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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Peak Revision Mathematics.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "PhD RESEARCH ON: ."; Submitted. Abstract
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ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis {NEGATIVE} {FEEDBACK} {MECHANISMS} {Control} of body temperature.; Submitted. Abstract

Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS Control of body temperature

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Population policy Guidelines for the National Council on Population and Development (NCPD), GoK, April 1983 - (now Sessional Paper No. 4 of 1984) - was a Member of the Task Force.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; Submitted. Abstract
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A. EO. "The Post-Colonial Historiography of Kenya." University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Preliminary Suggestions on the implementation of the Land Section of Chapter five of the Constitution of Kenya through Research and Training.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
The New Constitution of Kenya, Chapter five states that land in Kenya will be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. The construction also sets out a number of principles, which will be implemented through a national land policy that developed and reviewed regularly by the government and through legislation. The National Land Policy for Kenya is Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, it presents the issues and policy recommendations that were identified, analyzed and agreed by stakeholders. The sessional paper forms the foundation upon which administrative and legislative framework will be built. This is the framework that will drive the critically required land reforms for Kenya. This paper gives a detailed outline of the training and capacity building and research requirements in land management and administration. Its main emphasis being the setting up of a Land Policy research Centre in the light of the new institutional framework suggested in chapter 5 of the Constitution of Kenya and the Sessional paper No.3 of 2009. A suitable land policy centre will undertake research and training for the National Land Commission, in the light of the suggested functions. The paper concludes by suggesting the training and research programmes fro governments and individuals in Kenya and within the continent on land.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Preparation (with others) of an Urban Development Plan for Ruiru Town.". In: Winrock International, Morrilton, U.S.A. EAMJ; Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani ; Stephen Kainga; Prof. Simon Kangethe; Diana Mwarania - PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING.". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani RE - DISCOVERING THE CHRISTIAN NURSE.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

The old nurse was there during the colonial  era. They were trained mainly by missionaries who were Christians. Therefore, they had the discipline and the Christian foundation principles. The joy of a Christian institution like Kijabe is that it still has that foundation. So all is not lost. We have to make sure that the lost PASSION, LOVE & CARE are back in the nursing profession. We have to restore that passion. That idea or feeling

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna Karani Facing Today.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

A leader is one who has the  Vision to see, Faith to believe, Will to learn, Humility to serve, Courage to do, Resilience to rise up in times of knock downs. What  is leadership? The ability to get things done through people.  What challenges have you encountered in leadership as you work? How have you overcome these challenges? What sets you apart from everybody else? What is it that you do differently from the nurse of to-day? It is your leadership. The way you do things for the community you serve. The commitment to serve selflessly. The way you are disciplined. It is not just money.  We all want to learn how to become more effective leaders in providing health care to the  community. We have to prepare for many challenges with the advanced technology, rapid development, and fast changing health systems, emerging diseases, rising poverty, hard economic times, changing social systems, Education , political , environment, climate among many others that affect the communities we serve. Facing Today

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe, Mr. Johannes Njagi, Njoka ,Media Resources in Medical Education: Critical issues and factors to consider in instructional media development in the training of health professionals.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; Submitted. Abstract

 Media resources are critical component in teaching and learning process. Studies indicate that media resources provide the substitute for direct learning experiences during instruction and enable educators to present the learners with the requisite experience necessary for the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.The researchers set out to explore the philosophical, psychological and educational basis that provides guidelines on the development of media resources in the effective education and training of health professionals. Methodology was a historical critique of information from books, journals,magazines and internet on media resources in Medical education.  The findings indicate that the process of media resources development and administration is highly creative venture according to Mason (1977).plan, prepare, present, preview and follow up activities after use of equipment. Therefore educators must be able to demonstrate these issues when developing and administering them. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Karani Anna : NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

MWANIA MJM, GATARI MJ, MAINA MDM, KINYUA R. "Recycled waste plastics composite: Possible construction material for wind turbine blades." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Electrical power supply in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is expensive and very low, and most families have no chance of accessing clean lighting and cooking power. Off grid systems are the best viable solution in SSA and wind energy has a potential. However, the components …

JAMES DRMWAURA, JAMES DRMWAURA, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Relationship between Psychoactive Substance use and High-risk Sexual Practices of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal volume 33. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Religion and Societal Harmony in Africa: The case of Dialogue, Dialogue & Alliance, Vol. 2 No. 4.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; Submitted. Abstract
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Ndurumo MM. "Research Methods: A thesis building skills Approach." Nairobi: Longhorn; Submitted. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials For earthen Dams and Embankments.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; Submitted. Abstract
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OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Revenue Autonomy and Property Taxation in Anglophone East Africa: Opportunities, Emerging Trends and Challenges.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; Submitted.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "A Review of Spectral Line Shapes and Widths in Plasmas.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "River Pollution profile: A case Study of Thika River. Proceedings of National Seminar on Technological Solutions for Economic Development in Kenya now and in the 21st Century,.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

MULU NATHANIEL. "Rock art sites of Wajir and Laikipia Districts." For International News on Rock Art (INORA); Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal - KNJ Vol. 41(2) 65-67. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Medical Educators,  spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

