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2012
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Multispectral Imaging Microscopy for Malaria Diagnosis.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK. "Automatic Classification of Plasmodium Parasites Using Stained RGB Images.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics -Assisted Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of High Background Radiation Areas Geothermal Field Matrices.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "A joint Kenya – Ivory Coast Malaria Measurement Campaign.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Schroeder H. "Reference assignment in pronominal argument languages – a relevance-theoretical perspective .". In: Epics V. Intercultural, cogntive and social pragmatics. Seville, Spain; 2012.
kinyua OH. "BUSINESS AND SECURITY: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE.". In: Business and Security in Africa. Laico Regency Hotel; 2012.business_and_security_hasan_kinyua-presentation_14_sept.ppt
"identity, belong and the challenges of citizenship in Kenya.". In: Society for International Development stakeholders meeting. Southern Sun Hotel, Nairobi.; 2012.
"Pan-African Anthroplogical Conference PAAAC.". In: Pan-African Anthroplogical Conference PAAAC. Nairobi Safari Club, Nairobi Kenya ; 2012.abstractsocial_and_economic_factors_impacting_food_production.pdf
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "The context of land reforms and an overview of the land policy.". In: K-Nice Programme Public Sector Forum For Senior Public Officers. Kenya Institute Of Administration ; 2012.
MONARI FRONICA, Andollo AA, Rambo DCM. "Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African International Business and Mnagement (AIBUMA). Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
MONARI FRONICA, P.O.K'obonyo P, Andollo AA. "The Influence of Time Management Tendencies on the Relationship between Employee Empoerment and Organizational Performance: A study of the University of Nairobi.". In: African International Business and Mnagement (AIBUMA). Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Atieno LV, Moturi CA, Wagacha PW, Orwa DO, Ogutu JO, Wausi A. "Successful Implementation of Digital Village Projects: A Factor to Economic Empowerment at the Community Level.". In: 3rd African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: AIBUMA; 2012. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Abubakar LU. "Impact of genetic research on women in Africa.". In: International Conference on Muslim Women Scholars in Science & Technology Development. Tehran, IRAN; 2012.abstract-african_women__genetics.pdf
joshua Kivuva. "The role of Parliamentarians in Regional Integration and the Mainstreaming of "AU's Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade" within Eastern Africa.". In: The workshop on the implementation and ratification of African Union's policies and instruments on trade and the African charter on the values and principles of public services and administration. The Serena Beach Hotel, Mombasa; 2012.
Akuon P, Xu H. Rate and reliability implementation scheme for Polar Codes,SATNAC2012,EastLondon,SA. George, Western Cape, South Africa; 2012. Abstract

 Communications channel coding that achieves capacity is implemented and solution suggested for selection of the optimal design parameter to achieve capacity:Rate or reliability of channels.

Kagwe J, Masinde M. "Survey on DNS configurations, interdependencies, resilience and security for *.ke domains.". In: ACM Annual Symposium on Computing for Development, ACM DEV '12. Atlanta, Georgia; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "The governmental and party system in kenya.". In: The 5th generation scholarship program "Go Africa...Go Germany..." Fairview Hotel, Nairobi.; 2012.
Jessica DeMita, € Dennis Munene DGMSSSKJMMJK¥ £ € ¥. "KHAS (Kenya Heart and Sole Afya Njema) Project; an Academic-Clinical-Policy Partnership for Health.". In: Global Nursing caucus. Boston, USA; 2012.
omoni DG. "Global and Local Strategies to Increase Nursing Educational Capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International23rd International Nursing Research Congress. Brisbane, Australia; 2012. Abstractscan0008.pdf

Leaming Objective 1: Identify areas of nursing and midwifery education that need to be strengthened in order to increase nurse and nurse faculty capacity
in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Learning Objective 2: Discuss global and local solutions that strengthen nurse and nurse faculty capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa.
There is a critical shortage of nurses in the developing world with an average of only 11 nurse per 10,000 population. Efforts to increase the number of
nurses are hampered in part because of a lack of facility, material, electronic and human resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to gain a better
understanding of the problems and issues in Africa, a focus group with 25 senior African nurse educators was conducted at the biennial conference of the
African Midwives Research Network (AMRN) held in Oar Es Salaam in December 2009. These nurse educators identified what they believed needed to
be strengthened related to nursing and midwifery education. Areas identified included: Intemet Accessibility and Information Technology; Educational
materials such as data bases, journals, texts; Resources such as improved skills labs, computer rooms, libraries, clinical facilities; Transportation for
community experiences; Quality standards; Faculty and faculty development. Proposed solutions included: Virtual and satellite colleges; Student leaming
outcomes focused curriculum; Standardized and appropriate leveling of curriculum; Visiting professors from established programs; Enhanced career
pathways (e.g., RN to BSN). Although large intemational groups such as the World Health Organization are developing policy briefs related to solving this
crisis and others are funding some solutions, it is essential to have dialogues about nurse shortages and nurse faculty shortages between nurse
educators both in-country and internationally. There is much nurses educators from developed countries can do working side by side with those from

Ndegwa EN. Kiharu Constituency Strategic Plan. Nairobi; 2012.
Odwe" "G, Khasakhala" "AA. "Spousal communication and fertility related decisions: A case study of Western and Coast Provinces, Kenya.". In: 2012 Population Association of America Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA ; 2012.
Khasakhala" "AA. "Levels, Trends and Pattern in Overall, childhood and Maternal Mortality in Kenya.". In: 2. 4th Population Association of Kenya (PAK) Conference,. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
P M, HO O, A P. " Cigarette Smoking and alcohol ingestion as risk factors for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." Clinical Medicine Insights 2012. Ear, Nose and Throat . 2012:517:524.
Kipyegon AN, Mutembei HM TVTT. " Effects of Ripe Carica Papaya Seed Powder on Testicular Histology of Boars." international journal of veterinary science. 2012;1(1):1-4.
Musonye MM, Ndivo L. Heart to Heart: Reflective Poetry from Kenya. . Nairobi: Centre for Research, Publications and Consultancy – Daystar University; 2012.
"" Holistic Healing: An Analytical Review of Medicine-Men in African Societies." Thought and Practice a Journal of the philosophical Association of Kenya. 2012;Vol.IV NUMBER 1.
Mbithi LM, Okelo JA, Kiriti-Nganga TW. " Jounce of the African Women Studies Centre, Vol. 2.". In: WTO chair vol 2: Trade discourse in Kenya: Some topical issues V ol. 2.; 2012.
Wamalwa D, Lehman DA B-NGGSM, Benki-Nugent S, Gasper M GR, Maleche-Obimbo E, John-Stewart G OJ. " Long-term Virologic Response and Genotypic Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 Infected Kenyan Children on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
HIV-infected children may require the use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) into adulthood. However, regimens are limited to first- and second-line in many African settings. Therefore, understanding the long-term rate of virologic failure and drug resistance during prolonged antiretroviral treatment is important for establishing treatment strategies in African pediatric cohorts.
METHODS:
Children ages 18 months to 12 years initiated first-line cART and were followed every 1-3 months, for up to 5.5 years. Treatment was switched to second-line based on clinical and immunologic criteria according to national guidelines. Virologic failure was determined retrospectively as defined by ≥2 viral loads >5000 copies/mL. Drug resistance was assessed during viral failure by population-based sequencing.
RESULTS:
Among 100 children on first-line cART followed for a median 49 months, 34% experienced virologic failure. Twenty-three (68%) of the 34 children with viral failure had detectable resistance mutations, of whom 14 (61%) had multi-class resistance. Fourteen (14%) children were switched to second-line regimens and followed for a median of 28 months. Retrospective analysis revealed that virologic failure had occurred a median of 12 months prior to the switch to second-line. During prolonged first-line treatment in the presence of viral failure, additional resistance mutations accumulated, however, only 1 (7%) of 14 children had persistent viremia during second-line treatment.
DISCUSSION:
Virologic suppression was maintained on first-line cART in two-thirds of HIV-infected children for up to 5 years. Switch to second-line based on clinical/immunologic criteria occurred ∼1 year after viral failure, but the delay did not consistently compromise second-line treatment.

