Bio

Prof GITAO GEORGE CHEGE Biography

Prof.  C. G Gitao is an associate Professor  of Veterinary Virology. He has taught for many
years at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He has conducted extensive
research in veterinary virology and supervised many postgraduate students. He
also supports the Department in diagnostic services in veterinary virology. He has
specialties in large and small animal and poultry pathology and also Veterinary Virology, Camel management and production.

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Publications


2016

Gitao, G, Kibore B, Sangula A.  2016.  Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Kenya. , Saarbrucken: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing978-3-330-01103-8.pdf
G, GC, S K, SM M.  2016.  Review of Peste Des petits ruminants in sheep. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 3(5):1060.
Gitao, G, Maina S, Gathumbi P.  2016.  Experimental infection of Peste des petits ruminants disease in Kenya. : Lap Lambert Academic Publishing978-3-659-97197-6-1.pdf

2015

Gitao, CG, Maina SM, Kihu SM.  2015.  . Enhanced Diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) using experimental infection models. FAO-EU Joint Organized PPR Information Sharing and Dissemination. , Nairobi Jacaranda Hotel, Westlands Nairobi-Kenya 9th – 10th June: FAO-EU
Gitao, CG.  2015.  Camel milk value chain in Kenya. Quality management along organic agri-value chains in developing countries . , University of Kassel in Witzenhausen 2 - 10. Feb 2015; BIOFACH 2015" in Nürnberg 11-13, feb 2015: DAAD ALUMNIsafari.pdf
Gitao, CG, Kihu SM, Muse AE.  2015.  Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants in Kenya and Tanzania.. FAO-EU Joint Organized PPR Information Sharing and Dissemination . , in Nairobi Jacaranda Hotel, Westlands Nairobi-Kenya 9th – 10th June: FAO-EU comparison_of_peste_des_petits_ruminants_ppr.pptx
DUNDON, WG, Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, Loitsch A, Diallo A.  2015.  Detection and Genome Analysis of a Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus in Kenya in 2011. Transboundary and Emerging diseases. DOI:10.1111/tbed.12374:1-7.onlinelibrarytps.pdf
Kihu, SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC.  2015.  Peste des Petits ruminants disease in Turkana, Kenya. , Omni scriptum GmbH and Co KG. ISBN 978-3-659-51078-3: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing peste_des_petits_ruminants_in_kenya-1.pdf
Kihu, SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG.  2015.  Economic losses associated with Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana County Kenya. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 5(9):DOI10.1186/s13570-015-0029-6.kihu_et_al_2015_loses.pdf
Kihu, SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R.  2015.  1. Sero-epidemiology of Peste Des Petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya . BMC Veterinary Research. 11(87):1-13.
Maina, SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK.  2015.  Clinico-pathological Observations in Sheep & Goats Exposed to Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Kenya. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Science. 3(1):72-80.
Maina, SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK.  2015.  Hematological, Serological and Virological Findings in Sheep and Goats Experimentally infected with Lineage III Peste Des petits Ruminants Virus isolates in Kenya. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Science. 3(1):81-88.

