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Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa." Trop Med Int Health. . 2016:doi: 10.1111/tmi.12761.
Muiruri CK, Ruhiu S, Moturi CA. "A Hybrid Algorithm for Detecting Web Based Applications Vulnerabilities." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):15-20 . AbstractWebsite

Web vulnerability scanners (WVS) are tools for discovering vulnerabilities in a web application. However, they are not 100% accurate. In this paper we develop a hybrid algorithm for detecting web based applications vulnerabilities and compare its performance with other open source WVS. The comparison is based on three metrics namely time taken to scan, detection accuracy and consistency.

Karumba MC, Ruhiu S, Moturi CA. "A Hybrid Algorithm for Detecting Web Based Applications Vulnerabilities." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):15-20. AbstractWebsite

Web vulnerability scanners (WVS) are tools for discovering vulnerabilities in a web application. However, they are not 100% accurate. In this paper we develop a hybrid algorithm for detecting web based applications vulnerabilities and compare its performance with other open source WVS. The comparison is based on three metrics namely time taken to scan, detection accuracy and consistency.

Ndushabandi JB, Wausi AN. "ICT Governance Drivers and Effective ICT Governance at the University of Rwanda." American Journal of Information Systems. 2016;4(2):45-58.
MAINA LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO. "Identification of Vegetable Oil Manufactured in Kenya.". 2016. Abstract


Waiganjo N, Yole D, Ochanda H. Immunological Responses of Mice After Treatment with Ocimum Americanum Hexane and Bridelia Micrantha Water Plant Extracts.; 2016. AbstractWebsite

Background-The T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 dichotomy was first shown in murine CD4+ lymphocytes clones
and these cells could be differentiated in terms of the cytokines they secrete. The TH1 subsets produce
interleukin 2 (IL-2,) interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and lymphotoxin, TH2 subsets produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 IL-10
and IL-13. An important function of the TH2 response during infection is to produce cytokines that can prevent
or dampen the production or effector functions of potentially dangerous inflammatory mediators. Results The
results obtained showed that Ocimum americanum hexane (OAH) and Bridelia micrantha (BMW) water extract
had antischistosomal activity. This was indicated by low worm recovery, high worm reduction, and reduced
gross pathology with histopathology showing no or few granulomas in the liver tissue, which was similar to
Praziquantel (PZQ). The two extracts had both cellular and humoral responses as demonstrated by IFN-γ, IL-5
and IgG responses. OAH and BMW were significantly similar to PZQ; however BMW had higher IgG
responses. BMW had higher IFN-γ responses for both spleen and lymph node cells. Conclusion this implied that
treatment groups were able to produce the TH-1 response which is important for cell mediated immunity.
Although both extracts induced production of IL-5 for both lymph node and spleen cells, OAH generated more
Keywords: T helper cell, Cytokines, Interleukin, Interferon gamma, Humoral, Cell mediated

Otieno NM, Apolot OF, Dimbuson BW, Christina M, Nkatha GA, Margaret O. "Impact of First Line Antiretroviral Therapy on Clinical Outcomes Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Attending One of the Largest HIV Care and Treatment Program in Nairobi Kenya." Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research. 2016;7:3-7. Abstractimpact-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes-amonghiv1-infected-adults-attending-one-of-the-largest-hiv-care-a-2155-6113-1000615.pdf

Objective: This study evaluated the immunologic (CD4 cell count), virological (HIV RNA viral load), hepatic (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase - ALT and AST), renal (creatinine) and hematological (hemoglobin -HB, White Blood Cell - WBC, Lymphocytes - LYM and platelets - PLT) response to a six months ART treatment among HIV participants in Nairobi Kenya. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 599 consenting HIV infected participants receiving HIV treatment in Nairobi. CD4 cell counts were measured using flow cytometer and viral load determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The blood hematology, liver and kidney function tests were also measured. One-way ANOVA and Linear regression analysis were conducted. Results: The median age at ART initiation was 41 years (IQR 35-47 years). The majority of participants (60.3%) were female and 56.1% started on regimens with 2 NRTIs and efavirenz based NNRTI. About 40% of the participants were failing treatment 6 month post ART initiation. The CD4 count significantly increased at the 6-month post ART initiation (301.7 ± 199.4 to 329.4 ± 305.8; P<0.05). Hepatotoxicity (ALT and AST levels >5 times the upper limit of normal - ULN) and renal abnormalities (elevated serum creatinine levels) were all high at month 6 compared to baseline; ALT (2.5 to 10.5%), AST (5.3 to 23.4%) and creatinine (63.4 to 68.84%). Fewer participants at month 6 had anemia (29.4% verses 56.4%), leucopenia (42.4% vs. 46.9%) and thrombocytopenia (6.5% vs. 84.1%) compared to baseline. In multivariable models, baseline levels of this parameter, ART regimen and duration with HIV at ART initiation were the most important determinant of month 6 levels. Conclusion: These data demonstrate sustained immunologic/virologic response to ART among participants remaining on therapy. Anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were minimized with marginal hepatotoxicity and renal impairment seen. Interventions leading to earlier HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART could substantially improve patient outcomes in Kenya.

Kalambuka Angeyo H, Odumo BO’, Carbonell G, Patel JP, Torrijos M, Martín JAR. "Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016. Abstract

This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori–Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg−1), sediment (430 μg kg−1) and tailings (8,900 μg kg−1), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori–Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

B.Irungu M, Mwangi CG, Njenga KP, K. M. "Impact of Sociocultural factors on adoption of modern technologies in beekeeping projects among women groups in Kajiado County- Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2016;4(4):55-64.
Kingori GM, Njiraine D, Maina S. "Implementation of information literacy programmes in public libraries." Library Hi Tech News. 2016;33(2):17-22.
Bhui KS, Fiorillo A, Stein D, Okasha T, Ndetei D, Lam L, Chaturvedi S, Maj M. "Improving education, policy and research in mental health worldwide: the role of the WPA Collaborating Centres." World Psychiatry. 2016.Website
Wanjala G, Malechwanzi J. "Improving the Quality of Technical Education through International Standardization : the case of Coast Institute of Technology, Kenya.". In: Fast-forwarding Higher Education Institutions for Global Challenges: Perspectives and Approaches . Singapore: Springer ; 2016.abstrac3.pdf
Bigsten A, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Wambugu A. "Incomes, Inequality, and Poverty in Kenya." Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa 343. 2016.
Bigsten A, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Wambugu A. "Incomes, Inequality, and Poverty in Kenya.". In: Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa 343.; 2016.
Ontita EG, Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Nyamongo D. "Indigenous Knowledge on the Uses of African Nightshades (Solanum nigram L.) Species among Three Kenyan Communities." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2016;14(3):1-8.
Kirigia JM, Mwabu GM, Orem JN, Muthuri RK. "Indirect cost of maternal mortality in the WHO African Region." . International Journal of Social Economics. 2016;43(5):pp 532-548.
Cheben PS, Karamunya J. "Influence of demographic attributes on community participation in community projects among the residents of Pokot South Sub-County, Kenya ." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2016;Vol 4(Issue 9, September,2016. ISSN 2348-0386):682-693.
Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Financial Prudence on the Performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science. 2016;2(1):4.ajwang_karanja_ogollah_and_orwa_2016_2.pdf
catherine ngahu, Francis K, Kobonyo P. "Influence of Interactional Justice Strategy on Recovery Satisfaction among Customers of Mobile Money Services in Kenya ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research . 2016;27(2422):55-61.
Kihara A, Karanja P, Kennedy O. "INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ON PERFORMANCE OF LARGE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN KENYA ." European Journal of Business Management . 2016;2(11):15-29.allan_kihara_karanja_and_ogollah_2_2016.pdf
Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt%) of carbon black were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300–900 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350–900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance, and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased (i.e., increase in pore size). Currents and voltages () characteristics of the films were measured by a 4-point probe. Resistivity () and conductivity () of the films were computed from the values. It was observed that resistivity increased with carbon black concentrations while conductivity decreased as the pore size of the films increased.

