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2016
Kavoo DM, Ali SH, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Tweya H, Kizito W, Ogutu O, Tauta CN. "An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County, Kenya ." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Ooko J, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Atmospheric corrosion studies in Kenya. Past, present and future." African Corrosion Journal. 2016;2(1):25-32.afr_cor_j_corrosion.pdf
Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Ooko JO. "Atmospheric Corrosion Studies in Kenya: Past, Present and Future." African Corrosion Journal. 2016;2(1):25-31.
Keter L, Too R, Mutai C, Mwikwabe N, Ndwigah S, Orwa J, Mwamburi E. "Bacteria contaminants and their antibiotic sensitivity from selected herbal medicinal products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya." American Journal of Microbiology. 2016;7(1):18-28.
Kakoi, Kaluli NT’o. "Banana pith as a natural coagulant for polluted river wate." Ecological Engineering. 2016;95:699-705.
Wanjare, J. & Ojwang P(2016). "Behavioral Factors and Financial Decisions by Traders in Kibuye Market, Kisumu City, Kenya." Online Journal of Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2277-0844. 2016;Vol 5, 29 - 39.
"Better Outcomes through Learning, Data, Engagement, and Research (BOLDER) – a system for improving evidence and clinical practice in low and middle income countries.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

Despite the many thousands of research studies published every year,
evidence for making clinical decisions is often lacking. The main problem is that
the evidence available is generated in conditions very different from those that
prevail in routine clinical practice and with patients who are different. This is
particularly a problem for low and middle income countries as most evidence is
generated in high income countries.
A group of clinicians, researchers, and policy makers met at Bellagio in Italy to
consider how more relevant evidence might be generated. One answer is to
conduct more pragmatic trials—those undertaken in routine clinical practice.
The group thought that this might best be achieved by developing “learning
health systems” in low and middle income countries.
Learning health systems develop in communities that include clinicians,
patients, researchers, improvement specialists, information technology
specialists, managers, and policy makers and have a governance system that
gives a voice to all those in the community. The systems focus on improving
outcomes for patients, use a common dataset, and promote quality
improvement and pragmatic research. Plans have been developed to create at
least two learning systems in Africa.

Gakuubi MM, Wanzala W, Wagacha JM, Dossaji SF. "Bioactive properties of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oils: A review." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(2):27-36. Abstract4-2-6.1_1.pdf

Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) and its accruing products have a long worldwide history of human uses such as food, therapeutics and aromatherapy which are inherent in the plant’s unique chemical composition and bioactivities. In the recent past, T. minuta essential oils (EOs) have received great attention in research, and their phytochemistry, bioactivities and uses remain the focus of considerable scientific studies. The interest in EOs is largely due to increased demand by consumers for natural-based products such as additives, drugs and pesticides, whose global acceptability and safety is highly regarded compared to synthetic products. The purpose of this review is to document the existing value addition and evidence-based multipurpose potential and considerations of T. minuta as a new generation crop as provided for by in-depth scientific studies of its EOs. Among the bioactivities and therapeutic properties attributed to T. minuta EOs include: antihelminthic, carminative, arthropod repellency, sedative, weedicidal, antiseptic, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, germicides, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiprotozoal, bactericidal, emmenagogue, nematicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, antiviral and other microbicidal properties against a wide range of plant, human and animal pathogens, pests and parasites. Oil of T. minuta is therefore a potentially useful agent for protecting food crops on farm and in storage and livestock, thereby enhancing food security and improving human livelihoods. Nevertheless, increased value addition and the need for validation of traditionally claimed usages and applications of T. minuta EOs through in-depth scientific studies should be prioritized to globally position this plant as a new generation crop.

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo D, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;6(1):5-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum
americanum plant species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a
number of ailments. The extracts of these plants have been shown to have antischistosomal
activity suggesting that they could be used for the development of
new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However
there is limited knowledge on their toxicological profile and their use in
traditional medicine may not be a satisfactory safety indication.
Methods: In this study the extracts were first screened for bioactivity using
brine shrimp lethality test for the determination of LC50 followed by rodent
acute toxicity and 28 day subchronic studies.
Results: B. micrantha water extract with a LC50 of 77µg/ml was deemed toxic
while C. ambrosoides methanol and water extracts were moderately toxic with
LC50 of 104.63µg/ml and 696.44µg/ml respectively. O. americanum hexane
and water extracts toxicity varied from moderate to slightly toxic with LC50 of
887.59µg/ml and 2254.60µg/ml respectively. C. ambrosoides and O.
americanum water extracts which were preferentially selected for subsequent
studies were found to have mild to no irritation to rodent eyes and skin.
Moreover, the aminotransferases AST and ALT which were used to detect liver
injury suggested negligible effect.
Conclusions: This therefore confirms that C. ambrosoides and O. americanum
water extracts are safe for clinical use with O. americanum water extract having
a slight edge.
Keywords: Antihelminthic, Schistosomiasis, Toxicity

Mbugua-Gitonga Agnes, F M, Thenya & T. "Biotechnology and Food Security in Kenya - An Assessment of Public Concerns on Biosafety, Public Health and Religious Ethics." Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology. . 2016;9(3):1-13.
Ogutu CA, Odweso GM. "BLUE, ABLE and Simplified Linear Estimation of the Selected Order Statistics from the Logistic Distribution." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2016.
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI. "A Bridging Technology of Learner Entry Behavior in a Flipped Classroom Model. In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age . 2016:106-121. Abstractjournal_mobile-learning_-a-bridging-technology-of-learner-entry-behavior-in-a-flipped-classroom-model.pdfJournal Website

Today's learner is able to access information from mobile devices. Due to accessibility and affordability of mobile devices, more instructors continue to adopt instructional design models of mobile learning as more learners also bring their mobile devices to their classrooms. Instructors using flipped classroom model organize the learning activities both inside and outside classroom. Before the next class the instructor avails instruction and content in advance. The learner reviews class content materials and assigned research activities at home prior to class. In class, the instructor allows learners to peer review their work in groups while the instructor engages them to validate their work. The findings described in this chapter suggest that introducing mobile learning to learners in a flipped classroom model helps to bridge learner entry behavior as it improves learner performance.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implementation Science. 2016;11(30). Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLOS Medicine. 2016;10(1371). Abstractbuilding_learning_health_systems_to_accelerate_research_and_improve_outcomes_of_clinical_care_in_low-_and_middle-income_countries.pdf

Achieving universal coverage that supports high-quality care will require that health systems are designed to integrate the delivery of health services with the generation of new knowledge about the effectiveness of these services.
System strengthening and research will need to be better integrated to achieve this in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) so that changes in coverage, quality, and impact are measured, costs are contained, and health systems are responsive to users’ needs and concerns.
In high-income countries, learning health systems (LHS) are emerging to meet similar needs. The LHS vision aspires to engage policy makers, researchers, service providers, and patients in learning that uses and strengthens routinely collected data to conduct pragmatic, contextually appropriate research, promote rapid adoption of findings to improve quality and outcomes, and promote continuous learning.
Although there are significant challenges, we should begin to develop LHS in LMIC for their immediate and longer term benefits and to avoid having to retrofit health systems with the capability to promote learning at a later date and even greater cost.
A global coalition on how to build LHS effectively that shares accumulating learning could enable such a strategy.

Ng’ang’a M, Matendechero S, l. Kariuki, Omondi W, Makworo N, Owiti PO, Kizito W, Tweya H, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children in Migori County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Calatayud P-A, Njuguna E, Mwalusepo S, Gathara M, Okuku G, Kibe A, B M, Williamson D, Ong’amo G, Juma G, Johansson T, Subramanian S, Gatebe E, BP LR. "Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? ." AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2016;224:95-103.
MK Muasya, TM Dienya EGWNJNKR. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;98(2):55-59.
Muasya MK, Dienya TM, Wagaiyu EG, Nduati R, Kiarie JN. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the capacity of six non-tertiary Kenyan hospitals enrolled as sites for decentralised dental education.

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Setting: The Dental departments of six non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities.

Main outcome measures: Capacity of the hospitals to be used as sites for decentralised dental education.

Results: Five out of the six facilities had capacity for final year undergraduate students to gain learning experiences in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied. All the selected facilities had challenges of lack of specialists, broken down dental equipment and inadequate materials.

Conclusion: Although the six hospitals faced various challenges in maintenance of equipment, availability of dental materials and specialist staff, five out of the six facilities had the capacity for dental student learning in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied.

Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

Moturi CA, Mburu R, Ngaruiya N. "A Case for Judicial Data Warehousing and Data Mining in Kenya." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):7-14. AbstractWebsite

This aim of this study was to demonstrate how the Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) process can be utilized to assist the Kenyan Judiciary address challenges of data integration in its operational systems and hence provide better mechanisms for extracting data to allow easier reporting and generating judicial intelligence. The research determined the common data sources and operational systems, demonstrated, using case returns data, how the ETL process can be used to migrate data from sources to a data warehouse, proposed a framework for an ETL environment, and developed guidelines for creating a data warehouse for the Kenya Judiciary. This is in line with the Kenya Judiciary Transformation Framework that seeks to harness Information and Communications Technology as an enabler in the justice system in order to achieve expeditious delivery of justice. The practical implication of this work is the better preparation of judiciaries with limited adoption and utilization of ICT in laying the groundwork for judicial knowledge discovery.

