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1985
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "ODHIAMBO, J. W. & OWINO, J. (1985): .". In: Kenya j. Sci & Tech Vol., 6 (1) pp 59-67. 1999; 1985. Abstract
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ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1985). Ultrastructural observations on the choriallantoic placenta of the golden-rumped elephant shrew, (Rhynchocyon chrysopygus). Afric. J.Ecol. 23: 155-166.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O., Patel, J.H. Kiere, S.M. and Mwangi, L. (1985).Massive obstructive urothiasis in a bull used for Artificial Insemination. Vet. Rec.117, 664 - 666.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1985. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1985. Veterinary Sanitary expertise and assessment of market value of saiga meat under .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1985. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N; Some Aspects of Dilated Cardiolomyopathy as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital with Emphasis on Echocardiographic features. M.med. Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: M.med. Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1985. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ogutu G.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Njoroge J.K. Mati J.K.G. A prospective study of dysfunctional uterine bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 4 : 23, 1985.". In: E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Oils of Local Plants that may Substitute Imported Ones".". In: POST (Kenya), X, 16-22 (1985). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Management of pain in patients with advanced gynaecological cancer. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 817-819.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Management of pain in patients with advanced gynaecological cancer. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 817-819.". In: WHO Workshop in Mombasa. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Some aspects of cervical cancer in young African women in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Some aspects of cervical cancer in young African women in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "OKOTH, M.W. & WILLIAMS, A. A potential use for solar energy in the Kenyan food processing industry. ." University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. and Standa E. (Ed.) 1985. Reports of The Kenya Non-Governmental Organization Committee Workshops.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. People\.". In: People\. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1985. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ong'are, J.O., Munyua, W.K., Wilson, A.J. and Rinkanya, F.G.R. (1985): Survey of tick resistance in Kiambu District of Kenya. A comparison of two resistance test methods. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33 (2): 89-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
D. DRONGORE. "Ongore D., 1985 Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of A Rural Population on malaria and the Mosquito Vector. MPH Thesis University of Nairobi.". In: MPH Thesis University of Nairobi. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. A Proposal of American Studies Program at University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University. American Studies in Africa, Vol. 1 No. 2 1985 (pp 21-25).". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol.IV No.1, pp. 43-58.; 1985. Abstract
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P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. Some Analysis of Marx's Interactionist Theory of De-alienation. Thought and Practice.". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol. IV, No. 1 (pp43-58).; 1985. Abstract
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EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Ontogenetical studies of the obligatory parasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni (Acarina : Mesostigmata). Bull. Zool. Soc. Egypt, 66: 5 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Orinda DAO, Ojwang SBO, Shiramba TL, Kiungu A. A clinical biochemical and histological study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hosptial. E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Orinda DAO, Ojwang SBO, Shiramba TL, Kiungu A. A clinical biochemical and histological study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hosptial. E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "OWITI, G.E.O., ODUOR-OKELO, D. & GOMBE, S. (1985). Ultrastructure of the choriallantoic placenta of the spring hare (Pedetes capensis larvallis Hollister). Afic.J. Ecol. 23: 145-152.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora and J.S. Kaminjolo. Occurence of Shigella dysenteriae - 3 in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. (1985) 33: 173-174.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.W. Maina, G.M. Mugera, J.M. Maribei and P.N. Nyaga. The control and prevention of sub-clinical mastitis in Kenya (1985). Kenya Vet. Vol. 9(2): 6-8.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N.KANYARI (1985). "Studies in goat coccidiosis: Effects of corticosteroids on natural and experimental infections". Australian Society for Parasitologists.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1985. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
B MISSREGOASSUMPTA. "Peters, F.A and Rego, A.B 19985, Geography Fieldwork 2. A Guide for Upper Forms, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Ph.D. Thesis entitled Fifth Order Rotatable Designs submitted to the University of Nairobi.". In: Kenya. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation and Access to Basic Needs in Kenya," in Franklyn Lisk, (ed.), Popular Participation in Planning for Basic Needs (Aldershot: Gower Publishing Co.).". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The potential of utilization of coffee pulp for animal feed. .". In: Symposium, Animal production Society of Kenya, Naivasha Dairy Training School. 2nd May 1985, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Primary Hyperparathytodism at KNH Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available yet
