Bio

Prof. Peter Karuri Gathumbi

Prof. P. K. Gathumbi is an Associate Professor of Veterinary Pathology. He has extensively taught for many years at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He has conducted extensive research in veterinary pathology and has supervised many postgraduate students. He also supports the Department in diagnostic services in veterinary pathology.

Publications


2015

I.T., KAMANJA, Mbaria J.M., P.K. GATHUMBI, M. MBAABU, A LANYASUNYA, D.W. G, D KABASAJ, S.G. KIAMA.  2015.  Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections by the Samburu Community, Kenya. : Kamanja et al ijpr_2015_72_44-52_research_5-_mgt_std_samburu.pdf
Kuria, JM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG.  2015.  Influence of Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf (Asteraceae) on the healing of dermal excision wounds (mouse model) and skin sensitization activity (Guinea pig model). African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 4(3):112-117,.
Maina, SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK.  2015.  CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN SHEEP & GOATS EXPOSED TO LINEAGE III PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS VIRUS INFECTION IN KENYA. Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences,. 3(1):ISSNNo.2320–8694.jebas_pathol_maina_et_al.pdf
Abdirahman, YA, Juma KK, Mukundi MJ, Gitahi SM, Agyirifo DS, Ngugi MP, Gathumbi PK, Ngeranwa JJN, Njagi ENM.  2015.  In-Vivo Antidiabetic Activity and Safety of The Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Kleinia squarrosa. J Diabetes Metab. 6(9):601.
Maina, SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK.  2015.  Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 3(1):2320–8694.jebas_haematol_maina_et_al.pdf
Mukundi, MJ, Piero MN, Mwaniki NE, Murugi NJ, Daniel AS, Gathumbi PK, Muchugi AN.  2015.  Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Acacia nilotica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice. : Mukundi et almukundi-_acacia_nilotica_2015.pdf
Njagi, JM, Ngugi MP, Kibiti CW, Njue W, Gathumbi P, Njagi E.  2015.  Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Phytopharmacology. 4(1):30-33.joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odrt-_2015.pdf
J. M. Njagi, M. P. Ngugi, C. M. Kibiti, J. Ngeranwa, W. Njue, P. K. Gathumbi, Njagi. E.  2015.  Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Phytopharmacology. 4(1):30-33.njagi_joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odoratissimum.pdf

2014

Nasimolo J. Kiama., S.G. Gathumbi., MKPKJM.  2014.  Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic T brucei brucei mouse model.. Journal of ethnopharmacology . Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10% of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50% of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5% of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

Hesbon Z Amenya., Peter K Gathumbi., JMATGTMGN.  2014.  Sub-acute toxicity of the chloroformic extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in rats.. Journal of ethnopharmacology .
Dominic O. Ochwang’I., Charles N. Kimwele., JOPGJMSKAKMG.  2014.  Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya. . Journal of Ethnopharmacology.. 151:1040–1055. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic
debilitating and life threatening conditions and diseases. Cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic
intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. Increasingly industrialised
societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. Plant
biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine
their use by local communities. The present study was carried out in Kakamega County of Kenya to
identify and document medicinal plants used for treatment and management of cancer states by
communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical rainforest of Kakamega County, Kenya.
Materials and methods: An ethnobotanical survey was done using semi-structured questionnaires
administered to 32 randomly selected herbalists from Kakamega County.
Results and discussion: Sixty five (65) plants of 59 genera and 32 families were identified as candidates in
therapeutic intervention against cancer states. Most commonly cited plant species were Spathodea
campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Harungana madagascariensis
Lam. ex poir, Prunus africana (Hook. f.) kalkman, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Catharanthus
roseus (L.) G. Don and Aloe volkensii Engl. The following were documented for the first time;
Aeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke, Synsepalum cerasiferum (welw.) T. D penn., Albizia coriaria
Welw. ex Oliv., Aloe volkensii Engl. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill, Croton macrostachyus Delile,
Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Dicliptera laxata C.B. Clarke, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Gardenia volkensii
K. schum. ssp. volkensii, Glycine wightii (wight & Arn.), Ocimum gratissimum Suave, Olea hotcsh spp.
hochstetteri, Pavetta abyssinica Fresen., Phyllanthus fischeri Pax, Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich), Rhus
vulgaris Meikle, Senna didymobotyra (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby, Solanecio nandensis (S. Moore) C. Jeffrey,
Solanum mauritianum Scop, Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Spermacoce princea
(K. Schum.) Verdc., Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten, Tragia brevipes Pax and Zanthoxylum gilletii (De
Wild.) P.G.Waterman. The most frequently used plant parts were fresh or dried leaves and stem barks.
Administration to patients was almost exclusively oral, with the exceptions being topical application
especially for breast cancer and skin sarcomas.
Conclusions: This study identified diverse medicinal plants used in therapeutic and management
intervention against cancer by communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical Rainforest. The
primary mode of administration was oral.

