Bio

George wandolo

I am well educated and trained professional with an MSc. Degree from the University of
Toronto (Canada) and an M.B Ch.B., degree from the University of Nairobi (Kenya), offering the
benefits of over 32years of extensive and varied experience in the health sector (medical
practice) with more than 20 years of research in laboratory environment. I have over 20 years
teaching experience in Chemical Pathology for undergraduate and post-graduate students at
the Medical School University of Nairobi.

Publications


2016

Wamalwa, CM, Nasambu WC, Karimi PN, Ogonyo KB, Wandolo G.  2016.  Factors that influence adequacy of asthma control in children residing in Naivasha, a flower growing area in Kenya. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5(4):221-228. AbstractWebsite

Background: In Kenya, asthma affects 10% of the population. One of the modifiable risk factors contributing to asthma morbidity and mortality is environmental exposure.Naivasha flower farms introduce pesticides persistently into the environment and thesemay drift onto residential property or other areas where children play. Proximity of households to the pesticide treated farms may also increase exposure of children to thepesticides. Pesticide exposure has been shown to exacerbate already existing asthma, a relationship that has not been studied in Kenya.
Objectives:To identify risk factors that exacerbate asthma and influence adequacy of Asthma control in children residing in a flower growing area in Kenya.
Methodology: The design was a cross-sectional study that involved 150 asthmatic children aged 5-12 years residing a flower growing area. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, which home to Kenya’s largest horticultural flower farms. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire while asthma control was measured using a validated Asthma control tool. Logistic regression was done to identify variables that affected asthma control.
Results: Majority of the asthmatic children weremales (56.7%) while females were 43.33%. Riskfactors that were found to be significantly associated with asthma control were; duration of stay in or near a flower farm (OR = 0.723, 95%CI (0.538-0.975), presence of a smoker in the family (OR = 0.463, 95%CI (0.094-22.629) and presence of household pet (OR = 4.358, 95%CI (1.182-16.057). There was no significant relationship between the child’s asthma control and age of child, sex of child, distance of school from flower, guardian’s level of education, guardian’s income, and guardian’s occupation as a flower farm worker, child’s age of diagnosis and use of indoor pesticides.
Conclusion: The use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) should be promoted as it keeps environmental exposure pesticides to a minimum.

Lulalire, FR, Karimi PN, Mwagangi EM, Wandolo G.  2016.  Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 5(2):59-64. Abstract

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates
Faith R. Lulalire a,b, Peter N. Karimi a,*, Evans M. Mwagangi a, and George Wandolo c
a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy. University of Nairobi, Kenya
b Ministry of Health, Kenya
c Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
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* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of
Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254-72-2604216; Email: ndirang@yahoo.com
Background: Severe pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in both developed and developing countries. The goals of management are to prevent progression to eclampsia thus preventing convulsions, to control the blood pressure and to prevent untoward effects in the foetus. The first-line option for the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures is magnesium sulphate.
Objective: To determine the serum magnesium, urea and electrolyte levels in neonates of mothers treated with magnesium sulphate and compare the findings with the levels in non-exposed neonates.
Methodology: A quasi experimental design was adopted where test subjects were neonates of mothers suffering from preeclampsia and severe eclampsia and were being treated with magnesium sulphate just before delivery at Pumwani Maternity hospital. The control group comprised neonates of hypertensive mothers without preeclampsia being treated using other drugs. Blood samples were obtained from the mother at onset of labor and from the neonates at birth and analyzed in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Nairobi.
Results: A total of 54 mothers and their neonates were enrolled with 27 in each arm of the study. The mean maternal serum magnesium in the test group was significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.008). The mean neonatal serum magnesium in the test group was also significantly higher compared to the control group (p = 0.008). There were statistically significant differences in serum sodium (p = 0.015), urea (p = 0.043) and creatinine (p = 0.008) levels between the maternal test and control groups. There were significant differences in serum urea (p = 0.007) and
chloride (p = 0.017) between the neonatal test and control groups. The calcium and potassium levels were elevated in the test group but not to significant levels. There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal serum magnesium levels in both groups stronger in the test group (r = 0.56, p = 0.003) as compared to the control group (r = 0.35, p = 0.087).
Conclusion: Maternally administered magnesium sulphate raises urea and creatinine levels to significant levels in mothers. Calcium levels are also raised while in mothers not receiving magnesium sulphate they were slightly lower.
In neonates the urea and chloride levels are elevated to significant levels while the calcium and potassium levels are not significantly elevated. We suggest monitoring of both in the immediate post-partum period.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, eclampsia, magnesium sulphate, neonate, serum urea and electrolytes.
Received: November, 2015
Published: May, 2016