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM, Mwabora JM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied.
TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt%) of carbon black were deposited by
screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon
black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films
were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was
used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength …

Simiyu J, Domtau DL, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM, Mwabora JM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films were studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt %) of carbon black were deposited by screen method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300-1500 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350-900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased. Currents and voltages (I-V) characteristics of the films were measured by a 4 point-probe. Resistivity (

Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Product Value on the performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science . 2016;2(1).ajwang_ogollah_karanja_and_orwa_2016_.pdf
Akaranga SI, Moywaywa CK. "Influence of selected lerarners' characteristics on their academic achievement in public secondary schools in Trans Nzoia and West Pokot counties, Kenya." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(2):67-78.
Odock SO, Odock SO. "The influence of social computing in corporate Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Business and Economics. 2016;7(7):1091-1110. Abstract

The study aimed at analyzing the influence of social computing applications in corporate institutions in Kenya using an actor network perspective which was to be achieved through three objectives :(1) to establish motives of using social computing applications in corporate institutions. (2) to establish the patterns of use of social computing application. (3) to establish how use of social computing is influencing business process. The study used an actor network approach to identify actors who would eventually mitigate use of this technology. Case studies of two corporate institutions and one public institution were carried out and data was collected through in-depth interviews, observations and on line sources. An iterative content analysis of data was performed through the lens of ANT and major themes, concepts and constructs were realized, revealing that corporate institutions in Kenya are using several social computing applications for business process and social computing is a force that is influencing the way businesses are carrying out their processes. According to analysis through the lens of ANT corporate institution in Kenya are on the translation stage, this is where disparate interests of different institutions are being aligned to common interests.
Key words: social computing; social networks; social media; actor network theory
JEL code: M150

Joseph OO, M C, W.P K, V G, L K, K K. "The Influence of Social Media on Brand Equity in Kenyan Banking Industry." Pyrex Journal of Business & Finance Management. 2016;2(1):1-5.owino_et_al._2016.pdf
Kihara A, Karanja P, Kennedy O. "INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC CONTINGENT ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS ON PERFORMANCE OF LARGE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN KENYA." International Journal of Strategic Management and Current Business Studies.. 2016;5(1):35-49 .allan_kihara_karanja_and_ogollah_2016.pdf
Kalai, J.M. &, Kunyiha, E.W., KANORI EN, Matula, P.D. "Influence of Teachers Service Commission Human Resource Management practices on Teachers’ Commitment in public secondary schools in Tetu Sub County, Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences & Education. 2016;2(1):01-16.
Kalai, J.M., Kunyiha, E.W., KANORI EN, Matula, P.D. "Influence of Teachers Service Commission Human Resource Management practices on Teachers’ Commitment in public secondary schools in Tetu Sub County, Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences & Education. 2016;Volume 2 (1)(ISSN 2105 6008):01-16.
k litondo, Ntale F. "INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND MARKETING DECISIONS AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN KENYA: REVIEW OF EVIDENCE." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom. 2016;4(4):1167-1180.information_communication.pdf
Ondicho, TG. "Inroduction: Researchers in the 21st Century.". In: S. Wakana, S. Siraishi & T. Ondicho (eds) Re-findings African Local Assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity . Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS Pp xi-xii; 2016.
Mulwa JK, Kalai JM, KANORI EN. "Institutional challenges influencing principals’ implementation of public procurement regulations in public secondary schools in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(2304-2385):1-11.
Were FH. "Intensified Campaigns to End Use of Lead-Based Paints." The Architect, the Official Magazine of the the Architects Chapter,AAK 10 (2016):28-30.Website
K'AKUMU OA, · AMA. "Inter-agency collaboration for fire disaster management in Nairobi City." Journal of Urban Management. 2016;2016.
Wanjare, J. & Motari M(2016). "Interest Rate Variations and the Profitability of Islamic Banks in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2016;Vol 4, 17 – 26.
Kaoki SM, Kariuki L, Owiti PO, Takarinda KC, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Ogutu O, Waqo E. "Intermittent Preventive treatment and Bed nets pregnant uptake among women in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Wanjare, J. & Kanyange Z(2016). "International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Adoption and the Quality of Financial Reporting by the Commercial Banks in Rwanda: A Managerial Perspective." Online Journal of Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2277-0844. 2016;Vol 5, 20 – 28.
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "Internet access and Security in Kitinga Primary school in Mwingi central, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;4(11):1-12.
Muchemi L, Mogambi H, Ndati N. "Interpreting Green Advertising messages: A Perspective of Environmentally-informed consumers in Kenya." Scientific Research Journal (Scirj). . 2016;4(10):17-26.
Mogambi H, Muchemi L, ndeti ndati. "Interpreting Green Advertising messages: A Perspective of Environmentally-informed consumers in Kenya." Scientific Research Journal (SCIR). 2016;4(5):17-26.
Ousman K, Seloilwe E, Polomano RC, Odero T. "Interprofessional Fellowship Training for Emerging Global Health Leaders in Africa to Improve HIV Prevention and Care: The Afya Bora Consortium." Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 2016;27(3):331-343. Abstract

HIV continues to challenge health systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A qualified workforce of transformational leaders is required to strengthen health systems and introduce policy reforms to address the barriers to HIV testing, treatment, and other HIV services. The 1-year Afya Bora Consortium Fellowship in Global Health capitalizes on academic partnerships between African and U.S. universities to provide interprofessional leadership training through classroom, online, and service-oriented learning in 5 countries in Africa. This fellowship program prepares health professionals to design, implement, scale-up, evaluate, and lead health programs that are population-based and focused on prevention and control of HIV and other public health issues of greatest importance to African communities and health service settings. Afya Bora nurse fellows acquire leadership attributes and competencies that are continuously and systematically tested during the entire program. This multinational training platform promotes interprofessional networks and career opportunities for nurses.

K'AKUMU OA, Mwangi W. "Involuntary resettlement policy and praxis in Kenya: conforming with the national land reforms." Journal of Basic and Applied Research International. 2016;16(4):278-291.
Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Mandela P. "Is cadaveric dissection vital in anatomy education? Perceptions of 1st and 2nd year medical students." Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy. 2016;15(1):14-18. AbstractJECA

Introduction: The use of innovative ways of teaching anatomy as well as shortage of cadavers for dissection
have raised questions as to whether dissection should continue to be used in teaching anatomy. This study
aimed to assess the views of medical and dental students on the importance of dissection in learning gross
anatomy, and whether they would prefer other ways of learning anatomy instead of cadaveric dissection.
Materials and Methods: First‑ and second‑year students enrolled at the University of Nairobi (Kenya) were
asked to fill an online questionnaire. Data gathered were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
Results: Ninety‑eight (83 medical and 15 dental) students participated in the study. All students agreed dissection was useful in learning anatomy. Up to 95.2% of medical and 86.7% of dental students favored dissection. Most students strongly agreed or agreed that dissection helped them to develop three‑dimensional (3D) awareness of the human body (94.9%), work as a team (89.8%), learn medical terminology (85.7%), and learn how to use basic surgical instruments (80.6%). Dissection was preferred to use of 3D models, prosected specimens, computer‑aided learning techniques, or modern imaging techniques by 63.3%, 60.3%, 37.7%, and 34.4% of the students, respectively.
Conclusion: Dissection is an important resource for learning anatomy. Other teaching techniques should be
used to supplement dissection rather than replace it.

Key words: Anatomy, cadaveric dissection, medical students

Wesongah JO, Guantai AN. "Isolation and Characterization of Antichloramphenicol Antibodies using SDS Page." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(3):174-180. Abstract2016_-_isolation_and_characterization_of_antichloramphenicol_antibodies.pdf

Background: Antichloramphenicol antibodies can be produced in small or large animals depending on the requirement of the researcher. Previously most researchers have raised antibodies in small animals such as rabbits due to their easy availability and handling. In the present study antichloramphenicol antibodies were produced in large animals because large volumes of serum was needed for various studies.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize antichloramphenicol antibodies produced in camels, donkeys and goats for development of a CAP Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Methods: The methods employed were SDS-PAGE electrophoresis which involved the analysis of crude and purified goat, camel and donkey antichloramphenicol antibodies. Purification of the antichloramphenicol antibodies was carried out by precipitation using ammonium sulphate. Immunization of experimental animals was carried out using standard immunological methods.

Results: The results indicated that the crude anti-CAP antibody produced in camels, goats and donkeys showed 7 protein bands of molecular sizes 11.7, 40, 61.6, 134.3, 145, 169.5 and 182 kda. However the protein band of molecular weight 11.7 kda was not observed in the purified antibody from the 3 animal species. The protein bands of the camel appeared smaller and were more distinct as compared to those of donkeys and goats.

Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that purified camel antibodies are smaller and more specific followed closely by goat antibodies and donkey antibodies.

Keywords: anti-chloramphenicol (CAP) antibodies, camels, goats and donkeys

Habwe J. Kiswahili Language Dictionary. Nairobi: Jamo Kenyatta Foundation ; 2016.
Maalu J, Mwachinalo S. "Knowledge management strategy and organizational change in commercial banks in Kenya." Review of Social Sciences. 2016;1(7):32-43.
"Knowledge, attitude and practice among students attending public high schools in Nairobi County." joecsa- journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern central & southern africa. 2016;20(1):33-39.kap_on_re_in_highschool_students.pdf
Muriuki J, Thaiyah A, Mbugua S, Kitaa J, Kirui G. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Rabies and Socio-Economic Value of Dog Keeping in Kisumu and Siaya counties, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2016;5(1):29-33.
NB 46. S, LW G, G WE. "Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Mouthwash among Dental and Medical Students of the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016; 2.4).abstract_simiyu.pdf
B S, L G, E W. "Knowledge, attitude and use of mouthwash among Dental and Medical students of the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016. 2016;2(4):2-6.
F. M, J.W. K, Warinwa & F. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Chyulu Watershed Ecosystem, Makueni-Kajiado Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(3):17-26.
Warinwa F, mwaura F, Kiringe JW, Ndubi AO. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Kirisia Forest Ecosystem, Samburu County, Kenya. ." Advances in Remote Sensing. 2016;5::168-182.
Kibugi R, Makathimo M, Mwathane I. Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investments in Kenya: Is the Participation, and benefits for affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties . Nairobi: Land Development and Governance Institute ; 2016. Abstractlarge_scale_land_acquisitions_for_investment_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Land acquisitions, either driven by foreign investments or domestic investment needs have continued to polarize opinions. When this research was proposed, it was premised on arguments by scholars Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Helen Markelova, who had analysed agricultural land deals, and argued that there were potentially two schools of thought about foreign acquisitions over agricultural land. Their school of thought regards them as “beneficial investments” whereby investors are viewed as bringing needed investment, possibly improved technology or farming knowledge, thereby generating employment and increasing food production. Meinzen-Dick and Markelova further argued that because these land acquisitions, foreign and domestic, are ongoing at a very fast rate, it is necessary for host countries to focus on what they can do to seize the opportunities and mitigate the risks associated with the deals.
During implementation of the research project in Kenya, it became clear that although prior illustrations of land deals included foreign acquisitions (e.g. Dominion farms), a government economic policy focusing on mega- infrastructure projects was driving (or expected to drive) a much higher pace of land acquisitions either for primary infrastructure, or for the economic activities that flowed from the primary infrastructure. This is in the context of the Lamu South Sudan Ethiopia Transportation Corridor (LAPSSET) project, which is a flagship means for realization of Vision 2030; Kenya’s current national development plan. Thus, a national conversation is necessary to debate the crucial question of how to provide safeguards to protect the interests of local communities directly affected by these investments, including compensation of land that is taken, and their place in the socio-economic and environmental continuum of investment projects from design to implementation.
The following findings and recommendations have resulted from this research, and it is anticipated they will be valuable in setting the agenda and tone of such a useful national conversation, as well as tangible actions:

A. Lessons, Conclusions and findings requiring policy level interventions

1. Regularization of landholding and tenure systems.
The absence or weakness of formal landholding, and land registration systems was evident in most of the research sites, in Isiolo and Lamu. This is despite Kenya having put in place new land laws in 2012 to give effect to constitutional provisions to protect land rights. This has resulted either in emergence of informal land administration and conveyance systems (Lamu), or the emergence of a complex system of formal land allocation that brings about multi-allocation of land through repeated issuance of allotment letters, (Isiolo), or non-adjudication and registration of community lands (Isiolo, Lamu). In either instance this results in undermining security of tenure, and enhances the vulnerability of concerned communities who will face difficulties securing their interests in the land ahead of any large scale land acquisitions, due to the entry of speculators, and persons interested in grabbing the land by being first to obtain formal registration. The Kenyan national government should consider partnering with the County government in Isiolo in order to identify the nature and extent of, and take steps to resolve the problem of multi-allocations of land there. In addition, putting in place a programme for regularization of tenure rights by addressing the challenges of those without title is important as it will enhance the security of tenure of people affected by compulsory acquisition.

2. Enhancing tenure of certain communities through implementation of the provisions of Community Land Act.
This conclusion is drawn from findings in research amongst the Aweer (Bargoni), and Turkana communities (Ngare Mara) where residents expressed apprehension over their tenure security in the face of land acquisition for LAPSSET infrastructure. This is because the land has not been (fully) adjudicated or registered in favour of the community notwithstanding existence of the Land (Group Representatives) Act that preceded the 2016 community land law. It is recommended that the government expedites the application of the provisions of the Community Land Act for the Lamu and Isiolo communities faced by these land acquisition projects as a first step to guaranteeing the beneficial interests of the community members, first by protecting tenure rights, and subsequently providing for equitable community land governance mechanisms.

3. Clarification on the practice and methodology of valuation of land and non-land assets for compensation.
The repeal of the Land Acquisition Act, and with that the Schedule that defined the methodology of valuation of land requires to be resolved. In any event, based on the analysis in the research, and findings, there is need to formally resolve the entitlement to compensation for persons without legal title. In addition, it is imperative for Kenya to state in law or regulations the methodology to be applied in valuation of non-land assets, including the loss of livelihoods. Application of the full replacement cost methodology, as discussed, provides a viable option because, in addition to anchoring on the market value of the land, the replacement cost approach extends compensation to non-land assets, using the real cost of full replacement, and not factoring in any depreciation of the non-land assets being replaced, and takes into account all the transaction costs of purchasing (conveyancing fees, etc), or logistical costs of replacement of non-land assets.

4. Internalization of resettlement safeguards principles and practice into Kenyan law of compulsory acquisition of land
A review of the current legal situation in Kenya concerning compulsory acquisition of land discloses the absence of safeguards governing interaction with host community, as well as involuntary resettlement safeguards in the event of displacement by land acquisition. This includes exploring the possible application of an FPIC process that emphasizes the quality and meaningfulness of affected community participation, including the impact that views obtained during consultations have on the final decision. Equally critical is the decision to vertically integrate the process by requiring the consultation of the affected public during project planning. In the sense of feasibility studies, and project designs, this suggests that community participation may add value to the process by being conducted much earlier on in the process, and contribute to analysis of project sites, and alternatives.

For practical purposes, Kenya could consider a legal requirement for a national Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) that would govern internalization of resettlement safeguards, including participation of communities. Key to this is that if a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is required, in terms of EMCA, both the RAP and RPF would have undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment thereby providing a means for risk assessment in advance of major implementation steps being underway.

5. Policy linkage of investment promotion rules with investments flowing from land acquisitions to secure community benefit through contracts and business models
At a policy level, it is important for Kenya to revisit, in a framework sense, how to use investment promotion rules and binding contracts to safeguard socio-economic, environmental benefits and livelihoods of local communities. This is mainly in context of the continuum of an investment, from land acquisition, and during its implementation. The Investment Promotion Act, while addressing the benefit to Kenya threshold, is not aggressively applied, and as evidenced by the Dominion contracts, critical socio-economic safeguards were not included. A clear policy evaluation of business models application, either contracts in the context of farming investments, or other types, should be undertaken and public disclosure of the proposed business model(s) should be undertaken early enough, to ensure affected project communities do not experience anxiety over their future.

This could be done in context of section 12 of the Land Act, which requires the National Land Commission to make regulations to govern how investments on public land will safeguard community benefits and livelihoods. The details of these considerations have been discussed at length earlier in this report.

6. Regulations to regulate methodology for assessment of just compensation
Kenya is currently engaged in a number of infrastructural projects that call for the compulsory acquisition and compensation of land. As noted in the study, Section 111 of the Land Act requires the National Land Commission to develop rules to regulate the assessment of just compensation where land is compulsorily acquired. As at the time of this report, these rules had not yet been developed. The rules will help to standardize the methodology for the anticipated assessment and make the process more predictable and, in an environment where the government is involved in the development of infrastructure calling for massive compensation of compulsorily acquired land, the development of these rules should have been accorded priority.

It is however noted that regulations to operate the entire Land Act have not yet been developed. Perhaps the development of these regulations, and the rules to govern assessment for just compensation, may have been delayed by the amendments recently effected to the Land Act. Now that the amendments were concluded, it is recommended that the development of the rules to govern the assessment of just compensation payable to landowners affected by large scale investments on land be expedited.

B. Lessons, conclusions and findings requiring direct actions at community level
In this category, the conclusions and findings are drawn to highlight matters that directly affect the voice and equitable benefit or participation of affected local communities, either in land acquisition process, or in the continuum of investments introduced in their midst.

1. A community dissemination manual for transfer of knowledge about land laws, policies and land administration processes
In focus group discussions held in the course of field work, the research team got similar feedback multiple times that the (potentially) affected “had heard” on radio, or through other fora that Kenya had new land laws in place, they did not really know the content of these laws. A similar sentiment was expressed with regard to knowledge of details about the components of the various LAPSSET projects. Communities indicated that they would want to have some form of civic education on this, especially regarding tenure rights, the land administration system (surveying, adjudication and registration), the implications and contents of the new community land law, and legal protection of community rights during land acquisition. One key finding was a preference by community members to have some of their own members trained in order to pass the knowledge to the communities, a sentiment that arose from a desire to receive information from a trustworthy source who was part of the community. Another finding was that community members did not have clear details on available grievance mechanisms on the land administration system, and while some had managed to access the National Land Commission, they lamented that it was based in Nairobi.

This finding suggests there is a need to develop a basic community dissemination manual, that includes a provision for empowerment of community based trainers (through a Training of Trainers concept). In such an approach, the dissemination manual can be published in simple language, including translation to Kiswahili or local languages where preferable.

2. Enhancement of meaningful public participation in the entire continuum through effective consultations and disclosure of relevant information

In order to enhance the voice of the community ahead of any process of land acquisition, it will be helpful to integrate a constructive and meaningful process of consultation with potentially affected communities, from early on during project planning, feasibility studies to onboarding of investments. This would particularly aid in providing value on local circumstances and risks that may not be obvious to technical teams. Occurrences such as in the Isiolo Kiwanjani settlement (displaced for the airport) where residents of Kiwanjani Zone G Squatter complained that maps generated during the acquisition process continued to record their land as being part of the airport complex despite there being a 75 feet road between the airport boundary, and the plots in question, would be avoided.

Enhanced community participation would further provide a valuable avenue through which the [potentially] affected local community can enhance its voice by having an opinion (which is taken into account) early on in the stages of the project design. However, this approach would also require protection from speculative behavior, that could result in an artificial increase in market value of land, due to market behavior triggered by anticipation of a project, and land acquisition. Access to information requires that this type of information is made available to the public, but in order to control speculative behaviour that drives up the cost of land compensation, government can apply the new 2016 Access to Information Act to sieve out aspects that are either confidential or considered deliberative and therefore not to be publicly disclosed. Another helpful approach would be to undertake the feasibility studies focusing on multiple alternative sites, without showing preference for any particular site.