2013

P. K. Gathumbi., V. S. Varma., GSJKDN.  2013.  Ocular neoplastic lesions of the horse in Kenya from specimens received between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology Microbiology and Parasitology, 24-26 April . Kenya Veterinary Association 47th Annual Scientific Conference. , Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the trends in ocular tumours that affect the horse in
Kenya and to relate the histological characteristics to the clinico-epidemiological parameters.
The study design used the retrospective and prospective suspected cases presented to the
Department for histological diagnosis and from which a neoplastic diagnosis of the eye or its
adnexa was recorded. The procedure involved retrieval of diagnostic reports from retrospective
cases and histopathological examination of both retrospective and prospective cases. Each
case was evaluated for the type and frequency of histological lesions and clinicoepidemiological
data. Parameters included analyses of age, sex, breed, geographical origin,
diagnosis, location of neoplasms, the pathology of the lesion, and the clinical features
presented. The histological features were compared between cases and cellular behaviour was
correlated with clinico-epidemiological parameters.
The results showed that the most common ocular tumour was squamous cell carcinoma of the
adnexa. Occasional diagnosis included melanoma, adenoma, fibroma and lymphoma of the
adnexa. In a few cases, non neoplastic growths such as lymphoid hyperplasia of third eyelid
were key differential diagnoses. True ocular tumours were rarely observed.

Kimani, P.C., GNANMPKK.  2013.  In vitro activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya on Trypanosoma evansi. The Kenya Veterinarian . 37:17-25. Abstract

Chloroform extracts from two Kenyan medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica/ neem leaves, 500 mg/ kg, 250mg/kg and 125mg/kg and Physalis peruviana 1000mg/kg, 500mg /kg and 250mg/kg body weights) were analysed in vivo for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma evansi. Experimental mice were injected with T. evansi KETRI 2450 and the drugs administered intraperitoneally at the onset of parasitaemia. Treated animals were then monitored for parasitaemia starting the following day after treatment. In comparison to suramin, the standard drug, extract of both A. indica leaves and P. peruviana were observed to express trypanocidal activity better than standard drug. High activity was found for extract of A. indica leaves (500mg/kg body weight) which completely cleared the parasites from infected mice by 24 days post treatment. Following this observation, it is recommended that future studies should address purification, structure eluci dation and biochemical characteristic of active components of Azadirachta indica leaves. This study has confirmed the hypothesis that some plants used in control of trypanosomiasis in Kenya have trypnocidal potential.

and Kimani, P.C., GANMPKJ.  2013.  In vitro activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya on Trypanosoma evansi. The Kenya Veterinarian . 37:8-16. Abstract

Trypanosomiasis, a protozoan disease causes morbidity and death to humans and severely limits livestock production in endemic areas. It occurs predominantly in Africa, South America and Asia. Although chemotherapy has been used to control the disease, cases of drug resistance by trypanosomes are a major problem and prospects of vaccine development are remote. Herbal medicines have been claimed to be effective in the control of the disease in endemic areas. This study evaluated the in vitro activity of plant extracts of selected indigenous Kenyan plants on T. evansi. Test extracts included Azadirachta indica (neem), Prunus africana, Bidens pilosa, Physalis peruviana, Senna didymobotyra and Croton megalocarpus. 96- Well micro titer plates were used and trypanocidal activity was evaluated in vitro by calculating minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of respective extracts. Of the 27 extracts evaluated, chloroform extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves had the highest activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.75 μg/ml). Other extracts showed activity on the parasite in vitro at concentrations that were much higher than chloroformic extract of A. indica. This study has confirmed the hypothesis that some plants used in Kenya to control trypanosomiasis have trypanocidal potential.

