Bio

Prof. Peter Karuri Gathumbi

Prof. P. K. Gathumbi is a Professor of Veterinary Pathology. He has extensively taught for many years at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He was a visiting scholar at School of Veterinary Medicine University of Ghana in 2018. He has conducted extensive research in veterinary pathology and has supervised many postgraduate students. He also supports the Department in diagnostic services in veterinary pathology. He has special interest in gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistology, ethnoveterinary medicine and conservation of medicinal plants.

Publications


2019

Ogolla, KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO.  2019.  Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya. Journal of Tropical Medicine . Volume 2019, Article ID 5092845(https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5092845)
Omani, RN, Gitao CG, Gachohi J, Gathumbi PK, Bwihane BA, Abbey K, Chemwono VJ.  2019.  Peste des petits ruminants in dromedary camels and small ruminants in Mandera and Wajir Counties of Kenya. Advances Virology. Volume 2019 Article ID 4028720 6 pages(https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4028720)
Nyariki, TM, Gathumbi PK, Bebora LC, Muchemi GM, Ngatia TA.  2019.  Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-Ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya. Journal of Wildlife Diseases.. 55(1):123-128.

2018

Mwangi, I.K. Mathenge, MW, Gitao GC, Gathumbi PK, Waithaka SK.  2018.  Relationship between serum IgM Levels and liver function in rubella and measles infection of children below five years in Nairobi County. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 9(2):10-15.
Ogolla, KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Chebet J, Kitala P.  2018.  Efficacy of sulphachloropyrazine, amprolium hydrochloride, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, and diclazuril against experimental and natural rabbit coccidiosis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5402469
Ochwang'i, DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG, Efferth T.  2018.  Cytotoxic activity of medicinal plants of the Kakamega County (Kenya) against drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 215:233-240. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.01.004:233-240.

2017

Ogolla, KO, Chebet J, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kitala P, Gichure JN.  2017.  Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in Central Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 29(7):2017http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/7/koko29134.html.
Kamau, LN, Mbaabu PM, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG.  2017.  Medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes by traditional healers of 2338 Narok County, Kenya. Tang Humanitas Medicine. 7(2):1-10.
D.B. Chai, Bergin CM, Bell IB, Nyachieo JD, Gathumbi PK.  2017.  Prevalence and geographical distribution of Papio hamadryas Papillomavirus 1 (PhPV1) in Kenyan Baboons. Journal of Medical Primatology. 189(46(1)):13-15.

2016

Ochwangi, DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JO, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG, Efferth T.  2016.  Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants of the Kakamega Country, Kenya Commonly Used against Cancer. Med Aromat Plants (Los Angel) 2016. 5:6 DOI: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000277ochwangi_medaromatplants_2016__1.pdf
Amenya, HZ, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN, Gathumbi PK.  2016.  A 56-Day Oral Toxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in Ratsb. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2016(Article ID 7403087, 10 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7403087)
Kamau, LN, Mbaabu PM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG.  2016.  Knowledge and demand for medicinal plants used in the treatment and management of diabetes in Nyeri County, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 189:218-229.loice_jep_publication_10159_201605001123570211.pdf

2015

I.T., KAMANJA, Mbaria J.M., P.K. GATHUMBI, M. MBAABU, A LANYASUNYA, D.W. G, D KABASAJ, S.G. KIAMA.  2015.  Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections by the Samburu Community, Kenya. : Kamanja et al ijpr_2015_72_44-52_research_5-_mgt_std_samburu.pdf
Kuria, JM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG.  2015.  Influence of Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf (Asteraceae) on the healing of dermal excision wounds (mouse model) and skin sensitization activity (Guinea pig model). African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 4(3):112-117,.
Maina, SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK.  2015.  CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN SHEEP & GOATS EXPOSED TO LINEAGE III PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS VIRUS INFECTION IN KENYA. Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences,. 3(1):ISSNNo.2320–8694.jebas_pathol_maina_et_al.pdf
Abdirahman, YA, Juma KK, Mukundi MJ, Gitahi SM, Agyirifo DS, Ngugi MP, Gathumbi PK, Ngeranwa JJN, Njagi ENM.  2015.  In-Vivo Antidiabetic Activity and Safety of The Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Kleinia squarrosa. J Diabetes Metab. 6(9):601.
Maina, SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK.  2015.  Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 3(1):2320–8694.jebas_haematol_maina_et_al.pdf
Mukundi, MJ, Piero MN, Mwaniki NE, Murugi NJ, Daniel AS, Gathumbi PK, Muchugi AN.  2015.  Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Acacia nilotica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice. : Mukundi et almukundi-_acacia_nilotica_2015.pdf
Njagi, JM, Ngugi MP, Kibiti CW, Njue W, Gathumbi P, Njagi E.  2015.  Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Phytopharmacology. 4(1):30-33.joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odrt-_2015.pdf
J. M. Njagi, M. P. Ngugi, C. M. Kibiti, J. Ngeranwa, W. Njue, P. K. Gathumbi, Njagi. E.  2015.  Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Phytopharmacology. 4(1):30-33.njagi_joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odoratissimum.pdf