Ogutu O, J A, POR O, N N, Rogena E. "Case report of spontaneous rapture of the ceacum following ceasarean section." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
Mwai D, Muriithi M. "Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Household Impoverishment: A Case of NCDs prevalence in Kenya." Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health. 2016;12(8):170-180.
"Centralized Revenue Redistribution as a Potential Cause of Internal Conflict in Kenya." Modern Africa: Politics, History and Society. 2016;4(1).
mary g., john m., lewis n., isaac m., ambrose v. "The challenges facing adult and continuing education in Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;10(3):53-57.
Jerono P. "Changamoto za Wazalendo.". In: Siri ya Bwanyenye. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers (E.A) Limited; 2016.
Were F, Ayieko P, English M, Githanga D. "Characteristics of admissions and variations in the use of basic investigations, treatments and outcomes in Kenyan hospitals within a new Clinical Information Network ." Archives of Diseases of Childhood. 2016;101:223-229. Abstractarch_dis_child-2016-ayieko-223-9.pdf

Background Lack of detailed information about hospital activities, processes and outcomes hampers planning, performance monitoring and improvement in low-income countries (LIC). Clinical networks offer one means to advance methods for data collection and use, informing wider health system development in time, but are rare in LIC. We report baseline data from a new Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya seeking to promote data-informed improvement and learning. Methods Data from 13 hospitals engaged in the Kenyan CIN between April 2014 and March 2015 were captured from medical and laboratory records. We use these data to characterise clinical care and outcomes of hospital admission. Results Data were available for a total of 30 042 children aged between 2 months and 15 years. Malaria (in five hospitals), pneumonia and diarrhoea/dehydration (all hospitals) accounted for the majority of diagnoses and comorbidity was found in 17 710 (59%) patients. Overall, 1808 deaths (6%) occurred (range per hospital 2.5%–11.1%) with 1037 deaths (57.4%) occurring by day 2 of admission (range 41%–67.8%). While malaria investigations are commonly done, clinical health workers rarely investigate for other possible causes of fever, test for blood glucose in severe illness or ascertain HIV status of admissions. Adherence to clinical guideline-recommended treatment for malaria, pneumonia, meningitis and acute severe malnutrition varied widely across hospitals. Conclusion Developing clinical networks is feasible with appropriate support. Early data demonstrate that hospital mortality remains high in Kenya, that resources to investigate severe illness are limited, that care provided and outcomes vary widely and that adoption of effective interventions remains slow. Findings suggest considerable scope for improving care within and across sites.

Kiringe, J.W., Mwaura F, Warinwa F&. "Characterization of Chyulu Hills Watershed Ecosystem Services in South-Eastern Kenya." Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2016;6(3):65-76.
Kiringe, J.W., Mwaura F, Warinwa F&. "Characterization of Water Source Types and Uses in Kirisia Forest Watershed, Samburu County, Kenya." Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2016;6(3):77-90.
Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria." International Journal of Microbiology. 2016;2016:1-9. Abstracttagetes_2016.pdf

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis.The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevengertype apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to
mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively.The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83mm after 24 and
48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48mg/mL and 95–190mg/mL, respectively.These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria.

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against selected phytopathogenic fungi." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(3):16-26. Abstract4-3-5.1.pdfWebsite

Over the years, management of plant pathogenic fungi has primarily relied on the use of synthetic
chemical fungicides. However, in the recent past, exploration for biologically active compounds from
plants with the aim of discovery and development of novel and eco-friendly biopesticides to combat
current and emerging plant pathogenic fungi has received increased interest. This study aimed at
extraction and characterization of Tagetes minuta essential oils (EOs) as well as evaluation of their
antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi namely: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani,
Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. niger. Essential oils were extracted using the steam distillation
method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The antifungal activity of the EOs was assessed by disc
diffusion method while gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for characterization
of the chemical components of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential
oils and constituting a mixture of monoterpenes (70%) and sesquiterpenes (30%) were identified in the
Eos. They included elixene and silphiperfol-6-ene, which are being reported for the first time in essential
oils of Tagetes minuta. The EOs of T. minuta exhibited potent antifungal activity against the studied
fungi with the highest growth inhibition observed in F. oxysporum and A. niger with mean inhibition
zones of 28.7mm after five days of incubation. Four out of the five test fungi fell within the category of
extremely sensitive (inhibition zone diameters ≥ 20mm) when subjected to the crude EOs. The minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs against the
fungi were in the ranges of 24 - 95mg/mL and 24 - 190mg/mL, respectively. This study thus lays down
significant groundwork for a more comprehensive study on the practical feasibility of using T. minuta
EOs as possible alternative to synthetic fungicides in the management of economically important
phytopathogenic fungi.

Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

Maureene Auma Ondayo, Gelas Muse Simiyu, Phillip Okoth Raburu, Were FH. "Child Exposure to Lead in the Vicinities of Informal Used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling Operations in Nairobi Slums, Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2016;6(12):15-25. Abstractwebsite to access full text

Background. Child exposure to lead from informal used lead-acid battery (ULAB) recycling operations is a serious environmental health problem, particularly in developing countries.

Objectives. We investigated child exposure to lead in the vicinities of ULAB recycling operations in the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums in Nairobi between January and August 2015.

Methods. Top soil (n = 232) and floor dust (n = 322) samples were collected from dwelling units (n = 120) and preparatory schools (n = 44) and analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer at the Mines and Geological Department Laboratory in the Ministry of Mining, Nairobi. From the obtained lead levels in soil and house dust, child blood lead levels were subsequently predicted using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK), Windows version.

Results. Lead loadings in all the floor dust samples from the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance value for lead on floors with a range of 65.2 – 58,194 μg/ft2. Control floor dust samples recorded lower lead loadings compared to the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums. Lead concentration in 70.7% of the soil samples collected from waste dumps, industrial sites, residential areas, playgrounds and preparatory schools in Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru exceeded the respective USEPA guidance values for lead in soils. Lead concentration in 100% of control soil samples were below the respective USEPA limits. The IEUBK model predicted that nearly 99.9% of children ≤ 7 years old living near informal ULAB recycling operations in Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru were at risk of being lead poisoned, with predicted blood lead levels (BLL) above the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reference value for blood lead. A total of 99.9% of exposed children living in the Mukuru slums are likely to have BLL above 34 μg/dL.

Conclusions. There is a need for coordinated efforts to decrease lead emissions from informal battery recycling in Nairobi slums and to remediate existing soils, particularly around battery workplaces and dumpsites. The BLL of local children should be clinically tested and appropriate intervention measures taken.

Keywords: soil, house dust, predicted child blood lead, used lead-acid battery recycling, Nairobi slums, IEUBK

Onjala J. "Chinese Direct Investments in Africa: Motivations and Environmental Implications." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. 2016;Volume XVII(Number 1):91-102.
Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "Citizen-Centric Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of E-Government: A Case Study of Kenya Huduma Centres." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(2):102-109. Abstractjournal_vol7no2_9_citizen-centric_critical_success_factors_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The development of the Internet and emerging technologies offer governments new opportunities to serve and interact with citizens in transformative ways that were not possible before. E-government is concerned with transforming service delivery and the fundamental relationship between government and citizens. Most governments have realized the importance of ICT and are therefore moving away from the conventional means of services delivery to the use of egovernment.
However, e-government has been faced with multiple implementation challenges, particularly in the developing countries, consequently, affecting their success rates.There are very few studies that have been conducted in Kenya to establish success factors and uptake of e-government from a citizen perspective. The aim of this research was to identify these factors and challenges that hinder successful implementation of e-government from a citizen-centric
perspective. Specifically, the study identified implementation challenges of e-government in the Kenyan context with special focus on Huduma (Service) Centres. We developed and administered a data collection instrument to citizens at the main Huduma Centre in Nairobi County. Our findings indicate that the greatest challenges faced by citizens in accessing egovernment services in order of importance are: inadequate ICT Infrastructure, low citizen participation, poor Internet Connectivity, low government funding and low level of awareness. We also identified challenges and made recommendations to inform future projects.
Keywords: E-government, success, challenges, developing countries, citizen-centric

Sojitra NA, Sojitra NA, Patel RK, Dixit BC. "Classical and microwave assisted synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives and their antimicrobial activities." Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2016;20(1). Abstract

A simple and efficient methodology was developed for the synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives 10a–10j in good amount of yields. They have been prepared using 2-acetamidobenzoic acid derivatives 2a–2j via intermediates benzenesulfonamide substituted quinazolinone derivatives 8a–8j, and its corresponding hydrazono derivatives 9a–9j. Entitled compounds (10a–10j) were also obtained using microwave heating in good amount of yields. The structures of all the new compounds have been evaluated on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. Entitle compounds have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and all these compounds displayed excellent to moderate activities, which were found to be significantly potent against bacteria compared to fungal.

Akhusama PM, Moturi CA. "Cloud Computing Adoption in Insurance Companies in Kenya." American Journal of Information Systems,. 2016;4(1):11-16. AbstractWebsite

Cloud Computing allows companies to access ICT-based services (infrastructure, applications, platforms and business processes) via the Internet. Cloud Computing is still at the infancy stage in Africa. Studies have indicated a lack of cloud based awareness, even among big organizations in Africa. Kenya just like any other African market is yet to fully adopt cloud based systems due to trust and security concerns. This study aimed at identifying the extent and characteristics of Cloud Computing adoption in insurance companies in Kenya. The study assessed Cloud Computing uses in terms of productivity applications, business applications (CRM, SaaS), infrastructure on-demand (storage, network, and server), finance applications, core business application, databases and desktop. The adoption of the Cloud Computing services in insurance companies was relatively low. The results obtained would assist in providing a roadmap for the best practices to improve Cloud Computing services in the insurance industry in Kenya.

Wanjiku PW, Moturi CA. Cloud Computing: Transforming Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya. Durban, South Africa; 2016. Abstract

Cloud Computing provides novel perspectives in internetworking technologies and has the potential to dramatically change business models. This study aimed at establishing Cloud Computing adoption in Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya, with an ultimate intention of recommending an appropriate model for its adoption. Using questionnaires, data was collected from 126 Medium and High Tech Industries within Nairobi and interviews were conducted with 25 Cloud Computing providers. Data analysis was done using SPSS and qualitative content analysis. Approximately 70% of cloud users and providers had recognized Cloud Computing as a force that is reshaping ICT and powering innovation. The major factors influencing the adoption of Cloud Computing were identified as cost, performance and reliability of The Cloud application. After analysis of four existing models for technology adoption, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model is recommend for adoption of Cloud Computing.