and Kibebe H.W., Gathumbi P.K., KMKCSPGJ.  2013.  Comparison between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose in monitoring diabetic patients at point of care testing. . Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2:1-4.
Hungu, CW, Gathumbi P, Maingi N, Ng'ang'a CJ.  2013.  Production characteristics and constraints of rabbit farming in Central, Nairobi and Riftvalley. Abstract

Studies on rabbit production in Kenya have not included in-depth analysis of the potentials of keeping rabbits in the rural and urban household setting. In this study questionnaire and examination sheets were used to record the information. The results of this research revealed that rabbit farmers in Central, Nairobi and Rift Valley provinces practice small scale farming essentially due to small land space, which if well adopted, can be practiced widely. There was sustained interest in rabbit farming which was shown by a large proportion of farmers (51%) who had kept rabbits between 1 and 5 years. The most common breeds of rabbits kept were New Zealand white (73%), Californian (60%) and their cross breeds (51%) which were all suitable for meat production. This study revealed that farmers had limited access to technical information in rabbit farming and this was seen in the poor design and construction of the rabbit hutches. Majority of farmers (64%) bought their breeding stock from other farmers, with only a small proportion buying from breeding centres (17%). This practice of buying replacement stock among farmers was likely to lead to inbreeding. The major constraints of rabbit farming are those dealing with production; disease (83%), predators like rats (29%), death of rabbits (69%) and unavailability of rabbit feed (19%). The results also indicated that there are opportunities and challenges to increase rabbit production in the country though access to technology and marketing strategies are major hindrances to this development.

2012

Nasimolo. J. Kiama., S.Makanya. A., GKP k J.  2012.  Trypanosome Migration to the Brain , 18-19 June. 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. , Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya Abstract

The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.

We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.

GATHUMBI., PROFPETERKARURI.  2012.  Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable? The Kenya Veterinarian . Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine
whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of
rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of
rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking
numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record
keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and
that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a
headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant
underreporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we
hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such
underreporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes
implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the
survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

