Publications

Found 90 results

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2017
2016
Dimba, Njiru W, Gathece LW, Mutave RJ, Ogwell A. "Tobacco cessation through use of oral health care providers in Kenya.". In: Global Tobacco Treatment Summit . Mayo Clinic Nicotine Dependence ; 2016.
Wang’ombe JK, Ng’ang’a P, WANZALA. "EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV AT TWO COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTRES IN KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9):111-116.abstract.pdf
SJ S. "Effect of homemade dental powder on population of streptococcus mutans." journal of dentistry and oral care. 2016;2(4):1-7.
"Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Mouthwash among Dental and Medical Students of the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016;http://dx.doi.org/10.16966/2378-7090.198(Volume: 2.4).abstract_simiyu.pdf
J N. "Root length in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenya population." African journal of oral Health Sciences. 2016;VI(4):1-5.abstract_4.docx
2015
Dimba E, Njiru W, Gathece LW, Mutave RJ, Ogwell A. "Tobacco cessation through use of oral health care providers in Kenya.". In: 16th World Conference on Tobacco or Health. Abu Dhabi, UAE; 2015.
of health M, of Nairobi U. kenya national oral health survey. kenya: ministry of health; 2015.kenya_national_oral_health_survey_report_2015.pdf
2014
2013
Gichangi P, LGATHECE, B ESTAMBALE TEMMERMANM. "CD4 T LYMPHOCYTES SUBSET IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA." eamj. 2013;90(10):310-316. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and HIV are common in sub-Sahara Africa.
Both ICC and HIV are immunosuppressive, and are associated with decreased CD4
and CD8 profiles. In a group of women with ICC starting radiotherapy, we determined
their CD4 profiles.
Design: This was a cross-sectional study design.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, radiotherapy unit.
Subjects: Women with invasive cervical cancer (344) seeking radiotherapy treatment
for the first time between January 2000 and March 2003, had blood samples analyzed
for CD4 and CD8 cell counts by flow cytometry. Haemoglobin, white cell count,
lymphocyte and platelet counts were determined using coulter machine. All patients
had received pre- and post HIV counseling.
Results: The mean age was 49+13 years. About 13.1% of the women with ICC were
HIV positive. Overall, mean and median CD4 cell count was 829+355 cells/mm3 and
792 cells/mm3. Among HIV+ patients, mean and median CD4 cell counts were 451+288
cells/mm3 and 405 cells/mm3 respectively. The mean CD4 cell count for the HIV+women was 886+329 cells/mm3 with median of 833 cells/mm3, range 147-2065 cells/mm3.
Only nine (20%) of the 45 HIV+ women had CD4 cell count of 0-200. HIV+ women
had lower CD4 percentage and cell count and higher CD8 percentage and cell count
as compared to HIV negative women, p < 0.001. HIV infection was significantly and
independently associated with high proportion of women who had CD4 cell count of
less than 200 cells/mm3 or less than 350 cells/mm3, p < 0.0001.
Conclusions: Women with ICC and concurrent HIV infection have decreased CD4 cell
subset. These results suggest HIV infection may be associated with more severe CD4
depletion in women with ICC.

P. GICHANGI. "CD4 T-LYMPHOCYTES SUBSETS IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA.". In: East African Medical Journal . Vol. Vol. 90 .; 2013:.
Muriithi NJ;, Maina SW;, Okoth J;, Gathece LW. "Internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars in a Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstract

Objective: To determine the internal root morphology and gender variations in mandibular first permanent molars in a Kenyan population. Design: In vitro descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi Results: The mesial root of mandibular first molars had two canals in 96.3% of the teeth in both males and females and type IV canal configuration was most prevalent in the mesial root. The distal root of the mandibular first molar had one canal in 57.7% of the teeth in males and females. There were significant gender variations in the number of canals and canal configurations in the distal root. Two canals were more prevalent in females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%) and a single canal was more frequent in males (69.6%) compared to females (46.4%) (P=0.001). Canal types I, II and IV were the most frequent in the mandibular distal root. The gender variation in the frequency of canal types I, II and IV in the distal root was statistically significant (P=0.001). Conclusion: Most of the mandibular first molars have three canals (56%). Two canals in the distal root are more frequent among females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%).

