Publications

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2018
Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga AA. "Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi. ." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018;(2):11.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "Discourse on Ecumenical Implications of Pneumatological Vital Force Towards University Students' Welfare." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2018;23(7):62-73.prof_wachege__cherono_article.pdf
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "DOES KISSING UP TO THE BOSS PAY?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):1-10. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ingratiation on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis thatingratiation influences career mobility (R2=.944, F=2011.237, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.971 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between ingratiation and career mobility. The study recommends that objective means of performance appraisals be established and followed by superiors to ensure fair and credible ways of career mobility to its employees. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated in other organizations using a longitudinal research design.

Olago D, Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M. "Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000years ago to present." Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:322-378. AbstractFull Text

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
Mewa, Eunice. A. OMKCRWNMN. "Effect of drying air temperature and slice thickness on the physical and microbiological quality of dried beef." LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2018;92:484-489.
Kasaya MA, Munjuri MG. "Effect of Employee Involvement on Job Performance in the Medical Research Industry in Kenya." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(5):826-847.job_involvement_and_job_performance.pdf
Ndombi EM, Abudho B, Kittur N, Carter JM, Korir H, Riner DK, Ochanda H, Lee Y‐M, S EW. "Effect of four rounds of annual school‐wide mass praziquantel treatment for schistosoma mansoni control on schistosome‐specific immune responses." Parasite Immunology. 2018:e12530.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM'mogi, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW. "Effect of storage methods of cassava planting materials on establishment and early growth vigour." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(1):1-10.
6. Muriithi EM. "Effect of teacher characteristics on learner academic achievement in physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(3):169-178.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Reuben R, Osero B, Chritopher A. "Effects of Lambdacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-Dichlorobenzene on sand fly and mosquito vectors in endemic areas of Kenya. ." Journal of Zoological Research . 2018;2(1):1-6.
Kingi, P. M. "Effects of Teachers’ Participation in School Community Partnership and Motivation." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS. 2018;7(4):48-55.
Miruka AC, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Onyatta JO. "Efficiency of a Wastewater Treatment Plant in the City of Nairobi." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;38(1):152-162.
Nguu J, Nyongesa F, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". 2018. AbstractJournal article website

In this study, Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique was used to fabricate TiO2/Nb2O5 composite
thin films on FTO coated glass for application as photoelectrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). A
TiO2/Nb2O5 ratio of 1:1 was used in a 2-propanol suspension solution with a solid loading of 0.25g/L. Optical
investigations showed that the film with thickness of 5.5 µm deposited at 35.0 V for 90.0 s had the highest
transmittance of 55.0 % at a wavelength (λ) of 1,300 nm. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was 3.884 eV and was
found to be dependent on the annealing time. The solar cell fabricated from this film had an open circuit voltage
(VOC) of 0.66 V, fill factor (FF) of 57.0%, short current density (JSC) of 5.25 mA/cm2 and photo conversion
efficiency (PCE) of 2.0%. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicate that the DSSC device
with thinner photoelectrodes have more efficient electron transport in the photoanode compared to thicker
photoelectrodes to achieve higher conversion efficiencies.
Keywords: electrophoretic deposition, dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2/Nb2O5 composite thin films

and Joseph Kabiru PMEMN. "Emerging conditions of labour in the cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Education and Research. 2018;6(2411-5681):1-12.
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "EMPLOYEE JOB TENURE; AN ACCOLADE OR AN ABASH?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):11-21. Abstract

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of job tenure on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and the hypothesis formulated was analyzed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that job tenure influences employee career mobility (R2=.141, F=19.77, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.376 which also confirms that there is a positive but weak relationship between length of service and career mobility. The study recommends that employees who have served and organization for long should be considered for promotion this brings about employees loyalty and commitment to the organization. The paper suggests that other variables can be added in terms of moderating and mediating variables to strengthen the model.

and Onyango C.M., Kunyanga Catherine N. WKMIRGDN. "Employer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Agricultural University Training in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6:175-185.
Maweu JM. "Equality, Difference and the Complementarity of African and Western Philosophy.". In: Thinking Polyloguous: Considerations Concerning An Intercultural-Philosophical Minimal Rule. Vienna: Polylog; 2018.
Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
Musungayi EM, Ngugi K, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Were VW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Evaluation of resistance of cassava half-sib progenies to cassava mosaic disease and their agronomic performances in Western Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(12):78-91.
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries university settings." International Journal of Education and Development using ICT. 2018;14(1). AbstractFull website link

Despite the potential of Learning Management System (LMS) supported asynchronous e-
learning to improve asynchronous e-learning system quality by enhancing learning
effectiveness and academic achievement of HEIs, several challenges are faced in the
process of providing the e-learning mode of study particularly in developing countries. The
study will explore five factors that influence quality of asynchronous e-learning: instructional
design, learner support, contextual factors, student characteristics and instructor
characteristics. The quality factors can be used to evaluate quality so as to monitor and
improve the inputs, processes and outputs of asynchronous e-learning systems. The study
examines existing e-learning literature and then proposes five factors that determine the
quality of e-learning systems.

Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries. A qualitative pre-study of JKUAT University Kennedy Hadullo Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2018;14(1): 152-163. Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to identify the influencing factors of asynchronous
elearning system quality particular in developing countries via a review of current literature
and a qualitative pre-study conducted at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and
Technology (JKUAT). Despite the perceived benefits of these systems to overcome
challenges facing education sector in the region, studies show that the majority of them have
not been successful. After a thorough review of existing literature on developing countries
and a qualitative pre-study conducted at JKUAT University, the study identified the factors
that influence quality of e-learning systems as: Course Design, Content support, social
support, and Student Characteristics, Instructor Characteristics, Technician Characteristics,
Course Assessment and Institutional factors.

JJ C, G O, W M. "Factors affecting Birth Preparedness among Pregnant Women attending Public Antenatal Clinics in Migori County, Kenya." Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research. 2018.
Kirea P, Irene GM, Joyce JC. "Factors contributing to sexual assault in children 1–13 years admitted at Nairobi women's hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Care. 2018;6(2):5-9.
Ongeso A, Chite M, Kabo J. "Factors influencing high prevalence of Fresh still births in Mbagathi County Hospital, Nairobi-Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2018;6 No 4(2320-5407). Abstract

Background: The annual global burden of stillbirths is approximately 2.6 million, 98% of which occur in Sub Saharan Africa, (WHO, 2015). In 2016, approximately 24 still births per month occurred in Mbagathi County Hospital (MCH) representing a 33.3% increase from 2015. A third of these were Fresh Still Births (FSBs) - (Mbagathi reproductive health report 2015/2016).
Objectives: To establish factors influencing increase in FSB among women delivering at MCH.
Methodology: The study was conducted at MCH postnatal ward. A descriptive cross sectional study design was employed. Forty three respondents with FSBs were consecutively sampled. Clearance to conduct the study was sought from Ethics Review Committee, MCH and respondents. Researcher administered questionnaires were used for data collection over two months. Descriptive data involved calculation of measures of central tendency. Findings were presented in tables, graphs and narrative.
Results: Majority of the respondents were less than 20 years old, had low education level and were unemployed. Majority had preterm deliveries; prolonged premature rupture of membranes had medical conditions and attended ANC less than four times. Majority of the FSBs had complications and were delivered preterm. The facility had inadequate staffing, lacked prompt triaging equipment, and rarely used partograph to monitor labor.
Conclusion: Maternal, fetal and hospital related factors influenced high prevalence of FSB.
Recommendations: Improving uptake of focused antenatal care among women. Girl child empowerment in line with Sustainable Development Goal 5. Improve staffing ratios, develop protocol regarding triaging and labor monitoring. Availing hospital equipment for proper maternity care.

Key words: Fresh still births, developing countries, risk factors, perinatal mortality.

Ongeso A, Okoth B. "Factors influencing male involvement on Antenatal Care among clients attending Antenatal clinic: A case of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2018;6:5(2320-5407):72-82. Abstract

Factors influencing male involvement on Antenatal Care among clients attending Antenatal clinic: A case of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Background: Male participation is a crucial component in the optimization of antenatal care services. Level of male participation has been found to be low. This study aimed to identify determinants of male partners’ involvement in antenatal care services.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was used. The study population included expectant women and available male partners at the antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. A sample of 79 respondents was recruited into the study. Consecutive sampling was used to select the study participants. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire, analyzed using SPSS computer package version 20 and thereafter presented using descriptive methods.
Findings: Majority of participants (90%) were aged above 25 years, were more educated and had non-formal sources of employment. They knew at least 50% of the services offered and had a positive attitude towards ANC. Majority of participants (54%) stated that ANC is traditionally for women. Majority (77%) stated that the members of staff at ANC clinic are friendly and approachable.
Conclusions: Cultural beliefs and practices still hinder men’s participation as communities continue to uphold patriarchal tendencies that disregard women. Men’s attitude also determined their participation.