Ogeng'o J, Gakuu LN, Saidi H, Ongeti KW, Pulei A. " Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc In An African Population: Kenyan Experience." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstractprolapsed_intrevertebral_disk_in_an_african_population__kenyan_experience.pdf

Background: Characteristics of Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PID) in Africa, reports are scanty and
often disparate.
Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of PID by location, age, gender and predisposing factors among
African patients at our hospital, the largest regional referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
Patients and Methods: Six hundred and three cases (267 males, 336 females) of prolapsed intervertebral
disc over 11 years between January 1997 and December 2007 were analyzed for location, number of
prolapsed disks, gender, age and predisposing conditions.
Results: Of the determined locations L4/5 was the commonest (42.3%), followed by L5/S1 (25.5%).
Seventy seven (20.9%) of the patients had multiple prolapsed disks. 1.4% were in the cervical region,
and only one in the thoracic. PID was commonest in the 31 – 50 year age group females (M: F is 1:1.26,
p=0.00), with mean age 40.90+13.80 years, (range between 11- 85 years).
Conclusions: PID in Kenya is commonest in the lower lumbar region of young people more in females
and is associated with trauma.

Mwega FM. Recent Economic Shocks, their Impacts and Policy Responses in Kenya.. London.: International Development Institute (ODI),; 2012.
Mwega FM, Weil D, Mbiti I. The Implications of Innovations in the Financial Sector on th e Conduct of Monetary Policy in East Africa.. International Growth Ce ntre Tanzania Country Programme; 2012.
Too, K V; Mutai MMMEBK; J. " Too, K V; Mutai, E B K; Mutua, J M; Mutuli, D A; Mbuge, D O .". 2012. Abstract

The groundnut, Arachis hypogaea Linn, samples were collected from the majorly grown areas of western Kenya to investigate the viscoelastic properties pertinent to grain handling, storage and processing. In particular, the study conducted at the University of Nairobi, Department of Environmental and Biosystems laboratories in July 2010, aimed at investigating the stress-strain properties of bulk groundnuts in relation to Maxwell polymer viscoelastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was also applied to bulk groundnuts. Three samples were prepared for triaxial tests; each weighing 1062.4 g. The moisture content of the samples was 7.6%. The sample size for triaxial testing was 100 mm diameter and 199 mm height. Density of the samples during the tests was 678.6 kg/m3. Confining stresses of 200, 400 and 600 kPa were used and Axial Strain Rate (ASR) of 0.5 mm/min was used for the triaxial compression tests. For the senstar universal testing machine relaxation time was about 30 min for each of the samples. Relaxation data was recorded after every 30 sec for the duration of the test (30 min). These results showed that the Maxwell model for viscoelastic polymers can be applied to accurately describe the behaviour of bulk groundnuts.

Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. " Vicoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology. 2012;Vol. 4 (No. 10 ISSN 2041-3238). Abstract

n/a

JW A, J N-M, EM M, CM M. " Welfare of dairy cattle in smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and it's environs. ." Livestock Prod. for Rural Development. 2012;24(9): .
and Keiyoro P.N. GKCMHJ. "(iv) Use of Mobile Telephone in reporting notifiable diseases in Kenya,:The case of Nairobi metropolitan. Co authoredKeiyoro,Kinuthia and Ngunjiri ." Elearning Africa Book of abstracts 2012. Elearning Africa publications.. 2012.
Harry Amuguni Chanzu • John Mmari Onyari, Shiundu PM. "), Biosorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Polylactide/Spent Brewery Grains Films: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." J Polym Environ. 2012;DOI 10.1007/s10924-012-0479-5.
Ng'ang 'a Ng'endo, Monica, Nzuve S. ", An Assessment of Employees' Perception of Performance Appraisal: A Case Study of the Department of Immigration - Nairobi ." An Assessment of Employees' Perception of Performance Appraisal: A Case Study of the Department of Immigration - Nairobi . 2012.
Pulei A, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J, Kitunguu P, ONGETI K, Obimbo M. ". Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population
A Pulei, M Obimbo, K Ongeti, P Kitunguu, M Inyimili, J Ogeng’o

Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population.
Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.
Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%).
Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Keywords: brachial artery, bifurcation, trifurcation, superficial brachioradial artery

and W.K.S. Ruto, J.I. Kinyamario N’etich AMNKEJK. ". Human Impacts on Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya. ." Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution. 2012;9(3):11-18. absracts.pdf
Fawzia M. Afrid Butt1*, Julius Ogengo1 JB2 MC3 ED4 EW5LAO. "A 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2012;2:54-59.benign_tumours_2012.pdf
Butt FMA, Ogeng'o J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology . 2012; 2:54-59. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Zaja JO. 2012 Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya, Longhorn Publishing Ltd, Nairobi Kenya. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers Kenya Ltd; 2012.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Villinger J, Muthomi J, Narla RD, Pappu HR. "2012. First report of tomato yellow ring virus (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) Infecting tomatoes in Kenya." Plant Disease. 2012;96:1384.Website
Chindia ML, Wagaiyu EG, ocholla Tom, Opondo F, Kihara E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Opondo F, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Chaga H, et al. 6. A Unified Orthography for Bantu Languages of Kenya . Cape town, South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Keiyoro, P.N., Kinuthia, Ngunjiri. 7th International conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training in Africa. Cotonou Benin; 2012.
Noordin R, Whitbrodt M, Waris A. ": Law and Economics: A New Dimension in Market Regulation (co-authored with and )." International Business Management. 2012.
Ongeti KW. "Abdominal Tuberculosis Mimicking Annular Pancreas in an Adult .". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is rampant in Africa and can mimic other gastrointestinal diseases. Isolated duodenal involvement is rare. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas, only to be diagnosed at laparotomy. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.