2011
W. DRGATHECELOICE. ". Willingness of dentists to treat Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya.". In: The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011. Gathece LW, Mutave JR, Matu NK, Mua BN; 2011.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Caries experience, oral hygiene status and diet of children with hearing disability in comparision to those without hearing disability.". In: The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011. Njama JM, Ngatia EM, Opinya GN, Gathece LW.; 2011. Abstract

Abstract
AIM:

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study involved patients aged 15 years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme.
RESULTS:

65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14 years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%), proptosis 19 (29%) and loss of vision 15 (23%). The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%) and maxilla 11 (17%). Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%), followed by 14 (21%) cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and occurred in patients under 5 years of age (40 cases) followed by 19 cases in children aged 5-10 years.
CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10 years. Retinoblastoma and BL were the most common neoplasms.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Clinical features and types of paediatric orofacial malignant neoplasms at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-facial Surgery. 2011(xxx)1-7. Sanya BO, Chindia ML, Gathece LW, Dimba EO, Odhiambo W.; 2011. Abstract

Abstract
AIM:

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study involved patients aged 15 years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme.
RESULTS:

65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14 years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%), proptosis 19 (29%) and loss of vision 15 (23%). The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%) and maxilla 11 (17%). Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%), followed by 14 (21%) cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and occurred in patients under 5 years of age (40 cases) followed by 19 cases in children aged 5-10 years.
CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10 years. Retinoblastoma and BL were the most common neoplasms.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of dental caries on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi.". In: The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011. Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract

Background: Traditional methods of measuring oral health mainly use clinical dental indices. In recent years, the use of subjective assessments to gain information about the impact of oral disorders on Oral-Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) has been advocated. By supplementing the clinical assessments with subjective assessments, a comprehensive account of the oral health of populations can be given. Studies on the OHRQoL of children in Kenya are so far largely unexplored. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the effect of dental caries and malocclusion on the OHRQoL of 12-14 year-old children residing in Viwandani slum. Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods: A total of four hundred and fifty two children aged 12-14 years attending public and private primary schools in Viwandani slum, Nairobi participated in the study. Their mean age was 12.9 years. The two public schools in the slum were included in the study. The private schools were selected through simple random sampling. The children in each school were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data on OHRQoL was obtained using an interviewer administered Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) Index. Intra-oral clinical examination was done to assess caries experience using the DMFT index and severity of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic (DAI) Index. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme. Spearman's Rank Order Correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to relate caries experience and severity of malocclusion with OHRQoL. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 56.2%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.72 ±2.40, with the mean DMFT for the female and male children being 1.73 ±2.07 and 1.71 ±2.40 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the males and females (p=O.95) with regard to their mean DMFT. The prevalence of malocclusion was 32%, of which 19.9% had definite malocclusion, 6.7% had severe malocclusion and 5.4% had handicapping malocclusion. More males than females had malocclusion with the difference being statistically significant (p=O.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between caries experience and OHRQoL (~=O.09, p=O.OO). There was no association between the presence of malocclusion and OHRQoL (p=O.20). Conclusion: Dental caries was found to affect many aspects of the children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, while malocclusion had no effect on the OHRQoL of these children. Recommendation: There is a need for preventive and curative oral health services for the children in Viwandani slum. More studies are needed to determine the dietary patterns and oral hygiene practices of the children living in the slum in order to aid in future planning of appropriate interventions.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of health education on oral hygiene and gingival status of persons living with HIV attending two Comprehensive Care Centres in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Journal of AIDS Research. 2011;10:481-486. (In Press). Gathece LW, Wang; 2011. Abstract

The study aimed to describe the effect of an oral health education intervention on oral hygiene status and gingival inflammation among persons with HIV attending two comprehensive healthcare centres in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a quasi-experimental study of 195 participants (with 102 in the intervention group, and 93 serving as the control group) who were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were collected at baseline, at three months (review 1), and at six months (review 2) using an interviewer-administered World Health Organization clinical examination form. The prevalence of plaque among the participants in the intervention decreased from 70.6% to 18.6%, with a significant decrease in their mean plaque score, from 0.89 to 0.15. The prevalence of gingival inflammation in the intervention group decreased from 58.2% to 12.7%, with a significant decrease in the mean gingival score, from 0.66 to 0.11. No significant change in degree of oral hygiene and gingival inflammation was observed among the non-intervention group. There was a strong association between the change in the mean gingival score and the change in the mean plaque score between baseline and at six months for the intervention group. The regression analysis yielded a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.76; therefore, 76% of the variation in change in gingival score was explained by the variables in the equation. Only the change in mean plaque score was a significant predictor of the change in gingival score.