LT E, J O, GO O. "Fever of unknown origin: A rheumatologic perspective." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):26-28.fever_of_unknown_origin.pdf
Essaji LT, Odhiambo J, Oyoo GO. "Fever of unknown origin: A rheumatologic perspective." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2018;6(1):26-28.
Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. Financial Inclusion through Mobile Money. The M-ASCA Model in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanyinga K. Fiscal Stability Conference. Lagos, Nigeria; 2018.
Okoth S, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Saeger SD. "Genetic and toxigenic variability within Aspergillus flavus population isolated from maize in two diverse environments in Kenya." Frontiers in microbiology. 2018;9(Frontiers in microbiology):57.
Kivisi Mbali, Mutembei Henry MJ. "Governance Aspects on Adoption of Biogas Technology in." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):81-86.mutembei-mbali-governance-2018.pdf
Gateri M.W., R. Nyankanga, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(32)( DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42135):1-13.Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. .pdf
Ongeso A. "Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in late pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy and childbirth in Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Technology. 2018;3-3(ISSN: 2415-6566):10-16. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in late pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy and childbirth in Kenya

Background: In Kenya, there is limited empirical data on effects of seroconversion in pregnancy and child birth due to low uptake of HIV retesting despite there being a policy directive to do so.
Objectives: To determine the effect of seroconversion in late pregnancy regarding pregnancy and childbirth among women seeking delivery services in Kakamega County Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital.
Methodology: A ten month quasi experimental longitudinal study design was employed whereby 1,156 respondents consecutively sampled.
Results: HIV seroconverters had a higher chance of developing premature rupture of membranes, hemorrhage and puerperal sepsis than HIV negative women. The incidence of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV among exposed newborns was 0.09%. There was a statistically significant relationship between PEP administration, infant morbidity and mortality.
Conclusion: HIV seroconversion was associated with complications during delivery. Recommendations: There’s need to intensify retesting in late pregnancy as well as skilled birth attendance among the women seroconverting in late pregnancy.

Ongeso A. "Human immunodeficiency Virus seroconversion: Rate and Retesting uptake. A case of Kakamega and Nairobi Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2018;6:4(2320-5407):599-608. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency Virus seroconversion: Rate and Retesting uptake. A case of Kakamega and Nairobi Counties, Kenya
Background: There is limited empirical data on the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seroconversion in late pregnancy due to the fact that majority of the women start seeking antenatal care late in pregnancy therefore rarely retest. This leaves a gap in the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission (eMTCT) strategy thus contributing to high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya.
Objectives: To establish the rate of HIV retesting uptake in late pregnancy and HIV seroconversion rate among women attending Antenatal Clinics in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kakamega County Hospital.
Methodology: A longitudinal study design was employed; 1,117 women confirmed as HIV negative in early pregnancy were followed up for three months and retested to ascertain their serostatus. Sample size was obtained through Census and consecutive sampling to recruit individual respondents. Clearance to conduct the study was sought from Ethics Review Committee, Pumwani and Kakamega County Hospitals and the respondents. Researcher administered questionnaires and HIV testing was done for data collection. Descriptive data involved calculation of measures of central tendency. Findings were presented in tables, graphs and narrative.
Results: HIV retesting uptake was 1,073 (96%) and the rate of HIV serocopositivity among initially HIV negative pregnant women that retested was 8 (0.75%).
Conclusion: HIV retesting uptake is very impressive and the rate of HIV seroconversion is very low. Kenya has made good progress towards eMTCT of HIV.

Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Olago D, Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. AbstractFull Text

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Awori MN. I AM-healing health and happiness. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2018.
Joag V, Obila O, Gajer P, Scott M, Dizzell S, Humphrys M, Shahabi K, Huibner S, Shannon B, Tharao W, MW MUREITHI, Julius Oyugi,, J.N Kiiru, et al. Impact of bacterial vaginosis treatment on ex vivo HIV susceptibility in the female genital tract.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.; 2018.
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J.. "Impact of Socio-Psychological Work Environment on Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." In International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences . 2018;5(5):19-28.this__abstractijhsse.pdf
AC Guzha, Rufino MC, Okoth S, S Jacobs, Nóbrega RLB. "Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;15:49-67.
Matiang’i M, Kibwage I, Ngatia P, Omoni G, Kiarie J, Bosire K, Inyama H, Muiruri F. "Improving access to Higher education for front-line health professionals in Kenya through Blended eLearning ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s health. 2018;12(2).
Udomkun P, Wossen T, Nabahungu NL, Mutegi C, Vanlauwe B, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay. "Incidence and farmers’ knowledge of aflatoxin contamination and control in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo." Food Science & Nutrition. 2018.
Mutiso SK, Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of the Grade Achieved in Agriculture at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination on Performance in Farming in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol 7(Issue 7):412-442.
AWUOR OGACHOALEX, JOHN ONYATTA, Marina M, Domtau DL, OKOTH OBILAJORIM. "INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON SOME OPTICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF Cu2ZnSnS4 DEPOSITED BY CZT CO-ELECTRODEPOSITION COUPLED WITH CHEMICAL BATH TECHNIQUE ." World Scientific. 2018;Volume 25(Issue 03).
Mulwa PK, Muriithi EM. "INFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AS A PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION TOOL ON LEARNING OUTCOME AMONG LEARNERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):19-30. Abstractinfluence_of_facebook_as_a_pedagogical_interaction_tool_on_learning_outcome_among_learners_in_secondary_schools_in_kenya.pdfInternational Journal of Education and Research