Mailu, S K; Wanyoike, SMBGGKLMM; JK;.  2012.  Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable? Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant under-reporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such under-reporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  NGUGI M. PIERO1, NJAGI M. JOAN, KIBITI M. CROMWELL, NGERANWA J.N. JOSEPH, NJAGI N.M. ELIUD, NJUE M. WILSON, GATHUMBI K. PETER. HERBAL MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS: A RAPIDLY EXPANDING RESEARCH AVENUE. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research Vol 4, Issue 2, 2012. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Conventional drug therapy though effective in the management of diabetes mellitus is expensive and has toxic side effects. Herbal medicine would thus provide alternative therapy if effective and less toxic. This paper reviews the use of various antidiabetic plants in management of diabetes mellitus. Their documented modes of actions along with in vivo are also discussed. Keyword: Herbal medicine, Diabetes mellitus, Antidiabetic plants, Toxic side effects.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Nasimolo J, Kiama S, Makanya A , Gathumbi P, Kagira J Trypanosome Migration to the Brain. 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference, 2012, Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.   We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Gakuya, D.W., S.G. Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, P.N. Mbugua, P.K. Gathumbi, M. Mathiu, The potential use of Moringa oleifera as poultry feed supplement in Kenya.. Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Poultry industry in Kenya is constrained by inadequate supply of good quality feed and high cost of feed. The industry is faced with poor availability of the raw materials especially the proteins which is a major contributor to the low quality feed and the escalating costs. Moringa oleifera Lam. is the best known of 14 species of Moringa tree (family Moringaceae). This rapidly-growing, drought-resistant tree is now widely cultivated and has been naturalized in many locations in the tropics. Moringa oleifera has unique nutritive value and it can serve as a good source of protein, essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins that are needed in the poultry industry. Cultivation of Moringa oleifera in the rural areas can offer a sustained supply of nutrients to indigenous chicken which are mainly raised on both confinement and scavenging. The plant has been used to combat malnutrition in humans and also it is reported to have anti-trypanosomal, antibiotic, anticancer, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypo-cholesterolemic properties. It is reputed to have considerable efficacy in water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis besides its capacity to reduce Schistosome cercariae titer in water. Its integration in the poultry feed industry would go along away in poverty alleviation especially in rural areas by offering alternative enterprise to the communities, besides the environmental benefits that would accrue from its cultivation. The nutritional value of Moringa oleifera can benefit both commercial and small holder poultry production by providing a substitute to the raw materials used in the poultry feed and therefore, the need to evaluate its potential as an alternative feed supplement in poultry nutrition.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  NJAGI JOAN MURUGI, NGUGI MATHEW PIERO, KIBITI CROMWELL MWITI, NGERANWA N. J. JOSEPH, NJAGIELIUD N. MWANIKI, NJUE M. WILSON, MAINA DAVID AND GATHUMBI PETER KARURI HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF CAESALPINIA VOLKENSII ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MICE. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 2, 2012, 69-74. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the target cells. Most conventional therapies for the management of type II diabetes include oral hypoglycemic drugs, exercise, diet and physical intervention therapies such as Acupuncture. Insulin is used in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Through ages different communities have used medicinal herbs for diabetes mellitus management. Today herbal remedies are gaining popularity because the efficacy of conventional medicine ison the wane. This study was designed to bioscreen aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii for its hypoglycemic potential. Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. The three tested dose levels (50, 100, and 150mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose levels appreciably. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity. The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues. The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus.Keywords: Caesalpinia volkensii, in vivo toxicity, antidiabetic activit
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Cooper, J.E., Cooper M.E., Nyaga, P.N., Gathumbi, P.K., Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W. and Githigia S.M. Veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline. Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  J.M.Nguta, J.M.Mbaria, D.W.Gakuyab, P.K.Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama. Cytotoxicity of anti-malarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to the brine shrimp, artemia salina l. (artemiidae). Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Artemia salina (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemicals and natural products. Design and methods: In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 values) of 45 anti-malarial plant extracts and positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were determined using Artemia salina (Artemiidae). Results: Out of the 45 organic extracts screened for activity against Artemia salina larvae, 23 (51%) of the crude extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml, and were categorized as having strong cytotoxic activity, 18 (40%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml, and were categorized as having moderate cytotoxicity, 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity, while 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were considered to be non toxic. Approximately 20% (9) of the aqueous extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml and were considered to have strong cytotoxic activity, 40% (18) of the screened aqueous crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml and were considered to be moderately cytotoxic, 16% (7) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity while 24% (11) of the aqueous extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were categorized as non toxic The positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide exhibited strong cytotoxicity with LC50 values of 95 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml respectively in a 24 hour lethality study, validating their use as anticancer agents. Conclusions: In the current study, 95.5% of all the screened organic extracts and 76% of the investigated aqueous extracts demonstrated LC50 values <1000 μg/ml, indicating that these plants could not make safe antimalarial treatments. This calls for dose adjustment amongst the community using the plant extracts for the treatment of malaria and chemical investigation for isolation of bioactive compounds responsible for the observed toxicity. These could make novel ingredients for anticancerous drugs. Key words: Cytotoxicity; Artemia salina bioassay; crude extracts; anti-malarial plants; Kenyan biodiversity
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2012.  Manyibe, T.N and Gathumbi, P.K Ngatia, T.A, Bebora, L., Muchemi, G. Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya. Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. : Muravej S, Gathece LW

2011

J. K. Serem., M.M. Wanyoike., GMGMKBCKSK.  2011.  Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications.. :155-159. Abstract