NYABOKE DROBAEMOSOTIROSE. "Rose Mosoti-Obae, Achieving full enrolment in Kenya. A projection by Dr. Gravinir and R. Mosoti Obae.: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1.". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1. Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
Most economically developing countries, after having implemented the democratization of primary education, are now setting their sights on the goal of achieving full enrolment in countries a gradual approach of increasing enrolment annually into secondary schools is perhaps the only realistic option available. This study attempts to project, given this gradual approach, in how many years full enrolment will be achieved not only in each of the 6 provinces in Kenya but also in Kenya as a whole. The results obtained show two distinct categories of provinces: the educationally advantaged provinces which are likely to achieve full enrolment about twenty years before the group of educationally disadvantaged provinces do so.
Ambuko J, Amwoka E, Hutchinson M, Chemining’wa G, Kunyanga C, Mburu J, Owino W. "RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345), 2018, No. 17 (2): 153-162. Available from http://repository. ruforum. org.". Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A static dynamic model for densification of geodetic networks.". In: Allgemeine Vermessungs Nachrichten, International Edition, 1. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: Asynchronous Content Development Workshop,Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya,31st March 2004. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted.
OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. "Subversion of Patriarchal Ideology: A Case Study of Magdalene, a Woman Oral Narrative Performer from the Samburu of Kenya.". In: Research In African Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring 2009). Indiana University Press; Submitted. Abstract

This paper is based on narrative performances collected in research by students of the University of Nairobi under the guidance of their lecturers. The fieldwork was conducted in February 2005 among nomadic communities in northern Kenya. The main thrust of the paper is to explore how Magdalene, a woman narrator, subverts the dominant masculine ideology inherent in the structure and orientation of oral narratives. The paper identifies the discrete and subtle ways in which the narrator seeks to undermine the manifest inclination of oral narratives towards male dominance. Considering that oral literature is a crucial tool in shaping the world view of a community (especially children), and bearing in mind that women artists perform many of the oral narratives, the imperceptible but subversive potential of such narration becomes even clearer.

CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics Guides1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.E.A.E.P.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 E.AE.P.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of vernolamides from vrnonia galamensis oil under varied conditions and their anti-microbial activities.". In: Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. M.N. Mbugua, A.O. Yusuf, B.M Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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OTIENO DRJOWI. "Teaching in Communication.". In: Seminar paper presented at staff Development seminars at the Kenya Institute for Monetary Studies, Nairobi and organized by the University of Nairobi. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24).; Submitted. Abstract

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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Management of Inflation." This article discusses the effects of inflation in the process of making investment decisions, arranging for the required finances and formualting divided decisions. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.(Pages 16 - 18). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Management of Inflation." This article discusses the effects of inflation in the process of making investment decisions, arranging for the required finances and formualting divided decisions. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.(Pages 16 - 18).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Traditional Quantum Mechanics vs. Local Hidden vs, Local Hidden Variables.". In: Nuovo Cimento. 8. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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Mutua M, Kinuthia W, Otieno NE, Muriuki JM, Lange CN, Muchai M, Ingrisch S, Oyieke H, Lampe KH. "Type specimen of the insect order Coleoptera in the scientific collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.". Submitted. Abstract
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Bulimo W. Uniprot Protein Sequences.; Submitted. Abstract
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B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady Magneto-hydrodynamic Channel flow of a Dusty Rivlin Erictiuon fluid.". In: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Sofia, ,X, NO.3. Materials Research Society; Submitted.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady Magneto-hydrodynamic flow of Dusty fluid through a Channel.". In: International Symposia in Mathematics, B.H.U. (INDIA). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady Magneto-hydrodynamic fluid flow through a Channel.". In: J. of Scientific Research, B.H.U. (INDIA), Vol. XXVIII (2). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady motion of a conducting fluid through a square Channel under Transverse Magnetic field.". In: International Symposia in Mathematics, Banaras Hindu University (INDIA). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Upflow Filters in Flocculation and Direct Filtration of Waters of High Turbidity; Ph.D. Thesis,.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38 (1) 55-59. Dr. Onditi Elias G.D, Prof. Anna K. Karani & Prof. Simon Kangethe; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Utrasound  technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%.Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology. 

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
O. KG. "Water Resources.". Submitted. Abstract
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M DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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for History {C, Media} N. Zotero {Quick} {Start} {Guide}.; Submitted. Abstract
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WHO. {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness.; Submitted. Abstract

WHO fact sheet on blindness and visual impairment providing key facts, definitions, causes, who is at risk, global and WHO response.

Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Biesalski HK. " http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643811002659 http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/17023 .". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.

with and SH, Brouder A-M. " `Food Safety Requirements and Food Exports from Developing Countries: The Case of Fish Exports from Kenya to the European Union’ ." American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Submitted;82(5) Number 5, :1159-1169.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. "7) Kenyan Courts and Politics of the Rule of Law in the Post-Authoritarian State ." EAST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Submitted;18(357 ):2.
MWANGI MUREITHISTEPHEN. "Aboveground net primary productivity in grazed and ungrazed pastures: Grazing optimisation hypothesis or local extinction of vegetation species. Otieno, S.G., T.J. Njoka, T.P. Young, S.M. Mureithi and Ngugi, R.K. .". In: Nature Proceedings. Afr. J. Range For. Sci.; Submitted. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbivores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also with and without mega herbivores. The findings revealed that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed control and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth polynomial degree between monthly productivity and grazing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control than in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass species level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conclude against presence of herbivore optimisation hypothesis at herbage, functional group and species level because of lack of attributable grazing effect in grazed treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungrazed treatment.