There is high infiltration of Online Social Networking Platforms in learning institutions in Kenya
yet there is dearth of information on how these platforms affect learning outcome. This paper was a
systematic desk literature review. The purpose was to establish how leveraging on pedagogical
interactions through Facebook affect learning outcome. The reviewers focused on the development
of Facebook, its use in education and how its pedagogical interactions affect learning outcome.
Articles published in high impact journals including “grey literature” were desk reviewed. The
review showed that Facebook has been used by learners mostly for social interactions and not for
pedagogical interactions and its use can boast learning outcome. The researcher recommends that
learners, teachers and policy makers should accept Facebook as a pedagogical interaction tool.
Keywords: Pedagogical interaction, Facebook, Learning outcome.

Mulwa PK, Muriithi EM. "INFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AS A PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION TOOL ON LEARNING OUTCOME AMONG LEARNERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(4):19-30. Abstractmulwa-muriithi_facebook.pdfInternational Journal of Education and Research

There is high infiltration of Online Social Networking Platforms in learning institutions in Kenya yet there is dearth of information on how these platforms affect learning outcome. This paper was a systematic desk literature review. The purpose was to establish how leveraging on pedagogical interactions through Facebook affect learning outcome. The reviewers focused on the development of Facebook, its use in education and how its pedagogical interactions affect learning outcome.Articles published in high impact journals including “grey literature” were desk reviewed. The review showed that Facebook has been used by learners mostly for social interactions and not for pedagogical interactions and its use can boast learning outcome. The researcher recommends that learners, teachers and policy makers should accept Facebook as a pedagogical interaction tool.

Kamau NP, M. DMM. "Influence of Managerial Skills on Growth of Projects in Kenya: A Case of Uwezo Funded Youth Projects in Thika Town." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,. 2018;8(9):575-585.kamau_publication.pdf
Muriithi EM, Mulwa PK. "Influence of Teacher Characteristics in Use of Project Method in Teaching Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(3):129-134. Abstractinfluence_of_teacher_characteristics_in_use_of_project_method_in_teaching_physics_in_kenyan_secondary_schools.pdfInternational Journal of Innovative Research & Development

Physics is one of the science subjects offered in Kenyan secondary schools. Several methods are employed by the teachers in teaching physics. Project method has been cited as a key method because it is leaner-centered and very effective in enabling learners to acquire scientific knowledge and skills. The choice and use of project method is determined by several factors like nature of content to be learned, availability of teaching resources, time available for teaching, learner and teacher characteristics among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between teacher’s characteristics and the level of usage of project method in the teaching of physics. Stratified random sampling was used to select 84 teachers from the former eight provinces of the Republic of Kenya. Data relating to teacher characteristics and their level usage of project method was collected using a questionnaire. SPSS computer package was used to analyze the data. Level of usage of project method was determined by analyzing the mean score from the responses given by the teachers on the frequency of using the method. Hypotheses were tested at 95% level of confidence. Relationship between teacher characteristics and level of usage of project method was analyzed using Chi square. The key findings of the study were that teachers with pedagogical skills have high level of use of project method in teaching physics than those without, whereas age and gender did not influence level of use of the method. In view of the findings, the researcher recommends that physics be taught by qualified teachers with pedagogical skills and frequent in-servicing of physics teachers to be undertaken irrespective of their age and gender.

Muriithi EM, Mulwa PK. "Influence of teacher characteristics in use of project method in teaching physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Innovative Research and development (IJIRD. 2018;7(3):129-134.
Mbusa HK, Ngugi K, Olubayo FM, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "The Inheritance of Yield Components and Beta Carotene Content in Sweet Potato." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):71-81.
Gachara HN, Munjuri MG. "INNOVATION CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(6):717-738.innovation_challenges.pdf
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J., MATULA P.D. "Institutional Factors Influencing Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):1-18 .abstarct1.pdf
Muthomi JW, Wafula GO, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Integration of Seed Dressing, Bio-pesticides and Intercropping to Reduce Pesticide Use in Snap Bean Production." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 2018;5(1):12-20.
Wachege PN, Syengo SN. "An Investigation of Blending Inculturation and Liberation Approaches Towards New Evangelization in Contemporary Africa." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2018;8(7):74-88.wacheg__nduto_article.pdf
Karibe Wilson, Kunyanga Catherine IJ. "Isolation and Characterization of Probiotic Microorganisms from the Bovine Tripe." Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;3(2):58-65.
Gecaga W, Mwango G, Mutala T. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital- Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
Mugambi MM. "Linking Constructivism Theory to Classroom Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2018;5(9):96-104.constructivism_paper.pdf
Wairire G. "Living but Leaving: Therapy in Light and Right of Life and Death in Traditional-Cum-Contemporary Societies." International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;10(4):79-94.
Ouma JO, Olang LO, Ouma GO, Oludhe C, Ogallo L, Artan G. "Magnitudes of Climate Variability and Changes over the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya between 1961 and 2013 Period." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):27-39. Abstractmagnitudes_of_climate_variability_and_changes_over_the_arid_and_semi-arid_lands_of_kenya_between_1961_and_2013_period.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