Konyole SO, Kinyuru JN, Owuor BO, Kenji GM, Onyango CA, Estambale BB, Friis H, Roos N, Owino VO. "Acceptability of Amaranth Grain-based Nutritious Complementary Foods with Dagaa Fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and Edible Termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) Compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus among Young Children/Mothers Dyads in Western Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Akweya BA, Gitao CG. "The acceptability of camel milk and milk products from north eastern province in some urban areas of Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

A total of 138 households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. 75% of the respondents generally take camel milk or milk products every day. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (19 and18%) while packaging was more important for pasteurized milk (18, 18 and 16%) for Wajir, Garisa and Eastleigh respectively. For Yoghurt, the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour milk is the most important attribute in both Garisa (30%) and Eastleigh (24%). To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

B A, C.G. G, M O. "The acceptability of camel milk and milk products from north eastern province in some urban areas of Kenya." African Journal of Food Science. 2012;6(19):465-473. Abstractpub_11_akweya_et_al.pdfWebsite

A total of 138 households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. 75% of the respondents generally take camel milk or milk products every day. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (19 and18%) while packaging was more important for pasteurized milk (18, 18 and 16%) for Wajir, Garisa and Eastleigh respectively. For Yoghurt, the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour milk is the most important attribute in both Garisa (30%) and Eastleigh (24%). To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

"Accuracy of pastoralists' memory-based kinship assignment of Ankole cattle: a microsatellite DNA analysis." Anim Breed Genet. . 2012;129(1):30-40. Abstract

This study aimed to estimate the level of relatedness within Ankole cattle herds using autosomal microsatellite markers and to assess the accuracy of relationship assignment based on farmers' memory. Eight cattle populations (four from each of two counties in Mbarara district in Uganda) were studied. Cattle in each population shared varying degrees of relatedness (first-, second- and third-degree relatives and unrelated individuals). Only memory-based kinship assignments which farmers knew with some confidence were tested in this experiment. DNA isolated from the blood of a subsample of 304 animals was analysed using 19 microsatellite markers. Average within population relatedness coefficients ranged from 0.010 ± 0.005 (Nshaara) to 0.067 ± 0.004 (Tayebwa). An exclusion probability of 99.9% was observed for both sire-offspring and dam-offspring relationships using the entire panel of 19 markers. Confidence from likelihood tests performed on 292 dyads showed that first-degree relatives were more easily correctly assigned by farmers than second-degree ones (p < 0.01), which were also easier to assign than third-degree relatives (p < 0.01). Accuracy of kinship assignment by the farmers was 91.9% ± 5.0 for dam-offspring dyads, 85.5% ± 3.4 for sire-offspring dyads, 75.6% ± 12.3 for half-sib and 60.0% ± 5.0 for grand dam-grand offspring dyads. Herd size, number of dyads assigned and length of time spent by the herder with their cattle population did not correlate with error in memorizing relationships. However, herd size strongly correlated with number of dyads assigned by the herder (r = 0.967, p < 0.001). Overall, we conclude that memorized records of pastoralists can be used to trace relationships and for pedigree reconstruction within Ankole cattle populations, but with the awareness that herd size constrains the number of kinship assignments remembered by the farmer.

A.M G, P. L, S. L, M. W, H. A-A, M. F, G. C, Z. Q, JP. S. "Active management of the third stage of labour with and without controlled cord traction: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial." Lancet. 2012;379(9827):1721-7. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether controlled cord traction can be omitted from active management of this stage without increasing the risk of severe haemorrhage.

METHODS:

We did a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in 16 hospitals and two primary health-care centres in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda. Women expecting to deliver singleton babies vaginally (ie, not planned caesarean section) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) with a centrally generated allocation sequence, stratified by country, to placental delivery with gravity and maternal effort (simplified package) or controlled cord traction applied immediately after uterine contraction and cord clamping (full package). After randomisation, allocation could not be concealed from investigators, participants, or assessors. Oxytocin 10 IU was administered immediately after birth with cord clamping after 1-3 min. Uterine massage was done after placental delivery according to local policy. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was blood loss of 1000 mL or more (severe haemorrhage). The non-inferiority margin for the risk ratio was 1·3. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat, excluding women who had emergency caesarean sections. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12608000434392.

FINDINGS:

Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 30, 2010, 12,227 women were randomly assigned to the simplified package group and 12,163 to the full package group. After exclusion of women who had emergency caesarean sections, 11,861 were in the simplified package group and 11,820 were in the full package group. The primary outcome of blood loss of 1000 mL or more had a risk ratio of 1·09 (95% CI 0·91-1·31) and the upper 95% CI limit crossed the pre-stated non-inferiority margin. One case of uterine inversion occurred in the full package group. Other adverse events were haemorrhage-related.

INTERPRETATION:

Although the hypothesis of non-inferiority was not met, omission of controlled cord traction has very little effect on the risk of severe haemorrhage. Scaling up of haemorrhage prevention programmes for non-hospital settings can safely focus on use of oxytocin.

FUNDING:
United States Agency for International Development and UN Development Programme/UN Population Fund/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research

Slyker JA, Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Reilly M, Richardson B, Emery VC, Atzberger A, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased frequencies of activated and apoptosis-vulnerable T cells in HIV-1-infected infants.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection is associated with infant HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. The frequency of activated CD4(+) T cells was strongly associated with both concurrent CMV coinfection (P = 0.001) and HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.05). The frequency of apoptosis-vulnerable cells was also associated with CMV coinfection in the CD4 (P = 0.02) and CD8 (P < 0.001) T cell subsets. Similar observations were made in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. CMV-induced increases in T cell activation and apoptosis may contribute to the rapid disease progression in coinfected infants.

Nthakanio NP, Ireri KJ, Munji. KJ, Raphael W. Adaptability of PGMS and TGMS rice lines for hybrid rice seed production in Kenya..; 2012.
Ngugi K, Nabiswa A. "Adaptation of Jatropha curcas L. in the agroecological environments of Kenya: genotype × environment interactions ana lysis.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Jatropha curcas L. has the potential for becoming an important feedstock for biodiesel and bioenergy in Kenya. The objective of this study was to evaluate the e"ects of genotype X` environment interaction and to determine the stability of performance of the currently grown genotypes. Methodology:A field trial consisting of 49 genotypes was laid out in a lattice design of two replications in two contrasting agroecological environments, namely Thika and Kibwezi, for 2 years. The Eberhart and Russell stability method was used to measure the performance of yield components of the 49 genotypes. Results: Environmental variance in%uenced the performance of genotypes for all the traits measured and genotype#×#environment interactions were important in determining their performance.

Nabiswa A, Kinama J. "Adaptation of Jatropha curcas L. in the agroecological environments of Kenya: genotype × environment interactions ana lysis.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Jatropha curcas L. has the potential for becoming an important feedstock for biodiesel and bioenergy in Kenya. The objective of this study was to evaluate the e"ects of genotype X` environment interaction and to determine the stability of performance of the currently grown genotypes. Methodology:A field trial consisting of 49 genotypes was laid out in a lattice design of two replications in two contrasting agroecological environments, namely Thika and Kibwezi, for 2 years. The Eberhart and Russell stability method was used to measure the performance of yield components of the 49 genotypes. Results: Environmental variance in%uenced the performance of genotypes for all the traits measured and genotype#×#environment interactions were important in determining their performance.

