To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public primary schools in the City of Nairobi. Subjects: A sample of 1382 children (672 males and 710 females) were interviewed and examined. Results: Among the 1382 children examined, 222(16.1%) had experienced traumatic dental injuries (TDIs). Males had experienced a significantly higher prevalence of trauma 126(18.8%) than females 96(13.5%) p=0.008. Falls were the leading cause of TDIs as reported by 78(35.1%) children. Amongst the, male children, falls were the leading cause of traumatic injuries to the permanent anterior teeth 47(37.3%). Approximately half 43(44.8%) of the females did not remember the cause of injury while 31 (36.5%) had sustained TDIs due to falls. One hundred and seventy two (77.5%) children who had experienced TDIs had no symptoms associated with the traumatised teeth. Ninety six (43.2%) of the children were injured while in the home environment. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly traumatised teeth accounting for 220(73.5%) out of 299 injured teeth. The most frequently observed type of dental trauma was enamel fracture 206(68.9%) followed by enamel-dentin fracture 71(23.8%). Two hundred (90%) children had not sought treatment for TDIs. Conclusion: Overall traumatised permanent incisors were found to occur fairly frequently with males having experienced significantly more TDIs than females. The prevalence of TDIs was 16.1%; enamel fractures were the most frequently observed injury and falls were the leading cause of trauma.
This was to evaluate the influence of two methods of tooth-isolation on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in the primary molars. METHODS: The study was conducted in two rural divisions in Kenya, with 7 operators randomly paired to a group of 8 assistants. A total of 804 children each had one proximal cavity in a primary molar restored using the ART approach. During restorations 2 isolation methods, rubber dam or cotton wool rolls, and 3 brands of glass ionomer cements were used by the operators. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years. STATISTICS: SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse and relate the data obtained to the method of isolation used. RESULTS: After 2 years 30.8% of the ART restorations had survived. Higher survival rates of the restorations were obtained when using rubber dam irrespective of the GIC material or the operator. CONCLUSION: Generally the survival rate of the proximal restorations in the present study was very low, but the use of rubber dam resulted in a higher survival rate of the restorations.
To evaluate after two years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (GIC) sealants placed in primary molars of six to eight year-olds and as part of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restoration. DESIGN: A longitudinal clinical study. SETTING: Matungulu/Kangundo rural divisions, Machakos district, Kenya. SUBJECT: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from rural Kenya received a sealant as part of a proximal restoration placed in a primary molar using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. RESULTS: The two-year cumulative survival of the sealants was 10.9%, and the survival of the sealants was not significantly affected by the GIC material brand and the tooth-isolation method used. However, slightly more sealants survived when Fuji IX and rubber dam tooth- isolation method were used. CONCLUSION: The two-year survival rate of the sealants was poor and was not significantly influenced by the GIC material or the tooth-isolation method used.
Two thousand, seven hundred and ninety one normal and handicapped children aged 5-15 years were examined for traumatic dental injuries. Twelve percent had traumatised teeth while three percent had soft tissue injuries. More handicapped children (18%) than normal children (11%) had injuries. This study indicates that children need to be educated on preventive measures regarding traumatic dental injuries.
A 2 1/2-year-old female presented to the Department of Paediatrics with a fever (38.2 degrees C) and bilateral swelling of the parotid salivary glands. A month later, she presented with similar signs and symptoms. Three months later the patient had a third attack and was referred to the Paediatric Dental Department. A clinical examination and sialography showed a normal Stensen's duct. The parenchyma of the right parotid had a combination of punctate lesions (1-2 mm in diameter) and globular lesions (3 mm in diameter). In the left parotid there were punctate lesions approximately 1 mm in diameter. The patient was managed with antipyretics (acetaminophen) and penicillin. This condition should be referred to as sialadenitis pediatrica as it presents as a clinical entity with signs and symptoms of swelling and pyrexia in the absence of sialography and histological findings. It is referred to as sialectasis after histological and sialographic observations detect lesions affecting the parenchyma of the salivary glands.
Magnesium oxide and bone meal were used as chemical defluoridating agents to reduce excessive amounts of fluoride from artificial water samples which had been prepared to simulate Kenyan water samples with a fluoride concentration ranging from 1 to 9.3 ppm. The water filtrate from bone meal was clear and palatable. The filtrate from magnesium oxide was slightly slimy and cloudy, but palatable. Either of these chemical agents may be used in simple defluoridation procedures in rural and suburban areas using borehole water to reduce the excess fluoride in the water to beneficial non-toxic levels. Both magnesium oxide and bone meal are inexpensive chemicals and readily available in Kenya.