The magnitude and trend of temperature and rainfall extremes as indicators of climate variability and change were investigated in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya using in-situ measurements and gridded climate proxy datasets, and analysed using the Gaussian-Kernel analysis and the Mann-Kendall statistics. The results show that the maximum and minimum temperatures have been increasing, with warmer temperatures being experienced mostly at night time. The average change in the mean maximum and minimum seasonal surface air temperature for the region were 0.74˚C and 0.60˚C, respectively between the 1961-1990 and 1991-2013 periods. Decreasing but statistically insignificant trends in the seasonal rainfall were noted in the area, but with mixed patterns in variability. The March-April-May rainfall season indicated the highest decrease in the seasonal rainfall amounts. The southern parts of the region had a decreasing trend in rainfall that was greater
than that of the northern areas. The results of this study are expected to support sustainable pastoralism system prevalent with the local communities in the ASALs.

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
S P, Simiyu BN, JY S, K T, FI W, KG DL, GES D, LV I. "Management of Mandibular Lateral Incisors with Vertucci Type II Canal Configuration." Journal of the Endodontic Society of the Philippines . 2018;11:19-23.
Amadi JA, Ong'amo GO, Olago DO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2018.
Stephen F Omondi, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New Forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
and Abok O. Elisha, Okoth W. Michael. KCANOB. "Microbiological Quality and Contamination Level of Water Sources in Isiolo County in Kenya." Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2018;2018:1-10.
Karibe, Wilson G. KCIJNK. "Microbiological Status of Ready to Eat (RTE) Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions. ." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 2018;78:7-16.
Erastus Mulinge, Japhet Magambo DOSNEZCM, Dorothy Kagendo, Francis Addy DEMWPKTR. "Molecular characterization of Echinococcus species in dogs from four regions of Kenya." Veterinary parasitology. 2018;255:49-57.
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Okoth S, Saeger SD, Njobeh P. "Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer." International journal of food microbiology. 2018;270:22-30.
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
Awori M, Mutwiri R, Mutunga W, Jowi S, Peninan K, Mang’usu O. "Neonatal Ebstein’s Anomaly: Surgical Decision Making." Annals of African Surgery. 2018;15(1):40-43.ebsteins_anomaly-case_report-surgical_decision_making-awori-_2018.pdf
Mwangi M, Njoroge P, Chira R, Gichuki N. "Nest food provisioning in the Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea does not vary with parental sex differences and time of day." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2018;38(2):7-15.
and Mochoge GKBNO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
and Mochoge GKBNO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2018;9(1):: NU 20198-20203 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/01/403.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study ." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review . 2018. Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) constitute physical, sexual, social or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Many researchers have observed that intimate partner violence is directly associated with negative maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess nurse’s perception on non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant women. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and a Likert scale was used to collect quantitative data. A structured interview schedule was used to gather qualitative data. 125 nurses and midwives were voluntarily recruited for this study. The results of this study showed that 52% (n=65) of the respondents had worked for more than 12 years and a majority (62.6%, n=77) were community health nurses. The nurses perceived that non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant was because of various barriers. Majority (n=86, 69.9%) agreed that the reason why they did not disclose IPV was because the abused survivor would still stay with the abuser after disclosure, and 66.7% (n=82) agreed that stigmatizing attitudes towards the IPV survivors from the society prevented disclosure. About 65.3% of the respondents agreed that survivors are not aware of their rights in regard toIPV reporting and that survivor’s view IPV abuse as normal. The results from this study point to the need of addressing barriers that emanate from the survivors of IPV themselves if IPV screening is to be achieved.
Key words: Nurse, Perception, Non-disclosure, Intimate Partner Violence, Pregnant women, Screening

Pokhariya GP, Kikechi CB, Simwa RO. "On Local Linear Regression Estimation of Finite Population Totals in Model Based Surveys." American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 2018;7((3)):92-101 . Abstracthttp://thescipub.com/journals/ajas

