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PROF. GATHECE LOICE W.

Personal Information

Reaching The Needy In The Society

Giving oral health preventive and promotive services at the community levels especailly the velnurable groups

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Publications


2017

gathece.  2017.  Oral Hygiene Status and gingival inflammation of Persons Living with HIV Attending Comprehensive Care Centre in Nairobi.. International journal of innovative research and advanced studies.

2016

J, N.  2016.  Root length in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenya population. African journal of oral Health Sciences. VI(4):1-5.abstract_4.docx
Dimba, Njiru W, Gathece LW, Mutave RJ, Ogwell A.  2016.  Tobacco cessation through use of oral health care providers in Kenya, May 21st – 25th. Global Tobacco Treatment Summit . , Mayo Clinic Nicotine Dependence
SJ, S.  2016.  Effect of homemade dental powder on population of streptococcus mutans. journal of dentistry and oral care. 2(4):1-7.
Wang’ombe, JK, Ng’ang’a P, WANZALA.  2016.  EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV AT TWO COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTRES IN KENYA. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 93(No. 9):111-116.abstract.pdf
  2016.  Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Mouthwash among Dental and Medical Students of the University of Nairobi. International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. http://dx.doi.org/10.16966/2378-7090.198(Volume: 2.4)abstract_simiyu.pdf

2015

of health, M, of Nairobi U.  2015.  kenya national oral health survey. , kenya: ministry of healthkenya_national_oral_health_survey_report_2015.pdf
Dimba, E, Njiru W, Gathece LW, Mutave RJ, Ogwell A.  2015.  Tobacco cessation through use of oral health care providers in Kenya, 17th – 21st Marc. 16th World Conference on Tobacco or Health. , Abu Dhabi, UAE
N. W. Njoroge, Kemoli A.  2015.  EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES AMONGST PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR CAREGIVERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ORAL HEALTH IN A KENYAN RURAL SETTING. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 92(No. 6):1-5.

2014

JC, W, Matu NK, Stephen L and Laloo R., TK M, LW G.  2014.  Occurrence of red-complex aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among patients with periodontal disease at the university of Nairobi dental hospital, 30 October -1st . 32rd KDA Conference and exhibition. , Sarova Panafric hotel Nairobi
Khawaja, S, L.W G, T.J O.  2014.  Correlation of hand traced lateral cephalograms with digitally computerized lateral cephalograms, 25-28 June . . IADR general session and exbition. , Capetown

2013

P. GICHANGI.  2013.  CD4 T-LYMPHOCYTES SUBSETS IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA. East African Medical Journal . Vol. 90 (No. 10):310-316.
Gichangi, P, LGATHECE, B ESTAMBALE TEMMERMANM.  2013.  CD4 T LYMPHOCYTES SUBSET IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA. eamj. 90(10):310-316. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and HIV are common in sub-Sahara Africa.
Both ICC and HIV are immunosuppressive, and are associated with decreased CD4
and CD8 profiles. In a group of women with ICC starting radiotherapy, we determined
their CD4 profiles.
Design: This was a cross-sectional study design.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, radiotherapy unit.
Subjects: Women with invasive cervical cancer (344) seeking radiotherapy treatment
for the first time between January 2000 and March 2003, had blood samples analyzed
for CD4 and CD8 cell counts by flow cytometry. Haemoglobin, white cell count,
lymphocyte and platelet counts were determined using coulter machine. All patients
had received pre- and post HIV counseling.
Results: The mean age was 49+13 years. About 13.1% of the women with ICC were
HIV positive. Overall, mean and median CD4 cell count was 829+355 cells/mm3 and
792 cells/mm3. Among HIV+ patients, mean and median CD4 cell counts were 451+288
cells/mm3 and 405 cells/mm3 respectively. The mean CD4 cell count for the HIV+women was 886+329 cells/mm3 with median of 833 cells/mm3, range 147-2065 cells/mm3.
Only nine (20%) of the 45 HIV+ women had CD4 cell count of 0-200. HIV+ women
had lower CD4 percentage and cell count and higher CD8 percentage and cell count
as compared to HIV negative women, p < 0.001. HIV infection was significantly and
independently associated with high proportion of women who had CD4 cell count of
less than 200 cells/mm3 or less than 350 cells/mm3, p < 0.0001.
Conclusions: Women with ICC and concurrent HIV infection have decreased CD4 cell
subset. These results suggest HIV infection may be associated with more severe CD4
depletion in women with ICC.

Muriithi, NJ;, Maina SW;, Okoth J;, Gathece LW.  2013.  Internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars in a Kenyan population. Abstract

Objective: To determine the internal root morphology and gender variations in mandibular first permanent molars in a Kenyan population. Design: In vitro descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi Results: The mesial root of mandibular first molars had two canals in 96.3% of the teeth in both males and females and type IV canal configuration was most prevalent in the mesial root. The distal root of the mandibular first molar had one canal in 57.7% of the teeth in males and females. There were significant gender variations in the number of canals and canal configurations in the distal root. Two canals were more prevalent in females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%) and a single canal was more frequent in males (69.6%) compared to females (46.4%) (P=0.001). Canal types I, II and IV were the most frequent in the mandibular distal root. The gender variation in the frequency of canal types I, II and IV in the distal root was statistically significant (P=0.001). Conclusion: Most of the mandibular first molars have three canals (56%). Two canals in the distal root are more frequent among females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%).