Meaningful community participation requires a legal or policy definition of how to ensure consultations are effective. This could include possibility of requiring consulting (public) agencies to return to the host community and disclose how they considered the various opinions, and provide feedback. The community dissemination manual proposed above would provide a valuable tool through which to structure techniques that affected local communities can apply in order to have meaningful consultations. The manual could also include implications of the procedures set out in the new 2016 Access to Information Act.

3. Promotion of Networking by Project Affected communities in various parts of Kenya to build knowledge and exchange thoughts
There are multiple instances of compulsory acquisition of land in Kenya (e.g. For LAPSSET projects), or the allocation of land by government for private investments (Siaya – Dominion). The processes are at various stages, either at conceptual point, or having gone through various steps of acquisition and onboarding of investments. Equally, others are complete and the investment has been operational for a number of years. In all these cases, there multiple lessons to be learnt between the various affected local communities. In both Lamu and Isiolo for instance, the research engaged with multiple focus groups drawn from within the same project locality but in different geographical sections – and there was evidence that there was no integrated system to promote consultations and learning from each other. Further, even where acquisition and investments have been undertaken in separate parts of the country, people from Isiolo or Lamu could learn coping techniques from those in Siaya, or by learning the adverse impacts in Siaya, become more interested in enhancing their voices in the local context to avoid a similar outcome. Therefore, the idea of a network that brings together representatives of the various communities is useful to consider. Such a network would also include policy makers drawn from the national and county governments. Already in most of these local communities, the research observed that chiefs (who are national government administration officers) are an integral part of the community process. Learning forums could be organized, and a feedback process put in place such that when representatives return to their local communities, they can provide details to their neighbours. Such a network would however require that policy makers also commit to provide valuable information and feedback to any questions and problems raised by participating communities.

An alternative to utilization of physical meetings for such a network is application of internet-based technology. In this case, a network can be developed through low cost options, such as through the WhatsApp Platform. Although this requires internet access through a smartphone, the Land Development and Governance Institute has been piloting a WhatsApp based platform that creates a Network aptly named Community Land Matters. The experience with this platform is discussed at length in section 9.

4. Involvement of Women in Community Interventions
The study exposes some good lessons in the involvement of women in community interventions and leadership on communal land rights. It was instructive that for instance in the discussion with the Aweer group in Bargoni, Lamu, some women participants in the focus group discussions were very active and made crucial contributions. In addition, the women also made distinguished contributions too during discussions with the Turkana community at Ngare Mara, Isiolo County, where critical leadership positions in the community are held by women.

Yet, the two communities, like many others in Kenya, are largely patriarchal. This experience provides a good benchmarking lesson that, despite the cultural practices that have informed many communities in the past, given opportunity, women may play critical roles in helping communities protect and mitigate their communal land rights where circumstances so demand.

5. Compensation to “occupants in good faith” without title to land
As noted in the study, Article 40(4) of the Constitution of Kenya states that ‘provision may be made for compensation to be paid to occupants in good faith of land acquired under clause (3) who may not hold title to the land”. While the rules to govern how the discretion implied by this Article are yet to be developed, the study reveals that the State has exercised this discretion positively in the studied Port site in Lamu and the Airport site in Isiolo. Despite land owners not holding title to their land in the two places, cash-for-land and land-for-land compensation was made to the claimants in Lamu and Isiolo respectively.

These are good precedents for other parts of the country where formal processes to register communal land have not been applied or completed. Lessons learnt from these two Counties may be borrowed to inform and improve similar compensation exercises elsewhere.

6. Protection of interests of legitimate beneficiaries during compensation

Incidents were recounted of husbands and fathers pocketing the proceeds of compensation and departing home with the entire compensation sum. This leaves the wives and children vulnerably exposed and without alternative livelihoods. Such people become a problem for the community and State. To avoid such negligence, the government should consider regulating the release of compensation funds. The practice under the Land Control Act Chapter 302 of the Laws of Kenya which regulates transactions of agricultural land could be borrowed. Though not written into the law, Land Control Boards always require the proprietor’s spouse to be in attendance before approval to any application for approval of a transaction such as subdivision or sale of family property. And where they are in doubt about the facts to any application, they will usually refer to an area elder or the Assistant Chief for pertinent information in an effort to ensure that spouse and children are in agreement. Such a procedure could be enforced in the case of compensation following acquisition.

It is recommended that the Government, in liaison with the National Land Commission, puts in place modalities to explore how a similar social safeguard procedure could be instituted in the proceedings for compensation under the Land Act to protect legitimate beneficiaries in instances where acquisition of land for projects has to be done with requisite compensation to landowners.

7. Preservation of indigenous and local knowledge:
Project activities involving large scale land acquisition have the inevitable consequence, in some cases, of interfering or totally defacing available traditional/indigenous knowledge from the affected site. This is the case in some parts of Lamu and Isiolo where invaluable oral and cultural knowledge, including some cultural sites, have been preserved over the years. In any event, if enhanced community participation is adopted, and a threshold placed to examine if the participation is meaningful, the indigenous and local knowledge of the communities will also benefit the project at the point of local risk assessment. In this case, recording of such knowledge can be undertaken for posterity use.
It is therefore recommended that the implementation of such projects be preceded by a quick knowledge mapping to determine and document such knowledge before destruction or adulteration, together with enhanced community participation. Where possible, such knowledge can be proactively preserved in collaboration with the relevant state organs. Such a mapping can still be done for the LAPSSET Corridor and Isiolo Resort City before implementation takes off.

Ondicho, TG. "Letter: Study Trends of Lecturers at the Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: S. Wakana, S. Siraishi & T. Ondicho (Eds) Re-finding African Local Assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS Pp. 287-289; 2016.
Omoko BJ, Onyatta J, Nyabaro O, Kenanda OE. "Level of Metal Pollutants in Water from Nyakomisaro Stream through Kisii Town.." International Journal of Science and Research . 2016;5(7):464-565.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Levels Of 17β Steroid and Alkylphenol Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting compounds in Nairobi River." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies. 2016;2(3):46-49.
E NYENZE, J MUSTAPHA. "Lid reconstruction after tumour excision in a patient with seborrhoiec keratosis: A case report." JOECSA. 2016;20(1):40-44. Abstractlid_sebarrhoiec.pdfWe

comABSTRACTSeborrhoiec Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids, usually affecting elderly females. Typically, the lesions start as discrete, tan-dark brown, flat lesions starting on the face and progressing to other sun-exposed areas. The natural progression is generally an increase in size, thickness and pigmentation of these lesions. A variant of SK, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN), has been described in black people, characterized by an earlier and more severe manifestation with multiple, profuse lesions. The diagnosis is clinical, although histopathological examination may be sought to confirm the diagnosis. These lesions are benign and usually only removed for cosmetic reasons. However, in some patients, concern or discomfort may warrant removal. Cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage or shave excision are all effective methods of management. When eyelid lesions are excised, the resulting anterior lamellar defect can be repaired by primary closure, local skin flaps or Full-Thickness Skin Grafts (FTSG). We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with DPN and thick pigmented lesions on the eyelids of both eyes, causing mechanical ptosis, left lower lid ectropion and interfering with vision. She was successfully managed with excision and lid reconstruction for both eyes.Keywords: Seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis papulosa nigra, Eyelid tumours, Eyelid reconstruction, Eyelid excisional biopsy, Glabellar flap INTRODUCTIONSeborrhoeic Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids1. It usually affects elderly people, with a female preponderance and some cases of reported family history2. The exact cause is unknown and has been linked to sunlight exposure3. Typically, lesions are small, discrete and tan-brown flat macules, most frequently on the face and trunk4. With time, these lesions exhibit increase in size, thickness and level of pigmentation5. As they grow, the lesions become papules with the characteristic verrucous “stuck-on” appearance4. A variant of seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN) has been described in black people2. This variant manifests earlier, with multiple and profuse lesions which are larger, thicker and exhibit a more chronic and worsening course than classic SK. SK lesions are benign and do not usually require removal5. However, many patients present to dermatologists due to concern about possible skin malignancy when there is growth or increased pigmentation of the lesions6. Reasons for removal include cosmetic reasons, discomfort, itchiness or documented growth in the lesions. The diagnosis is clinical in majority of cases. However, especially if lesions are going to be removed, histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis may be sought. Histology of lesions is characterized by hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, acanthosis with intraepithelial horn or pseudohorn cysts3. There are several options for

and Muthama AKH, W MJ, N MUTHAMAJ. "Long Term Change Point Detections in Total Ozone Column over East Africa via Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform." American Research Journal of Physics. 2016;2(2):1-9.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "Maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller 1901).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and Regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru): International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Mbatiah, Mwenda. Majilio ya Mkombozi. Nairobi: Moran; 2016.
Ndlela S, Mohamed S, Ndegwa PN, Ong’amo GO, Ekesi S. "Male annihilation technique using methyl eugenol for field suppression of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango in Kenya." African Entomology . 2016;24(2):437-447 .
Aluisio AR, Bosire R, Betz B, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Male Partner Participation in Antenatal Clinic Services is Associated with Improved HIV-free survival Among Infants in Nairobi, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

This prospective study investigated the relationship between male antenatal clinics (ANC) involvement and infant HIV-free survival.