In this paper, nonparametric regression is employed which provides an estimation of unknown finite population
totals. A robust estimator of finite population totals in model based inference is constructed using the procedure of local linear
regression. In particular, robustness properties of the proposed estimator are derived and a brief comparison between the
performances of the derived estimator and some existing estimators is made in terms of bias, MSE and relative efficiency.
Results indicate that the local linear regression estimator is more efficient and performing better than the Horvitz-Thompson
and Dorfman estimators, regardless of whether the model is specified or mispecified. The local linear regression estimator also
outperforms the linear regression estimator in all the populations except when the population is linear. The confidence
intervals generated by the model based local linear regression method are much tighter than those generated by the design
based Horvitz-Thompson method. Generally the model based approach outperforms the design based approach regardless of
whether the underlying model is correctly specified or not but that effect decreases as the model variance increases.
Keywords: Nonparametric Regression, Finite Population Totals, Local Linear Regression, Robustness Properties,
Confidence Intervals, Model Based Surveys

Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Use of Z-Scores to Preserve the Pulmonary Valve Annulus During Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2018;9(3):285-288.tet_z-score_of_tap_use_-awori-2018.pdf
AO 59. O, P W, LW G. "Oral Health status and oral health related quality of life of adults patients at Mathari Hospital Dental Unit." Academic Research journal ofmulti-displinary. 2018;5(4):117-130.
FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "The Parenting Environment in the Contemporary Agĩkũyũ Community of Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2018;8(8):138-151.prof_wachege_and_rugendo - 3rdarticle.pdf
Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Participatory scenario development process in addressing potential impacts of anthropogenic activities on the ecosystem services of MT. Marsabit forest, Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14(April 2018):e00402. AbstractFull Text

The Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR), a green island in an arid environmental setting, generates multiple ecosystem goods and services (ES) to the local community critical for their livelihoods. The forest has been experiencing substantial land conversion for town expansion, agriculture production and settlements threatening long-term ES provision. Sustaining the forest ES under increasing anthropogenic pressures is one of the great challenges of the Marsabit forest community. We used focus group discussions in the thirteen locations around the forest and individual key informant's interviews in the identification of drivers of change and their potential impacts on ES in MFR. We used the scenario development process (SDP) in coming up with four divergent but plausible exploratory scenarios. The study established that the main ES provided by the forest was, water, fuelwood, forage (dry season grazing resource), medicinal plants and timber for construction. Stakeholders identified population pressure, unsustainable utilisation of forest resources, institutional barriers to effective resource management, land use and climate change as the main drivers impacting ES provision in the forest. Land use change and climate change were considered the most significant drivers yet the most uncertain in the future impacting ES provision in the MFR. The SDP identified four alternative future scenarios for the MFR by the year 2043 with the Marsabit we want scenario identified as the most desirable future for the sustainable supply of ES with adequate adaptation to observed changes. Stakeholders came up with a joint action plan implementation matrix for the identified scenario while mitigating the negative aspects of the alternative scenarios. The results support the need for participatory land use planning that takes into to account the growing threat of climate change to natural forest systems.

Muhati GL, Olaka L, Olago D. "Participatory scenario development process in addressing potential impacts of anthropogenic activities on the ecosystem services of MT. Marsabit forest, Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14:e00402. AbstractFull Text

The Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR), a green island in an arid environmental setting, generates multiple ecosystem goods and services (ES) to the local community critical for their livelihoods. The forest has been experiencing substantial land conversion for town expansion, agriculture production and settlements threatening long-term ES provision. Sustaining the forest ES under increasing anthropogenic pressures is one of the great challenges of the Marsabit forest community. We used focus group discussions in the thirteen locations around the forest and individual key informant's interviews in the identification of drivers of change and their potential impacts on ES in MFR. We used the scenario development process (SDP) in coming up with four divergent but plausible exploratory scenarios. The study established that the main ES provided by the forest was, water, fuelwood, forage (dry season grazing resource), medicinal plants and timber for construction. Stakeholders identified population pressure, unsustainable utilisation of forest resources, institutional barriers to effective resource management, land use and climate change as the main drivers impacting ES provision in the forest. Land use change and climate change were considered the most significant drivers yet the most uncertain in the future impacting ES provision in the MFR. The SDP identified four alternative future scenarios for the MFR by the year 2043 with the Marsabit we want scenario identified as the most desirable future for the sustainable supply of ES with adequate adaptation to observed changes. Stakeholders came up with a joint action plan implementation matrix for the identified scenario while mitigating the negative aspects of the alternative scenarios. The results support the need for participatory land use planning that takes into to account the growing threat of climate change to natural forest systems.