Kariuki S, Mirza N, Mitema ES, Olsvik O. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

Olsvik O, Mitema ES, Gathuma J, Mirza N. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

MUTONGA PENINAH. "Adaptation of Swahili architecture and identity, a case of Lamu and Shela." Africa Habitat Review Journal. Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
African Capacity Enhancement Programme (ACEP) leading to Post Graduate Certificate in Material Development in Open, Distance and e-Learning. African Virtual University (AVU) and Association of Colleges and Universities of Canada; Submitted.
Owakah F, Aswani DR. "African Ontology: It’s Implications on Socio-Political Development.". In: Reflections of African Societies and Development: Perspectives from African Philosophers.; Submitted.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kabwana I. Alfa na Omega (Play). Nairobi: Oxford University Press; Submitted. Abstract

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Odhiambo MA. Antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of some medicinal plants used by the Luo community of Kenya.; Submitted. Abstract

The Luo community of Kenya have traditionally used plants for treatment of various disease conditions,
some of which we now know to be caused by microbial infections. Some of these plants, namely Lannea
stuhlmanii, Carissa edulis, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Sida
cuneifolia, Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus revoilii, were studied. Their ethanol extracts were
screened for their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
and Bacillus pumulus.
Ethanolic root extract of C sumatrensis had good antibacterial activity against E. coli, while extracts of
C fragrans root bark, C edulis root, S. cuneifolia whole plant, R. revoilii tubers and leaf extract of C
sumatrensis in the same solvent had good activity against it. Activity against B. pumulus was observed in
all extracts except those of L. stuhlmanii bark and R. revoilii tubers. Good activity against S. aureus was
observed for C fragrans, S. cuneifolia and L. stuhlmanii.
R. revoihi, L. stuhlmanii, C fragrans and C edulis exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida
albicans.
Combretum fragrans bark extract had the highest overall antimicrobial activity of all the different plant
extracts examined and was subsequently chosen for further studies. All its ethanol, methanol, ethyl
acetate and chloroform extracts were found to have significant antimicrobial activity.
Combretum fragrans bark powder was found to contain saponins, cardiac glycosides, free anthraquinones
(anthracene glycosides), tannins and flavonoids. However, it had no starch nor alkaloids.
The chloroform extract of C fragrans was subjected to column chromatographic separation and
sitosterol (with stigmasterol as a minor compound) was isolated and identified. Sitosterol was shown to
have antifungal activity against C albicans and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli.
The results of this work would therefore appear to lend support to the traditional use of Lannea
stuhlmanii, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis (tineasis), Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus
revoilii in disease conditions where microbial infections may be a factor. Use of growth enhancers like
Carissa edulis in combination therapy may be justified on the basis of their immune boosting activity.

Omolo MJ. Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude On Antiretroviral Therapy Among Nursing Students.; Submitted. Abstract

Title: Assessment of knowledge and attitude on antiretroviral therapy among nursing students. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of final year nursing students at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specific Objectives were to establish the knowledge of nursing students on Anti-retroviral therapy and to determine the attitude of students towards patients who are on Anti-retroviral therapy Method: The study done at Kenyatta National hospital administered questionnaires to 150 students and 138 were found eligible. Data collected was analyzed using STATA. Results: The findings of the study showed that 39.8% of the nursing students had knowledge about Anti-Retroviral drugs; 42% of the students had some ideas while 18% of the students did not have adequate knowledge. Married and older students seemed to have better knowledge on ART compared to young and single Nurses significant at a P-value of 0.033. Attitude towards ART was positive from 34.8% of the students while 65.2% of the nursing students had not expressed their feeling. There was significant association between attitude and sex. Conclusion: This study confirmed lack of adequate knowledge on Antiretroviral therapy among newly qualified nursing students. The study recommended inclusion of HIV/AIDS based units in the basic training of nurses

Njoroge PK. Assessment of parental sex education to own adolescents among parents in a Peri urban community.; Submitted. Abstract

This was a Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of sex education to their own adolescents. The study was conducted between January and March in three divisions of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. This study area is located about 20 km from the city of Nairobi. The study population were parents with at least one child in adolescence. Depending on availability either one or both parents were included in the study. The study instrument was structured, mainly pre-coded questionnaire. The data was obtained through personal interviews conducted from house La ho u sc . The sample population was made up of 729 parents, 70.4% of whom were females. The survey found that 46.3% of parents gave sex education to their own adolescents, majority of them giving it to those of their sex only. Parents gave their adolescents sex education from a mean age (of the adolescent) of 10.33 years (SD=3.51) and the practice was associated with Parents Social, Economic and Demographic factors. 'Of these factors, knowledge that own adolescents received sex education from sources other than the parent had highest odds ratio 10R=4.l8). Age of the parent was the only other factor with odds for the practice (OR=.l.03 ). The level of sex education given to adolescents was higher for girls than for boys. The level of practice to boys was associated with age and socio-economic status (SES) inde~ of the parent. Knowledge of sex education among parents was high and associated with a parents' sex and SES index. Males scored signi ficantly higher than females and parents of Jow SES scored significantly higher than those of high SES index. The attitude to sex education was positive, with nearly all parents feeling that sex education for adolescents was appropriate and that it should be given by own parents, starting from a mean age of 10.61 years (SD=2. 84) and that it should include contraceptive education. The study recommended further studies on parents to understand why the level of practice is unmatched with the high levels of knowledge and attitude and to determine why those parents who know that their adolescents receive sex education from other sources are more likely to give sex education to their adolescents than those who did not. 'Other recommendations were: a study to assess the feasibility of using PTA' s to impart sex education to adolescents in schools, beginning Family Life education in primary schools at standard four (corresponding to age .10-11 years),and establishing of community based centres for sex education counselling for parents with adolescents and adolescents out of school.