Keywords: Africa, dental hygiene, dental plaque, gingival inflammation, oral health education, oral manifestations of HIV infection, periodontal disease

African Journal of AIDS Research 2011, 10(4): 495–500

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of light intensity on the light cure characteristics of photo-polymerised dental composites.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Kassim BA, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR, Gathece LW.; 2011.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of malocclusion on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi.". In: . 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW.; 2011.
Dr Gathece LW. Impact of health education on oral heal threlated Quality of life of people living with Hiv/aids in nairobi..; 2011. Abstract

background Oraldiseases and conditions affect every race worldwide. The prevalence of the
twomajor oral diseases namely periodontal diseases and dental caries has been
foundto vary from region to region among the general population. Studies have
found that the prevalence and severity of these diseases and other oral
conditionsis higher among People Living with the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency
Syndrome (PLWHA) than HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) seronegative
persons.The PLWHA also tend to suffer from other types of oral diseases which
are either very rare or do not occur in the oral cavity among seronegative
individuals. Studies have found to a large extent, that oral diseases can be
effectively prevented by oral health education among the general population.
However, the impact of oral health education on oral diseases and conditions
amongPLWHA is unknown in Kenya.
Objective
To determine the impact of oral health education on the oral health status and
Oral Health-Related quality (OHRQoL) of life among PLWHA.
Study Design: This was a quasi-experimental study
Study sites: The study was conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
(intervention group) and Mbagathi District Hospital (MDH) (non-intervention
group) Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC).

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Indications for intial placement of amalgam and compsite restorations.". In: African Journal of oral sciences. 2011;5: 25-31 (in press). Kisumbi KK, Alubale EA, Simila HO, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish the reasons for initial placement and replacement of dental amalgam andresin composite restorations. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 253 respondents conveniently sampled among the patients attending the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital between August and September 2005 were recruited. Of the subjects, 117 (48.4%) were male and 125 (51.6%) female. A total of252 restorations were evaluated, 234(92.9%) were initial placement restorations while 18 (7.1%) were replacement restorations. The most common reason cited for initial restoration was primary carries 227 (96%) whereas secondary caries 18 (3650 was the commonest indication for replacement restorations. The filling materials used for the initial and replacement restorations were amalgam 189 (80.1 %) and resin composite 46 (19.5%).

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "indications for intial placwmwnt of amalgam and composite restorations.". In: African Journal of oral sciences. Kisumbi BK, Alubale HO, Simila HO, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish the reasons for initial placement and replacement of dental amalgam andresin composite restorations. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 253 respondents conveniently sampled among the patients attending the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital between August and September 2005 were recruited. Of the subjects, 117 (48.4%) were male and 125 (51.6%) female. A total of252 restorations were evaluated, 234(92.9%) were initial placement restorations while 18 (7.1%) were replacement restorations. The most common reason cited for initial restoration was primary carries 227 (96%) whereas secondary caries 18 (3650 was the commonest indication for replacement restorations. The filling materials used for the initial and replacement restorations were amalgam 189 (80.1 %) and resin composite 46 (19.5%).