Rabbit production systems in Kenya were studied; challenges to production were identified and recommendations to boost rabbit productivity were suggested in this research. Four regions of Kenya with significant rabbit farming were selected: Rift valley (Nakuru county), Central (Kiambu and Nyeri counties), Eastern (Meru county) and Coastal (Taita Taveta county) regions. Data were obtained through a field survey, questionnaires and personal observations between August and September 2011. The study covered the key areas of rabbit production including: general farm details, number of rabbits, breeds and breeding practices, housing, feeds and feeding practices, Constraints to production and recommendations appertaining to the key production challenges. Results showed that rabbit production in Kenya were mainly small scale (84.8%) principally for income generation and home consumption (89.6%). The majority (75%) of the rabbit farms were owned by either the household heads or by the spouses. Farmers of higher education levels kept more rabbits compared to those of lower education. The main breeds kept were New Zealand white (29%), Crossbreeds (24%), Californian white (12%), Chinchilla (11.5%), Dutch (8%), Flemish Giant (5.5%) and French Lop (4%). The main breeding stocks were selected from own stocks or from the neighboring farms (90%). Exchange of males (bucks) for breeding was observed among some rabbit farmers, either for free or at an agreed fee. The four most important challenges to rabbit farming were rabbit diseases (71%), lack of market for rabbits (51%), inadequate husbandry (28%) and lack of quality breeding stock (15.5%), insufficient funds (11%) and lack of rabbit feeds (8.7%). To address these challenges, sensitization of the Kenyan population on the benefits of rabbit meat consumption should be promoted, farmers should be trained on proper husbandry practices, better breeding stocks must be introduced to the farmers to avoid inbreeding, research on rabbit feeding and disease management must be improved to provide information on proper husbandry practices so as to boost rabbit productivity.

KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2011.  Ngugi M Piero, Murugi N Joan, Kibiti M Cromwell, Ngeranwa J Joseph, Njue M Wilson, Maina Daniel, Gathumbi K Peter and Njagi N Eliud Hypoglycemic Activity of Some Kenyan Plants Traditionally used to Manage Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Province. Piero et al. J Diabetes Metab 2011, 2:8. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
In this study five aqueous extracts; Bidens pilosa, Strychnos henningsii, Aspilia pluriseta, Catha edulis and Erythrina abyssinica were screened for anti-diabetic activity and their in vivo safety evaluated. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting varying doses of aqueous extracts of the five plants into alloxanised mice. Toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract / kg body weight and observing the effects of the extracts on histology of various organs. All the extracts showed hypoglycaemic activity. At high doses, some plants proved to be highly toxic, mildly toxic and others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used in the management of diabetes.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2011.  J.M.Nguta, J.M.Mbaria, D.W.Gakuya, P.K.Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama BIOLOGICAL SCREEIG OF KENYAN MEDICIAL PLATS USIG ARTEMIA SALINA L. (ARTEMIIDAE).. Pharmacologyonline 2: 458-478 (2011). : Muravej S, Gathece LW
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2011.  Gathumbi P. K. Amenya H. Z., Ochung. aGro2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference of Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Veterninary Sciences, University of Nairobi, on September 26-28, 2011, at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Upper Kabete Campus. : Muravej S, Gathece LW
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2011.  Joseph Mwanzia Nguta1,James M. Mbaria,Peter K. Gathumbi,Daniel Gakuya,John David Kabasa, and Stephen Gitahi Kiama Ethnodiagnostic skills of the Digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting. ORIGINAL RESEARCHARTICLE published: 24 June 2011 doi: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00030. : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the developmentof resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases.This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting.The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information.The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria.This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions.The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.Keywords:malaria,antimalarials,ethnopharmacology,ethnodiagnostic skills,Digo community,bioprospecting