2011

Dr Gathece, LW.  2011.  Impact of health education on oral heal threlated Quality of life of people living with Hiv/aids in nairobi.. Abstract

background Oraldiseases and conditions affect every race worldwide. The prevalence of the
twomajor oral diseases namely periodontal diseases and dental caries has been
foundto vary from region to region among the general population. Studies have
found that the prevalence and severity of these diseases and other oral
conditionsis higher among People Living with the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency
Syndrome (PLWHA) than HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) seronegative
persons.The PLWHA also tend to suffer from other types of oral diseases which
are either very rare or do not occur in the oral cavity among seronegative
individuals. Studies have found to a large extent, that oral diseases can be
effectively prevented by oral health education among the general population.
However, the impact of oral health education on oral diseases and conditions
amongPLWHA is unknown in Kenya.
Objective
To determine the impact of oral health education on the oral health status and
Oral Health-Related quality (OHRQoL) of life among PLWHA.
Study Design: This was a quasi-experimental study
Study sites: The study was conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
(intervention group) and Mbagathi District Hospital (MDH) (non-intervention
group) Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC).

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  indications for intial placwmwnt of amalgam and composite restorations. African Journal of oral sciences. : Kisumbi BK, Alubale HO, Simila HO, Gathece LW Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish the reasons for initial placement and replacement of dental amalgam andresin composite restorations. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 253 respondents conveniently sampled among the patients attending the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital between August and September 2005 were recruited. Of the subjects, 117 (48.4%) were male and 125 (51.6%) female. A total of252 restorations were evaluated, 234(92.9%) were initial placement restorations while 18 (7.1%) were replacement restorations. The most common reason cited for initial restoration was primary carries 227 (96%) whereas secondary caries 18 (3650 was the commonest indication for replacement restorations. The filling materials used for the initial and replacement restorations were amalgam 189 (80.1 %) and resin composite 46 (19.5%).

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Nutritional status of 5-15 year old children with hearing disability in comparision with those without disability.. 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011.. : Njama JM, Ngatia EM, Opinya GN, Gathece LW.
W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Effect of light intensity on the light cure characteristics of photo-polymerised dental composites. 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011.. : Kassim BA, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR, Gathece LW.
W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  . Willingness of dentists to treat Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya.. The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011.. : Gathece LW, Mutave JR, Matu NK, Mua BN
W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Effect of malocclusion on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi. . 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011.. : Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW.
W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Caries experience, oral hygiene status and diet of children with hearing disability in comparision to those without hearing disability.. The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011.. : Njama JM, Ngatia EM, Opinya GN, Gathece LW. Abstract

Abstract
AIM:

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study involved patients aged 15 years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme.
RESULTS:

65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14 years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%), proptosis 19 (29%) and loss of vision 15 (23%). The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%) and maxilla 11 (17%). Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%), followed by 14 (21%) cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and occurred in patients under 5 years of age (40 cases) followed by 19 cases in children aged 5-10 years.
CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10 years. Retinoblastoma and BL were the most common neoplasms.

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Effect of dental caries on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi. The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011.. : Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW Abstract

Background: Traditional methods of measuring oral health mainly use clinical dental indices. In recent years, the use of subjective assessments to gain information about the impact of oral disorders on Oral-Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) has been advocated. By supplementing the clinical assessments with subjective assessments, a comprehensive account of the oral health of populations can be given. Studies on the OHRQoL of children in Kenya are so far largely unexplored. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the effect of dental caries and malocclusion on the OHRQoL of 12-14 year-old children residing in Viwandani slum. Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods: A total of four hundred and fifty two children aged 12-14 years attending public and private primary schools in Viwandani slum, Nairobi participated in the study. Their mean age was 12.9 years. The two public schools in the slum were included in the study. The private schools were selected through simple random sampling. The children in each school were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data on OHRQoL was obtained using an interviewer administered Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) Index. Intra-oral clinical examination was done to assess caries experience using the DMFT index and severity of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic (DAI) Index. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme. Spearman's Rank Order Correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to relate caries experience and severity of malocclusion with OHRQoL. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 56.2%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.72 ±2.40, with the mean DMFT for the female and male children being 1.73 ±2.07 and 1.71 ±2.40 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the males and females (p=O.95) with regard to their mean DMFT. The prevalence of malocclusion was 32%, of which 19.9% had definite malocclusion, 6.7% had severe malocclusion and 5.4% had handicapping malocclusion. More males than females had malocclusion with the difference being statistically significant (p=O.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between caries experience and OHRQoL (~=O.09, p=O.OO). There was no association between the presence of malocclusion and OHRQoL (p=O.20). Conclusion: Dental caries was found to affect many aspects of the children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, while malocclusion had no effect on the OHRQoL of these children. Recommendation: There is a need for preventive and curative oral health services for the children in Viwandani slum. More studies are needed to determine the dietary patterns and oral hygiene practices of the children living in the slum in order to aid in future planning of appropriate interventions.