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Nutritional status of 5-15 year old children with hearing disability in comparision with those without disability.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Njama JM, Ngatia EM, Opinya GN, Gathece LW.; 2011.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral health seeking behavior of persons living with HIV at two Comprehensive Care Centers in Kenya.". In: African Journal of oral sciences. 2011;5: 18-24 (in Press). Gathece LW, Wang; 2011. Abstract

There is limited research on oral health seeking behavior in the Sub- saharan Africa. The few existing reports show very low utilization of oral health care services. The objective of this study was to assess the oral health seeking behaviour of persons living with HIV. It was a cross¬sectional study conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi district hospital Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC). Two hundred and fifty two HIV sero-positive males and females age between 19-73 years who presented themselves at the two Ccc. About a third 67.5% of the respondents said they had ever visited a dental clinic. Only 6.9% were visiting a dental clinic regularly. Less than half of the respondents (43.5%) were satisfied with the treatment received in the clinics. The main reason for satisfaction was pain relief. For those who were not satisfied with the treatment, the main reason for dissatisfaction was the use of local anaesthesia. For the respondents who had never visited a dental clinic, the main reason (60%) was their HIV status. "ajority of persons living with HIV/AIDS do not seek dental treatment regularly. The main reason for not seeking treatment is their HIV status. Only less than a half of those who seek treatment are satisfied with treatment given.

