vegetable oils and chemical Industries in Nairobi County.. International Journal of Scientifc Research and Innovative Technology (IJRIT). 6(6)abstract.pdf
Stephen, AO, Joyce KGN, Hellen N, Alex WN, Jared N’auO.  2019.  CHARACTERISATION AND ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT FROM PAINT AND COATING INDUSTRIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA. International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 4(5):41-46. Abstractabstract.pdfInternational Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology

A study was conducted to estimate current status of physico-chemical characteristics of effluents emanating from three paint factories within the main industrial area of Nairobi County. The effluents were analysed for temperature, pH, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total sulphur and heavy metal ions and compared to Kenyan effluent discharge standards. The results were as follows: pH 6.48-6.89, temperature 28.07-28.30 oC, COD 916.77-1881.20 mg/L, total phosphorus 145.00-149.32 mg/L, TSS 6382.33-7395.33 mg/L, oil and grease 3525.00-6374.33 mg/L, total sulphur 72.62-73.41 mg/L, total nitrogen 1586.67-4442.67 mg/L. Heavy metal concentrations were 3.03-4.18 mg/L, 2.07-3.04 mg/L and 5.38-17.21 mg/L respectively for cadmium, chromium and lead. Adsorbent was made from waste rubber tyres and tested for its suitability in removing three heavy metal ions namely cadmium, lead and chromium from the effluent samples by varying adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time.


O.K., M,.A. A’oD, J.O. O, J.G. K.  2017.  Investigating the Effects of Formulation, and Geographical Location on Degradation of Carbendazim in French Beans, Kenya.. The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge . :ISSN2321–919X..abstract.pdf
J.G.N., K, S.O. W, I. J, A.M. M.  2017.  Fate of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Upper Tana River, Kenya.. International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2(6):29-46.abstract.pdf
J.G.N., K, G.N. K, A.M. M, M.M. K.  2017.  The Photodegradation of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) under different light energies from the spinach leaves' surface.. International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. Published by Scholar Touch Publishers.. 2(6):17-28.abstract.pdf
Z.N., N, G.N. K, G.N. K, C.N. M.  2017.  Electrochemical Studies of Potassium Ferricyanide in Acetonitrile-Water Media (1:1) using Cyclic Voltammetry Method.. The International Journal of Science Research and Innovative Technology . 4(5):2313-3759.abstract.pdf
A., K, J. K, J. K, G. K.  2017.  Photo-Degradation of Pentachlorophenol and Dimethoate in Limuru Loam Soil and Nairobi Sediment by Incandescent and Fluorescence Bulbs.. SciFed Journal of Separation Techniques; . 1(1):anopenaccessJournal.abstract.pdfabstract.pdf
Kithure, JGN, Wanjau RN, Murungi JI, Thoruwa CL, Tum PK.  2017.  Fate of lambda-cyhalothrin in kales, tomatoes and cabbage from rural setting in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 4(2):12-18.kithure.pdf


K.Tum, P, Kasha GM, Kithure JGN, Mwazighe FM.  2016.  Optimization of Essential Oil Extraction from Eucalyptus grandis Leaves By Clevenger Distillation.. Journal of Kenya Chemical Society . 9(1):91-102.abstract.pdf
Tum, PK, Kithure JGN, Onyatta JO.  2016.  Photocatalytic degradation of acid orange ii dye on selected commercial titanium dioxide catalysts. Int. J. Adv. Res. . 4 (10):1149-1155.594_ijar-13021.pdf


N., KJG, O. WS, I. J, K KD.  2014.  Dynamics of Chlorpyrifos in water from upper Tana River in Kenya. Open Science Repository Chemistry. Abstract

Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface (WFB, 2008), and is vital for all known forms of life (WFB, 2008). The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals like Persistent Organic Pollutant 1(POPs), pesticides and pathogens. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used to kill variety of insects, especially ticks and was introduced in Kenya in 1965 (Meister, 1992). This study set out to determine the chlorpyrifos concentration residue levels in some selected samples from the upper Tana River, to confirm their state of contamination. Water, sediment and weed samples obtained from the upper Tana River in Kenya were screened for chlorpyrifos and found to be contaminated. The river profile was divided into three sections representing upstream, middle stream and downstream. Water samples were sampled using the amber bottles while the sediment samples were collected by scooping it with a shovel. Weed samples were plucked using hands, while the hard ones were cut with a clean stainless steel knife. The extraction of water samples was done by liquid-liquid partitioning method using dichloromethane, while sediment samples were extracted in acetone and hexane solvents by soxhlet extraction method. The extraction of weed samples was done using an orbital shaker in acetone. The analysis of the pesticides was done using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and the data analysis conducted using Microsoft excel, 2ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation Statistical Package for Social Scientists, (SPSS). Chlorpyrifos mean residue levels found in water samples 3(BDL to 6.73µg/L), were generally higher than those detected in weed samples of BDL-2.57 1.43 µg/kg, while sediment samples had the lowest levels of BDL and 1.43 µg/kg, as shown in Figure 1. The mid-stream samples had higher levels than both the up stream and the down stream, as can be observed in Figure 2, probably due to intense industrialisation and farming activities at the midstream.
- See more at:


G., KJ, I. MJ, N. WR, L TC.  2010.  Determination of Deltamethrin Residue Levels in Selected Vegetables Consumed in Nairobi, Kenya using HPLC. Journal of International; Published by Environmental Application & Science . 5(1)(11-ICCA Special Issue):801-805. Abstract

Abstract Vegetables provide vital minerals and other nutrients to our bodies.
However, pests destroy vegetables. This as lead to rampant use of pesticides on
vegetables in Kenya. The pesticides that are commonly used on vegetables in
Kenya are the pyrethroids which include; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and
chismethrin. In this study deltamethrin was analysed in selected vegetables which
include; kales, cabbages and tomatoes during the dry and wet seasons. The
vegetables were bought from some markets in Nairobi city in Kenya.
Deltamethrin residues were extracted from the samples using organic solvents.
The residues were then determined by high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC). The results shows that the deltamethrin mean residue levels ranged
between 0.0700±0.0200 and 0.2000±0.1000 mg/kg during the dry season and
between 0.0080±0.0500 and 0.0400±0.0001 mg/kg during the wet season. The
deltamethrin residue levels were significantly higher during the wet season than
during the wet season in most of the samples.
Keywords: Vegetables, pyrethroids, deltamethrin, residues and HPLC

UoN Websites Search