Okoth S. "Co-occurrence and Diversity of Soil Trichoderma and Fusarium species from Different Land Use Intensities in Machakos County, Kenya." Arch. Curr. Res. Int. 2016;4(1):1-13. Abstractmaina412016acri24894.pdfWebsite

Soil fungi are important components of the soil biota and their diversity is a good indicator of soil
health. Soil fungi respond differently to land use practices and to their relative populations. The cooccurrence
and diversity of Trichoderma and Fusarium species against various land use types
(LUTs) was investigated. The genus Trichoderma contains many important species with potential
for biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens as well as high saprophytic capacity while the genus
Fusarium has many species that are highly pathogenic to plants and with potential for mycotoxin
production. This research adopted a cross-sectional study design. Soil samples were collected
from 3 land-use types (LUTs) in Kabaa irrigation scheme in Machakos County, Kenya, that is,
intensive land-uses under irrigation and rain-fed agriculture and undisturbed lands. From the top
soil layer, 100 soil samples were collected. The samples were processed and 369 Trichoderma and 1,546 Fusarium isolates recovered. Fusarium had a higher abundance than Trichoderma in
the highly disturbed lands. In the undisturbed lands, Trichoderma had a higher abundance than
Fusarium. There was a clear negative correlation between Trichoderma and Fusarium occurrence
and diversity. The study further revealed that disturbance had a positive effect on Fusarium but a
negative one on Trichoderma.

Mwinzi, R., Mberia H, Ndeti N. "Communication Methods used to Disseminate Corporate Identity to Employees by Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2016;Vol. 6(Issue 2):pp.183-191.
Gawriluk, T. R., Simkin, J., Thompson, K.L., Biswas, S., Clare-Salzler, Z., Kimani, J.M., Kiama, S.G., Ezenwa V.O., Smith, M. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals. Nat. Commun. 7:11164 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11164.". 2016.
Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "A Comparative Evaluation of Quality and Sensory Characteristics of 'Apple' Mango Fruits produced under Different Agro-ecological zones in Kenya." Acta Horticulturae. 2016; 10(10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1120.66):1120.66.
Mwavua SM, Ndungu EK, Mutai KK, Joshi MD. "A comparative study of the quality of care and glycemic control among ambulatory type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, at a Tertiary Referral Hospital and a Regional Hospital in Central Kenya." BMC research notes. 2016;9(1):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Background

Peripheral public health facilities remain the most frequented by the majority of the population in Kenya; yet remain sub-optimally equipped and not optimized for non-communicable diseases care.
Design and methodology

We undertook a descriptive, cross sectional study among ambulatory type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, attending Kenyatta National Referral Hospital (KNH), and Thika District Hospital (TDH) in Central Kenya. Systematic random sampling was used. HbA1c was assessed for glycemic control and the following, as markers of quality of care: direct client costs, clinic appointment interval and frequency of self monitoring test, affordability and satisfaction with care.
Results

We enrolled 200 clients, (Kenyatta National Hospital 120; Thika District Hospital 80); Majority of the patients 66.5 % were females, the mean age was 57.8 years; and 58 % of the patients had basic primary education. 67.5 % had diabetes for less than 10 years and 40 % were on insulin therapy. The proportion (95 % CI) with good glycemic was 17 % (12.0–22.5 respectively) in the two facilities [Kenyatta National Hospital 18.3 % (11.5–25.6); Thika District Hospital 15 % (CI 7.4–23.7); P = 0.539]. However, in Thika District Hospital clients were more likely to have a clinic driven routine urinalysis and weight, they were also accorded shorter clinic appointment intervals; incurred half to three quarter lower direct costs, and reported greater affordability and satisfactions with care.
Conclusion

In conclusion, we demonstrate that in Thika district hospital, glycemic control and diabetic care is suboptimal; but comparable to that of Kenyatta National Referral hospital. Opportunities for improvement of care abound at peripheral health facilities.
Keywords
Diabetes mellitus Glycemic control Africa Quality care

Schrader KK, Cantrell CL, Midiwo JO, Muhammad I. "Compounds from Terminalli brownii Extracts with Toxicity against the Fish Pathogenic Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare." Natural Product Communications . 2016;11(11):1679-1682. AbstractFull text link

Interpretive Summary:

A rapid bioassay was used to evaluate extracts from the stem bark of plant found in Kenya for antibacterial activities against fish pathogenic bacteria. Two natural compounds were isolated from the extracts and discovered to possess antibacterial activities against a species of fish pathogenic bacteria which causes a common disease in pond-raised catfish and several other species of freshwater fish.

Technical Abstract:

The pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry in the United States of America can incur losses of over a $100 million annually due to bacterial diseases including columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare. One management approach available to catfish producers is the use of medicated-feed containing antibiotics. However, the negative attributes of antibiotic use in agriculture include public concerns and the potential development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of environmentally-safe natural compounds for use as therapeutants would greatly benefit the catfish industry. In this study, a rapid bioassay was used to evaluate crude plant extracts as the first step in the discovery of natural therapeutants. Plant extracts from Terminalia brownii were found to be inhibitory towards F. columnare. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the 5% water-methanol extract of T. brownii (stem bark) was 10 µg/mL and the 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 40 µg/mL. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation of the T. brownii ethanol extract using reverse phase C-4 chromatography revealed the highest level of activity in the aqueous:methanol (50:50) fraction. HPLC analysis and subsequent purification of this fraction provided two compounds identified as ellagic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'',4''-di-O-galloyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid (2). Compound 2 was the most active isolated compound, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 10±0 µg/mL and 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 31±1 µg/mL. Although 1 was more active according to a MIC of 6±5 µg/mL, its 24-h IC50 was >100 µg/mL, and, therefore, it was less active overall between the two most active isolated compounds.

Njogu PM, Guantai EM, Pavadai E, Chibale K. "Computer-Aided Drug Discovery Approaches against the Tropical Infectious Diseases Malaria, Tuberculosis, Trypanosomiasis, and Leishmaniasis." ACS Infectious Diseases. 2016;2:8-31. Abstract

Despite the tremendous improvement in overall global health heralded by the adoption of the Millennium Declaration in the year 2000, tropical infections remain a major health problem in the developing world. Recent estimates indicate that the major tropical infectious diseases, namely, malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, account for more than 2.2 million deaths and a loss of approximately 85 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The crucial role of chemotherapy in curtailing the deleterious health and economic impacts of these infections has invigorated the search for new drugs against tropical infectious diseases. The research efforts have involved increased application of computational technologies in mainstream drug discovery programs at the hit identification, hit-to-lead, and lead optimization stages. This review highlights various computer-aided drug discovery approaches that have been utilized in efforts to identify novel antimalarial, antitubercular, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial agents. The focus is largely on developments over the past 5 years (2010−2014).

Okelo DS, Rambo PC. "CONCESSIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FINANCING OF BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF A RAILWAY PROJECT IN KENYA." European Journal of Business, Economics and Accountancy . 2016;Vol. 4(Issue 4):Page 70.
MUIGUA" "KARIUKI. "Constitutional Supremacy over Arbitration in Kenya." Alternative Dispute Resolution (CIArb Kenya). 2016;4(1):100-131.constitutional_supremacy_over_arbitration_in_kenya.pdf
Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Consumer Lending Using Social Media Data." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2016;3(2):1-8. Abstract

Consumer credit has been around for a long period of time but the dynamics observable from the consumers makes it hard to credit score and lend to the consumers. This difficulty results in the poor being excluded from receiving credit as they lack financial history. We analyze the limitations of the traditional consumer lending models due to use of historical data, and look at the benefits that could arise by incorporating social media data in credit scoring process for consumer lending. A review of the research progress made in using social media data for consumer scoring and lending process is presented. We found that social media data offers rich, vast and attractive information on changing trends and shifting demographics in credit underwriting of existing consumers and new consumers with minimal or no financial history. This data advances the lending process by widening the data set available and capture of new markets that are excluded from financial services.

Okelo DS, Rambo PC. "CORRELATES OF SEVERITY OF FINANCING CHALLENGES EXPERIENCED BY THE CONCESSIONAIRE: THE CASE OF A RAILWAYS CONCESSION PROJECT IN KENYA." European Journal of Business, Economics and Accountancy . 2016;Vol. 4(No. 3):Page 59 .
"country and regional profiles of volcanic hazards and risks (Part one) Appendix B.". In: GLOBAL VOLCANIC HAZARDS AND RISKS. London: Cambridge Univeristy Press; 2016.global_hazards_and_risks-country_profile.pdf
Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Credit Scoring for M-Shwari Using Hidden Markov Model." European Scientific Journal12. 2016;12(15):176-188. Abstract

The introduction of mobile based Micro-credit facility, M-Shwari, has heightened the need to develop a proper decision support system to classify the customers based on their credit scores. This arises due to lack of proper information on the poor and unbanked as they are locked out of the formal banking sector. A classification technique, the hidden Markov model, is used. The poor customers’ scanty deposits and withdrawal dynamics in the M-Shwari account estimate the credit risk factors that are used in training and learning the hidden Markov model. The data is generated through simulation and customers categorized in terms of their credit scores and credit quality levels. The model classifies over 80 percent of the customers as having average and good credit quality level. This approach offers a simple and novice method to cater for the unbanked and poor with minimal or no financial history thus increasing financial inclusion in Kenya.

Njogu PM, Chibale K. "Current and Future Strategies for Improving Drug Discovery Efficiency.". In: Attrition in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Reasons, Implications and Pathways Forward. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
LK O, O MJ, VM M, R M, V K, T E. "Cytotoxicity of 91 Kenyan indigenous medicinal plants towards human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;179:177-196.omosa_et_al_ethnopharmacology.pdf
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Tala VSR, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Swaleh S, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of plumbagin, rapanone and 12 other naturally occurring quinones from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17(1):60. AbstractFull text link

Background
Cancer is a major public health concern globally and chemotherapy remains the principal mode of the treatment of various malignant diseases.

Methods
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of 14 naturally occurring quinones including; 3 anthraquinones, 1 naphthoquinone and 10 benzoquinones against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts. The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspases activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by spectrophotometry.

Results
Anthraquinone: emodin (2), naphthoquinone: plumbagin (4), and benzoquinones: rapanone (9), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentadecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (10), 5-O-methylembelin (11), 1,2,4,5-tetraacetate-3-methyl-6-(14-nonadecenyl)-cyclohexadi-2,5-diene (13), as well as doxorubicin displayed interesting activities with IC50 values below 100 μM in the six tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values ranged from 37.57 μM (towards breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells) to 99.31 μM (towards small cell lung cancer A549 cells) for 2, from 0.06 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 1.14 μM (A549 cells) for 4, from 2.27 μM (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 46.62 μM (colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD-1 cells) for 9, from 8.39 μM (SPC212 cells) to 48.35 μM (hepatocarinoma HepG2 cells) for 10, from 22.57 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 61.28 μM (HepG2 cells) for 11, from 9.25 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 47.53 μM (A549 cells) for 13, and from 0.07 μM (SPC212 cells) to 1.01 μM (A549 cells) for doxorubicin. Compounds 4 and 9 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by increased ROS production and MMP loss, respectively.