Gatuguta AW, Muchunga EK. "Adherence to Antiretroviral treatment among adolescents at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

All over the world and specifically sub-Saharan Africa, there is massive scaling up of availability and accessibility to highly active antiretroviral therapy. (HAART) which resulted in improved survival and reduced incidence of opportunistic infections among people living with HIV & AIDS. Nonetheless, whereas efforts to increase access to HIV & AIDS treatment have achieved the desired effects with respect to improvement in the quality of life, other issues such as adherence, sustainability and effectiveness of treatment have emerged.
The goal to sustain a near optimal adherence for successful antiretroviral treatment is undoubtedly a major concern in the management of HIV & AIDS. Among adolescents, the challenge assumes greater proportions given the unique circumstances the group is exposed to. For instance, emotional, neurocognitive and physical development changes are some of the challenges. The transition from paediatric to adult state coupled with the knowledge about their HIV status that prompts them to initiate treatment on their own is to say the least, monumental challenges for adolescents. Moreover, adolescents are generally in school where they are subjected to stigma, discrimination and unfavourable school schedules that do not permit them time to access treatment and medication. Several studies have concluded that a high level of adherence to HAART at 95% or higher is necessary in order to avoid treatment failure and emergence of resistant strains.
Consequently, patients with 95% or higher adherence are known to have a superior virological outcome, an increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, and a lower rate of hospitalization compared with patients with lower levels of adherence.
As cited earlier, a near optimal adherence is a challenge for all patients, and non-adherent behavior is a big problem during adolescent period.
The aim of the study was therefore to determine adherence levels to antiretroviral drugs among adolescents and also establish levels of appointment keeping to clinic visits and pharmacy drug refi 11.

Gichira CM, Kahonge MA, Miriti EK. "Adoption of Open Source Software by Organizations – A Framework for Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(7):25-32.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madadi VO, Zeranyika M, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,4,5,6-Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (Chlorothalonil) by Nairobi River Sediments: Adsorption characteristics and Related Thermodynamic Data." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madandi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,5,6-tetra chloroisophthalonitrile by Nairobi river sediments: Adsorption characteristics and related thermodynamic data." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mwabu G, Arrow K, Danzon P, Gelband H, Jameson D, Laxminarayan R, Mills A, Panosian C, Peto R, White N. "Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria: killing it slowly." The Lancet. 2012;380(9857).
Laila A, Mwangi C, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 . 1 (1): 19-23 A KeSoBAP Publication ©2012 . All rights reserved. 19 Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbe s and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic s ubstances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential s ource of promising antimicrobial compounds with nov el mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extrac ts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro . Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted u sing methanol and chloroform and tested for activit y against Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli , Shigella sonnei , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by a ssaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells . Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observ ed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was p resent in the methanol extracts compared to chlorof orm extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against h uman erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echino derms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.

Arasa, J.N., Mulinge MM, Odiemo LO. "African Refugee Students’ Conceptions of Democracy: Implications for Conflict mitigation. ." African Renaissance. 2012;9(3-4):15-34.
Elbusaidy H, Saidi H, Odula P, Ogeng'o J, Hassanali J. "AGE CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN ATRIOVENTRICULAR ANNULI." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2012;1(1):31-39.age_changes_in_the_structure_of_human_atrioventricular_annul.pdf
El-busaidy H, Saidi H, Odula P, Ogeng’o J, Hassanali J. "Age changes in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Atrioventricular annuli are important in hemodynamic stability and support to tricuspid and mitral valves. Anatomical features of the annuli such as circumference, organization of connective tissue fibers, myocardium and cellularity may predispose to annular insufficiency and valvular incompetence. These pathologies increase with age and are more common in females, although the anatomical basis for this disparity remains unclear. This study therefore aimed to investigate age-related changes in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli. One hundred and one hearts (48males, 53 females) from subjects (15 to 60 years) were studied in three age groups (≤ 20 yrs, 21-39 yrs and 40-60 yrs). Annular circumferences were measured and corrected for heart weight. Routine histology was carried out on 21 hearts. Differences in annular circumference between the age groups were determined using one-way ANOVA while gender differences were determined using independent Students’t-test. Overall, females had significantly larger annular circumference than males after correcting for heart weight (p ≤0.05). The annular circumference generally increased with age however there was a significant increase in the 21-39 year age group (p ≤0.05). Microscopically, myocardium was consistently present in males but absent in females except in one specimen. The collagen fiber density increased with age in both gender as the fibers became more irregular. The annular cellularity, elasticity and myocardial content also declined with increasing age. The significantly wider annular circumference in the 21-39 year age group is clinically important as wider circumference is associated with decreased heart valve co-aptation and valvular incompetence. This may suggest an earlier predisposition to this pathology in the study population. The age-related decrease in annular cellularity, elasticity and myocardial content may explain the higher incidence of valvular incompetence with increasing age.

Musumba GW, R.O. O, E.T.O. O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. (2012):. Muenster: Waxmann ; 2012.
Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

Mwamba PM, Mwanda WO BSRMLPJRSCN. "AIDS related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa : current status and realities of therapeutic approach." Lymphoma. 2012. AbstractWebsite

Today AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients the world over, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. While the overall incidence of AR-NHL since the emergence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era has declined, the occurrence of this disease appears to have stabilized. In regions where access to cART is challenging, the impact on disease incidence is less clear. In the resource-rich environment it is clinically recognized that it is no longer appropriate to consider AR-NHL as a single disease entity and rather treatment of AIDS lymphoma needs to be tailored to lymphoma subtype. While intensive therapeutic strategies in the resource-rich world are clearly improving outcome, in AIDS epicenters of the world and especially in sub-Saharan Africa there is a paucity of data on treatment and outcomes. In fact, only one prospective study of dose-modified oral chemotherapy and limited retrospective studies with sufficient details provide a window into the natural history and clinical management of this disease. The scarcities and challenges of treatment in this setting provide a backdrop to review the current status and realities of the therapeutic approach to AR-NHL in sub-Saharan Africa. More pragmatic and risk-adapted therapeutic approaches are needed.

Wafula GA. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." Journal of occupational and Environmental hygeine. 2012;9(5):340-344.
Katende J. Algebra I Lecture Notes (ODL).; 2012.
Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Ampicillin Resistance And Extended Spectrum Β-lactamases In Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Raw And Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk.". 2012. Abstract

The prevalence of ampicillin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBL)in the dominant Enterobacteriaceae from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusac) in Kenya and Somalia was characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. Globally important SHV and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs)were tested. The Enterobacteriaceaebelonged to 15 species from 10 genera. Dominant isolates wereEscherichia coli (50), Klebsiellapneumoniasubsp.pneumoniae (35) and Enterobactersakazakii (20).Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera and E. coli occurred at viable counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. ESBL was studied f or 96 E. coli, K. pneumoniasubsp. pneumoniae andE.sakazakii. Total of 61 (63% )isolates consisting of 46 (48%) ofE. coli, 45 (46%)K.pneumonia subsp.Pneumoniaand 16 (7%) E.sakazakiiwere resistant to ampicillin.blaSHV ,blaCTX-M-3-like blaCTX-M-14-like genes were detectedin 37 (60%), 25 (40%) and 11 (18%) of theEnterobacteriaceae isolates respectively.K.pneumonia subsp.pneumoniae harbored majority of these bla genes (74%)with1 strain possessing all 3 genes and 13 harbouring both bla SHV and bla CTX-M-3-like genes. Thediversity ofEnterobacteriaceae in camel milk calls for improvedhandling of camel milk.The ESBLgenes intheisolates fromremotesemi-arid regions emphasises the global antimicrobial resistanceproblemamong Enterobacteriaceae

Kariuki DK, Kanui TI, Mbugua PM, Githinji CG. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 9-Hexacosene and Stigmasterol isolated from Mondia whytei.". 2012. Abstractanalgesic.pdfWebsite

The aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Mondia whytei
roots and to isolate and characterize the active constituents. Bioactivity guided
fractionation of the chloroform root extract yielded stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene.
Stigmasterol (15 mg/kg) and 9-hexacosene (30 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05)
inhibited chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid. Stigmasterol
(7.5, 15, 30 and 100 mg/kg) dose dependently reduced the time spent in pain behavior
in both the early and late phases of the formalin test. 9-hexacosene dose
dependently caused significant (p<0.001) antinociceptive effect on the late phase of
the formalin test. Co-administration of naloxone failed to antagonize the analgesic
activity of stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene in the formalin test. We concluded that
both stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene possess potential analgesic effects which are
most likely mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities rather than through
opioid receptor system.