2014

W.G.Dundon, S. M Kihu, T.B. Settypalli, G.C.Gitao, L.C. Bebora, N.M. John, J.O.Oyugi, R.Silber, A. Loitsch,. DA.  2014.  First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus. Genome Announc.. 61(14):25,33.aphs_iaea_newsletter-61_1.pdf
Kihu, SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, D.N. Karanja, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E.  2014.  Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya. . British Journal of Virology. 3(1):98-102.ppr_turkana.pdf
Kihu, SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GD, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Karanja DN, Oyugi JO, e. Lutomia.  2014.  Clinical.pathological and Molecular investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus infection from Turkana County in Kenya. British Journal of Virology. 1(3):98-102.bjv_1_3_98-102.pdf
Gitao C.G.  2014.  UoN vet-German student exchange programme, 10/102014. , Nairobi/Berlin: UoN/Free University of Berlinuon_students_and_german_students.pdf
Gitao C.G.  2014.  The Confirmation of Peste Des Petits ruminants (PPR) in Kenya and perception of the disease in Wek Pokot. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 4(6):312-316.14-14_ppr_in_west_pokot.pdf
Kibore., B, Gitao. CG, Sangula A, Kitala. P.  2014.  The Epizootiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in high risk zones in Kenya. American Journal of Research Communication. 2(9):129-154.kibore_vol29.pdf
Gitao, C.G..  2014.  Current Research Projects, 10/10. , Nairobi: Dept Vet Pathologycurrent_research-.pdf
C.G. Gitao, E. Chepkwony, G. Muchemi.  2014.  Foot and Mouth Disease in Somali Eco-system: Disease patterns in Kenya. , OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing978-3-659-59673-5_coverpreview2.pdf
Kihu., SM, Gitao. CG, Bebora. LC, Njenga. MJ, G.G. Wairire, Maingi. N, Wahome. RG.  2014.  Appraisal of Pese des petitis ruminants disease by Turkana Pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya. American Journal of Research Communication. 2(10):186-214.kihu_vol210.pdf
Gitao, CG, Wanjohi M, Gitari R, Akweya B, Okoth MW.  2014.  The Prevalence of Common Milk Borne Pathogens of Camelus Mastitis Origin and their Antibiotic Resistance in North Eastern Province, Kenya. American Journal of Research Communication. 2(7):53-71.
Dundon, W, Kihu S, Settypalli BK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, J.O.Oyugi, Silber R, L.Angelica, Diallo A.  2014.  First Complete Genome Sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus. Genome Announcement . 2(5)
Gitao, CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L.  2014.  Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region. , OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing978-3-659-61078-3_coverpreview2.pdf
Kibore B, Gitao C.G, Sangula A, P. K.  2014.  Porcine FMD Sero-prevalence in Kenya and its potential effect. American Journal of Research Communication. 2(10):105-126.kibore_2.pdf
Gitao, C.G., Bebora, L.C., Wanjohi. G.  2014.  Camel Mik Hygiene: Analysis of Camel Milk contamination in Garissa and Wajir Counties in Kenya. , OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing978-3-659-58174-8_coverpreview2.pdf
Chepkwony., E, Gitao. CG, Muchemi. GM.  2014.  Characterisation of foot and mouth disease isolates from the Somali Eco-system in Kenya. American Journal of Research Communication. 2(5)chepkwony_fmd_ses.pdf

2013

Kibore, B, Gitao CG, Sangula A, Kitala P.  2013.  Foot and Mouth Disease Sero-prevalence in Cattle in Kenya. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 5(9):262-268.FMD jvm kibore.pdf
S.M.Kihu, Gachohi JM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG.  2013.  Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya.. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 3(9):304-313.pub_2_kihu_et_al_303-314.pdf
Wanjohi, M, Gitao CG, Bebora L.  2013.  Subclinical mastitis affecting hygienic quality of marketed camel milk from North - Eastern Province, Kenya. Microbiology Research International. 1(1):6-15. Abstract13-012.pdf

North Eastern Province, camel is the dominant livestock; it provides subsistence to many people especially during the frequent droughts when other animals either die or are unthrifty. This is beca use camel is highly suited for hot environments. In this region, camels number approximately 3 million and are the main producers of milk for the residents, who are mainly of Somali origin, and are pastoralists. Currentl y, the milk is also sold in Nairobi and other far places; and there is a fast growing demand for it. This has necessitated examination of the milk quality, in response to food safety awareness, especially noting that some of the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis can cause disease in humans. This study was carried out to establish the hygienic quality of camel milk from this area, zeroing down to 2 districts, Garissa and Wajir. T hree hundred and eighty four bulk camel milk samples were collected in volumes of 200 to 300 ml. They wer e transport ed to the laboratory in cold/ice boxes and bacterial isolation and characterization done not later than 24 h after arrival at the laboratory. Before culturing, the milk samples were screened using Ca lifornia Mastitis Test (CMT); samples testing positive (a n indication of subclinical mastitis) were then subjected to bacteriological investigation, using standard methods. Results of this study have shown that subclin ical mastitis is prevalent in dromedary camels of Garissa and Wajir districts of North Eastern province of Kenya, and that Gram positive cocci ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) are the dominant mastitis pathogens isolated. Other isolated bacteria included Klebsiella/Enterobacter, E scherichia coli and Bacillus. The positive correlation of CMT with the presen ce of mastitis pathogens in camel milk showed that CMT is a useful screening test in the detection of subclinical mastitis in camels; it is thus a useful tool for farm ers, aiding them in picking the affected animals, segregating and treating them. The resu lts also contribute towards coming up with respective control measures so as to keep camel milk fresh for longer periods and als o make it safe for human consumption.