Yarmoshuk AN, Guantai AN, Mwangu M, Cole DC, Zarowsky C. "Mapping International University Partnerships Identi fi ed by East African Universities as Strengthening Their Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health Programs." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(5):665-677. Abstract2016_-_mapping_international_university_partnerships.pdf

Background: International university partnerships are recommended for increasing the capacity of sub-Saharan African universities. Many publications describe individual partnerships and projects, and tools are available for guiding collaborations, but systematic mappings of the basic, common characteristics of partnerships are scarce.

Objective: To document and categorize the international interuniversity partnerships deemed significant to building the capacity of medicine, nursing, and public health programs of 4 East African universities.

Methods: Two universities in Kenya and 2 in Tanzania were purposefully selected. Key informant interviews, conducted with 42 senior representatives of the 4 universities, identified partnerships they considered significant for increasing the capacity of their institutions' medicine, nursing, and public health programs in education, research, or service. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Partners were classified by country of origin and corresponding international groupings, duration, programs, and academic health science components.

Findings: One hundred twenty-nine university-to-university partnerships from 23 countries were identified. Each university reported between 25 and 36 international university partners. Seventy-four percent of partnerships were with universities in high-income countries, 15% in low- and middle-income countries, and 11% with consortia. Seventy percent included medicine, 37% nursing, and 45% public health; 15% included all 3 programs. Ninety-two percent included an education component, 47% research, and 24% service; 12% included all 3 components.

Conclusions: This study confirms the rapid growth of inter-university cross-border health partnerships this century. It also finds, however, that there is a pool of established international partnerships from numerous countries at each university. Most partnerships that seek to strengthen universities in East Africa should likely ensure they have a significant education component. Universities should make more systematic information about past and existing partnerships available publicly.

Situma J, Attoh F, Ndohvu J. "Mapping Out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice. 2016;7(1):77-102.
K'AKUMU OA. "Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process." International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development . 2016;15(1):15-36.Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process
Hyunwoo, L., James, D. M., Tobias, P. F., Cynthia, J.E., A.K S, Zachary, D.S., Kianji, G. "Massive and prolonged deep carbon emissions associated with continental rifting." Natural Geosciece. 2016.lee2016_ng_co2degassingear-_recent_publication-january_2016.pdf
Mogambi, H. "Media and infrastructural projects: Analysis of the Print Media in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2016;V. 4 (No. 12):1-22.
Mogambi H. "Media Preferences and Uses: Radio Listening Habits among Students in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences . 2016;Volume 2( 4): 783-808.
Mukungu NA, Abuga KO, Okalebo FO, Ingwela RT, Mwangi JW. "Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya." Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2016;194 :98-107. Abstract


Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 80% of the population is at risk of contracting the disease. Pregnant mothers and children under five years are the most affected by this disease. Antimalarial drug resistance poses a major threat in the fight against malaria necessitating continuous search for new antimalarial drugs. Due to inadequate and inaccessible health facilities, majority of people living in rural communities heavily depend on traditional medicine which involves the use of medicinal plants for the management of malaria. Most of these indigenous knowledge is undocumented and risks being lost yet such information could be useful in the search of new antimalarial agents.

Aim of study

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, a malaria epidemic region, with the aim of documenting the plants used in the management of malaria.

Materials and methods

Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 21 informants who included traditional medicine practitioners and other caregivers who had experience in use of plants in management of malaria. These were drawn from 4 villages located in Kakamega East sub-county, within Kakamega County based on their differences in topography. Information recorded included plant names, parts used, mode of preparation and administration and the sources of plant materials. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and google scholar to identify the reported traditional uses of these plants and studied antiplasmodial activities.


In this study, 57% of the informants were aged above 50 years and a total of 61% had either no formal education or had only attained primary school education. A total of 42 plant species belonging to 24 families were identified. Most plants used in the management of malaria in this community belonged to Lamiaceae (18%), Leguminosae (9%) and Compositae (9%) plant families. Plants mostly used included Melia azedarach L, Aloe spp, Ajuga integrifolia Buch. Ham, Vernonia amygdalina Del., Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane and Mabb, Fuerstia africana T.C.E.Fr., Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman and Leucas calostachys Oliv. Rumex steudelii Hochst.ex A. Rich and Phyllanthus sepialis Müll. Arg are reported for the first time in the management of malaria. Although Clerodendrum johnstonii Oliv. ( Jeruto et al., 2011) and Physalis peruviana L.(Ramadan et al., 2015) are reported in other studies for management of malaria, no studies have been carried out to demonstrate their antiplasmodial activity.
The plant parts mostly used were the leaves (36%) and stem barks (26%). Majority of these plants were prepared as decoctions by boiling and allowed to cool before administration (66%) while infusions accounted for 28% of the preparations. The literature mined supports the use of these plants for the management of malaria since most of them have demonstrated in-vitro and in-vivo antiplasmodial activities.


Most of the reported plant species in this study have been investigated for antiplasmodial activity and are in agreement with the ethnomedical use. Two (2) plants are reported for the first time in the management of malaria. There is need for documentation and preservation of the rich ethnomedical knowledge within this community given that most of the practitioners are advanced in age and less educated. There is also the danger of over-exploitation of plant species as most of them are obtained from the wild, mainly Kakamega forest. Therefore, there is need for determining the economically and medicinally important plants in this community and planning for their preservation.

Kimani ST, Patel NB, Kioy PG. "Memory deficits associated with khat (Catha edulis) use in rodents." Metab Brain Dis. 2016;31(1):45-52.kimani2015.pdf
Amimo JO, El Zowalaty ME, Githae D, Wamalwa M, Djikeng A, Nasrallah GK. "Metagenomic analysis demonstrates the diversity of the fecal virome in asymptomatic pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2016;161(4):887-897.
E TJP, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD. "Methane and heavy metals Levels from leachates at Dandora dumpsite, Nairobi County, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2016;9(9):39-46.janniffer_publication.pdf
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta LA, Akcakaya HR, Brotons L, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Harhash KA, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Lundquist C, Obersteiner M, Pereira HM, Peterson G, Pichs-Madruga R, Ravindranath N, Rondinini C, Wintle BA. The methodological assessment report on scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bonn, Germany: IPBES; 2016.2016.methodological_assessment_report_scenarios_models.pdf
Moronge JM. "'Modelling Industrial Production Organisation: A Case Study of Food Processing, Textiles and Leather Industries'." The International Journal of Development Dialogue. 2016;Volume 1(Issue No. 1):pp 43-46.
Juma BW, Kariuki S, Waiyaki PG, Mutugi MW, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance genes in isolates obtained from patients with diarrhea in Machakos District Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5:118-127. Abstractjuma_b_et_al_2016.pdf

Background: Diarrhea caused by Enterobacteriaceae such as Shigella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is endemic throughout the world, and is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. There is a range of antibiotics that can be used for treatment among them quinolones. However, there is emerging increase in microbial resistance to quinolones use, with E. coli and Shigellae among the species of bacteria commonly associated with quinolone resistance. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance genes in Shigellae and E. coli from patients presenting with diarrhea in Machakos District Hospital. Methods: Bacteria isolates were identified to species level by biochemical methods and serology and thereafter tested for 12 different antibiotics including quinolones, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. Those resistant to quinolones with a zone diameter of ≤20 mm were tested for the presence of quinolone resistance genes using PCR. The gyrA resistance genes were further analyzed by sequencing to determine mutations within the quinolone resistance regions. Results: There were different E. coli pathotypes and Shigellae spp. They resisted more than four antibiotics: Ciprofloxacin (4%), (Chloramphenical (28%), Cotrimoxazole (78%), Co-amoxilav (70%) Erythromycin (98%) Cefotoxime (18%) and Tetracycline (56%). Mutations responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of E. coli and Shigella spp were: gyrA (17/30, 36%) gyrB (7/30, 23.3%) topoisomerase (parC 3/30, 10%) parE (3/30, 10%). Discussion: There is an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigellae and E.coli which points to a major challenge in current treatment strategies. In addition, detection of high resistance found to commonly used antibiotics should serve as a warning call for close surveillance and understanding of the epidemiology of the resistance. Key words:

Okoth S. "Molecular investigation into a malaria outbreak in Cusco, Peru: Plasmodium falciparum BV1 lineage is linked to a second outbreak in recent times." The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2016;94(1):128-131. Abstract128.pdfWebsite

n November 2013, a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak of 11 cases occurred in Cusco, southern Peru, where falciparum malaria had not been reported since 1946. Although initial microscopic diagnosis reported only Plasmodium vivax infection in each of the specimens, subsequent examination by the national reference laboratory confirmed P. falciparum infection in all samples. Molecular typing of four available isolates revealed identity as the B-variant (BV1) strain that was responsible for a malaria outbreak in Tumbes, northern Peru, between 2010 and 2012. The P. falciparum BV1 strain is multidrug resistant, can escape detection by PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests, and has contributed to two malaria outbreaks in Peru. This investigation highlights the importance of accurate species diagnosis given the potential for P. falciparum to be reintroduced to regions where it may have been absent. Similar molecular epidemiological investigations can track the probable source(s) of outbreak parasite strains for malaria surveillance and control purposes.