JP E, S E, J K, LW I. "Biology of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on French Beans. ." Journal of Insect Science . Submitted.
Emelda OP, Nyambura MI, Masikini M, Emmanuel I. "Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Ethanol Chemical Sensor." Journal of Nano Research. Submitted.
Mandela P. calling sin, SIN.; Submitted.
Qureshi ZP. Case Records and Commentaries.; Submitted.
E.C. C, C.G. Gitao, Muchemi GM. "Characterisation of foot and mouth disease virus isolates from the Somali ecosystem in Kenya ." American Journal of Research Communication. Submitted;www.usa-journals.com Vol 2(5) .
E.C. C, C.G. Gitao, Muchemi GM. "Characterisation of foot and mouth disease virus isolates from the Somali ecosystem in Kenya ." American Journal of Research Communication. Submitted;www.usa-journals.com Vol 2(5) .
Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in Toposa, a pragmatic approach ." Lodz Papers in Pragmatics. Submitted;VOL. 9,2 .
MBALUKA DRMUNYAOTITUS. "Common skin diseases.". In: Journal. Child Health Dialogues; Submitted. Abstract

The chapter discusses common both infectious and non infectious skin diseases in the tropical environment in a medicine text book: Medicine: Non-communicable Diseases in Adults; which widely explores common medical diseases in the tropical setting. The chapter begins with the outline, glossary of terms and introduction to the structure and function of the skin. Skin infections are discussed under bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infestations at the end of the section.The section on Allergic or immunological disorders discusses eczema in its diversity, urticaria and adverse cutaneous drug reactions.The last section discusses acne vulgaris and the papulosquamous disorders.

Akama MK. Current pattern of road traffic accidents, maxillofacial and associated injuries in Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries sustained in Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs).
Study Area: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study including all patients involved in RTAs
brought to casualty and dental departments of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the
KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004.
Results: A total of 482 people involved in RTAs were included in the study. Four hundred and
thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries.
Nonfatal injuries. The 21-30-year-old age group was the most affected. The male to female ratio
was 4:1. Day time injuries were recorded among 60.3% of the participants. The incidence of
RTAs was highest on Fridays. There were 245 (59.5%) pedestrians and 139 (33.7%) passengers
involved. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatu) which were
responsible for 256 (62%) casualties whereas private saloon cars were involved in 150 (36.3%)
cases. Non- use of safety belts was reported in 90 (56.6%) cases whereas over-speeding was
reported by 120 (29.1 %) casualties. Alcohol use by drivers was reported in 26 (6.3%) cases
whereas vehicle defects accounted for 62 (15%) cases.Three hundred and seventy (89.6%)
casualties had soft tissue injuries (STls) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the
majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1 %) incidents of other STls than those of
the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the
casualties had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those
involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. The lower limbs were
more affected with 61 (43%) incidents followed by the upper limbs (24.6%). Pedestrians were
IX
most involved in sustaining skeletal injuries than other categories of road users.
Fatal RTAs: Sixty nine (14.3%) of the 482 participants were fatally injured. The 21-30- year-old
age group was the most affected (20%). The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Matatus and minibuses
were the leading cause of fatal accidents together having been responsible for 28 (40.6%) of
the accidents. Pedestrians (71.4%) were by far more involved than other categories of road users.
Most participants had multiple injuries with chest injuries having been the most common (50
cases). Fourty six (66.7%) victims had injuries to the head region with subdural haemorrhage
having been the commonest injury found at autopsy (47.8%). Injuries to the chest were found in
fifty (72.2%) victims whereas abdominal and limb injuries were recorded in 42 (60.9%) and 34
(49.3%) victims respectively. Head injury alone was the leading cause of death (37.7%) followed
by head and chest injuries combined (13.0%)
Conclusion: The majority of people involved in RTAs were in their third decade of life with
males having been the predominant group affected. Pedestrians were the leading casualties
amongst road users. Most of the accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles. The lower
limbs sustained most soft tissue and skeletal injuries compared to other anatomic sites other than
the craniofacial area. The leading cause of death was head injury.

Othieno CJ, Okoth RO, Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Malla LO. "Depression among university students in Kenya: Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates." Journal of affective disorders. Submitted;165:120-125. AbstractWebsite

Background Depression is a common cause of morbidity but prevalence levels among
Kenyan university students are poorly understood. A better understanding of depression and
its correlates is essential in planning for appropriate interventions in this population group.
Method A random sample of 923 University of Nairobi students (525 male and 365 female)
were interviewed using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables. Depressive
symptoms were measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression ..