2012

Chepkwony, EC, Gitao CG, Muchemi GM.  2012.  Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in the Somali Eco-System in Kenya. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 4(3):198-203.fmd_seroprevalence.pdf
Gitao, CG, Akundabweni LSM.  2012.  Creation of research linkages in Africa by regional bodies, September 24-28. Third Ruforum Biennial Meeting. , Kampala, Ugandacreation_of_networks.docx
Gitao, CG, Kihu SM, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Muse E, E K, Misinzo G, Mellau LSB, Msoffe PLM, Swai ES, Albano.  2012.  Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease between Tanzania and Kenya, September 24-28. Third Ruforum Biennial Meeting. , Kampala, Ugandagitao_523_3.pdf
Muse, E, Matondo RB, Karimuribo ED, Misinzo G, Mellau SLB, Msoffe PLM, Albano LO, Gitao CG.  2012.  Peste des petits ruminants(PPR) Outbreak in Southern Tanzania, September 24-28. Third Ruforum Biennial Meeting . , Kampala, Ugandamuse.pdf
Wanjohi, M, Gitao CG, Bebora L.  2012.  The Prevalence of Brucella spp. in camel milk marketed from North Eastern Province, Kenya. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2(7):425-434. Abstractcamel_milk_brucellosis.pdf

The camel is the dominant livestock in North Eastern province where it provides sustenance to many people especially during the frequent dry periods when other animals die or are unthrifty. Garissa and Wajir districts in the arid Northern Kenya hosts about 54% of the national camel herd estimated to number over 3 million. Camel milk from North Eastern Province in Kenya is widely marketed in those areas but is also currently being sold in distant markets in Nairobi and other places. An expanded camel milk market provides an opportunity for increased income that can lead to improved pastoral livelihoods. Most of the milk is collected from individual pastoralists, bulked and then taken by transporters to urban areas. While some milk is boiled before sale, some of the milk however is marketed as raw thus exposing the population to zoonotic diseases. In an investigation to find the prevalence of Brucellosis, the main zoonotic agent in milk, samples of milk for marketing were collected as well as serum samples from camels in North Eastern Province A total of three hundred and eighty four (384) camel milk samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were tested using the Milk Ring Test (MRT) and out of the total, fifty nine (59) samples (15.36%) tested positive while three hundred and twenty five (325) samples tested negative. From Garrissa District (n = 230), 35 samples (15.22%) were positive for MRT while 24 samples (15.58%) from Wajir District (n = 154) were positive. All the milk samples examined were negative for Brucella Modified Ziehl- Neelsen’s stain as well as primary isolation of Brucella on Tryptose Soy agar (TSA) under high carbon-dioxide (CO2) concentration. The results of the milk ring test on the samples tested indicated that 15.36% of the samples were positive for the presence of Brucella antibodies in milk. A total of two hundred (200) camel serum samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). Four (4) samples (2.0%) tested positive. From Garrissa District (n = 72), 2 samples (2.78%), were positive while 2 samples (1.56%) from Wajir District (n = 128) were positive. The two hundred (200) camel serum samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were also tested using the Serum Micro-agglutination Test (SAT). From Garrissa District (n = 72), 13 samples (18.06%) were positive while 8 samples (6.25%) from Wajir District (n = 128) were positive. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in camels is low in extensively kept pastoralist camels. Some of the recommendations to avoid the risk of zoonotic diseases include increased awareness on pasteurization of camel milk, proper milk handling and milk testing before pooling

Muse, E, Matondo RB, Karimuribo E, Misinzo G, Albano M, Gitao CG.  2012.  Clinico-pathological findings of the 2011 outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Tandahimba district, southern Tanzania. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2(4):256-262.
B, A, C.G. G, M O.  2012.  The acceptability of camel milk and milk products from north eastern province in some urban areas of Kenya. African Journal of Food Science. 6(19):465-473. Abstractpub_11_akweya_et_al.pdfWebsite

A total of 138 households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. 75% of the respondents generally take camel milk or milk products every day. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (19 and18%) while packaging was more important for pasteurized milk (18, 18 and 16%) for Wajir, Garisa and Eastleigh respectively. For Yoghurt, the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour milk is the most important attribute in both Garisa (30%) and Eastleigh (24%). To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

Kihu, SM, Gitao CG, Bebora L, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ndiwa NN.  2012.  Risk factors associated with spread of Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana district, Kenya, September 24-28. Third RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. , Kampala, Uganda

2010

Gitao, CG, S.M.Kihu, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Karimuribo E, P S, Wahome R, Maingi N.  2010.  Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region, 20-24 September . Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. , Kampala, Ugandagitao.pdf

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