Wadegu M, Wamunyokoli F, Osanjo G, Opanda S, Majanja J, Coldren R, Bulimo W. "Molecular Surveillance of Adamantane Resistance among Human Influenza A Viruses Isolated in Four Epidemic Seasons in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5:181-192. Abstractwadegu_et_al_2016.pdf

Background: Adamantanes impede influenza A virus replication and are important in the treatment and prophylaxis of disease caused by these viruses. Genotypic characterization of influenza A viruses for mutations associated with resistance to adamantanes has not been fully investigated in Kenya. Objective: To characterize susceptibility of influenza A virus subtypes that circulated in Kenya from 2008-2011 to adamantanes. Methods: Archived influenza A virus strains obtained from 2008 to 2011 were propagated in MDCK cells prior to sequencing of the matrix and hemagglutinin gene segments, followed by bioinformatics analyses. Results: Ninety two virus strains consisting of 21 A/H3N2, 18 A/H1N1 and 53 A/H1N1pdm09 were analyzed. All A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 viruses displayed resistance to adamantanes due to the S31N/S31D amino acid substitution. All A/H1N1pdm09 virus strains belonged to the N-lineage characterized by S203T amino acid substitution in the HA1. All A/H1N1 viruses were sensitive to adamantane and were characterized by K140E amino acid substitution in the HA1. Conclusion: All Kenyan influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 virus strains were resistant to adamantanes while seasonal A/H1N1 strains were sensitive to these drugs. During the study period, Amantadine and Rimantadine were inappropriate for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza disease caused by A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 virus subtypes in Kenya.

Mirara A, Maitho T, Okoth U. "Monitoring Role of ICT in Quality of Artificial Insemination Services in Nyeri County, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technoledge . 2016;4(11):70-74.
Macharia JW, Wandiga SO, Njenga LW, Madadi VO. "Moringa oleifera and Ceramic Filters for Escherichia coli and Turbidity removal from drinking water." IOSR-JAC. 2016;9(5):46-55.
Mogambi H. "Moving health forward: Communication and elimination of Obstetric Fistula in Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS. 2016; Volume 21(4):67-80.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Warambo JP. Mwongozo wa Damu Nyeusi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2016. Abstractmwongozo_wa_damu_nyeusi_cover_copy.pdf


IRIBEMWANGI PI, Chisia M. Mwongozo wa Kidagaa Kimemwozea. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2016.mwongozo_wa_riwaya_kidagaa_kimemwozea.pdf
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. My sister has got mumps. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
My Sister has Got the Mumps. Nairobi: Association of Reading of Kenya; 2016.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. My sister was born yellow. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
My Sister Was Born Yellow. Nairobi: Association of Reading of Kenya; 2016.
S.A.M.Johnson, D.W. Gakuya, P.G. Mbuthia, J.D. Mande, K.Afakye, N. Maingi. "Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana." Vector-borne and Zoonotic diseases. 2016;16(1):54-57.myiasis_in_dogs_in_the_greater_accra_region_of_ghana.pdf
Kariuki PW, Mwamwenda TS. "Myths and misconceptions about global HIV/AIDS: University Students in Kenya." SYLWAN Journal. 2016;161(1):112-148.
J.SITUMA. "The Neccessity and Sufficiency of Kantian of Ethics." Haki, Nairobi. 2016.
Meert JG, der Voo RV. "A Neoarchean paleomagnetic pole from the Kisii Series of western Kenya: Implications for crustal mobility." Precambrian Research. 2016;279:91-102. Abstract

The Kisii Series lavas of western Kenya were the target of a paleomagnetic study. The Kisii Series is a volcano-sedimentary sequence dated to 2531 ± 3 Ma (U–Pb) that rests unconformably over the Mesoarchean–Neoarchean Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. The paleomagnetic study reported in this paper expands on an earlier study by Brock et al. (1972) using modern demagnetization and analysis techniques. In spite of the advanced methods, the results of both our new study and the previous study are statistically indistinguishable. We therefore combine the results of both investigations to arrive at a grand mean pole at 7° S, 166° E (A95 = 8°). Due to the relatively minor tilt-corrections, a fold test is inconclusive; however, the dual-polarity magnetization passes a reversal test. We argue for a primary remanence on the basis of a comparison to other paleomagnetic data in Kenya and Tanzania and geological information. We examine the relationships between age-equivalent paleomagnetic poles from the Tanzanian, Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons. Based on this limited dataset, we cannot conclude whether or not the observed apparent polar wander was due to true polar wander or modern-style plate tectonics, such as would be implied by the (variable) apparent polar wander path segments. We favor the latter explanation based on the disparate lengths of the Zimbabwe versus Tanzanian apparent polar wander paths during the 2700–2500 Ma interval. The Protopangea model is not consistent with paleomagnetic data from these three cratons.

Nyundo AA, Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mathai AM. "Neurocognitive correlates of the use of combined Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-infected adults attending care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: An analytical crosssectional study." Tanzania Medical Journal. 2016. AbstractWebsite

The discovery of the highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life span of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to almost that of the general population. This, however, has been coupled with increased incidences of HIVassociated dementia, especially mild cognitive impairment. Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been observed to improve neurocognitive functions but the ART regimen that is best suited for improvement of neurocognitive functions is still largely unknown. This study was aimed at determining how neurocognitive deficits in patients on cART were related to ART regimen.

Kimani S, Kipruto S, Bukachi F, Monterroso V, Maitai C, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Neurotoxicity of Cassava Cyanogens: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Konzo, a Motor Neuron Disease Prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa." Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2016;36(1 S975):975.
B N, M.K L, D.A M, H E, M.R J, S.I K, I M, L.K O, J.O M. "New ent-clerodane and abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Medica. 2016;doi,
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Planta medica. 2016;82(11/12):1079-1086. AbstractFull text link

The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1–12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.
Key words:
Croton megalocarpoides - Euphorbiaceae - abietane - ent-clerodane - ent-trachylobane - diterpenoids - electronic circular dichroism

Mwaniki JM, Kali AM, Mbugua JK, Kamau GN. "A New Variant of the Hydraulic Stirring Mechanism for Pilot Scale Wet Thermophilic Anaerobic Digester." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;Vol. 9(1):135-155. Abstract

A new variant of stirring mechanism for agitating contents of an anaerobic digester that makes
use of vertical and horizontal directed jets of liquid reactor content being re-circulated by and
electric pump, is reported. In order to demonstrate its working, a thermophilic pilot scale reactor
using waste water is described and various parameters analysed. As a sample run, raw
(untreated) waste water from the treatment works in Nairobi was used as the nutrient source,
while sludge from an anaerobic pond in the same treatment works was used as source of bacteria.
Measurement of various parameters like organic loading rate and characteristics of feed
wastewater (BOD, COD, pH, TS), biogas production rate in thermophilic anaerobic digester,
maximum gas yield and biogas quality were undertaken. The reactor was fed at a controlled
organic loading rate of 0.5 L/min. The reactor contained substrate to inoculums in the ratio 3:1
with the temperature was controlled using a thermostated heating coil. Digestion was carried out
in a pilot scale digester (with a capacity of 210 litres) under thermophilic (at 55 0C) anaerobic
conditions for a period of 15 days. The final average yield of biogas was 1.225 x 10-2 m3.
Average percentage composition of biogas produced by thermophilic digester was 66.6 vol. %
CH4, 30.4 vol. % CO2.

Chern MJ, Odhiambo E, Borthwick AGL, Horng TL. "Numerical simulation of vibration of horizontal cylinder induced by progressive waves." Fluid Dynamics Research. 2016;48(1):015508.
John Maina Wagacha, Nancy Karimi Njeru OOOJWMCKM. "Occurrence of Fusarium head blight of wheat and associated mycotoxins in Narok and Nakuru Counties, Kenya.". 2016. Abstract

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of small grain cereals. This study
assessed the incidence and severity of FHB of wheat at hard dough stage, and levels of
deoxynivalenol and T2-toxin at harvest by direct competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent
assay. Wheat ears were randomly sampled from 51 farms in Narok County and 51 farms in
Nakuru County at hard dough stage while wheat kernels were sampled at harvest.
Prevalence of FHB in both Counties was 100%. The mean incidence of FHB was 28.4 …

Ottieno J, Muhua G. "On Bayesian Estimation in Group-Screening Design without Errors in Decision." International Journa I of Computational and Theoretical Statistics. 2016; Vol 3(1):39-48.
Clair V, Mutiso V, Musau A, Frank E, Ndetei D. "Online learning improves substance use care in Kenya: Randomized control trial results and implications." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(3):320-321. AbstractWebsite

Alcohol use is the 5th most important risk factor driving the global burden of diseases. WHO identifies a lack of health worker training as one of the main barriers to providing cost-effective brief interventions for alcohol use disorder. This study assesses the impact of online training, using the model, on the delivery of the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its linked brief intervention (BI).