Bojana Boh, David N. Kariuki AKJMSWOO. "Development of New Products: International - Un iversity - Industry Cooperation: Camomile Project." UNESCO - ICCS ; Submitted.
Jani PG, Gill H, Kotecha V. "Difficult Gallbladder Surgery, Improving Patient Outcomes Through Appropriate Surgical Decisions." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Submitted;17(1).
Birithia R;, Subramanian S;, Villinger J;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD;, Pappu HR. "Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya."; Submitted.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Peninnah M. Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens Reactions to HIV Diagnosis from Women Living with HIV in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Dr.Peninnah M.Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens; Submitted. Abstract

Background: HIV prevalence in Kenya stands at 7.8%, with women being most affected with infection rates being 2-3 times higher than that of their male counterparts.  Studies that focus on health needs of HIV-infected women in Kenya are needed and necessary. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. Methods: Narrative inquiry principles were employed to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions in April and May 2006.  Findings: Participants

Onjala J. "Economic Performance across Monetary Unions in Africa.". In: Aloysius Amin (ed) Monetary and Financial Institutions, Integration and Economic Performance in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan; Submitted.
Mbuge DO, MM K, E BKM, S M, DA M, J A. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted.
Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Mutembe N, Elly D. "Effect of Financial Literacy on Voluntary Retirement Planning Among Employees of State Corporations Under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya ." African development finance journal . Submitted;1(1):1-27 . Abstracteffect_of_financial_literacy_on_voluntary_retirement_planning_among_employees_of_state_corporations_under_the_ministry_of_health_in_nairobi_county_kenya.pdf

Purpose - The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on voluntary retirement planning among employees of state corporations under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology – This study adopted a descriptive study design and uses primary data collected using a questionnaire with a five point Likert scale on the parameters of each variable. The study applied simple random sampling technique to select respondents to participate in the study. Data is analysed using means, percentages and frequencies. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between financial literacy and voluntary retirement planning. Findings – Financial literacy was found to influence the level of voluntary retirement planning among the employees since they are able to make key decisions that involve money in such a way that there is minimal risk to them. The study also established that financial literacy has a positive impact on voluntary retirement planning, however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Implications – To boost the voluntary retirement planning process, the eventuality of retirement should be made obvious for all the employees in the Kenyan economy so as to influence peoples’ attitude and receptiveness to the process. There is therefore need to develop financial education programs that focus particularly on important financial planning aspects for employees that will help them strike a balance between consumption and saving. Value – The findings of this study would also be valuable to the Retirement Benefits Authority and the Government of Kenya in development of policies and regulations

Olang' POR. Effects of Spinal Anesthesia during Elective Caesarean Section on Neonatal outcome at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Utero-placental circulation and hence fetal well-being depends on maternal blood pressure.
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section causes sudden and severe drops in blood pressure thus
threatening fetal and neonatal acid-base balance. Several protocols have been formulated to
prevent maternal hypotension but none has been shown to totally eliminate this risk.

This was a prospective non-randomized descriptive study that adopted a consecutive sampling
method. All eligible ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and ASA II mothers slated
for elective cesarean section at the Labour Ward of The Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi
were visited in the ante-natal ward the day or night before surgery and an informed consent
obtained for inclusion in the study. Any pre-selected mother who ended up needing emergency
surgery or changed her mind about inclusion in the study was excluded. Similarly, any willing
mother who did not qualify for spinal anesthesia was excluded from the study.
A sample size of 172 cases was taken and this required approximately 15 weeks of data
collection. Maternal blood pressures were recorded every minute until delivery. Immediately
after delivery, a section of the umbilical cord was clumped with 2 clumps. Umbilical arterial and
venous blood samples were collected in heparinized syringes and taken to the laboratory within
one hour of collection and analyzed for blood gases and pH as a measure of foetal! neonatal
compromise. Apgar scores were also noted at birth and after 5 minutes and later correlated with
the cord blood gas analyses and maternal blood pressures.
The anesthesia provider was requested to complete a data sheet which was then collected by the
principal investigator on the same day the surgery was performed.
Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0 and presented in the form of tables,
graphs and charts.

A total of 172 patients were successfully recruited into the study and the total number of
umbilical cord blood samples analyzed (both arterial and venous) was 316. 28 blood samples
clotted and were not available for analysis.
43 babies (27.2%) were born with neonatal acidemia defined as umbilical arterial blood pHS 7.2.
There was, however, no significant relationship between neonatal acidemia and low Apgar
scores; neither was there a significant relationship between low Apgar scores and maternal
hypotension. 104 patients (65.8%) had a wedge inserted under the right hip as recommended for
prevention of aorto-caval compression. There was, however, no significant difference in the
incidence of maternal hypotension among those with a wedge and those without. Vasopressors
were used in 84 patients (53.2%). These included the use of ephedrine alone or epinephrine
alone or a combination of the two in the process of treating or preventing maternal hypotension.
The use of Va sopressors resulted in significantly fewer incidences of hypotension (p=0.018). The
use of preload with crystalloids before induction of spinal anaesthesia was noted to be
significantly related to the use of Vasopressors whenever the volume of preload was less than
500mls (p=0.027). Similarly, maximum levels of spinal block above T6 resulted in significant
incidences of maternal hypotension (p=O.OO1). Maternal height < 155cm did not have any
significant effect on the incidence of maternal hypotension.

Maternal hypotension can lead to poor neonatal outcome due to its effects on placental perfusion
and hence foetal oxygenation. This study has shown that vasopressor use during spinal
anaesthesia effectively minimizes the incidence of maternal hypotension. Crystalloid preload of
over 500mls is effective in preventing or moderating maternal hypotension.
A well conducted spinal anaesthetic for caesarean section with meticulous control/management
of adverse effects results in healthy neonates and mothers

Nyabul P, Owakah F, Muyila JW. Elements Philosophy.; Submitted.
Thongoh MW, Mutembei HM, Mburu J, Kathambi BE. "Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Livestock Value Chain Actors on Climate Smart Agriculture/Livestock (CSA/L) in Kajiado County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. Submitted;39(4):134-148.
Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
D.N. Kariuki PMC. Explore Chemistry, Form 4.; Submitted.
Janet Muhalia Chumba, Andanje Mwisukha RMK. "Extent of public support for physical education in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. Submitted;4(10). Abstract

Abstract The mass media have a fundamental role to play in the development of Sports.
Their contribution towards uplifting performance and popularizing sports is particularly
critical in the developing countries where sports programmes tend to receive minimal
attention and resource allocation. The mass media are important tools for marketing,
publicizing and popularizing sports. Their specific roles include bringing talent into the
limelight, giving recognition/appreciation to outstanding sports personalities and ...

