Incidence and risk factors of periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya

Citation:
T.O. A, M.J. N, J.K W, V.T. T, Gitau G.K. "Incidence and risk factors of periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". 2012.

Abstract:

A study was carried out on 117 smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division
of Kiambu District Kenya between April 2004 and December 2004 to determine
the incidence of periparturient conditions (downer cow syndrome, dystocia, milk
fever and retained placenta among others) in smallholder dairy cattle herds and
the associated factors (plausible predictor variables; age, parity and management
systems among others) from a total of 206 dairy cattle. Data were collected during
farm visits by observation, interviews using semi-structured questionnaires and
clinical examination of animals. The most common conditions encountered were
downer cow syndrome (12.6 %), dystocia (17.0 %), mastitis (9.5 %), metritis (7.3 %)
milk fever (13 %) and retained afterbirth (26.6 %). The overall cumulative incidence
of the periparturient conditions was 67 %. Animals with milk fever were 5 times
more likely to develop retained placenta (P=0.04) while those with a history of
having developed retained placenta in a previous parturition were at 2 times more
likely to develop retained afterbirth (P=0.05). Cows with milk fever were 9 times
more likely to develop owner cow syndrome (P <0.001) while those that were not
given supplemental feed in the last trimester were 4.8 times more likely to develop
downer cow syndrome (P=0.007). Animals that had dystocia were 3.9 times more
likely to develop metritis (P=0.02) and while those with retained placenta were 5.2
times more likely to develop metritis (P=0.03). In addition, animals with dystocia
were 10.55 times more likely to develop postpartum haemorrhage (P=0.01) and
58.9 times more likely to develop injuries to the birth canal (P<0.01). From this
study it can be concluded that downer cow syndrome, dystocia, mastitis, metritis,
milk fever and retained placenta were the most common periparturient conditions
in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu division of Kiambu district

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