Conclusion
The tested natural products and mostly 2, 4, 9, 10, 11 and 13 are potential cytotoxic compounds that deserve more investigations towards developing novel antiproliferative drugs against human carcinoma.

Keywords

Carcinoma cytotoxicity Mode of action Plumbagin Quinones Rapanone

Victor, L.K O, V.R.S T, J.O M, A.T M, O K, H S, S S. "Cytotoxicity of Plumbagin, Rapanone and 12 other Naturally occurring Quinones towards Human Carcinoma Cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17:60.kuete_and_omosa_et_al._2016.pdf
Berkley JA, Ngar M, JT, Mutai B, KA. "Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial ." Lancet Glob Health . 2016;4:464-73. Abstractdaily_cotrimoxazole_prophylaxis_to_prevent__mortality.pdf

Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality
from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital
are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM

Nyamwaya D, Wang'ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Lindahl J, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:696.
Nyamwaya D, Wang’ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Johanna Lindahl, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.". 2016.
Maina SW, Osanjo GO, Ndwigah SN, Opanga SA. "Determinants of discontinuation of contraceptive methods among women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2016;5(1):28-34.
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, Chege M. "Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016. Abstract

East African Medical Journal 2016

Open Access Subscription or Fee Access
Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, M Chege

Abstract

Objective: To establish the determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children brought to Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A cross-sectional hospital-based quantitative and qualitative study
Setting: Kenyatta National hospital which is the largest teaching and referral hospital in East and Central Africa situated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: The respondents were the parents/guardians of children less than two years of age attending immunisation services at KNH and those admitted in the peadiatric wards with pneumonia.
Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, CI 1.5-22.4, p=0.01), parity (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.7, p=0.017), occupation (OR 6.5, CI 1.5-27.6, p=0.011), family income (OR 8.8, CI 1.4-55.6, p=0.001), knowledge (OR 6.5, CI 1.1-15.2, p=0.011) and attitude (OR 6.3, CI 1.9-26.8, p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that factors of the caregivers/parents that are statistically significant to the uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine uptake are Income, parity, education leve, age and occupation. Also a friendly attitude from health personnel was shown to motivate parents/guardians’ adherence to vaccination schedules

Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Determinants of Secondary school learners’ performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan sub county, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2016;7(5):125-130.
W.D O, S.O D, A PM. "Determining Break Down of Hydrocarbons in Effluent Discharges from Petroleum Service Stations." Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering . 2016;Vol. 1(No. 5):112-117 .
Ogweno J, Kalai J, Okoth UA. "Determining the Influence of the Principals’ Use of Participatory Decision Making on the Status of Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). 2016;1(7):841-861.
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner Centered Approach for Technology Supported Instruction. Accepted for publication In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. 2016.
Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
Williams S, White A, Waiganjo P, Orwa D, Klopp J. "The digital matatu project: Using cell phones to create an open source data for Nairobi's semi-formal bus system." Journal of Transport Geography. 2016;49:39-51. AbstractFull text link

In many of the world's growing cities, semi-formal buses form the basis of public transit systems. However, little open and standardized data exist on these systems. The Digital Matatus project in Nairobi, Kenya set out to test whether the geo-locative capabilities of mobile technology could be used to collect data on a semi-formal transit system and whether that data could be translated into the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data standard for wider use. The results of this work show that mobile technologies, particularly mobile phones, which are increasingly prevalent in developing countries, can indeed be used effectively to collect and deliver data in a modified GTFS format for semi-formal transit. Perhaps more importantly, through our work in Nairobi, we were able to identify the benefits and technical needs for developing data on semi-formal transit. Overall, the work illustrates (1) how the GTFS can be adapted to semi-formal systems and used by other cities with such transit systems, (2) that there is demand from technologists as well as transport communities for comprehensive data on semi-formal transit, (3) that releasing the data openly in the GTFS standard format can help to encourage the development of transportation applications, and (4) that including the entire transit community during the data development can create a community of users and mechanisms for institutionalizing a process of data updating and sharing. The engagement strategies our research team developed around the data collection process in Nairobi became just as important as the resulting data it produced.

Makori EO, Osebe NM. "Digital Technology Acceptance in Transformation of University Libraries and Higher Education Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice (E-journal). 2016;(1379).
Wanjare, J. & Kirui G(2016). "Discerning Cash Conversion Cycle Management Practices by Sugar Cane Out-grower Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2016;Vol 5.
KM N, GO O, KM B, CS I. "Disease activity measurement in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016:19-24.disease_activity_measurement.pdf
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
Pauline Aluka1*, Fabrice Davrieux2, Kahiu Ngugi3*, Rose Omaria4, Gerard2 F,, J.N Kiiru, and MD2, Pinard. "The Diversity of Green Bean Biochemical Compounds in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) as Evaluated by." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture ·. 2016;12(2):1-13.the_diversity_of_green_bean_biochemical.pdf
T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
Mawia D, Chege MN, Oyieke J. "Early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge in rural Kenya: longitudinal study." Pan African Medical Journal. 2016;24:158 doi:(10.11604/pamj.2016.24.158.7795). Abstractearly_growth_in_preterm_infants_after_hospital_discharge_in_rural_kenya_longitudinal.pdf

Abstract
Introduction: Prematurity is the single most important cause of mortality during the neonatal period. The early growth of these infants has been shown to be a predictor of their later growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge at the Kitui District Hospital, Kenya. Methods: A short longitudinal study design was adopted to execute the study. During the period of April and June 2014, all the preterm infants who were discharged from the Kitui District
Hospital Newborn Unit were enrolled in the study by obtaining written informed consent from their guardians. The anthropometric measurements of these infants were taken at discharge and repeated two weeks later at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic and the Maternal Child health Clinic. A questionnaire guided interview was held with the guardians to establish infant and maternal characteristics which influenced the infants' early growth. Results: A total of 112 participants were enrolled for the study with 106 (94.4%) of them being available for reassessment after two
weeks. Majority (72.6%) had deficit in growth by failing to attain the recommended WHO average weight gain of 15g/kg/day. Most of the mothers (63.4%) were between the ages of 20-29 years with half of them being first time mothers. Many of them (66.1%) had only attained primary education and were married (66.1%) to self-employed husbands (56%). Conclusion: Most of the preterm infants at discharge were females who were born between 33 and 36 weeks gestation. Growth deficit was present in the majority and gestational age at birth was a major determinant of the early growth in these preterm infants.

Conteh S, OGOLA EN, Oyoo GO, Gitura BM, Achieng L. "Echocardiographic abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;3(3):19. AbstractWebsite

Background: The cardiovascular system is frequently affected in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Involvement of the pericardium, endocardium, myocardium, coronary and pulmonary vessels has been found in several clinical and autopsy studies in patients with SLE; most of which can be detected by noninvasive two dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. More than half of SLE patients experience clinical cardiovascular manifestation during the course of the disease and cardiovascular complications are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE.
Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of cardiac abnormalities; determined by echocardiography in SLE patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of SLE patients attending clinic at KNH. A targeted history and physical examination and a detailed trans-thoracic echocardiography were performed for all patients. The independent variables included; age, sex, duration of disease and medications. The echocardiogram outcome variables included; pericardial effusion, thickening and calcification, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, mitral valve thickening, stenosis and regurgitation, aortic valve thickening, stenosis and regurgitation, and pulmonary hypertension.
Results: Sixty three SLE patients participated in the study, the mean age was 36.7 years, with a female to male ration of 20:1 and a meadian duration of disease of 36 months. Over 70% of participants were on at least 2 disease modifying medication. The overall prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities was 88.9%, the major drivers of this high prevalence being pericardial and valvular thickening. The single moast common cardiac lesion was pericardial thickening at 77.8%. The mitral valve was the most commonly affected valve with 69.8% and 30.2% having mitral thickening and regurgitation respectively. Aortic valve thickening and regurgitation was found in 25.4% and 6.3% of participants respectively. Diastolic dysfunction was found in 50.8% of participants and was found to be associated with older age at diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 22.2% of participants.
Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of cardiac abnormalities among SLE patients despite being on disease modifying medications. Even though the majority of these abnormalities comprised of clinically insignificant pericardial and valvular thickening, the prevalence of valvular insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension are substantially high and relatively higher than the prevalence seen in other studies in the case of pulmonary hypertension.

Mugambi JNK. "Ecumenism in African Christianity.". In: Routledge Companion to Christianity in Africa. London: Routledge; 2016.
Owiti PO, Kosgei RJ, Kihara BA, Ogutu O, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Tweya H, Takarinda KC, Sitienei JK, Kamau EM. "Editorial: Structured operational research and training in the public health Sector: the Kenyan experience." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Kara AM, Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Educational Service Quality and Students’ Satisfaction in Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Social Science . 2016;3:37-48.kara.pdf
Wakulele SR, Odock SO, Chepkulei B, Kiswili NE. "Effect of eco-design practices on the performance of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2016;7(8):86-104. Abstract

Eco-design is a new approach to products design; it has emerged as a key approach for manufacturing firms seeking to become environmentally sustainable and globally competitive. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of adoption of Eco-design practices on organizational performance of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County, Kenya. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted for this study. It targeted a population a population of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County listed by Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM, 2014). A sample of 65 firms was taken and data was collected using questionnaires. The results obtained indicated that Eco-design practices adoption was at the planning/ implementation stage as most of the manufacturing firms had considered adoption. The study also established that the major challenges of adopting Eco-design practices are Unsuccessful integration of Eco-design, Lack of knowhow in managing changes in design procedures, and Lack of technical knowledge about Eco-design. Lastly the findings show that Eco-design practices have positive influence on organization performance with greatest impact being on environmental impact reduction and financial performance. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should get enough training and empowerment on how to implement Eco-design practices so as to ensure success, reduce fear of failure and encourage environmental sustainability. They should also act fast and implement Ecodesign practices since there are potential benefits after implementation such as improvement in environmental impact reduction and financial performance. Lastly the researcher recommends that since government rules and legislations and organization capabilities are the major drivers of adoption of Eco-design practices they should review their policies and allocate more resources to ensure effective adoption and implementation of Eco-design practices. This is because the bedrock of economic and social development in Kenya is the environment; hence environment sustainability should be given first priority.