Munyoki JM,, Kibera FN, Ogutu M. "Extent To Which University- Industry Linkage Exists In Kenya: A Study Of Medium And Large Manufacturing Firms In Selected Industries In Kenya." Business Administration and Management . Submitted;Vol 1(4):163-169, .
Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
Indalo DM. Factors Affecting Patients Retention And Defaulter Rates In An Anti-retroviral Therapy Program.; Submitted. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to determine patients' retention and associated factors in the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) program. Specifically, it establishes factors that contribute to patients' retention and recommends the appropriate strategies that enhance sustainable retention of patients in the ART program. The case studies were carried out at Kibera Community Based Health Care project/clinic - AMREF intervention area in Kibera slum
A descriptive cross-sectional method was employed aimed at collecting information from the patients in the program through random sampling, while stratified sampling was used to pick on defaulters, who were traced by Community Health Workers as well as key informants. A representative sample constituted 357 patients in the ART program, 27 defaulters and 8 Health Care Providers of the total population of patients in the program. Quantitative data was collected using a standardized questionnaire administered to the study participants in the program and defaulters. Qualitative data
was obtained through; focus Group Discussion and Key informants interviews. Ethical consideration and risk to human subjects was put into consideration, through provision of willing consent and confidentiality upheld at all times.
The study reveals that AMREF in Kenya, Kibera project continues to playa leading role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. A majority of the respondents (69%) confirmed to have disclosed their HIV status to someone while 31% were categorical that they have not disclosed their status to anyone. It is imperative to point out that disclosure levels were high (88%) amongst respondents in the 51-55 years age group and closely followed by those in the 41-45 years age group (77%). The study also found out that 49.5% of the respondents were on the affirmative that indeed they find it easy discussing their challenges with their clinicians, while 50.5% noted that they do not find it easy. It is
interesting to observe that the challenges of side effects related to ARV are more pronounced amongst those who skip appointments at the clinic compared to stigma and lack of food. A considerable number (15%) of the respondents noted that they like the clinic as it provides free ARVs while 4% lauded the good counseling services offered at the clinic. Some 3% liked the facility as it was near to their areas of residence. Asked to state the reasons why they would prefer other ART clinics, most of the respondents (63%) pointed to the distance from their areas of residence, 14% made reference to the quality of services while 8% explained that they would prefer other clinics if they offer food supplements as part of the program.
In conclusion psycho-social counseling appeared the most preferred service in the facility, it enforces adherence to medication and also reduces stigma related condition among the patients and those around them. MSF Belgium clinics were most preferred clinic in Kibera slum; AMREF Kibera project management should consider exchange visits to their sites and learn from each other. The study detects that there is a cross cutting call from the study approach that an ideal ART programme should provide comprehensive care and support (37%) and offer free medical care (15%) to enhance
accessibility besides integrating PTC (7%) among others as captured from the interviews with defaulters. Service delivery it was suggested should also be done professionally without unethical and coercive practices such sexual harassment among other malpractices that accentuate default.
AMREF Kibera project should consider to networking and collaborating with other organizations that are working in informal settlement to learn and share best practice to enhance adherence to ART care. Address the attitude of health care providers in the facility through trainings, supervision and assessment of care. The project should also review its approach to ART care and through operation research to boost ART care in marginalized communities in the informal settlements.

Mbunya NN. Factors hindering paediatric ward nurses from using nursing care plans at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Factors Hindering Paediatric Ward Nurses from Using Nursing Care Plans at Kenyata
National Hospital (KNH)
BACKGROUND: Documentation is an essential and integral part of quality nursing care.
A nursing care plan best suits this purpose because it combines holistic and scientific
approach to patient care. Further, it communicates and supports continuity of care though
minimally used by nurses.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to identify factors hindering paediatric nurses from using
nursing care plans.
METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2007
at KNH. It used a random sample of 7 in-charge and 100 non in-charge nurses who filled a
self-administered close-ended questionnaire. Pearson product-moment correlation was used
to assess the association between variables with a P value set at 0.05.
RESULTS: Only 2% nurses were utilizing care plans. The characteristics of the nurse (i.e.
age: r = .026, p= .796 ; qualification: r = .007 , p= .941 and years of service: r = .135 , p=
.181 ), nursing work (i.e. workload: r = .099 ,p = .328 and stress: r = -.027 ,p = .786) and
nursing administration (i.e. staffing: r = .192 ,p = .680 and care plan policy: r = .277 ,p =
.547) had a non significant linear relationship with utilizing care plans. The linear
relationship between familiarity with the care plan content (r=.198, p= .049)) and its use
was statistically significant whereas ease to update a care plantr = .013, p = .897) was not.
CONCLUSION: Further research is indicated to determine hospital-specific factors
predicting non-use of care plans in order to address them with aim of popularizing their
use. This will go a long way to enrich the four main areas of nursing: Research, Education,
Administration and Teaching.