Muiva CM, Mwabora JM. "Optical and Dielectric properties of Amorphous ternary Se90-xIn10Sbx thin films,." Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2016;689:432-438. Abstract

Ternary thin film alloys of Se90-XIn10SbX (x = 1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) were synthesized by flash evaporation of the pre-melt quenched bulk samples under a vacuum of 10-5 Torr. Optical absorption analysis pointed to indirect allowed transitions as the mechanism of excitation across the energy gap. The optical band gap (Eg) was evaluated on the basis of Wemple-Didomenico single oscillator model and Tauc's extrapolation method in the spectral region where the absorption coefficient, α ≥ 104 cm-1. The refractive index (n), complex dielectric constant (ε), band tailing parameter (B), plasma frequency (ωp), single oscillator parameters (Eo and Ed) and lattice dielectric constant (εL) were deduced for each alloy. The compositional dependence of optical and dielectric parameters was explained on the basis of chemical bond approach. The observed shift in the trends of Eg, Ed, εL and up values at the composition where Sb = 4 at% was correlated to the usual chemical threshold at this composition.

Muthoka B, Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2016. Abstract

Effect of film thickness on the optical and electrical properties of TiO 2 thin films were
studied. Thin films of different thicknesses were deposited by screen printing method on
fluorine doped tin oxide coated on glass substrate. The film thickness was determined by
surface profile measurement. The thicknesses were 3.2, 8.2, 13.5 and 18.9 µm.
Transmittance, reflectance and absorbance spectra were studied using UV-VIS-NIR
spectrophotometer in the photon wavelength range of 300-1500 nm for transmittance and …

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Muthoka B, Mwabora J. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films. ." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. . 2016;4(1):1-3.
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Mwabora JM. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry.. 2016;4(1):1. Abstract

Effect of film thickness on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. Thin films of different thicknesses were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide coated on glass substrate. The film thickness was determined by surface profile measurement. The thicknesses were 3.2, 8.2, 13.5 and 18.9 µm. Transmittance, reflectance and absorbance spectra were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer in the photon wavelength range of 200-2500 nm for transmittance and reflectance and 200-1200 nm for absorbance. Band gap and refractive index of the films were determined using these spectra. It was found that reflectance, absorbance, band gap and refractive index increase with film thickness while transmittance decreases with increase in thickness. I-V characteristics of the films were also measured by a 4- point probe. Electrical resistivity (

Ayieko CO, R. J. Musembi, A. A. Ogacho, B. O. Aduda, B. M. Muthoka, P. K. Jain. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15.
C. O. Ayieko, Musembi RJ, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO, Muthoka BM, Jain PK. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications ." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15. Abstract

A composite thin film consisting of TiO2 (binder), uniformly mixed CuFeMnO4 paint (solar absorber) was coated on textured aluminum sheets by dip coating. The film’s elemental analysis was done using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and the surface of the film characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical properties of the TiO2/CuFeMnO4 composite film were also studied using computerized double beam solid-spec 3700 DUV Shimadzu Spectrophotometer. Reflectance was obtained by spectrophotometric measurements, and thermal emmittance was determined using heat flux- based technique respectively. Reflectance measurement values less than 0.03 in the solar wavelength (290 nm < λ < 2500 nm) and low thermal emmittance less than 0.016 for temperatures between 24°C and 100°C were obtained.

Muiva CM, Sathiaraj TS, King JG. "Optical properties of amorphous Se90-XIn10SbX thin film alloys." Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2016;689:432-438. Abstract

Ternary thin film alloys of Se90-XIn10SbX (x = 1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) were synthesised by flash evaporation of the pre-melt quenched bulk samples under a vacuum of 10−5 Torr. Optical absorption analysis pointed to indirect allowed transitions as the mechanism of excitation across the energy gap. The optical band gap (Eg) was evaluated on the basis of Wemple-Didomenico single oscillator model and Tauc's extrapolation method in the spectral region where the absorption coefficient, α ≥ 104 cm−1. The refractive index (n), complex dielectric constant (ε), band tailing parameter (B), plasma frequency (ωp), single oscillator parameters (Eo and Ed) and lattice dielectric constant (εL) were deduced for each alloy. The compositional dependence of optical and dielectric parameters was explained on the basis of chemical bond approach. The observed shift in the trends of Eg, Ed, εL and ωp values at the composition where Sb = 4 at% was correlated to the usual chemical threshold at this composition.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe F, Masimba DM. "Optimization of C/N Ratio For Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion From Food Wastes Found In Nairobi A Lab-Scale Case Study." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;Vol. 9(1):63-81. Abstract

Extensive work has been done on Anaerobic digestion of single substrates and using codigestion.
In a number of cultures around the world, the wastes that are discarded as
household waste may not easily fit in the biogas models that have been developed so far. It is
therefore necessary to analyse the biogas produced from food mixtures found in unique
settings and compare them with literature values of individual substrates. In the current study,
food mixture found at waste bin at a cafeteria used by StudentsofUniversity of Nairobiwas
analysed. The purposes of this study were to investigate adjusted modes of substrate pretreatment
(Mechanical, thermal and thermo-chemical) and their role in maximizing the
process of anaerobic digestion through speeding up hydrolysis. The experiments were carried
out on waste samples consisting of carbohydrate food waste (ugali+Rice),potato peels, banana
peels and a mixture of the substrates mixed with rumen slurry in the ratio 3:1 under controlled
mesophilic anaerobic conditionsin the lab scale digester. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment was
the most effective for speeding up hydrolysis with the co digested substrates producing
maximum biogas. The desired C:N ratio of 31 was obtained when all the four substrates were
combined. Similarly, the biogas produced from the mixture of the four substrates was higher
than from any of the substrates.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Masimba DM. "Optimization of C/N Ratio for Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion from Food Wastes found in Nairobi- A Lab-scale Case study." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;9(1):63-81.Abstract.docx
Tum PK, Kasha GM, Kithure JGN, Mwazighe FM. "OPTIMIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTION FROM Eucalyptus grandis LEAVES BY CLEVENGER DISTILLATION." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;9(1):91-102. Abstract

Recent statistics show a rise in the margin of consumption and utilization of essential oils. People
have turned their attention to traditional medicines, and so the demand for essential oils in the
international market has increased drastically. However, essential oil extraction processes have
been observed to suffer from minimum output levels. The purpose of this study was to
investigate the effects of changing the process parameters (time of extraction, leaf sizes and
leaves to water ratio) and their contribution to maximizing the process of extraction and also the
composition of Eucalyptus grandis oil to establish utility of the oil.The extracted oil’s refractive
index was determined and GC-MS analysis of the oil was also done to determine the
composition of the oil. There was an increase of %yield with increase in time up to 150
minutes.Quality of the oil extract was desirable from appearance and smell. Variation in oil yield
was also noted from varying the leaves to water ratio, with 1:12.5 (w/v) being optimal. The
adjustment of leaf sizes was found to be most effective with a very high increase in yield margin.
The whole leaves produced the highest amounts of oil. More than 20 compounds were identified
with many of them appearing in eucalyptus oil from other species seen in literature.
Key Words: Essential Oils, Eucalyptus grandis, Clevenger Distillation, Optimization, GC-MS

Fukuda H, Saito T, Kihara E, Ogada C, Wagaiyu EG, Hayashi Y. "Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community." OHDM. 2016;15(2).
EM O, O WANDIGAS, DA A, O MV, W MJ. "Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2016;9(9):56-63.osoro_publication.pdf
Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Abong’o DA, Madadi VO, Macharia JW. "Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya." IOSR-JAC. 2016;9(9):56-63.
Nshimirimana DA, Uwurukundo JMC, Kokonya D, Biraboneye P, Were F, Baribwira C. "Pain Assessment among African Neonates." American Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;2(2). AbstractWebsite

Neonates who require treatment and venous drawing of blood samples in the newborn units are subjected to acute and painfully invasive procedures. Several tools to assess pain among newborns have been developed and are widely used in developed countries, but in Africa, there is limited experience in the assessment pain among newborns. This study assessed physiological and behavioral responses to pain among neonates during invasive procedures performed in a newborn unit in Rwanda. A total of 60 neonates born at gestational age of 28-42 weeks at the National University of Rwanda Teaching and Referral Hospital in the year 2005 were enrolled into this study. Blood pressures, heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation levels, the Neonatal Facing Coding System (NFCS) and Neonatal Acute Pain (APN) pain tools were and scores recorded before, immediately and 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after procedures were recorded. Physiological parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test while the NFCS and APN were compared using the McNemar Test. All (100%) neonates experienced acutely peak pain in the first 5 minutes of the invasive procedures with peak responses recorded at 2.5 minutes and no pain (resolution) after 15 minutes among 81% of the neonates and only 6% experienced pain after 20 minutes. The increases in systolic blood pressures immediately after inflicting pain, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.005 and p<0.046) respectively compared to the diastolic blood pressures whose significant increases were at 5 and 10 minutes, (p<0.001 and p<0.001) respectively. Respiratory rates were significantly high at the onset (p<0.001), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes later (p<0.002). Heart rates significantly increased at the onset of the procedures (p<0.000), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and after 10 minutes (p<0.033). Decrease in oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures was significant (p<0.001). Oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures significantly increased up to 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes (p<0.001). Invasive procedures caused acute pain among neonates in the African settings but to date, neonatal practice had not been given its due consideration with the aim of reducing pain among African neonates.