2015

N., WC, Wamalwa CM, Ambetsa M, Elamenya L, Osano B, Okalebo FA, Bosire KO, Wandolo G, Karimi PN.  2015.  Effect of Pesticide Exposure on SerumCholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. Afr. J.Pharmacol. Ther.2015. 4(1):. Afr. J.Pharmacol.. 4(1):7-15. Abstractwafula_c.pdf

Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Serum Cholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya
Caroline N. Wafula a,b,*, Cecilia M. Wamalwa a,b, Margaret Ambetsa b,c, Linet Elamenya a,b, Boniface Osano d, Dalton Wamalwa d, Faith A. Okalebo c, Kefa O. Bosire c, George Wandolo e, and Peter N. Karimi a

a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya b Ministry of Health, Kenya

c Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya d Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
e Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________

* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254-72-3245127; Email: wafulacaroline@yahoo.com

Background: Pesticide exposure is a risk factor for asthma exacerbations in flower farm regions in the world. Data on levels of serum cholinesterase among asthmatic children exposed to pesticides in Kenya is scanty.

Objectives: To compare and identify variables which affect the concentration of serum cholinesterases in children who are exposed and unexposed to pesticides.

Methodology: The design was a comparative cross-sectional study that involved exposed and unexposed children. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, Kenya. Patients were interviewed and serum samples were analysed for cholinesterase levels. Multi-linear regression was done to identify variables that affected cholinesterase activity.

Results: Children who were exposed to pesticides had a lower median ChE activity of 5828 [IQR 4863, 6443] compared to the unexposed arm whose median was 7133 [IQR 6063, 8179]. Five predictor variables were found to be significantly associated with depression of serum cholinesterase levels. The most important predictor variable for the levels of ChE in children, was not using protective clothing by the parent [adjusted β -1457.0 (95% CI - 2594, 1319.8)]. Others were not using household pesticides [adjusted β 96.3, (95% CI 22.6, 170.0)], female sex [adjusted β - 695.7 (95% CI -1296.2, - 95.3)], non school attendance [adjusted β -1676.8 (95% CI -3371.6, 18.1)] and not taking a break after spraying [adjusted β 1105.5 (95% CI (315.0, 1895.2)].

Conclusion: Children who were exposed to pesticides had low cholinesterase levels. Parents should therefore be encouraged to wear protective gear as this conferred protection of children from the effects of pesticide exposure.

Key words: asthma, exposure, children, pesticides, cholinesterase.

Received: November, 2014

Published: March, 2015

1992

and 2. Wandolo G., R. M. Elias, RJNSMG.  1992.  Haeme-containing proteins suppress Lymphatic Pumping. J. Vascular Research . (29):248–255. Abstract

Red blood cells (RBCs) and lysate products (erythrolysate) are consistently observed in lymph draining inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. We determined previously that erythrolysate modulates lymphatic pumping by altering the pressures over which the lymph pump is active. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that oxyhemoglobin was the active material within erythrolysate. To quantitate lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure could be applied to the vessels. This procedure stimulated pumping activity. Erythrolysate was prepared from sheep RBCs by lysis in Tris buffer and a portion of this was purified by column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50. Both the purified hemoglobin (10(-5) M) and crude erythrolysate (the latter diluted appropriately in Krebs solution to contain 10(-5) M hemoglobin) reduced lymphatic fluid pumping approximately 70% over a period of 2 h. To determine whether this activity was due to the heme or the protein portion of the molecule, we compared the activity of purified oxyhemoglobin with that of its oxidized methemoglobin derivative. This was achieved by conversion with potassium ferricyanide. Methemoglobin was inactive, suggesting that the heme portion was important for the lymphatic effect. Further confirmation of this observation was provided by experiments with myoglobin which was purified from sheep heart. Oxymyoglobin, which shares an identical heme but has a different protein component, inhibited lymphatic pumping, when tested on the bovine lymphatics

1991

Johnston, MG, Elias R, Wandolo G, Eisenhoffer J.  1991.  HEMOGLOBIN AS A MODULATOR OF LYMPHATIC PUMPING FOLLOWING TISSUE INJURY AND SHOCK.. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery . 31(7):10-47.

1990

and 1. Elias R. M., G. Wandolo, REJNSJMG.  1990.  Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin.. Circulation Research 1990. (67):1097–1106.. Abstract

1) Elias R. M., G. Wandolo, N. S. Ranadive, J. Eisenhoffer and M. G. Johnston: Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin. Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106. - 1990
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106.

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