Key words: Green supply chain management, Life Cycle Analysis, Design for Disassembly, Design for
Environment, Design for Recycling

D E, W K, J. K. "THE EFFECT OF GENERAL ELECTIONS ON STOCK RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2016;11(28):1857-7881. AbstractEffects_of_general_elections_on_stock_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The performance of the financial markets is significantly impacted by
the political environment during eneral ellections. This paper focussed on the
effect of general ellections on the stock retuns at the Nairobi Securities
exchange. Emperical results have given inconsistent results on whether
general election events negatively of positively impact the stock return. The
study adopted event study methodology and analysed secondary data
collected from the NSE around the 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2013 general
election dates in Kenya. The study found that market reaction to elections is
highly negative or positive depending on the volatility of the election
environment. Analysis of the cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) found that
the 2002 and 2013 general elections were insignificant, while the CAR
around the 1997 and 2007 general election events were found to be
significant at 5% level of significance. The study, thus recommends that
stock market, investors and other stakeholders not to overlook electioneering
events, and to implement policies that will cusion the security market against
political risks during general elections to enhance investor confidence

Wang’ombe JK, Ng’ang’a P, WANZALA. "EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV AT TWO COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTRES IN KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9):111-116.abstract.pdf
SJ S. "Effect of homemade dental powder on population of streptococcus mutans." journal of dentistry and oral care. 2016;2(4):1-7.
Lulalire FR, Karimi PN, Mwagangi EM, Wandolo G. "Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2016;5(2): 59-64. Abstract

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates
Faith R. Lulalire a,b, Peter N. Karimi a,*, Evans M. Mwagangi a, and George Wandolo c
a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy. University of Nairobi, Kenya
b Ministry of Health, Kenya
c Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________
* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of
Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254-72-2604216; Email: ndirang@yahoo.com
Background: Severe pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in both developed and developing countries. The goals of management are to prevent progression to eclampsia thus preventing convulsions, to control the blood pressure and to prevent untoward effects in the foetus. The first-line option for the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures is magnesium sulphate.
Objective: To determine the serum magnesium, urea and electrolyte levels in neonates of mothers treated with magnesium sulphate and compare the findings with the levels in non-exposed neonates.
Methodology: A quasi experimental design was adopted where test subjects were neonates of mothers suffering from preeclampsia and severe eclampsia and were being treated with magnesium sulphate just before delivery at Pumwani Maternity hospital. The control group comprised neonates of hypertensive mothers without preeclampsia being treated using other drugs. Blood samples were obtained from the mother at onset of labor and from the neonates at birth and analyzed in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Nairobi.
Results: A total of 54 mothers and their neonates were enrolled with 27 in each arm of the study. The mean maternal serum magnesium in the test group was significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.008). The mean neonatal serum magnesium in the test group was also significantly higher compared to the control group (p = 0.008). There were statistically significant differences in serum sodium (p = 0.015), urea (p = 0.043) and creatinine (p = 0.008) levels between the maternal test and control groups. There were significant differences in serum urea (p = 0.007) and
chloride (p = 0.017) between the neonatal test and control groups. The calcium and potassium levels were elevated in the test group but not to significant levels. There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal serum magnesium levels in both groups stronger in the test group (r = 0.56, p = 0.003) as compared to the control group (r = 0.35, p = 0.087).
Conclusion: Maternally administered magnesium sulphate raises urea and creatinine levels to significant levels in mothers. Calcium levels are also raised while in mothers not receiving magnesium sulphate they were slightly lower.
In neonates the urea and chloride levels are elevated to significant levels while the calcium and potassium levels are not significantly elevated. We suggest monitoring of both in the immediate post-partum period.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, eclampsia, magnesium sulphate, neonate, serum urea and electrolytes.
Received: November, 2015
Published: May, 2016

D. E. "EFFECT OF NATIONAL ANNUAL BUDGET READING ON EQUITY RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(1):107-118. AbstractEffect_of_national_annual_budget_reading_on_equity_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange1.pdf

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of budget reading on equity returns at
Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study adopts descripting staristics design using event model
methodology to establish the correlation between the variables. Secondary data on stock
performance around the 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 budget reading dates was collected
from the NSE database. Data analysis was done using SPSS program to generate the descriptive
statistics, and the study finds that the reading of national budget has significant effect on the
stock returns at NSE during the event period, depending on information content. Analysis of the
AAR, CAR and SCAR of the companies in the NSE-20 share index, during the 5 day event
period before and after the annual national budget reading finds that other than year 2010 that
records no statistical significance of SCAR, the SCAR p value for 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013
are all less than p = 0.05, suggesting that the market returns for four years deviated significantly
from their means during the event period of budget readings. Therefore, the study recommends
that investors, investment banks, listed companies and the capital markets authority to consider
the effect of national budget reading on stock returns, to formulate policies that can cussion
investors against the effects of budget reading.

KEINO DINAHCHEBET, GACHUNGA HAZEL, Ogollah K. "EFFECT OF RECRUITMENT ON EMPLOYER BRANDING IN THE MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR IN KENYA." The strategic Business and change Journal of Management. 2016;3(1):146-166.dinah_keino_gachunga_and_ogollah_2016.pdf
M. Otim, Kasina M, Nderitu J, Katafiire M, Mcharo M, Kaburu M, Bwire G, Bwire J, Ol F. "Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2016; 17 (1): 111-124.Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests1.pdf
W.D. O, S.O. D, P.M.A O. "Effectiveness of Aerobic Microbials in Breaking Down of Hydrocarbons in Effluent Discharges from Petroleum Service Stations." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2016;Vol. 9(No. 2):95-109.
Nyavanga EJ, Chebet IM, Barasa M, Ndetei DM. "Effectiveness of Psychoeducation on Improving Opinions About Mental Illness Among Primary School Teacher Trainees in Kenya." Science Journal of Public Health . 2016;4(6):422-429. AbstractWebsite

Opinions about mental illness have been found to be negative among college students and the general population. Studies have indicated that improving literacy levels would improve opinions and lead to individuals to seek help and family to provide the needed support. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of psycho-education on the opinions about mental illness among public primary teacher trainees in Kenya. Convenience sampling was used to identify four public teacher colleges out of the twenty. Self-administered demographic questionnaire and opinions about mental illness scale were presented to the participants to collect data in four evaluations for the experimental group and three for the control group. The ethical protocol was followed from getting authority to informed consent from the participants. Out of the 2925 questionnaires presented, 2775 were returned fully filled, a return rate of 94.34%. Summative scores improved among the experimental group in the second, and third assessments, but this reduced to almost the original measure in the fourth assessment. This study found that psycho-education of mental illness is effective in improving negative opinions about mental illness among these participants and this study recommended mental health studies is included in the teachers’ curriculum.

Omondi SF, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Effects of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Natural Regeneration and Population Structure of Gum Arabic Tree (Acacia senegal) in the Woodland of Lake Baringo Ecosystem, Kenya." JOURNAL OF FORESTRY RESEARCH. 2016:DOI: 10.1007/s11676-016-0349-4.
Kavoi BM, Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kiama SG. "Effects of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on chicken intestinal structure and growth performance." J. Morphol. Sci.. 2016;33:186-192.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of Effluent Contaminated River Water on Testicular Histology of Mice." . Sch J Agric Vet Sci. 2016;3(6):411-415.
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO, Mwabora JM. "Effects of Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on the Photovoltaic Performance of TiO2 Thin Films." Surface Reviews and Letters. 2016;24. Abstract

Effects of film thickness and electrolyte concentration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cell were studied. Nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with varying thicknesses (3.2-18.9 µm) have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by screen printing method as work electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The prepared samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (AFM/STM) and x-ray diffraction. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 photoanode is 13.5 µm. Short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) increases with film thickness due to enlargement of surface area whereas open-circuit voltage decreases with increase in thickness due to increase in electron diffusion length to the electrode. However, the Jsc and Voc of DSSC with a film thickness of 18.9 µm (7.5 mA/cm2 and 0.687 V) are smaller than those of DSSC with a TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm (8.2 mA/cm2 and 0.711 V). This is because the increased thickness of TiO2 thin film resulted in the decrease in the transmittance of TiO2 thin films hence reducing the incident light intensity on the N719 dye. Photovoltaic performance also depends greatly on the redox couple concentration in iodide\triiodide. Jsc decreases as the redox concentration increases as a result of increased viscosity of the solution which lowers ion mobility.
Similarly, Voc decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases due to enhanced back electron transfer reaction. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 3.5 % was obtained in a DSSC with the TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm and redox concentrarion of 0.03 mol dm-3 under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2

Nyagari E, Onyango CM, Onwong’a RN. "EFFECTS OF INTERCROPPING ARRANGEMENTS AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF AFRICAN NIGHTSHADE (Solanum nigrum L.) IN KISII COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research. 2016;2(5):1069-1083.
D E, D O. "The effects of Rights Issue Announcements on Stock Returns for Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Education and Research . 2016;3(9): 2411-5681 . AbstractEffects_of_rights_issue_announcements_on_stock_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange-1.pdf

Rights issue is a secondary equity issue in which new additional shares are issued to the existing
shareholders in exchange for cash (capital) needed by a publicly quoted company, either for
expansion purposes or to finance company operations. The rights are issued to the shareholders in
the proportion of their existing holdings. Empirical studies give mixed results on the direction of
stock returns upon a rights issue announcement. Since there has been no consensus on how capital
markets generally respond to rights issue announcement, this study investigates the effect of rights
issue announcement on stock returns of companies listed at an organised exchange. The study
adopts an event study technique on a sample of twelve companies which issued rights between
January 1, 2007 and August 31, 2014. Secondary data on share prices is collected from the Nairobi
Securities Exchange (NSE) database. The study establishes that stock prices and returns changes
significantly in the post announcement period than in the preannouncement period. Analysis of
mean abnormal return reveales that rights issue announcement results into either positive or
negative stock return. Based on the cumulative average abnormal return (CAAR), the study
concludes that rights issue announcement results into a negative abnormal stock return for the listed
firms. The study therefore recommends that the investment banks and listed companies should
consider the negative abnormal stock price reactions and the subsequent negative abnormal stock
return changes to the announcement of rights issue while setting the discounted rights issue prices
so as to ensure that during the issue period, the stock trading prices do not fall below the rights issue
price, a fact that can lead to the collapse of the rights issue exercise. The study recommends further
academic exploration on the effects of repeat rights issues on stock prices and returns so as to
understand the possible response of investors to seasonal issues.