Keywords: Pain, Assessment, Neonates, Physiological, APN, NFCS, Africa

Nadenge M, Ngesu L, Muasya I, Maonga T, Mukhungulu M. "Parental socio-economic status and students academic achievement in selected secondary schools in urban informal settlements in West lands division, Nairobi County." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;3(1):43-55.
Steyn P, Cordero J, P G, Smit J, Nkole T, Kiarie J, Temmerman M. "Participatory interventions involving both community and health care providers for family planning and contraceptive services: a scoping." The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care . 2016;21(Supplement 1):97.
G N, Gachago MM, MW N, S J. Pattern of Posterior Segment Manifestations After Ocular And Orbital Trauma In Kikuyu Eye Unit.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016.
Habwe J. Pendo La Karaha. Nairobi: Moran Publishers; 2016.
Nyundo AA, Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mathai AM. "The performance of International HIV dementia Scale (IHDS) versus Mini Mental Status Examition Scale (MMSE) in assessment of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) among HIV-Infected Tanzanian adults: a Case-Control Study.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

vailability of HAART has improved the outcome of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) though the prevalence is still high. Routine screening for HAND may offer room for early detection and prompt management that may improve overall outcome.


To compare the performance of International HIV dementia scale (IHDS) and Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) Scale in assessing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.


This was a case- control study involving 351 HIV-cases and 150 HIV-negative controls. International HIV dementia scale and Mini Mental Status Examination scale were used to screen for neurocognitive deficits.


For cases, 91(25.9%) were males and 260(74.1%) were females while for 150 controls, 38(25.3%) were males and 112 (74.7%) were females. Under IHDS score 240(68.4%) of cases had HAND compared to 10(2.8%) when MMSE was used. The mean scores under MMSE for cases was 29±1.7 compared to 29.3± 1.2 for controls (p = 1.00). The mean IHDS scores for cases was 9.35 ± 1.89 compared to 10.35±0.89 (p < 0.0001) for controls.


Our findings suggests that IHDS has better sensitivity in detecting cases of HAND and perform better in identifying HIV/AIDS cases that requires further cognitive evaluation on comprehensive neuropsychological batteries.

Ogutu O, Kariuki C, Kariuki J, Olang P, Nganga N, Ogutu F, Kilonzo MK, Patel A. Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: Case report.; 2016. Abstract

This is a case presentation of a 32 year old woman with pheochromocytoma diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation, she was managed till term, induced and had assisted vaginal delivery. The pheochromocytoma was surgically re-sected successfully at six weeks postpartum.

Onyatta JO, Tum PK, Kithure JGN, Oduor FDO. "Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange II Dye on Selected Commercial Titanium Dioxide Catalysts." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2016;4(10):1149-1155.
Tum PK, Kithure JGN, Onyatta JO. "Photocatalytic degradation of acid orange ii dye on selected commercial titanium dioxide catalysts." Int. J. Adv. Res. . 2016;4 (10):1149-1155.594_ijar-13021.pdf
Waita 6. S, Aduda B. "Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Sizing for Off grid Solar Home Systems." International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences . 2016;5(5):73-78. Abstract

The sun releases tremendous amount of energy, which if harnessed would provide all energy needs of mankind. One of the strategies to trap this immense energy is the use of solar modules/panels. However, these solar modules need to be properly sized and installed to be able to function and generate electricity optimally. The successful installation of an off grid Photovoltaic (PV) solar system is a process that begins with a site visit to the area of installation, the determination of the client’s energy needs, installation of the solar PV system, commissioning of the installed solar system and ends with user training. Every step is critical for it determines the final performance of the solar system and hence the delicate balance between a satisfied or unsatisfied client. However, the system sizing step tends to attract more attention for it determines the system size and the matching of the balance of system components and so if this is not properly done, then the entire system may not perform as intended. Most documented sizing methods tend to be too complicated and require significant computer knowledge in simulation, modeling and even programming. For practical purposes, many designers and PV installers, especially in developing countries have basic education may not be well equipped for these complicated sizing methods. Furthermore, very few have been professionally trained in PV solar system Sizing and although there are commercially available sizing software’s, they are too expensive for majority of the people and even if available, they are too complicated for them. In actual sizing therefore, most untrained PV technicians use mere estimates that may not be appropriate for the outcome, more often than not is disappointing. We present a simple sizing method that can easily be learned and applied in a simple calculation, for example in a simple excels sheet formulas for easier sizing of PV systems The method is recommended for adoption in developing countries for faster dissemination of professional PV services in system sizing.

Waiganjo N, Ochanda H, Yole D. Phytochemical analysis of the selected five plant extracts.; 2016. AbstractWebsite

Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75 - 80% of the whole population, and the major part of
traditional therapy involves the use of plant extracts and their active constituents. Plants were collected,
identified, dried then extracted using hexane, Dichloromethane/methanol and water. Identification assays to
test the presence of various chemical constituents were carried out. The five plants were: Sonchus luxurians,
Ocimum americanum, Bridelia micrantha, Croton megalocarpus and Aloe secundiflora. The
Phytochemical screening of the compounds present in the plant extracts were; alkaloid, glycosides,
Saponins, reducing sugar, Steroid, Flavones and Catecholics. The most common compound in all the plant
extracts was Catecholics. Steroids are used in medicine to treat many diseases. The Plant extracts can be
possible candidates for drug development.
Keywords: Herbal medicine, Phytochemical compounds, Traditional therapy, Plant extracts

Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Ochola FO. "Phytochemical profile and antioxidant capacity of leaves of Moringa oleifera(Lam) extracted using different solvent systems." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2016;5(4):302-306.5-4-9-865.pdf
Ochwang’i DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG, Efferth T. "Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants of the Kakamega County, Kenya, commonly used against cancer." Med Aromat Plants . 2016;5:277.
J.K.Muthee, D.W. Gakuya, J.M. Mbaria, C.M.Mulei. "Phytochemistry and cytotoxicity of plants used as anthelmintics in Loitoktok sub-county,Kenya." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2016;5(1):15-19.vol5_issue1_04.pdf
N. Kituu, Chokwe TM, Mbithe H. "Post mortem practise, and mortality and morbidity meetings among Kenyan anaesthesiologists: a baseline survey ,." EAMJ. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9 September 2016).
Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha FMJMCWBWP. "Postharvest Practices of Maize Farmers in Kaiti District, Kenya and the Impact of Hermetic Storage on Populations of Aspergillus Spp. and Aflatoxin Contamination.". 2016. Abstract

Aflatoxin contamination in maize by Aspergillus spp. is a major problem causing
food, income and health concerns. A study was carried out in Kaiti District in Lower Eastern
Kenya to evaluate the effect of three months storage of maize in triple-layer hermetic
(PICS™) bags on the population of Aspergillus spp. and levels of aflatoxin. Postharvest
practices by maize farmers including time of harvesting, drying and storage methods were
obtained with a questionnaire. Aspergillus spp. in soil and maize were isolated by serial …

Ondicho TG. "Poverty Alleviation in Kenya: A review of why anti-poverty strategies have failed.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Perspectives. Nairobi: New Press. Pp. 82-94; 2016.
Sang J, Moturi CA. "Predicting E-Procurement Utilization in Independent Commissions in Kenya." International Journal of Applied Information Systems,. 2016;10(5):12-17. AbstractWebsite

E-procurement has recently been introduced in the Kenyan public sector due to the many practical advantages it brings. Usage of the system is still at a very nascent stage. This paper sought to predict e-procurement utilization by analyzing the constructs of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model. The study administered a questionnaire to 229 employees of the 11independent commissions in the country. Regression analysis was done to describe the significance and the strength of relationships between variables. The analysis yielded important findings that partially support research hypotheses. The results indicated that subjective norm and reliability of the system influence utilization of the system while compatibility was insignificant. All the identified elements have correlations with the model elements and in turn impact on the behavioral intention to use the system. This study would influence government technology plans through implementation of policies that enhance adoption of emerging technologies in the public sector.

Santana DS, Cecatti JG, Surita FG, Silveira C, Costa ML, Souza JP, Mazhar SB, Jayaratne K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Sousa MH, Vogel JP. "Pregnancy and Severe Maternal Outcomes: The World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2016;127(4):631-641. Abstractpregnancy_and_severe_maternal_outcomes.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal complications (potentially life-threatening conditions, maternal near miss, and maternal death) that are mutually exclusive and severe maternal outcomes (maternal near miss or maternal death) associated with twin pregnancies.
METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional World Health Organization Multicountry Survey, which was implemented in 29 countries. Data from 4,756 twin deliveries were compared with 308,111 singleton deliveries. Factors associated with maternal morbidity and twin pregnancies were reported with adjusted prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval).
RESULTS: Potentially life-threatening conditions, maternal near miss, severe maternal outcomes, and maternal deaths were 2.14 (1.99–2.30), 3.03 (2.39–3.85), 3.19 (2.58–3.94), and 3.97 (2.47–6.38) times higher, respectively, among twin pregnancies. Maternal age older than 20 years, having a partner, multiparity, and elective cesarean delivery were associated with twin pregnancies. Postpartum hemorrhage and chronic hypertension were more frequently associated with severe maternal outcomes among twin pregnancies. Conditions indicating organ dysfunction (maternal near miss) were twofold to fivefold higher for twins. Poisson multiple regression analysis identified several factors independently associated with a severe maternal outcome, but not twin pregnancies.
CONCLUSION: Twin pregnancy is associated with greater severe maternal morbidity and a higher rate of maternal death than singleton pregnancy.

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