Ouma DO, Cyril NO, Mutave RJ. "Pathological Findings on Dental Panoramic Tomograms of Edentulous Patients Seen at a University Hospital." Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science. 2018;3:025-028.
Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Dzupire NC, Ngare P, Odongo L. "A Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data." Journal of Probability and Statistics. 2018;2018(1012647). AbstractA Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data

Rainfall modeling is significant for prediction and forecasting purposes in agriculture, weather derivatives, hydrology, and risk and disaster preparedness. Normally two models are used to model the rainfall process as a chain dependent process representing the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. Such two models help in understanding the physical features and dynamics of rainfall process. However rainfall data is zero inflated and exhibits overdispersion which is always underestimated by such models. In this study we have modeled the two processes simultaneously as a compound Poisson process. The rainfall events are modeled as a Poisson process while the intensity of each rainfall event is Gamma distributed. We minimize overdispersion by introducing the dispersion parameter in the model implemented through Tweedie distributions. Simulated rainfall data from the model shows a resemblance of the actual rainfall data in terms of seasonal variation, means, variance, and magnitude. The model also provides mechanisms for small but important properties of the rainfall process. The model developed can be used in forecasting and predicting rainfall amounts and occurrences which is important in weather derivatives, agriculture, hydrology, and prediction of drought and flood occurrences.

Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Ongeso A, Omoni G. "Predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals." International Journal for Science and Technology.. 2018;3 No 1(ISSN: 2415-6566). Abstract

In Kenya, there is limited empirical data on determinants of seropositivity in late pregnancy due to low uptake of HIV retesting in late pregnancy despite there being a policy directive to do so. Study objective was to determine the predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals. A ten month longitudinal study was conducted employing both qualitative and quantitative design whereby 1,156 HIV positive and negative women were recruited in early pregnancy and followed up through pregnancy; they were interviewed, and retested.
Results showed that having multiple sex partners was associated with seropositivity. Cultural belief of men not having sex spouses in pregnancy encouraged extra marital affairs leading to seropositivity. In conclusion HIV seropositivity in pregnancy was mainly due to the risky sexual behavior. There is therefore need for behavior change to reverse retrogressive cultural beliefs and practices.

Key words Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Initial testing HIV Seropositivity HIV seroconversion Retesting

and Odundo Paul Amollo GKLNB. "Preparation and Management of Teaching Practice Process at University of Nairobi, Kenya: Appropriateness of Methods and Resource. ." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2018;5(17).
Odongo DO, Tiampati CM, Mulinge E, Mbae CK, Bishop RP, Zeyhle E, Magambo J, Wasserman M, Kern P, Romig T. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya." Parasitology research. 2018;117(7):2065-2073.
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under-five children in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2018;20(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated with malaria infection among children underfive years in Huye district, Rwanda.

Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2016 among underfive years children. Asymptomatic children underfive years of age were randomly selected from 13 villages. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared from each child for malaria parasite diagnosis. Interviews with parents or guardians were conducted to collect data on malaria associated risk factors. Observations were made of the presence of mosquito breeding sites near and around the homestead.

Results: A total of 222 children were included in the study. Nearly a third (28.8%) of the children were within the age of 25-36 months. The majority (54%) of the children were females. Most of the parents/guardians were married (95.9%), nearly all (99.5%) had attended primary school and most (97.3%) were peasants. The overall Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in children was 12.2%. Children aged 1 to 12 months were 3.5 times more likely to have malaria parasites than children aged 13 to 59 months [AOR=3.56; 95%CI=1.18-10.71; p=0.024]. Children who were not sleeping under insecticide treated nets were 15 times more likely to be infected with malaria parasites compared to those who were sleeping under nets [AOR=15.27; 95%CI=4.42-52.82; p<0.001].

Conclusion: Malaria parasite prevalence in under-five year children in Huye District, Rwanda is moderate. The asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in the area. Young age of the child and not sleeping under mosquito net were associated with malaria parasite infection. The continuing use of mosquito nets needs to be emphasized.

Habib A, Odhiambo A, Othieno-Abinya N, Maina JMD. "Prevalence of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients Admitted to the Medical Wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2018;2(2):50-56. Abstract

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of DVT in cancer patients at KNH medical and oncology wards, to describe patient characteristics of those with DVT vs those without and compare rates of DVT in different types of cancer. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital general medical wards and oncology wards. Patients were interviewed and examined. Patients’ records were perused for information relevant to the study. Patients with history and physical examination findings suggestive of a thrombotic event were screened by compression sonography to confirm a DVT. A total of 266 patients with a diagnosis of cancer were studied, 29 (10.9%) had DVT. Among the patients who were found to have DVT, 13 (44.8%) had gynaecological cancers, 3 (10.3%) breast cancer, 3(10.3%) prostate cancer, 3(10.3%) gastric cancer, 2(6.9%) patients had lymphoma and a patient (3.4%) each in the multiple myeloma, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer groups. Some significant patient characteristics in the patients who had a DVT were female sex (P value 0.014), presence of comorbidities (P 0.004) and ECOG scores of 3 and 4 (P 0.04, 0.001). Some common risk factors known for DVT were analysed and some were found to be significant in our patient group. Of the significant risk factors,
presence of comorbid condition, female sex and higher ECOG scores were noted. Keywords: DVT, VTE, ECOG, Comorbidities, Kenyatta National Hospital
Venous thromboembolic events in cancer are quite common and are a leading cause of morbidity, delays in care and death. As cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the risk of DVT depends on cancer types and stages, treatment
measures, and patient-related factors