Adolwa IS, Okoth PF, Mulwa RM, Esilaba AO, Mairura FS, Nambiro E. "Analysis of Communication and Dissemination Channels Influencing the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Western Kenya." The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 2012;18(1):71-86.
Musita CP, Ariga E. "Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children.". In: Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children. London: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2012. Abstractbook_cover_and_abstract_nutrition_care_and_support_musita_and_ariga_detailed.pdf

The impact of Human Immune Deficiency/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is evident in the rising numbers of those orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Apart from death, millions of children live in households with sick and dying members. These Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) affected by HIV/AIDS are stigmatized, isolated, discriminated against, disinherited and often deprived of basic education and care. This study was carried out in Kadibo Division, Kisumu District. Systematic random sampling was used. The sampling frame consisted of all the households with OVCs supported by various Community Based Organizations (CBOs) . A total of 111 households were interviewed and nutritional assessment for 322 children was done. The study was designed to assist CBOs improve their effectiveness in provision of optimal nutritional care for OVCs. Data collection applied both quantitative and qualitative methods. Pearson’s product correlation moment was applied to determine the strength of association between independent and dependent variables. Probit regression model was developed from the independent and dependent dichotomous variables.

Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Using ADI-FDTD Method." Journal Of Information Engineering and Applications . 2012;2(No. 8):1-8. Abstract

In this paper, a rectangular Cavity Backed Slot Antenna (CBSA) Model excited by a probe is investigated.
The analysis is carried out using the Alternating Direction Implicit - Finite Difference Time Domain (ADIFDTD)
Method which is applied to investigate its characteristics in terms of radiation patterns and power.
This is because the method is capable of providing a more accurate definition of the electromagnetic fields
within the rectangular apertures, while eliminating the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) stability condition
which is present in the regular Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. A cavity-backed slot
antenna structure with dimensions of 14cm×22cm×30cm is analyzed with the slot and aperture
measurements done at 3GHz. Results showing current distribution on the material surrounding the
apertures are presented and a discussion on the physical aspects of the aperture radiation phenomenon is
also presented.

**This research was sponsored by The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)**

Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Onywera VO. "Analysis of Factors that affect the standard of soccer in Africa. The case of East African countries." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES). 2012;12(1):135-139.
Makumbi L, Miriti EK, Kahonge AM. "An Analysis of Information Technology (IT) SecurityPractices: A Case Study of Kenyan Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2012;57(18):975-8887.securiy_practices_in_smes.pdf
Kibui AW. "An Analysis of Kenyan Learners’ proficiency in English Based on Reading." JOURNAL OF NELTA. 2012;Vol 17 No. :1-2.
Dharmadhikary VM. Analysis of microstrip-patch antennas incorporating arbitrarily-shaped apertures.; 2012. Abstract

Microstrip antennas have received extensive attention as they have many attractive features, such as lightweight, small size, low profile and ease of fabrication. One of the inherent limitations when using these antennas is their limited bandwidth. Aperture coupling has proven to be a reliable and a robust feeding technique for these antennas as they are suitable for wide-bandwidth designs. A microstrip patch antenna that is coupled to a Microstrip-line by an aperture in the intervening ground plane has been designed and implemented in this work. Arbitrarily shaped coupling slots have been considered by investigating their contributing effect on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Aperture shape and size are the crucial parameters that are considered for the aperture-coupled microstrip antennas. Our publications [109-110] have been based on a hybrid formulation combining the Method of Moments (MOM) and the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) for which, as a student, I take credit. It should also be taken as a contribution that the ingenuity of interfacing one kind of basis functions, Rao- Glitton-Wilson (RWG) for the surface with another type, the volume function for FDTD for the cavity. The aim of this work was to look for an aperture shape that gives significantly improved coupling of the radiated power from the feed-line to the resonant patch element and at the same time giving lower back-lobe radiation level from the slot. Rectangular, Circular, Bowtie and H-shaped apertures were of Micros investigated and it was found that the H-shaped aperture coupled antennas provide higher coupling and reduced backward radiation levels as compared to the other aperture shapes. The numerical analysis carried out employed the Electric Field Integral Equation technique with the Moment Method using the software called FEKOᆴ, which employs the triangular patch modelling scheme as the basis function. The antenna characteristics such as the radiation pattern, S-parameters, and input impedance were simulated for the various shapes of coupling apertures. The antenna prototypes utilizing each of these aperture shapes were constructed and tested in the laboratory and the experimental results compared with the simulated ones. The obtained results were found to be in good correlation.

DR DAVIDNYIKA. "An Analysis of the Causes of Failures in the Implementation of Projects in Kenya. ." African Habitat Review.. 2012;6(2012).
Onyango CM, Kahiu EN. "Analysis of the Molecular Diversity of Kenyan Sorghum Germplasm Using Microsatellites.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2012. Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of the genetic diversity present in sorghum germplasm grown in Kenya using simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 139 accessions were genotyped using 11 microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and the genetic diversity was estimated. The markers showed a wide range of differences in quality index from 0.005 to 0.39. The average Polymorphic Information Content value observed was 0.6241 indicating a high level of diversity. The gene diversity index ranged between 0.2419 and 0.9313 with a mean of 0.6627 per locus. A total of 105 alleles were observed with an average of 10.4 alleles per locus. The average heterozygosity level per locus was low at 0.1717. The variability within accessions among the populations was 74.85% and within individual accessions was 18.67%. The results showed that genetic diversity within Kenyan sorghum germplasm accessions is higher than that between the different populations. It is implied that such genetic diversity can be exploited as such or in hybridization programs to improve sorghum varieties currently grown by subsistence farmers in Kenya.

Carl JL, Julius O, Nancy K. "Anchored vs. relative best–worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best–worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". 2012. Abstract

Applying best–worst (BW) scaling to a multifaceted feature, e.g. food quality, is challenging as attribute non-attendance or lack of attribute discrimination risks invalidating the transformation of choice data to unidimensional scale. The relativism of BW scaling also typically prevents distinction of respondents or groups of respondents based on similarities to the study object. A dual-response BW scaling method employed here to obtain an anchored scale allowed comparisons of importance ratings across individuals. Attribute importance ratings and rankings obtained were compared with those from relative BW scaling. Latent class (LC) and hierarchical Bayesian (HB) analyses of individual specific BW choice data were also compared for ability to consider within- and between-respondent choice heterogeneity. Personal interviews with 449 consumers provided data on the importance of 16 food quality attributes of kale produced in peri-urban farming in Kenya. Major findings were that the anchoring model improved individual choice predictions compared with conventional relativistic BW scaling, i.e. was more reliable in measuring consumer preferences, and that HB analysis fitted the data better than LC analysis. HB analysis also successfully obtained individual parameter estimates from sparse data and is thus a promising tool for analysis of BW choices in sensory and consumer-orientated research.