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Procedure of R.E. Curriculum Development in Kenya, Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. I No. 1.".; 1985. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "A Proposal of American Studies Program at University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University. American Studies in Africa, Vol.1, No.2 1985, pp.21-25.". In: Quarterly of Religious Studies Vol. 1 No. 3 March 1986 (pp 15-17.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Protestant christina attitudes to other religions," Christiian muslim relations: Report of a workshop held from 3rd to 5th, December 1985 at Limuru Conference & Training Centre (Nairobi, NCCK,) pp. 6-14.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1985. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Quertin - 3 -Neohesperidoside (Rutin) and other flavonoids as the active hypoglycaemic agents of Bridela ferruginea) (Addae-Mensah, Rahab W. Munenge (Fitoterapia Vol. LX, No. 4 - 1985).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Ranitidine in the treatment of peptic ulceration in Kenyans.East Afr Med J. 1985 Oct;62(10):752-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Oct;62(10):752-4. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Reshid, Kedir, and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. The influence of nutrient concentration in vines of sweet potato on dry matter accumulation in vines and tuberous roots. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 213-220.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "A Review of Structural Adjustment Programmes in Developing Countries: The Case of Kenya - under publication by International Institue for Development Studies, Perth Australia.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Ritho E.K., Bwibo N.O. and Pamba H.O.: A Survey of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in the Low Cost and High Cost Nursery Schools in Nairobi, Kenya Medcom 7: 7, 1985.". In: Kenya Medcom 7: 7, 1985. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1985. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Roche AF, Abdel Malek AK, Mukherjee D. 1985. New approaches to the clinical assessment of adipose tissue. 6th Rose Conf Med Research. Ross Lab, Columbus, OH, USA. Pp:14-19.". In: Ross Lab, Columbus, OH, USA. Pp:14-19. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rogo K.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ojwang P.J., Mati J.K.G., Njoroge J.K. The effects of Tropical conditions on male fertility indices. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:45, 1985.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:45, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The role for biotechnology in the context of food Industrial development in Kenya.". In: 28th annual conference, Food links for progress, Canadian Institute of Food Science 7 Technology (CIFost) June 23 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Said, A.N. and P. N. Mbugua (1985). Present situation of compounded feed industry in Kenya and perspectives for use of local feed resources.". In: In proceedings: FAO experts consultative meeting on animal feeds in the tropics, Bangkok, Thailand. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Section on Population Education: Social Ethics and Education Syllabus, Kenya Institute of Education 1985.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., Thuo S.J., Mati J.K.G. The use of pregnopost sticks in the detection and monitoring for treatment of Trophoblastic tumors in Kenya. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:41, 1985.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:41, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Service Centres and Rural Development in Kenya: Paper written lor the Overseas Development Agency. 1985.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1985. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Simple Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Methods for the Separation of Catechins from Fresh Tea Leaves", J.Sci.". In: Technol. (Kenya), 6, series A 119-126 (1985). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Smith, G.R., Turner, A. and Kibe, M.K. (1985). Immunogenicity of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii.". In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Some Analysis on Marx's Intertionist Theory of de-Alienation. Thought and Practice.". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol.IV No.1, pp. 43-58.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Structures Defined by a Tensor Field of type (1,1) satisfying f - f = 0.". In: Tensor (N.S.) Vol.42 No.1, pp97-100. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1985. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "A study of Cottage Industries in the Urban Informal Sector: A Case of Gikomba-Belt Neighbourhood of Nairobi, M.A.(Planning), Thesis Project Research, University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1985. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "Survey of Farming Systems in Rongai Division, Nakuru District, Kenya, 1984/85. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Wheat Production Trials in Timau, Kenya, 1984/85.". In: paper presented in Harare, Zimbambwe, June, 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Susceptibility of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici in Egypt to the organo-phosphate, methamidophos and pyridaphenthion, the synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, the chlorinated hydrocarbon, dicofol and the systemic fungicide, fenarimol (Acari : .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. 1. Abou-Awad, B. A. and El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J, Syuto B, Ochanda JO, Kubo S.Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7.". In: Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7. East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813 (C-6813) was purified 1,009-fold from the culture supernatant in an overall yield of 30%. The specific toxicity was 1.1 X 10(7) mouse minimum lethal doses per mg of protein. The toxin had a molecular weight of 144,000, composed of the light and heavy chains with molecular weights of 52,000 and 92,000, respectively, linked by one or two disulfide bond(s). The purified C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains reacted strongly with anti-type D heavy chain immunoglobulin G and anti-type C1 light chain immunoglobulin G, respectively. The amino acid compositions of C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains were more similar to those of type D heavy chain and type C1 light chain than to those of type C1 heavy chain and type D light chain, respectively. These results suggest that in the toxin produced by the type C strain at least two subtypes exist.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J., B. Syuto and S. Kubo: Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect. Immun. 48, 312-317.". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. ""The 8-4-4 Getting Down to the Real Business".". In: The Sunday Times,(Nairobi:January 13,1985),p.4. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1985. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. ""The Spatial Distribution of the Mijikenda Kaya Settlements on the Hinterland Kenya Coast", TransAfrican Journal of History. Vol.14, 1985, pp. 78-100.". In: TransAfrican Journal of History. Vol.14, 1985, pp. 78-100. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "THOUGHT AND TECHNIQUE IN THE POETRY OF OKOT P'BITEK. 1994, New York: Vintage Press, Inc. For reviews see Peter Nazareth in World Literature Today; A Literary Quarterly of the University of Oklahoma (U.S.A); Books Abroad, Summer 1984 Issue; Sammy Kwichini .". In: Published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor: MI 481061346 U.S.A. March 15, 1989. Publication No. 88-16, 106.; 1985. Abstract