2010

Kibebe, HW;, Gathumbi PK;, Kigondu CS;, Mbuthia PG;, Karioki JW.  2010.  Early detection of hyperglycemia using glycated hemoglobin in mice model..
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  GATHUMBI P.K. EMERGING LIVESTOCK: CURRENT STATUS, GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE WITH A LOCAL FOCUS. 7TH BIENNIAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE, 2010. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY AUDITORIUM, CAVS. : J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Abstract
Livestock production in Kenya has largely focused on conventional domestic animals, largely ignoring the existing potential of emerging livestock species as sources of protein and other animal products. Emerging livestock including ostriches, crocodiles, quails, guinea fowls, snakes, ants, snails, frogs and chameleons, bees among others are largely unexploited either due to inadequate information to support their production, lack of sufficient market channels, inadequate policy and legal framework or socio-cultural beliefs that preclude their utilization This paper will focus on the potential opportunities and constraints in production of the main emerging livestock in Kenya including ostriches, crocodiles and quails among others. The existing information on production and marketing of the major emerging livestock will be collated and compared with that from other regions. The current production practices and the main diseases of major emerging livestock will be highlighted. The existing policy and regulatory framework that supports production of emerging livestock in Kenya will be stated. The existing research gaps and opportunities for improved marketing will be discussed. The paper will highlight the existing potential of emerging livestock production to support livelihood, employment and wealth creation in Kenya.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  J.M. Ngutaa, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131 (2010) 256. : J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  Kibebe, H.W., Gathumbi P.K, Kigondu C.S, Mbuthia P.G, Karioki J.W. EARLY DETECTION OF HYPERGLYCEMIA USING GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN IN MICE MODEL. THE 7TH BIENNIAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE, 2010, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY AUDITORIUM, CAVS. : J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}   Experiments on animals play an important role in the study of noninfectious diseases, insulin development for diabetes treatment, kidney failure blood dialysis, transplantation techniques, and various types of surgery advancements. In this study hyperglycemia development in mice induced with alloxan monohydrate was determined using glycated hemoglobin and compared with blood glucose. Effective dose for making the mice hyperglycemic was first determined for alloxan monohydrate concentrations and found to be 300mg/kg body weight single dose. Ten mice were randomly selected, weighed and assigned into test and control groups  (5 per group). Test group was injected with 0.2ml of 300mg/kg alloxan while control group received 0.2ml of sterile water intraperitoneally. The blood glucose in the test group increased steadily from 3.7mmol/L (day1) to 8.4mmol/L (day 7).  Glycated hemoglobin in the test group mice increased marginally from 4.75% to 5.18% compared with the control group at 4.85% to 4.90% with glucose levels stabilizing at 5%. The experiment demonstrates that glycated hemoglobin testing can be used to detect sub-clinical diabetes mellitus and early initiation of treatment and management.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  Gakuya,D.W., Mbaria, J.M., Kiama,S.G., Gathumbi, P.K., Mathiu,M., Nguta,J.M. THE PROSPECTS OF INTEGRATING MEDICINAL PLANTS PRODUCTS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE IN KENYA. 7TH BIENNIAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE, 2010, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY AUDITORIUM, CAVS. : J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 424. : J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Abstract
Malariaisaseriouscauseofmortalityglobally.The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbalremedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plantsthataretraditionallyusedbytheMsambwenicommunityofKenyanSouth Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semi structured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplementedthe interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon(Rutaceae), Gerranthuslobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey(Cucurbitaceae), GrewiahexamintaBurret. (Tiliaceae), CanthiumglaucumHiern. (Rubiaceae), AmaranthushybridusL.(Amaranthaceae), CombretumpadoidesEngl and Diels.(Combretaceae), SeneciosyringitoliusO.Hoffman.(Compositae),OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae),AloemacrosiphonBak.(Liliaceae)andLaudolphiabuchananii(Hall.f)Stapf.(Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plantbased antimalarial drugs.
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  Hesbon Z. Amenya, Peter K.Gathumbi and James M. Mbaria ACUTE TOXICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF AQUEOUS AND CHLOROFORMIC EXTRACTS OF RAPANEA MELANOPHLOEOS. 7TH BIENNIAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE 2010, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY AUDITORIUM, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND VETERINARY SCIENCES. : J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131 (2010) 256. : J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama
KARURI, PROFGATHUMBIPETER.  2010.  John B. Githiori and Peter K Gathumbi (2010 ) Ethnoveterinary plants used in East Africa, In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press). Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press). : Muravej S, Gathece LW Abstract
In this study five aqueous extracts; Bidens pilosa, Strychnos henningsii, Aspilia pluriseta, Catha edulis and Erythrina abyssinica were screened for anti-diabetic activity and their in vivo safety evaluated. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting varying doses of aqueous extracts of the five plants into alloxanised mice. Toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract / kg body weight and observing the effects of the extracts on histology of various organs. All the extracts showed hypoglycaemic activity. At high doses, some plants proved to be highly toxic, mildly toxic and others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used in the management of diabetes.

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