Baraka, B, Mudenye, Josiah M, Kinama, J.M., Florence M, Olubayo, F., Benjamin, M.Kivuva, muthomi. James W. "Effects of storage methods on carbohydrate and moisture of cassava planting materials. Journal of Agricultural Science.". 2016.
Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photo-voltaic Performance of dye Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2016.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Efficacy of a capsular polysaccharide conjugated vaccine against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2016.
Okoth S. "Efficacy of Chloroquine and Primaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil." Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 2016; 95(5):1061-1068. Abstract811.pdfWebsite

We evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine and primaquine on uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria
in Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. Patients ≥ 5 years of age with either fever or history of fever, and laboratoryconfirmed
P. vivax monoinfection received chloroquine (total dose = 25 mg/kg) and primaquine (total dose = 3.5 mg/kg),
and were followed up for 168 days (24 weeks). We used microsatellite genotyping to differentiate recurrent infections
caused by heterologous parasites from those caused by homologous ones. No new P. vivax episode occurred by Day 28
among 119 enrolled patients, leading to Day 28, with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) of 100%
(95% confidence interval [CI] = 96.7–100%). Twenty-eight P. vivax episodes occurred by Day 168, with uncorrected
ACPR of 69.9% (95% CI = 59.5–79.0%). Fifteen of these episodes were caused by either homologous haplotypes
or haplotypes that could not be determined. Excluding the 13 recurrent episodes caused by heterologous parasites,
Day 168 microsatellite-corrected ACPR was estimated at 81.2% (95% CI = 71.0–89.1%). Chloroquine and primaquine
remain efficacious to tr

Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J. "Electronic Properties of Catechol Adsorbed on Rutile TiO2 and SnO2 (110) Surfaces." The African Review of Physics. 2016;(11:0021). Abstract

The incorporation of organic molecules such as catechol onto TiO2 substrate to enhance TiO2 photocatalytic activity has led to improved Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) efficiency. Nonetheless, it still remains low for most practical applications hence more detailed description of the electronic structure of catechol-TiO2 rutile surface, could provide insight for further improvement. In this work, adsorption of catechol on rutile TiO2 and SnO2 (110) surfaces has been studied using first principle methods. The study investigated the role played by catechol in varying the electronic structure of TiO2 and SnO2 (110) surfaces. Results obtained showed that both the clean and catechol-terminated stoichiometric (110) TiO2 four layer surface had a band gap of 2.1 eV. The energy gap increased by 0.32 eV which represents an 18 % increment from 1.7 eV for clean stoichiometric TiO2 to 2.02 eV following adsorption of catechol molecule on the TiO2 (110) rutile 5-layer surface. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in the four and five layered catechol terminated TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to be about 1 eV, above the valence band maximum edge but in SnO2 it nearly overlapped with bottom of conduction band. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in both TiO2 and SnO2 surfaces was located about 3 eV above the conduction band minimum, while the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. The presence of catechol related C-2p orbitals within the energy gap and conduction band suggests that the energy level alignment of catechol adsorbed onto TiO2 suits the electron transfer processes that occur in DSSCs. The overlap of fermi level and closeness of catechol's HOMO to conduction band minimum in catechol bound (110) rutile SnO2 surface shows that the surface may become conductive and hence, inappropriate for photocatalytic applications.

WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Emphasis on Photovoltaic (PV) Solar System Installation Training: A case study of a PV solar System Installed in Makueni County, Kenya." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology (IARJSET). 2016;3(3). Abstract

The installation of Photovoltaic (PV) solar systems in institutions as well as homesteads in the rural areas in Kenya is increasing at a high rate; and so is the need for the stake holders to make sure the PV solar systems are professionally designed, sized, installed and maintained. In PV solar system installation, the designing, sizing and the installation are very critical steps. A wrongly designed, sized and installed system will not perform optimally and will underperform (for undersized systems) and waste energy and resources (for oversized systems). Furthermore, undersized systems do not perform to the user’s expectation discouraging the user and eventually a negative customer attitude creeps in which may affect the uptake of solar PV systems. On the other hand, an oversized PV system is extra expense on the side of the client, creating an exaggerated high cost of PV solar systems, again discouraging potential clients from the adoption of the technology. Both scenarios mean loss of business, jobs and the economic and social benefits associated with PV technology. We present a case study of poorly installed PV systemsin Makueni County, Kenya. We observed that the solar modules specifications at the back of the modules were not clearly done, the batteries were poorly matched and the cables used in the installation were undersized. Due to these issues, even a normal television set was not able to work since the system was installed four years ago (in 2012).The above case emphasizes the need for training in PV solar system design, sizing, installation, and maintenance.

Njunge LW, Wachira PM, Okoth SA. "Enhancement of Colonisation of Soybean Roots by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Using Vermicompost and Biochar." Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;5(3):71-78.
Achieng J, Odenyo F. "Enhancing access to Information in the Gender Discourse: A case of University of Nairobi Library." Pathways to African Feminism and Development: Journal of African Women’s Studies . 2016.
F. M, J.W. K, F W, Wandera P. "Estimation of the Economic Value for the Consumptive Water Use Ecosystem Service Benefits of the Chyulu Hills Watershed, Kenya. ." International Journal of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(4):36-48.
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "Ethical considerations and their applications to Research: A case of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(12):1-9.429-825-2-pb.pdf
"The ethnic factor in intergenerational succession in business among the small and medium enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2016;IV(8):462-479.
Stokx J, Dochez C, Ochieng P, Bahl J, Were F. "Evaluation of a Training DVD on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Kenyan EPI Healthcare Workers." Education for Health. 2016;29(1). Abstractevaluation_of_a_training_dvd_on_pneumococcal_conjugate_vaccine_for_kenyan_epi_healthcare_workers.pdf

Background: The Kenyan Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation was the first in Africa to introduce the new 10‑valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, PCV‑10, in 2011. For successful implementation and to avoid adverse events following immunisation, specific training on handling and storage of the PCV‑10 vaccine was required. Therefore, a training DVD was recorded in English and partly in Kiswahili to be used in combination with in‑classroom training. Since the Kenyan Immunisation Programme was the first to use a DVD for training healthcare workers, an evaluation was done to obtain feedback on content, format and use, and propose suggestions to improve quality and uptake of the DVD. Methods: Feedback was obtained from nurses and vaccinology course participants through the completion of a questionnaire. Nurses also participated in focus group discussions and trainers in key informant interviews. Results: Twelve trainers, 72 nurses and 26 international vaccinology course participants provided feedback, with so e notable differences between the three study groups. The survey results confirmed the acceptability of the content and format, and the feasibility of using the DVD in combination with in‑classroom teaching. To improve the quality and adoption of the DVD, key suggestions were: Inclusion of all EPI vaccines and other important health issues; broad geographic distribution of the DVD; and bilingual English/Kiswahili use of languages or subtitles. Discussion: The Kenyan DVD is appreciated by a heterogeneous and international audience rendering the DVD suitable for other Anglophone African countries. Differences between feedback from nurses and vaccinology course participants can be explained by the practical approach of the DVD and the higher education and service level of the latter. A drawback is the use of DVD players and televisions due to lack of electricity, but it is a matter of time before all rural health facilities in Africa will have access to electricity and modern technology.

and Ngugi, A. OJNGJMLKWEAM. "Evaluation of Economic losses from the hides and skins subsector in Wajir County, Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2016;9(7):41-44.
Muuro ME, Oboko RO, Wagacha PW. "Evaluation of Intelligent Grouping Based on Learners’ Collaboration Competence Level in Online Collaborative Learning Environment." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2016;17(2). AbstractFull Text

In this paper we explore the impact of an intelligent grouping algorithm based on
learners' collaborative competency when compared with (a) instructor based Grade Point
Average (GPA) method level and (b) random method, on group outcomes and group
collaboration problems in an online collaborative learning environment. An intelligent
grouping algorithm has been added in a Learning Management System (LMS) which is
capable of forming heterogeneous groups based on learners' collaborative competency

Wamalwa RN, WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mulwa JK, Ambuso WJ. "Evaluation of the factors controlling concentration of non-condensable gases and their possible impact on the performance of geothermal systems: Case study of Olkaria Wells in the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7:257-279. Abstract

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenyan Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Development of geothermal resources in the Olkaria area, a high temperature field, started in the early 1950s. In the subsequent years numerous expansions have been carried out with additional power plants being installed in Olkaria. These include a binary plant at Olkaria South West (Olkaria III) in 2000, a condensing plant at Olkaria North East (Olkaria II) in 2003, another binary plant at Olkaria North West (Oserian) in 2004 and finally condensing plants in the year 2014 within East production field (EPF) and Olkaria Domes (OD) areas. The total generation from this field is about 730 Mw. The study considered samples from 4 producing wells from 3 fields of the Olkaria geothermal area (OW-44 from the Olkaria East, OW-724A from the Olkaria North East, and OW-914 and OW-915 from the Olkaria Domes field). The chemical data were first analyzed using SOLVEQ. This helped in the determination of the equilibrium state of the system, the reservoir temperatures and the total moles to be run through CHILLER. The run CHILLER considered the processes that have been proven to be occurring in the Olkaria field i.e., boiling and condensing processes, fluid-fluid mixing rocks and titration resulting from water-rock interaction. The effects on gas evolution were evaluated based on the resulting recalculated gas pressures. The results indicate that the gas species are not in equilibrium with the mineral assemblages. The CHILLER evaluation shows boiling as the major process leading to the evolution of gases. OW-44 had the least gas concentrations, arising from the considered reservoir processes due to degassing, and near surface boiling, besides the removal of NH3 , H2 and H2S are through the reaction with steam condensate. The gas breakout is most likely in OW-914 and least in OW-44. The study proposes different reservoir management strategies for the different parts of the Olkaria geothermal field. That is by increasing hot reinjection in the eastern sector around well OW-44. The reservoir around OW-914 is to be managed by operating the wells at a minimum flow rate (or even to close them) or the use of chemical inhibitors to prevent calcite scaling.