This dissertation is a study of twentieth-century American novels which can be used in a course by Kenyan and other East African students and teachers. The selected novels can be studied as models for exemplification of the most significant developments and trends in longer American narrative fiction in the period covered by the study. Because of time limits and for purposes of presenting quality fictional works to be covered in one semester, eight novels were analyzed in this study. These are: Sister Carrie (1900) by Theodore Dreiser, The Great Gatsby (1925) by F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, Intruder in the Dust (1948)by J.D Salinger, Invisible Man(1952) by Ralph Ellison, Go Tell it On The Mountain(1953) by James Baldwin and Brown Girl, Brownstones(1959)by Paule Marshall. Each of the selected novels represents a component of significance in American literature during the era designated .Sister Carrie

W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Transfer of Technology in Africa: Existing Policy, Legal and Institutional Framework. A report to UNCTC, June.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1985. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Two and a half year Review of some aspects of twin delivery at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Two and a half year Review of some aspects of twin delivery at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "The use of fine needle aspiration in urological practice Medicom 1985.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1985. Abstract
No abstract yet
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "vi. The African charcoal Stove: It.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1985. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "W2-Curvature Tensor in Almost Product and Almost Decomposable Space.". In: Africa Matematika, Vol.VIII pp. 37-42. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1985. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Application of tissue culture biotechnology in horticultural production. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 131-140.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Flower bulb forcing in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae,177:255-259.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "WANAKHAMUNA AND WANANGWE A short story-Oral narrative in THE SURVIVORS edited by A.B Odaga and Hebel Andati Shiloli. Kisumu: Kenya Women Writers. Foundation ( FEMART -K), December REFEREED BY ASENATH BOLE ODAGA.". In: Published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor: MI 481061346 U.S.A. March 15, 1989. Publication No. 88-16, 106.; 1985. Abstract

This dissertation is a study of twentieth-century American novels which can be used in a course by Kenyan and other East African students and teachers. The selected novels can be studied as models for exemplification of the most significant developments and trends in longer American narrative fiction in the period covered by the study. Because of time limits and for purposes of presenting quality fictional works to be covered in one semester, eight novels were analyzed in this study. These are: Sister Carrie (1900) by Theodore Dreiser, The Great Gatsby (1925) by F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, Intruder in the Dust (1948)by J.D Salinger, Invisible Man(1952) by Ralph Ellison, Go Tell it On The Mountain(1953) by James Baldwin and Brown Girl, Brownstones(1959)by Paule Marshall. Each of the selected novels represents a component of significance in American literature during the era designated .Sister Carrie