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Oral health seeking behavior of persons living with HIV at two Comprehensive Care Centers in Kenya. African Journal of oral sciences. 2011;5: 18-24 (in Press).. : Gathece LW, Wang Abstract

There is limited research on oral health seeking behavior in the Sub- saharan Africa. The few existing reports show very low utilization of oral health care services. The objective of this study was to assess the oral health seeking behaviour of persons living with HIV. It was a cross¬sectional study conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi district hospital Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC). Two hundred and fifty two HIV sero-positive males and females age between 19-73 years who presented themselves at the two Ccc. About a third 67.5% of the respondents said they had ever visited a dental clinic. Only 6.9% were visiting a dental clinic regularly. Less than half of the respondents (43.5%) were satisfied with the treatment received in the clinics. The main reason for satisfaction was pain relief. For those who were not satisfied with the treatment, the main reason for dissatisfaction was the use of local anaesthesia. For the respondents who had never visited a dental clinic, the main reason (60%) was their HIV status. "ajority of persons living with HIV/AIDS do not seek dental treatment regularly. The main reason for not seeking treatment is their HIV status. Only less than a half of those who seek treatment are satisfied with treatment given.

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Indications for intial placement of amalgam and compsite restorations.. African Journal of oral sciences. 2011;5: 25-31 (in press).. : Kisumbi KK, Alubale EA, Simila HO, Gathece LW Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish the reasons for initial placement and replacement of dental amalgam andresin composite restorations. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 253 respondents conveniently sampled among the patients attending the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital between August and September 2005 were recruited. Of the subjects, 117 (48.4%) were male and 125 (51.6%) female. A total of252 restorations were evaluated, 234(92.9%) were initial placement restorations while 18 (7.1%) were replacement restorations. The most common reason cited for initial restoration was primary carries 227 (96%) whereas secondary caries 18 (3650 was the commonest indication for replacement restorations. The filling materials used for the initial and replacement restorations were amalgam 189 (80.1 %) and resin composite 46 (19.5%).

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Effect of health education on oral hygiene and gingival status of persons living with HIV attending two Comprehensive Care Centres in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of AIDS Research. 2011;10:481-486. (In Press).. : Gathece LW, Wang Abstract

The study aimed to describe the effect of an oral health education intervention on oral hygiene status and gingival inflammation among persons with HIV attending two comprehensive healthcare centres in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a quasi-experimental study of 195 participants (with 102 in the intervention group, and 93 serving as the control group) who were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were collected at baseline, at three months (review 1), and at six months (review 2) using an interviewer-administered World Health Organization clinical examination form. The prevalence of plaque among the participants in the intervention decreased from 70.6% to 18.6%, with a significant decrease in their mean plaque score, from 0.89 to 0.15. The prevalence of gingival inflammation in the intervention group decreased from 58.2% to 12.7%, with a significant decrease in the mean gingival score, from 0.66 to 0.11. No significant change in degree of oral hygiene and gingival inflammation was observed among the non-intervention group. There was a strong association between the change in the mean gingival score and the change in the mean plaque score between baseline and at six months for the intervention group. The regression analysis yielded a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.76; therefore, 76% of the variation in change in gingival score was explained by the variables in the equation. Only the change in mean plaque score was a significant predictor of the change in gingival score.

Keywords: Africa, dental hygiene, dental plaque, gingival inflammation, oral health education, oral manifestations of HIV infection, periodontal disease

African Journal of AIDS Research 2011, 10(4): 495–500

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2011.  Clinical features and types of paediatric orofacial malignant neoplasms at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-facial Surgery. 2011(xxx)1-7. : Sanya BO, Chindia ML, Gathece LW, Dimba EO, Odhiambo W. Abstract

Abstract
AIM:

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study involved patients aged 15 years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme.
RESULTS:

65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14 years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%), proptosis 19 (29%) and loss of vision 15 (23%). The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%) and maxilla 11 (17%). Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%), followed by 14 (21%) cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and occurred in patients under 5 years of age (40 cases) followed by 19 cases in children aged 5-10 years.
CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10 years. Retinoblastoma and BL were the most common neoplasms.

2010

W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2010.  . Knowledge Attitude and Oral Hygiene Practices of Patients Attending a Periodontology Clinic. 26th KDA/IADR annual scientific conference and exhibition, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Upper hill, Nairobi October 21st to 23rd 2010. .. : Bagha A. S., Gathece L. W, Kisumbi B Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
W., DRGATHECELOICE.  2010.  Root Length in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenyan population.. 26th KDA/IADR annual scientific conference and exhibition, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Upper hill, Nairobi October 21st to 23rd 2010.. : Nyaga JM, Maina SW, Okoth J. Gathece L.W. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.

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