2010
W. DRGATHECELOICE. ". Knowledge Attitude and Oral Hygiene Practices of Patients Attending a Periodontology Clinic.". In: 26th KDA/IADR annual scientific conference and exhibition, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Upper hill, Nairobi October 21st to 23rd 2010. . Bagha A. S., Gathece L. W, Kisumbi B; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. ". The prevalence of ECC among 3 to 5 year-olds in Kiambaa division, Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal. 2010; 87: 3. 134 . Njoroge NW, Kemoli AM, Gathece LW.; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infection.". In: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial pathology. 2010;14:33-35. Butt FM, Chindia ML, Kenyanya T, Gathece LW, Rana F; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Efficiency of light curing units in dental clinics.". In: 26th KDA/IADR annual scientific conference and exhibition, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Upper hill, Nairobi October 21st to 23rd 2010. Kassim B. A., Kisumbi B. K., Gathece L. W.; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Knowledge, practices and attitudes of clinical year dental students at the University of Nairobi towards HIV/AIDS patients.". In: Journal of Kenya Dental Assiciation , June 2010. Gakonyo J, Mutave RJ, Matu NK, Gathece LW.; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Root Length in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenyan population.". In: 26th KDA/IADR annual scientific conference and exhibition, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Upper hill, Nairobi October 21st to 23rd 2010. Nyaga JM, Maina SW, Okoth J. Gathece L.W.; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
2009
W. DRGATHECELOICE. ". Knowledge and perception regarding the association between digital sucking, tongue thrusting and anterior open bite among parents of children aged 3-12 years old in Nairobi.". In: African Journal of oral Sciences. 2009; 5(4):9-12. Wangari VW, Gathece LW, Masiga MA.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. ". Selection of posterior dental restoratives materials by dentists in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of Kenya Dental Association. 2009;1:59-64. Ganatra FA, Kisumbi BK, Gathece LW.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. ". Sources of oral health education motivation, attitudes and practices in adolescents 12-13 years old in Nairobi.". In: African Journal of oral Sciences. 2009; 5(4):15-20. Kyale DK, Mutave RJ, Gathece LW, Kisumbi BK.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Compliance to cross infection control measures among dental students and support staff at the university of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". In: Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2009;1( 2):26-31. Sabaya A, Limo AK, Gichana JO, Dimba EAO, Gathece LW, Mutave RJ.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Compliance to cross infection control measures among dental students and support staff at the university of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". In: Journal of the Kenya Dental association. 2009;1( 2):26-31. 19. Sabaya A, Limo AK, Gichana JO, Dimba EAO, Gathece LW, Mutave RJ; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Internal Morphology in First Permanent Molars in A Kenyan population.". In: 2nd International Association of Dental Research (IADR) African and middle East Regional conference. September 22-25 2009. J. Nyaga, S. Maina, J. Okoth, L. W. Gathece.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "IRF6 Gene Variant in Non-syndromic Clefts of a Kenyan Population.". In: 2nd International Association of Dental Research (IADR) African and middle East Regional conference. September 22-25 2009. Nyamu E, Osundwa TM, Chindia ML, GatheceLW, Bulimo W, Murray JC.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral manifestion of diabetes mellitus, relation to blood sugar levels, type and duration of diabetes.". In: African Journal of oral Sciences. 2009;5:16-20. Mohamed A.O, Mutara L.N, Gathece L.W.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Radiographic yield. Criteria and rationale for prescribing bilateral bitewings radiographs.". In: Journal of the Kenya Dental association. 2009; 1(2):43-46. Kagereki E, Lesan WR, Wakaiga JW, Gathece LW.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Relationship Between Candida and Denture Habits Among Complete Denture Wearers.". In: 2nd International Association of Dental Research (IADR) African and middle East Regional conference. September 22-25 2009. M. Ndung; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
2008
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Dental Caries experience among HIV positive 6-12 years old attending comprehensive care center, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: 26th KDA annual scientific Conference and 22rd International Association of Dental Researchers (IADR) East and Southern African Division, Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi. October 16th to 18th 2008. Tafa C, Mua B, Gathece L, Dimba E-; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of use of latex rubber gloves by dental students at the University of Nairobi Dental school.". In: 26th KDA annual scientific Conference and 22rd International Association of Dental Researchers (IADR) East and Southern African Division, Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi. October 16th to 18th 2008. Karimi M, Gathece L, Wakiaga J.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Knowledge, attitudes and dental cultural practices among the Kamba community.". In: 26th KDA annual scientific Conference and 22rd International Association of Dental Researchers (IADR) East and Southern African Division, Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi. October 16th to 18th 2008. Mulu M, Gathece L, Kisumbi.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients on plaque and calculus as causative agents of periodontal disease.". In: 26th KDA annual scientific Conference and 22rd International Association of Dental Researchers (IADR) East and Southern African Division, Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi. October 16th to 18th 2008. Oganda C, Wagaiyu E, Gathece L.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
W. DRGATHECELOICE, G DRMACIGOFRANCIS, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi. EAMJ Vol 85(8) 378-385.". In: East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 85(8) 378-385. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
2006
G DRMACIGOFRANCIS, W. DRGATHECELOICE, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "MACIGO, F.G., GATHECE, L.W., GUTHUA, S.W., NJERU, E.K. WAGAIYU, E.G. and MULLI, T.K.: Oral Hygiene Practices and Risk of Oral Leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006.". In: East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006. Tafa C, Mua B, Gathece L, Dimba E-; 2006. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral health status in HIV positive children in a Nairobi Hospital.". In: Brisbane convention and exhibition centre, 28th June-1st 2006. Munyao J, Gathece LW.; 2006. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2005