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S., Murugu NM, Mati JKG 1985 Mortality due to Abortions at Kenyatta National Hospital 1974-1983 Abortion: Medical Progress and Social Implications Pitman, London (CIBA Foundation Symposium 115) 41-53.". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Quantitative observations on the structural characteristics of the avian kidney. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool (England).". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Stereological observations on the kidneys of 16 avian species.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N., and King, A.S. (1985. Stereological observations on the kidney of the domestic fowl. J. Anat. 142: 129-139.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. FARA; 1985. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "With D. K. Leonard, "Procedures for Decentralised Programming, Budgeting and Work Planning: Lessons from Kenya.". In: Agricultural Administration (Essex) Vol. 19, No. 3,pp. 123-137. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "With J. Barbour (Eds.) Kenyan pots and potters. Nairobi.". In: Oxford University Press. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Writing a Project Proposal".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Writing a Project Proposal".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract

 

 

Varma S. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Nairobi: Kenya Veterinary Association; 1985. Abstract
n/a
1984
Sahu BK, Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Red Coffee Soils of Nairobi.". In: 2nd International ANSTI Seminar in Civil Engineering. University of Lagos, Nigeria.; 1984.
Hale PJ, Crase J, Nattrass M. "Metabolic effects of bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.). 1984;289:1035-1038. Abstract

The effect of intravenous bicarbonate on the changes in intermediary metabolites during the initial treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis was examined in 16 patients. The results were compared with the changes seen in 16 patients receiving intravenous saline. Infusion of 150 mmol (mEq) bicarbonate significantly delayed the fall in blood lactate, lactate:pyruvate ratio, and total ketone bodies observed in the saline treated group. No difference in the rate of fall of blood glucose concentration was found. There is no metabolic indication for the use of intravenous bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Functional Approach to the Description of Morphemic Configurations of The Swahili Verbal Form.". In: Conference of the Linguistic Association for Southern Africa Development Co-coordinating Conference (SADCC) Universities. Malawi; 1984.
Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

Karani PF. "Programme Planning and Implementation.". In: Women’s Workshop in Gambia. Gambia; 1984.
Schwemer J. "Renewal of visual pigment in photoreceptors of the blowfly." Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 1984;154:535-547. AbstractWebsite

Spectrophotometric measurements of photoreceptors 1–6 in the blowfly demonstrate that rhodopsin undergoes a continuous renewal. This involves, in the dark, the slow degradation of rhodopsin whereas metarhodopsin is degraded at a much faster rate. The effect of light is to reduce the rate at which metarhodopsin is degraded, i.e. the rate is inversely related to the intensity of the light. Rhodopsin synthesis is dependent on the presence of 11-cis retinal which is formed via a photoreaction from all-trans retinal resulting from the breakdown of rhodopsin and/or metarhodopsin: the biosynthesis of rhodopsin is therefore a light dependent process. Light of the blue/violet spectral range was found to mediate the isomerization of all-trans retinal into the 11-cis form. It is proposed that this stereospecificity is the result of all-trans retinal being bound to a protein. On the basis of the results a visual pigment cycle is proposed.

Yaşargil MG. Clinical {Considerations}, {Surgery} of the {Intracranial} {Aneurysms} and {Results}. Thieme; 1984. Abstract

Clinical Considerations, Surgery of the Intracranial Aneurysma and Results

Tieman SB. "Effects of monocular deprivation on geniculocortical synapses in the cat." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1984;222:166-176. Abstract