Ondego B, Moturi CA. "Evaluation of the Implementation of the e-Citizen in Kenya." International Journal of Applied Information Systems. 2016;10(4):13-21. Abstractondego-2016-ijais-451486.pdfWebsite

Information Communication Technology (ICT) can make a valuable contribution towards the operations of and the services offered to citizens by a government. While the benefits of e-Government initiatives and projects in Kenya cannot be disputed, there are key issues about their successful implementation. A survey about e-Government initiatives in developing countries by [42] show that 50% have partially failed, 35% have totally failed and only 15% have been successful. This research was based on a case study whose aim was to assess the implementation of the Kenya e-Citizen project. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires from four ministries and the general users/citizens. The questionnaires and interview guides were created based on the six dimensions of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model. An enhanced model for assessing successful implementation of ICT projects is presented. In addition to the dimensions of the model, stakeholder engagement, has been suggested. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need of stakeholder engagement during the life of any government ICT project. A strategy that would oversee awareness campaigns would be required. Other strategies required would address communication, change management and training.

ONDREJ MIKULA, RADIM SUMBERA, TATIANA AGHOVA, Mbau JS, ABDUL S. KATAKWEBA, CHRISTOPHER A. SABUNI, Bryja J. "Evolutionary history and species diversity of African pouched mice (Rodentia: Nesomyidae: Saccostomus)." Zoologica Scripta. 2016.
Mwasambo LM, Moturi CA. "Experience in Social Engineering by eCommerce Platforms in Kenya." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2016;18(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

eCommerce systems have been targeted by cyber criminals as they receive and use the money, rely on technology, outsourced services and use of payment technologies like mobile money and online banking channels to carry out their day-to-day transactions. Thisstudy sought to investigate social engineering and its mitigation in eCommerce platforms in Kenya. An existing Social Engineering Defensive Framework was adopted and its dimensions were used to create questionnaires and interview guides. The study used 30 out of the 34 pure-play eCommerce firms operating in Nairobi, Kenya. The results indicate that phishing/spear phishing as the leading threat followed by baiting/Trojan Horse, social media/fraudulent websites, search engine poisoning among others. Mitigation measures indicate organizations need to regularly check their website listing in hacking sites (such as pastebin.com and ghostbin.com) and periodically document and update new policies regarding social engineering and information security. This paper proposes social engineering mitigation best practices, emphasizing the need for organizations using the derived best practices and incorporating security culture.

Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;169:63-67.
Gitao G, Maina S, Gathumbi P. Experimental infection of Peste des petits ruminants disease in Kenya. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2016.978-3-659-97197-6-1.pdf
Elisha EO. "Exploration of Cloud Computing Practices in University Libraries in Kenya." Library Hi Tech News. 2016;33(9):16-22.
Muchanje, P.N., Kalai, J.M., Njuguna FW, Birongo, S. "An Exploration of Factors Influencing Career Progression of Tutors in Public Primary Teachers’ Training Colleges in Kenya." Universal Journal of Educational Research . 2016;4(3):582-588.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study." Atmospheric Environment. 2016;140:pp 34-41.
Linet Nyatichi Mangare, Omondi L, Antony Ayieko, Wakasiaka S, Omoni G, Dalton Wamalwa. "Factors influencing implementation of the nursing process in Naivasha District Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2016;10(2):67-71. AbstractWebsite

The nursing process (NP) is a framework that is applicable in all clinical settings to provide quality nursing care. Training curricula for nurses and midwives in Kenya have incorporated the NP as a framework for nursing care. However, nurses and midwives find it difficult to implement it. This contributes to poor-quality care.

This study was aimed at determining factors influencing implementation of the NP in Naivasha District Hospital.

A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted between May–June 2012 on 83 nurses and midwives selected using quota sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data then analysed using the statistical package for social sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish correlation between variables.

Training, practical experience, adequate time, reference materials, administrative support, supplies and adequate staffing were the major factors influencing implementation of the NP.

Implementation of the NP can be promoted through focusing on beneficial factors such as adequate staffing, training, administrative support, and providing resources.
Keywords: Nursing process, Health care, Nurses, Midwives, Training, Support, Barriers, Implementation

Ondicho TG, Casmir EN, Onyancha EO. "Factors that hinder women from uptake of maternal health care services and delivery within health facilities in Loitokitok Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Development Dialogue. 2016;1(1):1-20.
Wamalwa CM, Nasambu WC, Karimi PN, Ogonyo KB, Wandolo G. "Factors that influence adequacy of asthma control in children residing in Naivasha, a flower growing area in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(4):221-228. AbstractWebsite

Background: In Kenya, asthma affects 10% of the population. One of the modifiable risk factors contributing to asthma morbidity and mortality is environmental exposure.Naivasha flower farms introduce pesticides persistently into the environment and thesemay drift onto residential property or other areas where children play. Proximity of households to the pesticide treated farms may also increase exposure of children to thepesticides. Pesticide exposure has been shown to exacerbate already existing asthma, a relationship that has not been studied in Kenya.
Objectives:To identify risk factors that exacerbate asthma and influence adequacy of Asthma control in children residing in a flower growing area in Kenya.
Methodology: The design was a cross-sectional study that involved 150 asthmatic children aged 5-12 years residing a flower growing area. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, which home to Kenya’s largest horticultural flower farms. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire while asthma control was measured using a validated Asthma control tool. Logistic regression was done to identify variables that affected asthma control.
Results: Majority of the asthmatic children weremales (56.7%) while females were 43.33%. Riskfactors that were found to be significantly associated with asthma control were; duration of stay in or near a flower farm (OR = 0.723, 95%CI (0.538-0.975), presence of a smoker in the family (OR = 0.463, 95%CI (0.094-22.629) and presence of household pet (OR = 4.358, 95%CI (1.182-16.057). There was no significant relationship between the child’s asthma control and age of child, sex of child, distance of school from flower, guardian’s level of education, guardian’s income, and guardian’s occupation as a flower farm worker, child’s age of diagnosis and use of indoor pesticides.
Conclusion: The use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) should be promoted as it keeps environmental exposure pesticides to a minimum.

Kamau J, Melis R, Laing M, Shanahan P, Derera J, Ngugi K, Migwa Y. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Production Constraints and Preferences in Cassava Grown in Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(3):844-859.farmers_perceptions_of_production_constraints_and_preferences.pdf
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Chege K, Kiruja B. Fasihi Andishi na Simulizi. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2016.fasihi_andishi_na_simulizi.pdf
B Nyaoke, C Perciani, Mureithi MW, MacD KS, Jaoko WO. "Feasibility of Mucosal Sampling in Low-risk Women in HIV/AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials."; 2016.
Sifuna DN, Abagi O, Wasike NM. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among the Wardei of Kenya: Practice, Effects, and Prospects for Alternative Rites of Passage." Journal of Anthropological Research (Fall 2016), the University of New Mexico . 2016;(Summer).
1. Koech OK, RN K, GN K, SM M, R W. "Field curing methods and storage duration affect the quality of hay from six rangeland grass species in Kenya." Ecological processes. 2016; 5(3):1-6.
Weke P, Aduda J, Ngare P, Mwaniki IJ. "Financial Time Series Modelling of Trends and Patterns in the Energy Markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;6:324-337. Abstract

Energy use is behind virtually everything a person comes into contact with. The energy industry has rapidly expanded and become increasingly interdependent. In developed economies, the increase in energy consumption indicates a reliance on energy and its related products for continued and sustainable economic growth and development. Developing economies also rely on the development of energy resources to drive their growth. Energy was once viewed just as a utility, and an enabler with limited consumer interest, but now, it is key in the struggle for sustainable future economic growth [1] [2].
Energy prices, which are largely linked to oil prices, are a major concern for most economies. The recent financial crises and their ripple effects and after shocks have been largely unprecedented in terms of timing, speed and magnitude of impact on the world economies. Forecasting of crude oil prices is important for better investment and risk management and policy development, and econometric models are the most commonly used.

Masakhwe C, Ochanda H, Nyakoe N, Ochiel D, Waitumbi J. "Frequency of Epstein-Barr Virus in Patients Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in Kenya." PloS one. 2016;11(5):e0155308. AbstractWebsite

Background

Most acute febrile illnesses (AFI) are usually not associated with a specific diagnosis because of limitations of available diagnostics. This study reports on the frequency of EBV viremia and viral load in children and adults presenting with febrile illness in hospitals in Kenya.

Methodology/Principal Findings

A pathogen surveillance study was conducted on patients presenting with AFI (N = 796) at outpatient departments in 8 hospitals located in diverse regions of Kenya. Enrollment criterion to the study was fever without a readily diagnosable infection. All the patients had AFI not attributable to the common causes of fever in Kenyan hospitals, such as malaria or rickettsiae, leptospira, brucella and salmonella and they were hence categorized as having AFI of unknown etiology. EBV was detected in blood using quantitative TaqMan-based qPCR targeting a highly conserved BALF5 gene. The overall frequency of EBV viremia in this population was 29.2%, with significantly higher proportion in younger children of <5years (33.8%, p = 0.039) compared to patients aged ≥5 years (26.3% for 5–15 years or 18.8% for >15 years). With respect to geographical localities, the frequency of EBV viremia was higher in the Lake Victoria region (36.4%), compared to Kisii highland (24.6%), Coastal region (22.2%) and Semi-Arid region (25%). Furthermore, patients from the malaria endemic coastal region and the Lake Victoria region presented with significantly higher viremia than individuals from other regions of Kenya.

Conclusions/Significance

This study provides profiles of EBV in patients with AFI from diverse eco-regions of Kenya. Of significant interest is the high frequency of EBV viremia in younger children. The observed high frequencies of EBV viremia and elevated viral loads in residents of high malaria transmission areas are probably related to malaria induced immune activation and resultant expansion of EBV infected B-cells.

Sitonik N. "Functionality of the Dispute Settlement System: A world Trade Organization's (WTO) Approach." Global Journal of Politics and Law Research. 2016;4(2):19-28.
Kariuki PW, Mwamwenda TS. "Gender Differences in HIV/AIDS Knowledge/Awareness among University Students in Kenya." International Journal of Sciences and Research. 2016;72(5): 70-82.
Okoth S. "Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control." PLOS One. 2016:1-17. Abstractjournal.pone_.0163137.pdfWebsite

Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich
protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparumisolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its
homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on
365 P. falciparumdried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparumendemic sites in
Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparumparasites in the country. We found a high proportion
of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites
were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in
Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and
from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes.
Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative
parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype
corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks
reportedin Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian
Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites
from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high
genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53
PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in
Amazonas because of the high proportionof parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and
implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be
prioritised.Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparumparasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive human migration
occurring in the region.