2014

Nasimolo J. Kiama., S.G. Gathumbi., MKPKJM.  2014.  Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic T brucei brucei mouse model.. Journal of ethnopharmacology . Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10% of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50% of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5% of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

Hesbon Z Amenya., Peter K Gathumbi., JMATGTMGN.  2014.  Sub-acute toxicity of the chloroformic extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in rats.. Journal of ethnopharmacology .
Dominic O. Ochwang’I., Charles N. Kimwele., JOPGJMSKAKMG.  2014.  Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya. . Journal of Ethnopharmacology.. 151:1040–1055. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic
debilitating and life threatening conditions and diseases. Cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic
intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. Increasingly industrialised
societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. Plant
biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine
their use by local communities. The present study was carried out in Kakamega County of Kenya to
identify and document medicinal plants used for treatment and management of cancer states by
communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical rainforest of Kakamega County, Kenya.
Materials and methods: An ethnobotanical survey was done using semi-structured questionnaires
administered to 32 randomly selected herbalists from Kakamega County.
Results and discussion: Sixty five (65) plants of 59 genera and 32 families were identified as candidates in
therapeutic intervention against cancer states. Most commonly cited plant species were Spathodea
campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Harungana madagascariensis
Lam. ex poir, Prunus africana (Hook. f.) kalkman, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Catharanthus
roseus (L.) G. Don and Aloe volkensii Engl. The following were documented for the first time;
Aeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke, Synsepalum cerasiferum (welw.) T. D penn., Albizia coriaria
Welw. ex Oliv., Aloe volkensii Engl. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill, Croton macrostachyus Delile,
Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Dicliptera laxata C.B. Clarke, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Gardenia volkensii
K. schum. ssp. volkensii, Glycine wightii (wight & Arn.), Ocimum gratissimum Suave, Olea hotcsh spp.
hochstetteri, Pavetta abyssinica Fresen., Phyllanthus fischeri Pax, Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich), Rhus
vulgaris Meikle, Senna didymobotyra (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby, Solanecio nandensis (S. Moore) C. Jeffrey,
Solanum mauritianum Scop, Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Spermacoce princea
(K. Schum.) Verdc., Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten, Tragia brevipes Pax and Zanthoxylum gilletii (De
Wild.) P.G.Waterman. The most frequently used plant parts were fresh or dried leaves and stem barks.
Administration to patients was almost exclusively oral, with the exceptions being topical application
especially for breast cancer and skin sarcomas.
Conclusions: This study identified diverse medicinal plants used in therapeutic and management
intervention against cancer by communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical Rainforest. The
primary mode of administration was oral.

2013

P. K. Gathumbi., V. S. Varma., GSJKDN.  2013.  Ocular neoplastic lesions of the horse in Kenya from specimens received between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology Microbiology and Parasitology, 24-26 April . Kenya Veterinary Association 47th Annual Scientific Conference. , Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the trends in ocular tumours that affect the horse in
Kenya and to relate the histological characteristics to the clinico-epidemiological parameters.
The study design used the retrospective and prospective suspected cases presented to the
Department for histological diagnosis and from which a neoplastic diagnosis of the eye or its
adnexa was recorded. The procedure involved retrieval of diagnostic reports from retrospective
cases and histopathological examination of both retrospective and prospective cases. Each
case was evaluated for the type and frequency of histological lesions and clinicoepidemiological
data. Parameters included analyses of age, sex, breed, geographical origin,
diagnosis, location of neoplasms, the pathology of the lesion, and the clinical features
presented. The histological features were compared between cases and cellular behaviour was
correlated with clinico-epidemiological parameters.
The results showed that the most common ocular tumour was squamous cell carcinoma of the
adnexa. Occasional diagnosis included melanoma, adenoma, fibroma and lymphoma of the
adnexa. In a few cases, non neoplastic growths such as lymphoid hyperplasia of third eyelid
were key differential diagnoses. True ocular tumours were rarely observed.