Ongeti KW. "Anomalous origin of left testicular artery from inferior polar renal artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2012;1(1). AbstractWebsite

Gonadal arteries arising from additional renal arteries present an important variation that should be noted in order to avoid inadvertent injury to these vessels in renal hilar dissection and retroperitoneal surgery. During routine dissection, we observed the unusual origin of the left testicular artery from an additional renal artery in a middle-aged male cadaver. The prevalence of variations in the origin and course of the testicular artery displays population differences. Though additional renal arteries have been reported in literature, cases of such vessels giving rise to gonadal vessels are scarce. The possible embryologic basis for this variation as well as its clinical significance are discussed.

Peter C, Alzen G, Omwandho COA, Bültmann E, Hertel H, Gruessner SE. "Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation diagnosed by ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Antenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM) is vital for disease surveillance and postnatal care. Ultrasonography (US) has been the imaging gold standard for antenatal CCAM assessment. However, one of the limitations of US is the “vanishing phenomenon” caused by isoechogenicity of CCAM tissue and adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Methods: Antenatal serial US were concurrently used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor macro- and microcystic lesions. Results: In both pregnant women, antenatal US and MRI confirmed the presence, in the fetus, of cystic lesions and predicted disease regression/progression as well as the need for postnatal surgical intervention. Several advantages were detected by using both—serial US and MRI (over serial US alone)—including improved signal intensity, exact volume size measurements, precise CCAM location in particular for patients with adverse ultrasound conditions. Both neonates underwent surgical resection and had an uneventful post-operative course. Conclusions: Antenatal use of MRI as well as serial US improved information regarding tissue resolution and delineation of CCAM. The information from two imaging modalities was complementary. Our literature review confirmed the emerging role of prenatal MRI for postnatal monitoring and management of CCAM.

Drannik AG, Nag K, Yao X-D, Henrick BM, Jain S, Ball BT, Plummer FA, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Rosenthal KL. "Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) is a natural source of anti-HIV-1 factors; however, molecular characterization of the anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that CVLs from HIV-1-resistant (HIV-R) compared to HIV-1-susceptible (HIV-S) commercial sex workers (CSWs) contain significantly larger amounts of serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its processed form, elafin (E). We assessed anti-HIV-1 activity of CVLs of CSWs and recombinant E and Tr on genital epithelial cells (ECs) that possess (TZM-bl) or lack (HEC-1A) canonical HIV-1 receptors. Our results showed that immunodepletion of 30% of Tr/E from CVL accounted for up to 60% of total anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL. Knockdown of endogenous Tr/E in HEC-1A cells resulted in significantly increased shedding of infectious R5 and X4 HIV-1. Pretreatment of R5, but not X4 HIV-1, with either Tr or E led to inhibition of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. Interestingly, when either HIV-1 or cells lacking canonical HIV-1 receptors were pretreated with Tr or E, HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis were significantly reduced, and decreased attachment was not associated with altered expression of syndecan-1 or CXCR4. Determination of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Tr and E anti-HIV-1 activity indicated that E is ~130 times more potent than its precursor, Tr, despite their equipotent antiprotease activities. This study provides the first experimental evidence that (i) Tr and E are among the principal anti-HIV-1 molecules of CVL; (ii) Tr and E affect cell attachment and transcytosis of HIV-1; (iii) E is more efficient than Tr regarding anti-HIV-1 activity; and (iv) the anti-HIV-1 effect of Tr and E is contextual

KAVOI M. BONIFACE ET AL. "Anticancer Drug Vinblastine Sulphate Induces Transient Morphological Changes on the Olfactory Mucosa of the Rabbit." Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 2012;41:374-387, 2012.
Kavoi BM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG. "Anticancer drug vinblastine sulphate induces transient morphological changes on the olfactory mucosa of the rabbit.". 2012. Abstract2012.anticancer_drug_vinblastine_sulphate_induces_transient_morphological_changes_on_the_olfactory_mucosa_of_the_rabbit..pdf

Vinblastine sulphate (VBS) is an anticancer drug that acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics of highly mitotic tissue cells. The consequences of VBS on the olfactory mucosa (OM), a tissue with high mitotic numbers, are not clearly understood. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the structural changes that may be produced on the rabbit OM by VBS. Following a single dose (0.31 mg/kg) of this drug, the structure of the mucosa was greatly altered on the first 3-5 days. The alteration was characterized by disarrangement of the normal layering of nuclei of the epithelia, degeneration of axonal bundles, occurrence of blood vessels within the bundles, localized death of cells of Bowman's glands and glandular degeneration. Surprisingly on or after day 7 and progressively to day 15 post-exposure, the OM was observed to regenerate and acquire normal morphology, and the vessels disappeared from the bundles. Relative to control values, bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers decreased to as low as 53.1, 75.2 and 71.4%, respectively, on day 5. Volume density for the bundles, which was 28.6% in controls, decreased to a lowest value of 16.8% on day 5. In contrast, the volume density for the blood vessels was significantly lower in controls (19.9%) than in treated animals at day 2 (25.8%), day 3 (34.3%) and day 5 (31.5%). These findings suggest that the changes induced on the rabbit OM by VBS are transient and that regenerative recovery leads to the restoration of the normal structure of the mucosa.

© 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID:
22443492
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Amugune BK, Matu EN, Kirira PG, Kigondu EVM, Moindi E. "Antimicrobial activity of organic total extracts of three Kenyan Medicinal plants." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2012;1(1):14-18.
Abubakar LU, Mwangi CN, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2012;1(1): 19-23. Abstractabstract-ajpt.pdfWebsite

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Yenesew A. "Antimicrobial and Anticancer Carvotacetone Derivativesof Sphaeranthus." Natural Product Communications . 2012;7:1123-1126. Abstractpaper_58_machumi_npc_publication-sphaeranthus_bullatus-2012.pdf

The CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Sphaeranthus bullatus, an annual herb native to tropical East Africa, showed activity against chloroquine sensitive D6 (IC50 9.7 μg/mL) and chloroquine resistant W2 (IC50 15.0 μg/mL) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Seventeen secondary metabolites were isolated from the extract through conventional chromatographic techniques and identified using various spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and anticancer activities revealing activity of four carvotacetone derivatives, namely 3-acetoxy-7-hydroxy-5-tigloyloxycarvotacetone (1), 3,7-dihydroxy-5-tigloyloxycarvotacetone (2), 3-acetoxy-5,7-dihydroxycarvotacetone (3) and 3,5,7-trihydroxycarvotacetone
(4); with antiplasmodial IC50 values of 1.40, 0.79, 0.60 and 3.40 μg/mL, respectively, against chloroquine sensitive D6 strains of P. falciparum;
antiplasmodial activity of IC50 2.00, 0.90, 0.68 and 2.80 μg/mL, respectively, against chloroquine resistant W2 strains of P. falciparum; antileishmanial IC50
values of 0.70, 3.00, 0.70 and 17.00 μg/mL, respectively, against the parasite L. donovanii promastigotes, and anticancer activity against human SK-MEL, KB,
BT-549 and SK-OV-3 tumor cells, with IC50 values between <1.1 - 5.3 μg/mL for 1-3. In addition, cytotoxic effects of the active compounds were evaluated against monkey kidney fibroblasts (VERO) and pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK11). The structures of carvotacetone derivatives were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy; the absolute stereochemical configuration of 3-acetoxy-7-hydroxy-5-tigloyloxycarvotacetone (1) was determined as 3R, 4R, 5S by circular dichroism, specific rotation, 1H NMR and 2D NMR ROESY and NOESY experiments.