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Compliance to Root Canal Treatment among Patients attending University of Nairobi, Dental Hospital.". In: International Association of Dental Research ( IADR) meeting held in Kuwait . Dienya T M, Kariuki Naftali, Gathece LW.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Macigo FG1, Gathece LW1, Guthua SW, Njeru EN, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. The influence of oral hygiene practices on the risk of oral leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal. in press. Dec 2005.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Munyao J, Gathece LW.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Pleomorphic Salivary Adenoma.". In: The Preliminary Program for First African and Middle-East IADR Federation Conference, September 27-29, 2005. SC Waweru, D.O. Awange, L.W. Gathece.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2004
Wang’ombe JK, Muriithi DP, Partet A, Njeru G, Kinyua M, Mwiti C, Njeru E, Waweru M. POSITIONING RESEARCH TO SUPPORT COMMUNITY EFFORT TO REVERSE HIV/AIDS AMONG YOUTH IN MARAGWA AND KIRINYAGA DISTRICTS – KENYA.; 2004.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Baseline survey on oral health, feeding patterns and nutritional status of the old people in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi District.". In: HelpAge international, Africa Regional Development centre 21-23, April 2004. Ngatia EM, Gathece LW, Mutara LN, Macigo FG, Mulli TK.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effective communication methods of dental health education.". In: The 1st joint congress of the East & Southern Africa and Kuwait divisions: West African and Jordanian sections, Hilton hotel Nairobi, 26th . Ngugi MN, Mutara LN, Gathece LW.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia: a case report.". In: African Journal of oral health sciences, Vol 5 No 2, 269-270, june 2004. Mwang; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Inpatient surgical Audit at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". In: The 1st joint congress of the East & Southern Africa and Kuwait divisions: West African and Jordanian sections, Hilton hotel Nairobi, 26th . Kinuthia JW, Gathece LW, Chindia ML; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "management of Dental waste by dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya. L.A. Osamong, L. W. Gathece, B. K. Kisumbi, R. J. Mutave.". In: journal. L.A. Osamong, L. W. Gathece, B. K. Kisumbi, R. J. Mutave; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Muriithi K, Mwiti C Njeru E, Waweru M, Positioning research to support community effort to reverse HIV/AIDS among youth in Maragwa and Kirinyaga districts .". In: The International Workshop on Learning and Empowerment: Key Issues in Strategies for HIV/AIDS Prevention, UNESCO-Institute of Education, Chiangmai-Thailand, March 2004. Wang; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral health status of an elderly population in Dagoretti, Nairobi.". In: African Journal of oral health sciences, Vol 5 No 2, 265-268, June 2004. Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK, Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Mutara LN; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Prevalence of domestic violence among clients seeking emergency Department services in a private hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. J Obstet Gynaecol Eastern Central Africa, 17:9-18, 2004.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol Eastern Central Africa, 17:9-18, 2004. Gathece LW, Gichangi PB, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kiragu J, Ngugi E, Kigondu C:; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Selection of direct posterior restorative materials by dentists in Nairobi.". In: The 1st joint congress of the East & Southern Africa and Kuwait divisions: West African and Jordanian sections, Hilton hotel Nairobi, 26th . Paracha FMS, Kisumbi BK, Gathece LW.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2003
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Nganga PM. A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans. J Dent Res 82 (spec issue C) Dec 2003. Abstract No 99 pg C627.". In: J Dent Res 82 (spec issue C) Dec 2003. Abstract No 99 pg C627. Ndung; 2003. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Nyamu EN, Masiga MA, Gathece LW, Mutara LN: Knowledge, attitude and practices of caregivers attending the Kenyatta National hospital mother and child Health clinic towards the oral health of their children. African Journal of oral health Sciences, Vol 4 N.". In: African Journal of oral health Sciences, Vol 4 No 3, 236-237, Nov 2003. Ndung; 2003. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Reasons to study dentistry: present attitudes and career goals among university of Nairobi dental students.". In: African Journal of oral health Sciences, Vol 4 No 3, 236-237, Nov 2003. Ndung; 2003. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2002
LW G, N NE, J O, S M. "Oral sex and wet kissing among female sex workers in two slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: The 16th International Association for Dental Research (IADR). Second joint congress of the Southern Africa and East and southern Africa divisions. Durban; 2002.
FG M, SW G, LW G. "Challenges in tobacco control in Kenya." KDA News letter (2002).
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Prevalence of gingivitis among HIV positive children in a children.". In: . The 16th International Association for Dental Research (IADR). Second joint congress of the Southern Africa and East and southern Africa divisions, Durban 15-17th August 2002. AyotiJ O Gathece L W, WakiagaJ:; 2002. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Reasons as to why patients change dentists,.". In: African Journal of oral health Sciences, Vol.3 No2, June. 2002. AyotiJ O Gathece L W, WakiagaJ:; 2002. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans.". In: The16th International Association for Dental Research (IADR). Second joint congress of the Southern Africa and East and southern Africa divisions, Durban 15-17th August 2002. Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Ng; 2002. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2001
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Gathece LW: Prevalence and trend of Oral sex among female sex workers in two slum areas in Nairobi, African Journal of oral health, Vol.1 No2, 17-18, June 2001.". In: African Journal of oral health, Vol.1 No2, 17-18, June 2001. Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Ng; 2001. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2000
1997
Munenge RW, Ngatia EM, Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Mutara LN, Wagaiyu EG. "Relaxant activities of Ageratum conyzoides extract on isolated trachea and uterus.". 1997.
1990
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Muravej S, Gathece LW Occurrence of myofacial syndrome among university of Nairobi health sciences students Kenya. J Dent Res 82 (spec issue C) Dec 2003. Abstract No 107 pg C628.". In: J Dent Res 82 (spec issue C) Dec 2003. Abstract No 107 pg C628. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 1990. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

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