Kimani, P.C., GNANMPKK.  2013.  In vitro activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya on Trypanosoma evansi. The Kenya Veterinarian . 37:17-25. Abstract

Chloroform extracts from two Kenyan medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica/ neem leaves, 500 mg/ kg, 250mg/kg and 125mg/kg and Physalis peruviana 1000mg/kg, 500mg /kg and 250mg/kg body weights) were analysed in vivo for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma evansi. Experimental mice were injected with T. evansi KETRI 2450 and the drugs administered intraperitoneally at the onset of parasitaemia. Treated animals were then monitored for parasitaemia starting the following day after treatment. In comparison to suramin, the standard drug, extract of both A. indica leaves and P. peruviana were observed to express trypanocidal activity better than standard drug. High activity was found for extract of A. indica leaves (500mg/kg body weight) which completely cleared the parasites from infected mice by 24 days post treatment. Following this observation, it is recommended that future studies should address purification, structure eluci dation and biochemical characteristic of active components of Azadirachta indica leaves. This study has confirmed the hypothesis that some plants used in control of trypanosomiasis in Kenya have trypnocidal potential.

and Kimani, P.C., GANMPKJ.  2013.  In vitro activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya on Trypanosoma evansi. The Kenya Veterinarian . 37:8-16. Abstract

Trypanosomiasis, a protozoan disease causes morbidity and death to humans and severely limits livestock production in endemic areas. It occurs predominantly in Africa, South America and Asia. Although chemotherapy has been used to control the disease, cases of drug resistance by trypanosomes are a major problem and prospects of vaccine development are remote. Herbal medicines have been claimed to be effective in the control of the disease in endemic areas. This study evaluated the in vitro activity of plant extracts of selected indigenous Kenyan plants on T. evansi. Test extracts included Azadirachta indica (neem), Prunus africana, Bidens pilosa, Physalis peruviana, Senna didymobotyra and Croton megalocarpus. 96- Well micro titer plates were used and trypanocidal activity was evaluated in vitro by calculating minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of respective extracts. Of the 27 extracts evaluated, chloroform extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves had the highest activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.75 μg/ml). Other extracts showed activity on the parasite in vitro at concentrations that were much higher than chloroformic extract of A. indica. This study has confirmed the hypothesis that some plants used in Kenya to control trypanosomiasis have trypanocidal potential.

and Kibebe H.W., Gathumbi P.K., KMKCSPGJ.  2013.  Comparison between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose in monitoring diabetic patients at point of care testing. . Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2:1-4.
Hungu, CW, Gathumbi P, Maingi N, Ng'ang'a CJ.  2013.  Production characteristics and constraints of rabbit farming in Central, Nairobi and Riftvalley. Abstract

Studies on rabbit production in Kenya have not included in-depth analysis of the potentials of keeping rabbits in the rural and urban household setting. In this study questionnaire and examination sheets were used to record the information. The results of this research revealed that rabbit farmers in Central, Nairobi and Rift Valley provinces practice small scale farming essentially due to small land space, which if well adopted, can be practiced widely. There was sustained interest in rabbit farming which was shown by a large proportion of farmers (51%) who had kept rabbits between 1 and 5 years. The most common breeds of rabbits kept were New Zealand white (73%), Californian (60%) and their cross breeds (51%) which were all suitable for meat production. This study revealed that farmers had limited access to technical information in rabbit farming and this was seen in the poor design and construction of the rabbit hutches. Majority of farmers (64%) bought their breeding stock from other farmers, with only a small proportion buying from breeding centres (17%). This practice of buying replacement stock among farmers was likely to lead to inbreeding. The major constraints of rabbit farming are those dealing with production; disease (83%), predators like rats (29%), death of rabbits (69%) and unavailability of rabbit feed (19%). The results also indicated that there are opportunities and challenges to increase rabbit production in the country though access to technology and marketing strategies are major hindrances to this development.

2012

Nasimolo. J. Kiama., S.Makanya. A., GKP k J.  2012.  Trypanosome Migration to the Brain , 18-19 June. 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. , Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya Abstract

The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.

We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.

GATHUMBI., PROFPETERKARURI.  2012.  Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable? The Kenya Veterinarian . Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine
whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of
rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of
rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking
numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record
keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and
that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a
headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant
underreporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we
hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such
underreporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes
implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the
survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