Keywords: Sphaeranthus bullatus, Asteraceae, Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial, Anticancer, Carvotacetones.

Mwangi PW, Wambugu S, Kariuki DK, Mbugua PM, Kanui TI. "Antinociceptive activities of the ethanolic extracts of ocimum kilimandscharicum baker ex gürke and ocimum kenyense ayob. ex a.j. paton leaves.". 2012. Abstract

Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum kenyense are two closely related species endemic to Kenya. They find wide application in a diverse array of medicinal applications, including pain relief. The present investigation was carried out to study their antinociceptive activity using the radiant tail-flick test in mice. At 100, 200, 400 and 800 (mg/kg Bwt) dosages, the ethanolic leaf extracts of both O. kilimandscharicum and kenyense exhibited statistically significant antinociceptive activities (p < 0.01), in a dose dependent manner. The experimental results obtained in this study therefore validate the traditional uses of these plant species as analgesics. Further, this study provides a springboard into future phytochemical and pharmacological studies of these plant species.

Yenesew A. "Antinocieptive Activities of the Root Extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana." Phytopharmacology . 2012;2:1-6. Abstractpaper_59_karuki_et_al-2012.pdf

Rhus natalensis and Senna singuaenae are traditional African plants commonly used as medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain. The plants are used for management of rheumatism among others. This study investigated the antinociceptive activities of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in Swiss albino mice using the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as controls. Root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg /kg) and 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the hot plate while the 200mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05). In the tail flick tests, root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg / kg) showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.01) while 200mg / kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick. This study lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in the management of painful conditions.

Keywords: Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; analgesic; Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; rheumatism

Kariuki HN;, Kanui, Titus, et al. "Antinocieptive activity of the root extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana." Phytopharmacology. 2012;2(2):312-317.
Kariuki HN;, Kanui TI;, Yenesew A;, Patel NB;, Mbugua PM. "Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain." Phytopharmacology. 2012;3(1):122-129.
Yenesew A. "Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain." Phytopharmacology . 2012;3(1):122-129. Abstractpaper_60_kariuki_et_al_phytopharmacology_2012.pdf

Toddalia asiatica within the context of traditional African medicine is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. It is used by the Masai in both Kenya and Tanzania for management of rheumatism among others. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick and hot plate pain tests. The extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. The acetic acid -induced writhing test was used as the screening test and as the root bark extract was found to be more potent than the leaf extract, the former was investigated using the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The root bark extract (200 mg / kg) showed highly significant (p < 0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) activity in the tail flick test but not significant in the hot plate test. The present study, therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful conditions.

Vellingiri V;, Kunyanga CN, Biesalski HK. "Antioxidant Potential And Type II Diabetes-related Enzyme Inhibition Of Cassia Obtusifolia L.: Effect Of Indigenous Processing Methods.". 2012. Abstract

The methanolic extract of Cassia obtusifolia L. (Sicklepod) seed, an underutilized food legume from India, was analyzed for antioxidant and health relevant functionality. The total free phenolic content of the raw seeds was 13.33 ± 1.73 g catechin equivalent/100 g extract. The extract exhibited 1,292 mmol Fe[II] per milligram extract of ferric reducing/antioxidant power, 49.92% inhibition of ß-carotene degradation, 65.79% of scavenging activity against DPPH, and 50.78% of superoxide radicals. The in vitro starch digestion bioassay of the extract showed 79.80% of α-amylase and 81.04% of α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition characteristics. Sprouting + oil frying caused an apparent increase on the total free phenolic content with significant improvement on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of C. obtusifolia seeds, while soaking + cooking as well as open-pan roasting treatments show diminishing effects. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme activity was 23.81% and 42.36%, respectively, following sprouting + oil-frying treatment. These enzyme inhibition values were similar to that of synthetic antidiabetic agent acarbose.

Machumi F, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Kleinpeter E, Khan S, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, Muhammad I. "Antiparasitic and anticancer carvotacetone derivatives from Sphaeranthus bullatus.". 2012.Website
Yenesew A. "The Antiplasmodial and Radical Scavenging Activities of Flavonoids of Erythrina burttii." Acta Tropica . 2012;123:123-127. Abstract

The acetone extract of the root bark of Erythrina burttii showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against
the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with
IC50 values of 0.97 ± 0.2 and 1.73 ± 0.5 g/ml respectively. The extract also had radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with an EC50 value of 12.0 g/ml. The isoflav-3-enes burttinol-A and burttinol-C, and the 2-arylbenzofuran derivative burttinol-D were identified as the most active antiplasmodial (IC50 < 10 M) and free radical scavenging (EC50 ca. 10 M) principles. The acetone extract of E. burttii at 800 mg/kg/day, in a 4-day Plasmodium berghei ANKA suppressive test, showed in vivo antimalarial activity with 52% hemosuppression. In the same in vivo test, marginal activities were also
observed for the extracts of the root and stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica and the root bark of Erythrina
sacleuxii.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica. 2012; 78:31-35. AbstractWebsite

Milkyas Endale, John Patrick Alao, Hoseah M. Akala, Nelson K. Rono, Fredrick L. Eyase, Solomon Derese,
Albert Ndakala, Martin Mbugua, Douglas S.Walsh, Per Sunnerhagen, Mate Erdelyi, Abiy Yenesew

Planta Med 2012; 78: 31–35

The dichloromethane/methanol (1 :1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC50 = 0.9–3 μg/mL) in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquineresistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract of Pentas longiflora led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC50 values below 1 μg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones (4–11, IC50 = 5–31 μg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three – nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10) – are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

Endale M, Alao JP, Akala HM, Rono NK, Eyase FL, Solomon D, Ndakala A, Mbugua M, Walsh DS, Erdelyl M, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica . 2012;78(1):31-35.
N. MM. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta medica. 2012; 78 :31-35. Abstract

The dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC(50) = 0.9-3 µg/mL) IN VITRO antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. Chromatographic separation of the extract of PENTAS LONGIFLORA led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC(50) values below 1 µg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones ( 4-11, IC(50) = 5-31 µg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three--nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10)--are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

Otakwa RM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effect of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2012;3(3):369-375 . AbstractWebsite

Abstract - The performance of a Dye-Sensitized Solar Module (DSSM) of active area 175.12 cm2 has been investigated at a tropical climate area located 1.28˚S, 35.81˚E. Outdoor current density-voltage (J-V) characterizations were carried out at different AM values. The DSSM’s performance parameters; short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) were extracted from the J-V characteristics. The DSSM’s Voc reduced linearly by 2.05% from 8.31 V to 8.14 V as AM increased from 1 to 1.09. Jsc reduced linearly by 26.06% from 1.04 x 10-3 Acm-2 to 7.69 x 10-4 Acm-2 as AM increased from 1 to AM 1.09. FF increased linearly by 19.05% from 0.51 to 0.63 as AM increased from 1 at 1.09. η increased by 32.77% from 1.77% to 1.19% as AM increased from 1 to 1.09. The DSSM performed better during afternoon than morning hours. The results may be useful in tuning Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) meant for use in the tropics. The design of Net Zero Energy (NZE) buildings in the tropics can also benefit from these findings.

Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effect of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research . 2012;1(2):109-116 . AbstractWebsite

Effects of radiation intensity and temperature on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) have been investigated in a tropical area in Nairobi, Kenya. Outdoor measurements were performed on cloudless days at normal incidence of the incoming solar beam radiation to the module. A series of current-voltage (I-V) characterizations were carried out at different solar radiation intensities and module temperatures. The module performance parameters: Short circuit current density, (Jsc), Open circuit voltage, (Voc), Fill factor, (FF) and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency, (η) were extracted from the I-V curves. Better efficiencies were observed at lower than higher radiation intensities. There was also an overall improved performance at elevated temperatures. The results may be useful during fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells meant for use in the tropics.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2012;2(3):369-375. AbstractWebsite

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Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2012;2(2):369-375.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research (IJARER). 2012;1(2):17-25. AbstractWebsite

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Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita, S.M., Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research (IJARER). 2012;1,2(4):17-25.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor David W. Lutz. Applied Ethics in Religion and Culture: Contextual and Global Chalenges. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Arabic Morphology.; 2012.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Are Weather and Climate Forecasts by National Meteorological Centres Reliable?" Bulletin of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2012.Website
Muthomi J., Mureithi B. C’wa GMGJE. "Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(1):22-34. Abstractaspergilllus_species_and_aflatoxin_b1.

Recurrent outbreaks of Aflatoxin (AF) poisoning in maize continue to exacerbate the food security crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the distribution and contamination levels of Aspergillus spp. and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in soil, maize and maize-based products. Maize grain samples (n=256), semi-processed grain (n=56), flour (n=52), hammer mill dust (n=11), and soil (n=117) were collected during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. Aspergillus spp. was isolated and AFB1 was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Aspergillus flavus was frequently isolated in maize samples from the semi-arid regions. The frequency of A. flavus was higher in semi-processed grain than in whole grain and packed flour samples. AFB1 was not detected in samples from the humid regions. AFB1 was detected at levels exceeding the Kenyan legal limit of 10 μg/kg in 20% of the samples, at maximum of 136 μg/kg for semi-processed maize,77 μg/kg for whole grain and 41 μg/kg for flour sold in open bags. The high temperature and periodic drought prevalent in the semi-arid regions could explain the higher levels of A. flavus and AFB1 contamination in that climate. In addition, unfavourable drying and storage practices may aggravate the problem. Therefore, it is recommended that the careful monitoring of AF be continued.

W. MUTHOMIJ, K. MUREITHIB, N. CHEMINING'WAG, K. GATHUMBIJ, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(1):22-34.
DAVID MUNYASI. ASSESMENT OF STONE CRUSHING CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A STONE CRUSHER FOR SMALL SCALE ENTREPRENEURS.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
In Civil Engineering and Construction Industry, crushed stones are known as aggregates and are the basic materials in modern construction work. The current methods for crushing stones to produce aggregates are characterized by the use of large, expensive and centralised crushing plants, which are beyond the reach of small scale entrepreneurs. In addition, such centralized plants are often located too far away from the point of use of aggregates leading to prohibitively high cost of the same.
On the other hand there is widespread practice of manual “hammer and anvil” stone crushing especially in rural areas. Though, the practice is hazardous, laborious and hardly profitable, the technology is common in Kenya. It is against this background that the proposed research work has been formulated in order to study the crushing characteristics of various stones and to subsequently come up with an optimum, dynamical ad structural design of a small stone crusher for small scale entrepreneurs. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge in the domain of innovative development of Engineering products; the case in point being a small- mechanised stone crusher that is cost effective, environmentally and user friendly. Further, the study will generate information on stone characteristics that are relevant in aggregate formation.

Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

M. MBURU, D. WAMALWA, and WAINAINA BASHIRAL. "ASSESSMENT OF GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE PROFILES OF PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS ON CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AT THE KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA ." East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 6 June 2012 . 2012. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: An accurate estimation of renal function in children is important in optimising the dose of many drugs used in paediatric oncology for allows clinical monitoring of the nephrotoxic effects of cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best index of renal function in patients. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in the paediatric oncology unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Objectives: To determine the glomerular filtration rate profiles of paediatric oncology patients and to assess changes that had occured over a period of at least six months of continuing cancer chemotherapy.
Design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey.
Setting: General Paediatric wards, including Paediatric Oncology and Paediatric Ophthalmology ward. Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects: Paediatric patients who had an established diagnosis of cancer and had been on chemotherapy for at least six months.
Results: Out of the 115 children enrolled in the study 43 had abnormal kidney function. This gave a prevalence of 37% (95%CI 28-46).The other 72 children had normal kidney function. Patients aged less than five years and those with solid tumors had a higher likelihood of having an abnormal GFR compared to their older counterparts and those with lymphomas and leukemias
Conclusions: Monitoring of GFR should be done regularly as decline occurs as one continues on chemotherapy especially for the ones below 5yrs and those with solid malignancies.

Murila F, Obimbo MM, R. M. "Assessment of knowledge on neonatal resuscitation amongst health care providers in Kenya." Pan Afr Med J. 2012;11:78. Epub 2012 Apr 24.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Competence in neonatal resuscitation, which represents the most urgent pediatric clinical situation, is critical in delivery rooms to ensure safety and health of newly born infants. The challenges experienced by health care providers during this procedure are unique due to different causes of cardio respiratory arrest. This study aimed at assessing the knowledge of health providers on neonatal resuscitation.
METHODS:
Data were gathered among 192 health providers drawn from all counties of Kenya. The clinicians were asked to complete questionnaires which were in two parts as; demographic information and assessment of their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for windows. The results are presented using tables.
RESULTS:
All the participants were aged 23 years and above with at least a certificate training. Most medical providers had heard of neonatal resuscitation (85.4%) with only 23 receiving formal training. The average duration of neonatal training was 3 hours with 50% having missed out on practical exposure. When asked on steps of resuscitation, only 68 (35.4%) of the participants scored above 85%. More than 70% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal resuscitation inadequate and blamed it on inadequate medical training programs.
CONCLUSION:
Health providers, as the key personnel in the management of neonatal resuscitation, in this survey seem to have inadequate training and knowledge on this subject. Increasing the duration and quality of formal training should be considered during the pre-service medical education to ensure acceptable neonatal outcome.

Gor S. "An Assessment of the Informal Sector Trade in Kenya." Journal of International Law and Trade Policy. 2012;13 (1):101-113.
Siriba DN, Dalyot S. "Automatic georeferencing of non-geospatially referenced provisional cadastral maps." Survey Review. 2012;44(325):142-152.
Rading GO. "B O Odera, L A Cornish, M B Shongwe, G O Rading and M J Papo: As Cast and Heat Treated Alloys of the Pt-Al-V System at the Pt-Rich Corner." Journal of the Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.

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