Wambui A, ODHIAMBO A, Achieng L, Otieno CF, Bhatt SM. "Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Human 
Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Persons at District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):70-75.vitamin_d_deficiency_in_hiv.pdf
Kalai JM, Kingi PM. "Principals’ influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary Schools, Kenya,." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;5(2):168-175.
Wachege PN, Mulunda JB. "Problems between Migrant Ethnic Groups and Indigenous Agikuyu Community in Ruaka, Kiambu County." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;23(1):76-87.wachege_and_bukokhes_2018_article.pdf
"Profile of amblyopia at Sabatia Eye Hospital." Journal of Eastern central and southern college of Ophthalmology. 2018;22(1):24-30.profile_of_amblyopia_in_sabatia.pdf
Oluoch KR, Okanya PW, HATTI-KAUL RAJNI, MATTIASSON BO, Mulaa FJ. "Protease-, Pectinase- and Amylase- Producing Bacteria from a Kenyan Soda Lake." The Open Biotechnology Journal. 2018;12:33-45.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2018;17:330. Abstract

Background:
Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world’s malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities. Sampling of anti-malarial medicines from public and private hospitals, health centers and pharmacies was conducted between May and June 2014. Quality control tests were performed at the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, University of Nairobi, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. A test for microbial load was also conducted for suspension formulations.

Results:
A total of 39 samples were collected from public and private facilities across the Embu County. A visual inspection of the medicines showed no signs of sub-standard or falsification. All ACT passed identification, assay and dissolution tests. Of 11 suspension samples collected, none failed the microbial load test although one sample had 50 colony forming units (cfu). No oral artemisinin monotherapy medicines were encountered during the survey. Amodiaquine and chloroquine monotherapy products accounted for 5% of the collected samples, despite their ban in Kenya. Two herbal anti-malarial formulations were collected during the survey. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was also found to be available use for malaria treatment, not in accordance with malaria treatment guidelines.

Conclusion:
All the anti-malarial drugs analysed in this study passed the quality control tests. This is encouraging given the high malaria burden in Kenya. Regulatory actions are required to counter SP and herbal products for malaria treatment.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractWebsite

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractFull Text

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Kaniu MI, Angeyo HK, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." J. Environ. Radioact.. 2018;188:47-57. Abstract

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Ogilo Fredrick, Omwoyo Jeremiah ZO3. "The Relationship between Liquidity Risk and Failure of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Universal Journal of Accounting and Finance . 2018;6(1)(2018):7-13.
Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
Onyambu1* CK, Tharamba2 NM. "Screening for congenital fetal anomalies in low risk pregnancy: the Kenyatta National Hospital experience." BMC pregnancy and child birth. 2018;18(180):1-9.
M.E Y, Kimani PM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Muthomi JW. "Screening Upland Rice Genotypes for Grain Yield and Grain Quality in Kenya." Research journali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2018;5(7):1-15.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Seasonal dynamics and alternate hosts of thrips transmitted Iris yellow spot virus in Kenya." African Crop Science Journal . 2018;26(3):365-376.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa MW, Olubayo FM. "Seed Potato Production Practices and Quality of Farm Saved Seed Potato in Kiambu and Nyandarua Counties in Kenya." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Oyiro P, Mwanda W, Odhiambo A, Ogutu E, Otieno CF, Abdalla F. "Serum Ferritin Levels In Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):31-40.serum_ferritin_sickle_cell_knh.pdf
Wanjohi LM, Moturi CA. "Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. Oxfordshire: CAB International; 2018.
Muia D, Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Social Capital as a Coping Mechanism for Women Small Scale Traders in the Informal Economy in Nairobi, Kenya ." Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights . 2018;6(1):13-20.
P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Mbau JS, Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." . Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2).
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Status of e-learning Quality in Kenya: Case of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Postgraduate Students." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2018;19(1). AbstractFull text Link

There is a substantial increase in the use of learning management systems (LMSs) to support e-learning in higher education institutions, particularly in developing countries. This has been done with some measures of success and failure as well. There is evidence from literature that the provision of e-learning faces several quality issues relating to course design, content support, social support, administrative support, course assessment, learner characteristics, instructor characteristics, and institutional factors. It is clear that developing countries still remain behind in the great revolution of e-learning in Higher Education. Accordingly, further investigation into e-learning use in Kenya is required in order to fill in this gap of research, and extend the body of existing literature by highlighting major quality determinants in the application of e-learning for teaching and learning in developing countries. By using a case study of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), the study establishes the status of e-learning system quality in Kenya based on these determinants and then concludes with a discussion and recommendation of the constructs and indicators that are required to support qualify teaching and learning practices

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