Mailu, S K; Wanyoike, SMBGGKLMM; JK;.  2012.  Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable? Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant under-reporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such under-reporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Nasimolo J, Kiama S, Makanya A , Gathumbi P, Kagira J Trypanosome Migration to the Brain. 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference, 2012, Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.   We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  NGUGI M. PIERO1, NJAGI M. JOAN, KIBITI M. CROMWELL, NGERANWA J.N. JOSEPH, NJAGI N.M. ELIUD, NJUE M. WILSON, GATHUMBI K. PETER. HERBAL MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS: A RAPIDLY EXPANDING RESEARCH AVENUE. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research Vol 4, Issue 2, 2012. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Conventional drug therapy though effective in the management of diabetes mellitus is expensive and has toxic side effects. Herbal medicine would thus provide alternative therapy if effective and less toxic. This paper reviews the use of various antidiabetic plants in management of diabetes mellitus. Their documented modes of actions along with in vivo are also discussed. Keyword: Herbal medicine, Diabetes mellitus, Antidiabetic plants, Toxic side effects.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Gakuya, D.W., S.G. Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, P.N. Mbugua, P.K. Gathumbi, M. Mathiu, The potential use of Moringa oleifera as poultry feed supplement in Kenya.. Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Poultry industry in Kenya is constrained by inadequate supply of good quality feed and high cost of feed. The industry is faced with poor availability of the raw materials especially the proteins which is a major contributor to the low quality feed and the escalating costs. Moringa oleifera Lam. is the best known of 14 species of Moringa tree (family Moringaceae). This rapidly-growing, drought-resistant tree is now widely cultivated and has been naturalized in many locations in the tropics. Moringa oleifera has unique nutritive value and it can serve as a good source of protein, essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins that are needed in the poultry industry. Cultivation of Moringa oleifera in the rural areas can offer a sustained supply of nutrients to indigenous chicken which are mainly raised on both confinement and scavenging. The plant has been used to combat malnutrition in humans and also it is reported to have anti-trypanosomal, antibiotic, anticancer, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypo-cholesterolemic properties. It is reputed to have considerable efficacy in water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis besides its capacity to reduce Schistosome cercariae titer in water. Its integration in the poultry feed industry would go along away in poverty alleviation especially in rural areas by offering alternative enterprise to the communities, besides the environmental benefits that would accrue from its cultivation. The nutritional value of Moringa oleifera can benefit both commercial and small holder poultry production by providing a substitute to the raw materials used in the poultry feed and therefore, the need to evaluate its potential as an alternative feed supplement in poultry nutrition.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  NJAGI JOAN MURUGI, NGUGI MATHEW PIERO, KIBITI CROMWELL MWITI, NGERANWA N. J. JOSEPH, NJAGIELIUD N. MWANIKI, NJUE M. WILSON, MAINA DAVID AND GATHUMBI PETER KARURI HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF CAESALPINIA VOLKENSII ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MICE. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 2, 2012, 69-74. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the target cells. Most conventional therapies for the management of type II diabetes include oral hypoglycemic drugs, exercise, diet and physical intervention therapies such as Acupuncture. Insulin is used in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Through ages different communities have used medicinal herbs for diabetes mellitus management. Today herbal remedies are gaining popularity because the efficacy of conventional medicine ison the wane. This study was designed to bioscreen aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii for its hypoglycemic potential. Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. The three tested dose levels (50, 100, and 150mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose levels appreciably. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity. The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues. The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus.Keywords: Caesalpinia volkensii, in vivo toxicity, antidiabetic activit
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Cooper, J.E., Cooper M.E., Nyaga, P.N., Gathumbi, P.K., Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W. and Githigia S.M. Veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline. Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  J.M.Nguta, J.M.Mbaria, D.W.Gakuyab, P.K.Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama. Cytotoxicity of anti-malarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to the brine shrimp, artemia salina l. (artemiidae). Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Artemia salina (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemicals and natural products. Design and methods: In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 values) of 45 anti-malarial plant extracts and positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were determined using Artemia salina (Artemiidae). Results: Out of the 45 organic extracts screened for activity against Artemia salina larvae, 23 (51%) of the crude extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml, and were categorized as having strong cytotoxic activity, 18 (40%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml, and were categorized as having moderate cytotoxicity, 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity, while 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were considered to be non toxic. Approximately 20% (9) of the aqueous extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml and were considered to have strong cytotoxic activity, 40% (18) of the screened aqueous crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml and were considered to be moderately cytotoxic, 16% (7) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity while 24% (11) of the aqueous extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were categorized as non toxic The positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide exhibited strong cytotoxicity with LC50 values of 95 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml respectively in a 24 hour lethality study, validating their use as anticancer agents. Conclusions: In the current study, 95.5% of all the screened organic extracts and 76% of the investigated aqueous extracts demonstrated LC50 values <1000 μg/ml, indicating that these plants could not make safe antimalarial treatments. This calls for dose adjustment amongst the community using the plant extracts for the treatment of malaria and chemical investigation for isolation of bioactive compounds responsible for the observed toxicity. These could make novel ingredients for anticancerous drugs. Key words: Cytotoxicity; Artemia salina bioassay; crude extracts; anti-malarial plants; Kenyan biodiversity
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Manyibe, T.N and Gathumbi, P.K Ngatia, T.A, Bebora, L., Muchemi, G. Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya. Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW

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