In monocularly deprived (MD) cats, many cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) but few cells in the visual cortex respond to input from the deprived eye, suggesting that the connections to visual cortex from the deprived geniculate laminae may have been disrupted. I have examined these connections in MD cats by using electron microscopic autoradiography of visual cortex after injections of tritiated lysine into single laminae of LGN. After injections into either deprived or experienced laminae, there was label over terminals that contained mitochondria and round synaptic vesicles and that made asymmetric contacts with dendritic profiles. However, the terminals of deprived afferents differed from those of experienced afferents. They were 25% smaller, contained 33% fewer mitochondria, were more likely to make synapses that were presynaptically convex (and thus, perhaps, immature), and synapsed onto smaller spines. These morphological changes were greater for afferents to upper layer IV than for afferents to lower layer IV. The geniculocortical synapses from deprived laminae were also reduced in number. To correct for variations in injection size and for a probable reduction in protein synthesis by cells in the deprived laminae, I computed the ratio of labeled synaptic terminals to labeled myelinated axons. Injections into the deprived laminae labeled 43% fewer synaptic terminals per labeled myelinated axon than did injections into the experienced lamina. The finding that the synaptic terminals of deprived afferents are both abnormal morphologically and fewer in number can help to explain the reduced effectiveness of the deprived eye in driving cortical cells.

Sahu BK, Kimata PM, Gichaga FJ. "Compaction Characteristics of Nairobi Soils.". In: First National Conference.Sudan Engineering Society. Khartoum.; 1984.
J. M, Mbindyo JM. An Impact Study of the Effects of Grassroot Development Planning and Training on Agriculture and Health. Nairobi: Consultancy Report for Institute of Cultural Affairs; 1984.
16. Gichaga FJ, Visweswaraiya TG, Sahu BK. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials for earthen Dams and Embankments. .". In: Conference on Materials for Dams. Monte Carlo; 1984.
Perry VH, Oehler R, Cowey A. "Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey." Neuroscience. 1984;12:1101-1123. AbstractWebsite

Horseradish peroxidase was deposited in the optic nerve to retrogradely label and reveal the dendritic form of all classes of ganglion cell, or it was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to reveal only those classes projecting to the thalamus. The results were compared with those of the accompanying paper in which the ganglion cells projecting to the midbrain are selectively revealed. Two major classes of ganglion cells are described, the Pα and Pβ cells. For both classes dendritic field size increases with eccentricity from the fovea and there is no overlap in the two classes at any given eccentricity. Cell body size shows a similar mean difference but with a slight overlap. Both cell bodies and dendritic fields are larger along the temporal horizontal meridian than the nasal horizontal meridian, for Pα and for Pβ cells, but these differences are reduced when naso-temporal differences in ganglion cell density are taken into account, that is, size correlates closely with density. Injections restricted to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus labelled almost exclusively Pβ cells, whereas injections confined to the magnocellular layers labelled almost exclusively Pα cells. As midbrain injections label no Pβ cells and few Pα cells it can be shown that about 80% of ganglion cells are Pβ cells projecting to parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus, and that about 10% are Pα cells projecting to magnocellular layers. The coverage factor, that is the number of cells covering each point on the retina, varied from 1.9–2.3 for Pβ cells, and from 2–7 for Pα cells. Comparing the results with those of comparable investigations on cats and rabbits shows a much clearer segregation of the terminal targets of different classes of ganglion cell in monkeys, the greatest difference being the absence in the monkey of a projection to the geniculate from gamma- and epsilon-like cells. Further, axons which branch and innervate both thalamus and midbrain are rare in monkeys but common in other mammals. Comparing the results with those from physiological investigations suggests that the Pβ cells correspond to colour-opponent cells, whereas Pα cells correspond to the achromatic broad-band magnocellular cells.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Linguistic Interaction between Arabic and Swahili.". In: Afro-Arab Colloquium. Dakar, Senegal; 1984.
Barrett EJ, DeFronzo RA. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and treatment." Hospital Practice (Office Ed.). 1984;19:89-95, 99-104. Abstract
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Jitta JN, Wafula EM, Wasunna A. "The comatose child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1984;61(12):917-24.
Jitta JN, Wafula EM, Wasunna A. "The comatose child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1984;61(12):917-24.
"INFLUENCE OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE ON LOW COST HOUSING.". In: Built form and Culture Research Conference. University of Kansas, Lawrence, U.S.A; 1984.
Kanori JN. "Libraries and Rural development in Kenya: Problems and prospects .". In: Library Workshop. University of Nairobi; 1984.
Kibera FN. " “On Measuring Literacy”." Management Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. 1984:13-14.
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". 1984.Website
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV GW. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". In: East African Medical Journal 61(9): 724-726, 1984. b) 1985 2. University of Nairobi.; 1984.
Kohn, A; Bruce J, Bruce J, Kinoti G, Mutahi WT, Coles G, Katz N. "Action of oxamniquine on Schistosoma mansoni in mice experimentally infected with a strain from Kenya.". 1984.Website
Munyua, S.J.M.;, Williamson P;, Penhale MJ;. "Acute Cellular And Humoral Responses To Equine Streptococcal Endometritis.".; 1984.
Sanderson JE, Namasaka JW, Chek AK, Ojiamdo HP, Watkins HM, Mugambi M. "Acute effects of nifedipine in African hypertensives.". 1984.Website
Williamson P;, Penhale JW;, Munyua SJM;, Murray J. "Acute Reaction Of Mares Uterus Of Bacterial Infection."; 1984.
Hazlett, DT; Bowmer MI; NFD'costa RAR; AGRH; L; L;. "ademba.". 1984. Abstract