Kiseli J, Kitati EM. Factors That Affect Internal Control Systems In Public Institutions. Riga, Latv ia: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; Submitted. AbstractFactors That Affect Internal Control Systems In Public Institutions

Internal control is the process effected by an organization’s structure, to assist the organization to accomplish specific goals or objectives. It is a means by which an institution’s resources are directed, monitored and measured. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the organization’s resources. Internal Control mechanisms’ comprises of the control environment and control procedures. It includes all the policies and procedures adopted by the directors and management of an entity to help in achieving their objectives of ensuring, as far as practicable, the orderly and efficient conduct of its business, including adherence to internal policies, the safeguarding of assets, the prevention and detection of frauds and errors, the accuracy and completeness of the accounting records, and the timely preparation of reliable financial information. The internal control systems extend beyond those matters which relate directly to the accounting system. Internal control is concerned with the control operative in every area of corporate activity, as well as with the way in which individual controls interrelate.

Gathigi GW. "FM Radio Broadcasting in Local Languages Triggering Rural Empowerment in Kenya." Jahazi Arts and Culture Journal. Submitted.
Ochola EA. "Gender Differences In The Perception Of The Levels And Potential Effects Of Violence In Popular Music: A Case of University of Nairobi Students." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research,. Submitted;4(10):81-90.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstracthiv.pdf

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

Otieno-Omutoko L, Mburunga S, Pokhariyal G, Ndiritu N. "Influence of Community Equity Financing On Sustainability of Community Water Projects, In Kieni Constituency, Nyeri County, Kenya." African Journal of Project Planning and Management. Submitted.
Dadu K. Institutionalization of Participatory Design in Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research and Innovation (CURI); Submitted.
Njuru SN, Njogu PM, Mugo HN, Thoithi GN. "Is tablet splitting a potential pitfall in drug therapy? A case study of amlodipine tablets." Pharmaceut. Jour. Kenya. Submitted.
Mungai NN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Guantai AN, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "Isolation, Characterization and Antiplasmodial Activity of Phytochemical Constituents from Monanthotaxis parvifolia (Oliv.) Verdc ssp. kenyensis Verdc." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Submitted;17:87-93.abstract__mungai_et_al._2014.pdf
Onyango A. "Kaposis sarcoma in a Nairobi hospital.". Submitted.
Onyango A. "Kaposis sarcoma in a Nairobi hospital.". Submitted.
JOHN DRYABS, YABS DRJOHN. "Kenya's Role in the Implementation of Industrial Development Decate for Africa (I.D.D.A.). A Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on I.D.D.A in Addis Ababa,.". In: An Article in the Underwriter Journal. SITE; Submitted. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Rego AB. "The Kenyan Experience in Environmental Education." The Kenyan Experience in Environmental Education. Submitted.
Nyamu DG. Knowledge on diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients attending Kenyatta national hospital outpatient clinic.; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease that has significant morbidity and mortality worldwide resulting from complications arising from poor control. 1,3
There is no local data to show the level of diabetic patients' knowledge on this disease at KNH, an important aspect in DM management. In the present cross-sectional study, determination of the diabetic patient's knowledge of his/her disease was undertaken for the first time at KNH.
Study Objectives: To determine the proportion of KNH DM outpatients with adequate knowledge on the disease and to determine the level of provision of diabetic education to the DM outpatients.
Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study from September 2007 to January 2008.105 DM patients (above 18 years) who had given informed consent were interviewed to determine the level of their knowledge on OM and hence the proportion of respondents with adequate knowledge. Codes were manually assigned to all questions and the respective answers. Five randomly selected KNH OM OPO healthcare providers were also interviewed to determine the level of KNH preparedness in the provision of diabetic education to the OM outpatients. A sequential sampling procedure was used to interview the diabetic patients. Every Wednesday during the course of the study one different OM healthcare provider was picked and interviewed.
Data Analysis: The data obtained were captured using Epi-data computer software which was then exported to SPSS version 15.0 for analysis. Statistical significance was determined using the Pearson Chi Square at p<0.05, at 95% confidence limit. Results: 105 diabetic patients aged 18 years and above were interviewed; 53(50.5%) were males and 52 (49.5%) females. The age categories 18-30, 31-40,41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and above 70 years accounted forl2 (11.4%), 24 (22.9%), 21 (20.0%),21 (20.0%),22 (21.0°) and 5(4.8%) OM patients respectively. The highest education levels; College/University, Secondary, Primary and Non-formal accounted for 27(25.7%), 42(40.0%), 25(23.8%) and 11(10.5%) DM patients respectively. 52 (49.5%)patients had sufficient knowledge on the diabetes mellitus disease itself, 64(61%) on DM complications, 35 (33.3%) on DM medications, 84 (80%), on the importance of dietary control, 73 (70%) on the importance of doing exercises and 11 (10.5%) on the importance of DM Affiliate Associations.
Patients with highest academic level had the highest proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on the disease (p=O.OOO 1), dietary control (p=O.O 1) and exercise (p=0.03). Patients' age influenced the proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on OM complications (p=0.03). The study also showed that diabetic patients' education was conducted mainly verbally at OPO clinic once a week for two hours and only one healthcare provider conducted the training at each education session though the number of staff was ten. Conclusion: Patients were mainly taught verbally. Two-thirds to three-quarter of the patients had sufficient knowledge on the OM disease, importance of dietary requirements and exercise programs.90% of patients had insufficient knowledge on diabetes organizations and two-thirds on rational use of DM medications. Recommendation: Hospital's training and education on rational use of DM medications should be improved. The hospital should make the healthcare providers and the DM patients aware of the DM' associations for patients' benefit. More research involving larger samples over longer periods should be carried out in order to reflect what happens over a longer period of time.

MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute." Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Submitted. Abstract

n/a

Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kilonzo P. Matata (Play). Nairobi: E.A. E. P; Submitted.
J.S.OLIECH. "Medical Treatment on Bening Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) with Combination Drug Therapy.". In: East African Medical JOURNAL. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract

Obective:To carry out an overview of the medical treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia using the combination drugs of alpha adrenergic uro-selective blockers(tamsulocin,alfuzocin) and the 5 alpha reductase iso-enzymes 1&2 inhibitor dutasteride . Data source :Review of researches don and those ongoing especially those sponsored and financed by GlaxoSmithcline in the multicenter international control trials. Data selction: Selected data from international researches on BPH from the following research groups MTOPS,PREDICT,PLESS,VCOOP,ALFIN,DUTASTERIDE 4-DATA 2004/PHASE 111a studies,COmbAT2007,SMART-1, also from GlaxoSmithkline data files.Data Extraction:Selection of research conclusions from various researches tested for clinical use by the international researchers.Data synthesis:From these the advantages of drug compliance  on clinical use on BPH was analysed.                                                                           

Omonge E;, Kyateesa; J, Otieno FCF;, Kayima, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

2013 PMK; PS; LM-V; JK; AKADEK &. "Missed Opportunities for early HIV Diagnosis: Critical insights from the stories of Kenyan women living with HIV." International Journal of health Promotionand Education. Submitted;(10/3/2013).
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Motivational gender differences in sport and exercise participation among university sport science students." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES) . Submitted;12(2):180-187.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Chore Jane Njambi; Prof. Anna Karani Dr. Margaret Chege. Assessment of Challenges Facing Preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital Specialized Units.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Impress Communication Printers and Stationers; Submitted. Abstract

The main aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess challenges faced by preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units. The study was conducted among preceptors with more than one year experience at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units and combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using a self administered semi-structured questionnaire distributed to 113 randomly sampled preceptor nurses and an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from five unit managers. The data was coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS version 17 (qualitative data was analyzed manually).Commonly reported challenges by preceptors included; heavy patient workload 85.71%, lack of adequate resources 59.52% and a high number of students attached to a preceptor 59.52%. Chi square was used to establish relationships between variables. Motivation to serve as a preceptor was strongly associated with the number of years a participant had served as a nurse. (X=11.30; p=0.01).

P.G. J. "Mucosal changes at the oesophago-gastric junction as visualized at Endoscopy–A prospective pilot study." MEDICOM-The African Journal of Hospital Medicine . Submitted;17(1):5-8.
Parton WJ, Scurlock JMO, Ojima DS, Gilmanov TG, Scholes RJ, Schimel DS, Kinyamario JI. "Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide.". Submitted. AbstractObservations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide

Century is a model of terrestrial biogeochemistry based on relationships between climate, human management (fire, grazing), soil properties, plant productivity, and decomposition. The grassland version of the Century model was tested using observed data from 11 temperate and tropical grasslands around the world. The results show that soil C and N levels can be simulated to within ±25% of the observed values (100 and 75% of the time, respectively) for a diverse set of soils. Peak live biomass and plant production can be simulated within ± 25% of the observed values (57 and 60% of the time, respectively) for burned, fertilized, and irrigated grassland sites where precipitation ranged from 22 to over 150 cm. Live biomass can be generally predicted to within ±50% of the observed values (57% of the time). The model underestimated the live biomass in extremely high plant production years at two of the Russian sites. A comparison of Century model results with statistical models showed that the Century model had slightly higher r2 values than the statistical models. Data and calibrated model results from this study are useful for analysis and description of grassland carbon dynamics, and as a reference point for testing more physiologically based models prediction's of net primary production and biomass. Results indicate that prediction of plant and soil organic matter (C and N) dynamics requires knowledge of climate, soil texture, and N inputs.

Monyonko NM, Reid JH. "One-loop vacuum polarization in the nonlinear Re gauge." Physical Review D. Submitted;32(Number 4):962-967.
MUTONGA PENINAH. "The origin of the Swahili stone house and the dual nature of Swahili urbanism." Africa Habitat Review Journal . Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
MWANGI EN, KAAYA GP, ESSUMAN S, KIMONDO MG. "Parasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology.". Submitted. AbstractParasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology

Unfed Amblyomma variegatum F. nymphs were experimentally infected in the laboratory with a hymenopteran parasitoid, Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard). The parasitoid was originally obtained from ticks collected from cattle in the Trans-Mara area of Kenya where it naturally infects 50% of A. variegatum nymphs. In the field, nymphs collected from cattle were found to be infected, but not those collected from grass. The optimum temperature for emergence of parasitoids from the nymphs in the laboratory was 28°C, but emerged parasitoids were more active and survived longer at 22°C. There was a higher proportion of parasitoid nonemergence from laboratory-infected than from the field-infected nymphs. This study is the first record of infection of A. variegatum in the laboratory with a parasitoid. Possibilities of mass rearing and use of the parasitoid as a biocontrol agent for ticks are discussed.

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