Omondi SF, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Genetic consequences of anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation in Acacia senegal." CONSERVATION GENETICS . 2016;17(6):1235-1244.
Okoth S. "Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016;39:372-380. Abstractingasia2016.pdfingasia2016.pdfWebsite

Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p = 0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; p < 0.0001) whereas Kisii had the least significant index of association values (0.03; p < 0.0001). Our data suggest high genetic diversity in Kenyan parasite population with the exception of parasite from Malindi where malaria has been on the decline. The presence of significant LD suggests that there is occurrence of inbreeding in the parasite population. Parasite populations from Kisii showed the strongest evidence for epidemic population structure whereas the rest of the regions showed panmixia. Defining the genetic diversity of the parasites in different ecological regions of Kenya after introduction of the artemether–lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya.

Opanda S, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo W. "Genotyping of enteroviruses isolated in Kenya from pediatric patients using partial VP1 region." SpringerPlus. 2016;5:158. Abstractopanda_et_al_2016.pdfWebsite

Enteroviruses (EV) are responsible for a wide range of clinical diseases in humans. Though studied broadly in several regions of the world, the genetic diversity of human enteroviruses (HEV) circulating in the sub-Saharan Africa remains under-documented. In the current study, we molecularly typed 61 HEV strains isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 targeting the 3'-end of the VP1 gene. Viral RNA was extracted from the archived isolates and part of the VP1 gene amplified by RT-PCR, followed by sequence analysis. Twenty-two different EV types were detected. Majority (72.0%) of these belonged to Enterovirus B species followed by Enterovirus D (21.3%) and Enterovirus A (6.5%). The most frequently detected types were Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68), followed by Coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), CV-B1, CV-B4 and CV-B3. Phylogenetic analyses of these viruses revealed that Kenyan CV-B1 isolates were segregated among sequences of global CV-B1 strains. Conversely, the Kenyan CV-B2, CV-B3, CV-B4 and EV-D68 strains generally grouped together with those detected from other countries. Notably, the Kenyan EV-D68 strains largely clustered with sequences of global strains obtained between 2008 and 2010 than those circulating in recent years. Overall, our results indicate that HEV strains belonging to Enterovirus D and Enterovirus B species pre-dominantly circulated and played a significant role in pediatric respiratory infection in Kenya, during the study period. The Kenyan CV-B1 strains were genetically divergent from those circulating in other countries. Phylogenetic clustering of Kenyan EV-D68 strains with sequences of global strains circulating between 2008 and 2010 than those obtained in recent years suggests a high genomic variability associated with the surface protein encoding VP1 gene in these enteroviruses.

Gentle Graceful Giraffes. Nairobi: Association of Reading of Kenya; 2016.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. Gentle gracing giraffes. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. The girl whose feet could not stop growing. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
The Girl Whose Feet Could Not Stop Growing. Nairobi: Association of Reading of Kenya; 2016.
Odock SO, Awino ZB, Njihia JM, IRAKI WN. "Green supply chain management practices and performance of ISO 14001 certified manufacturing firms in East Africa." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(3):103-128. Abstract

Increasing levels of environmental degradation by manufacturing firms has resulted in heterogeneous pressures from various organizational groups on the need for them to conduct environmentally friendly operations. A viable option for these firms has been the implementation of green supply chain practices. The key concern however is whether the implementing these practices actually lead to improved performance. The main objective of this study therefore was to examine the relationship between the implementation of GSCM practices and performance of ISO 14001 certified firms in East Africa. Through the use of positivist research paradigm and descriptive cross-sectional research design, primary data was collected from persons in charge of environmental issues in ISO 14001 manufacturing firms in East Africa. Based on the objective, the study establishes a statistically significant positive direct relationship between implementation of GSCM practices and organizational performance. The study therefore confirms existence of a positive link between GSCM practices and organizational performance thus helping to reduce the uncertainty which has arisen out of contradictory findings from past studies on whether it is beneficial to pursue these practices. The results support the natural resource based view that GSCM practices affords the firm an opportunity for competitive advantage and performance improvement through unique causally ambiguous and socially complex resources. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should implement environmentally sound practices in all phases of the supply chain, beginning with procurement of raw materials through to design, manufacture, packaging, distribution and end of life disposal of their products. Regulators can use the findings to scale up the level of implementation of GSCM practices by enforcing stricter environmental legislation and giving incentives to firms that have already implemented these practices. The findings also provide future researchers’ with a useful conceptual and methodological reference to pursue further studies in this under-studied GSCM area especially in the African context.

Key Words: Green Supply Chain, Management Practices, Organizational Performance, ISO Certified Firms, East Africa

Bigsten A, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Wambugu A. "Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa 343.; 2016.
Serem, J.K., Wahome, R.G., Gakuya, F., Kiama, S.G. Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Efficiency of Pigs Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM). Bibliotheca, Alexandria, Egypt: TWAS; 2016.
Njoroge J, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, Odhiambo AO. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematosus patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;4(2):57-62. Abstracthaematological parameters SLEWebsite

ABSTRACT

Background
Systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE) is a multisystem, autoimmune and often severe disease. Its aetiology is still poorly understood. Factors such as genetic, environmental, hormonal and immunological have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Patients with SLE are subject to myriad symptoms, complaints, and inflammatory involvement that can affect virtually every organ including the hemopoietic system.
Hematological abnormalities are common among patients with SLE. The most frequent hematological abnormalities include anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. These abnormalities are markers of disease activity and have been found to be independent determinants of mortality therefore understanding their prevalence is important in patient evaluation.

While these abnormalities have been widely studied in other parts of the world, no study has been conducted on Kenyan patients afflicted by SLE thus there exist a gap regarding hematological parameters in SLE patients and hence the need for this study. We performed this study to understand hematological parameters in a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.

Objective:
The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hematological parameters abnormalities, among SLE patients on follow up at Rheumatology and Renal Outpatient clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specifically, the study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia and identify patient factors associated with these abnormalities.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on SLE patients attending the Rheumatology and Renal outpatient clinics at KNH. Seventy one consecutive SLE patients were screened for eligibility between 5th March 2015 and 5th of June 2015, of these sixty five were recruited and enrolled into the study. Clinical and social demographic data was captured and recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire. Subsequently, four millilitres of blood was collected for measurement of a complete blood count, reticulocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and peripheral blood film examination. The tests were undertaken at the KNH Department of Human Pathology, Unit of Haematology and blood transfusion using a CELL-DYN 3700 automated blood counter. ESR interpretation was undertaken at the same laboratory by the Wintrobe method and a PBF was reported after staining with maygrunwald / giemsa stain by direct visualization on a microscope at various powers of magnification by hematologists who were supervisors for this study and the PI

Results

Sixty five eligible SLE patients were recruited into the study. The mean (SD) age was 36. 5(± 12) years. There were 3 (5%) males and 62 (95%) females. Forty nine (75%) patients had at least one abnormality. The abnormalities involved all the three cell lines. The prevalence of abnormalities were; anemia 43%, leucopenia 26% and thrombocytopenia 20%. Disease duration less than one year was significantly associated with anemia, p=0.035, OR = 3.5 (95% CI 0.9-15.1).

Conclusion

Hematological abnormalities are the second most common manifestation of the disease after arthritis and arthralgia among SLE patients on follow up at Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology and Renal clinic. Though majority of these abnormalities were mild to moderate and clinically asymptomatic, the proportions of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were substantially high. There was a significant association between anemia and duration of disease.

Recommendations

I. A larger longitudinal study to correlate thrombocytopenia and leucopenia with demographics and drugs. . This may require a multicenter approach to avail sufficient number of patients.
II. Routine screening for hematological abnormalities, careful long-term monitoring and prompt therapeutic intervention.
III. Multidisplinary approach in management of SLE patients and input from a hematologist.
IV. Need to review the current treatment regimens of our patients to a steroid sparing regimen.
V. Lastly a study to correlate these hematological abnormalities with disease activity in patients with SLE.

Njoroge JW, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, ODHIAMBO A. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematous patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016;4(2):57-62.
Kibui A, Mugo R, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, N. M, N M. "Heath policies in Kenya and the new constitution for vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research, and Innovative Technology, . 2016;2(1):127-134.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mwangi W, Konde A, Rashid F. "Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5(4):250-255.
Coombes AE, Hughes L, Karega-Munene, Wahome EW. "Heritage, making peace, history, identity and memory in contemporary Kenya." Awaaz. 2016;46(1):46-49.
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "The hermeneutics of education management Information Systems for Kitinga primary school in Mwingi central, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2016;7(35):36-40.
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The hermeneutics of the phenomenon of dialogue between Christians and Muslims in contemporary Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2016;6(5):157-162.
Bosire R, Betz B, Aluisio A, Hughes JP, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie J, Chohan BH, Merkel M, Lohman-Payne B, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "High Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Both Arms of a Peer Counseling Study Promoting EBF Among HIV-Infected Kenyan Women." Breastfeed Med. 2016;11:56-63. Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months after delivery as the optimal infant feeding method and is especially important for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). However, EBF promotion efforts among HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa have achieved mixed success and require context-specific interventions.

Aseta FB, Mwachaka PM, Odula PO, Malek A. "Histomorphological changes in the cornea of the rat following monocular eyelid closure." Anatomy, an international journal of experimental and clinical anatomy . 2016;10(2):87-93.cornea.pdf
Wanjala AN. "Historiography or Imagination? The Documentation of Traditional Luo Cultural Memory in Kenyan Fiction.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. London & New York: Routledge; 2016.
Nyanchaga EN. History of Water Supply and Governance in Kenya (1895 – 2005). Lessons and Futures.. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.ISBN 978-952-03-0059-3; ISBN 978-952-03-0060-9(pdf)., https://verkkokauppa.juvenes.fi; 2016.
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa." Trop Med Int Health. . 2016:doi: 10.1111/tmi.12761.

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