PIP: Of 110 males selected for review with possible chancroid, 96 were clinically diagnosed as having chancroid, 7 as having herpetic lesions, and 7 as having syphilis. Of the 96 patients diagnosed clinically as chancroid, 76 (79.2%) were culture positive for H. ducreyi. 9 (9.4%) of these 96 patients yielded Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Both HSV and H. ducreyi were isolated from 5 of the patients, and from 4 of the patients HSV alone was isolated. 7 patients (6.4%) were clinically diagnosed as having herpetic ulcers. 5 of these grew HSV. Overall, 14 of the 110 patients (12.7%) yielded HSV. 1 patient, who presented with small vesicular lesions characteristic of HSV, yielded the virus on culture. The vesicles were initially negative for H. ducreyi, but 6 days later he had developed deep purulent ulcers in the same sites as the vesicular lesions and became culture positive for H. ducreyi snd HSV-negative. The possible association between HSV and chancroid is discussed in the light of these findings and comparisons made between the results of the present study and earlier findings made in Kenya and elsewhere, with suggestions being given as to the reasons for the apparent differences. The HSV isolation techniques used in this study may be less sensitive than those used in other studies, but it is highly unlikely that this possibility alone accounts for all of the observed differences. Patients with hepetic ulcers may be less likely to present early in the course of the disease, if at all, believing the infection to be minor and one that will heal on its own. It is also possible that HSV infection is less common in Kenya, either alone or as an initiator of chancroid, than in the US or Europe, becuase of a higher rate of childhood HSV infections in Kenya, which may confer a degree of immunity against genital HSV infection in this population. The lower prevalence of HSV in association with H. ducreyi reported may be at least partly the result of a much higher incidence in Kenya of chancroid which is not initiated by HSV. A higher incidence of HSV genital infection in Europe and America would also make it more likely that HSV would fortuitously be isolated more frequently from H. ducreyi positive lesions.

Wanambisi MM. "African Religions .". 1984.Website
Mbatia OLE. "The assessment of marketing of horticultural produce in Kenya."; 1984. Abstract

The main concern of this paper is to assess the marketing of horticultural produce in Kenya. In 1950 the Horticultural Cooperative Union (HCU) was organized to help mostly European farmers to market fruit and vegetables. The HCU has been faced with some financial problems, mainly due to loss in customers and inactive members. The HCU shares about 15 to 20 % of the total Kenya exports. There are some producers-exporters specialized in exporting flowers and some commodities like French beans, pineapples and capsicum. The climatical conditions and ecological zones are good, enabling many fruit and vegetables to be produced in Kenya. The major export products are flowers, pineapples, French beans, capsicum and fresh fruits. The trade channels are mainly directed to the British market, which is dominant with a share of 50.64 % in 1982 and European markets (mainly West Germany, having a market share of 15.5 % in 1982 and France with a market share of 12.20 % for the same year 1982). In 1974 the main export to West Germany was pineapple which amounted to 24.9 % of all fresh produce imported from Kenya, second was capsicums with 10.8 %. Kenya fresh fruit and vegetables show a high demand on European markets. This market is a very competitive one. The countries in the Mediterranean region and in the tropical equatorial part of the African Continent pose a challenging position to this market. There is free entry and free exit to this market. When Kenya wants to have a sizable share of this market also in the future, it has to maintain a high quality at a reasonable price. This means that quality control, proper packaging and efficient transportation to the market have to be improved. The smallholders need to be supported when entering the market and need close advisory in order to supply high quality produce. Kenya should be willing to invest in areas like market research, market intelligence and export promotion. In addition the local consumption of fruit and vegetables should be encouraged as a part of the National Food Policy Program.

Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Biological nitrogen fixation in Africa."; 1984.
C.K M, J.O O, R.W M, S O, F.D J. "A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets." East Afr Med J. . 1984;61(1):6-10.
Obel AO, L G, J W. "Comparison of slow - release frusemide (Lasic Retard) and bendrofluazide in the trea tment of moderate hypertension in Kenya Negroes." Clinical Trial Journal. 1984;(21):443-50. AbstractWebsite

The relative efficacy and the risk of producing biochemical disturbances by bendrofluazide, 10 mg once daily and slow-release frusemide (Lasix Retard) 60 mg once daily, during treatment of moderate hypertension in Kenyan negroes were compared in a double-blind randomized control study. Fifty newly diagnosed hypertensive patients entered the study which lasted for 36 wk. There were 7 drop-outs at the end of the trial. Both slow-release frusemide and bendrofluazide significantly decreased both supine and standing diastolic pressures and standing systolic pressure (P < 0.05). Bendrofluazide also showed a significant effect on supine systolic pressure (P < 0.01), which was greater than that of slow-release frusemide. Biochemical disturbances were more pronounced in patients receiving bendrofluazide than in those on slow-release frusemide. Bendrofluazide treatment resulted in significant hyperuricemia (P < 0.02), hypokalemia (P < 0.01) and a rise in blood glucose which was not statistically significant (t [test of significance] = 0.26). Slow-release frusemide produced no significant alterations in blood uric acid, K and blood glucose. Both treatment modalities produced no significant change in other biochemical and hematological indices. Compared with slow-release frusemide, bendrofluazide produced potentially serious adverse biochemical changes. The drugs were equally effective in controlling moderate hypertension although the hypotensive effect on systolic blood pressure was more pronounced with bendrofluazide.

C.K. M. "The craze for additional vitamin intake." .East Afr Med J. . 1984;61(9):661-2.
Mbogoh SG. Dairy development and dairy marketing in sub-Saharan Africa Some preliminary indicators of policy impacts.; 1984. Abstract

OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, sub-Saharan Africa experienced relatively low growth rates in the production of dairy products compared with the average for all developing countries. Total consumption of dairy products grew relatively much faster during the same period. However, available data suggest that the consumption of goat and sheep milk declined in East Africa between 1963 and 1980 and that of camel's milk stagnated. Only the consumption of cow's milk increased fairly rapidly in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. During the 1970s the population of sub-Saharan Africa grew at a rate of 2.9% per annum. Over the same period dairy production grew at a rate of about 1.9% per annum, while the consumption of dairy products increased at a rate of 2.1 % per annum. The trade deficit in dairy products in sub-Saharan Africa increased alarmingly over the last two decades: while in 1963 the dairy trade deficit for the region was about US$ 39 million, the figure had risen to about US$ 81 million by 1970 and to US$ 575 million by 1980. The major components of the imports were milk and butter and to a lesser extent cheese. The systems of dairy development and dairy marketing in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have one common feature: the dairy economy is dominated by a relatively underdeveloped dairy marketing subsystem in the traditional livestock subsector. Most countries in the region have both a formal dairy marketing subsystem, which caters primarily for urban milk supplies, and an informal marketing subsystem, which operates especially in the rural areas. There is some evidence that the informal marketing subsystems tend to be low-cost operations and that they are in a position to pay higher prices to producers. With milk production in sub-Saharan Africa being well below the effective demand for milk and milk products, the region will continue to depend on dairy imports to close the dairy deficit in the foreseeable future. Measures to improve the marketing infrastructure in order to facilitate the distribution of recombined fluid milk derived mainly from imported milk powder and butter oil, will also be needed. The need to link rural and urban areas in a more efficient milk distribution network must therefore receive top priority. Most food policies in developing countries, and especially those in sub-Saharan Africa, appear to be aimed at providing cheap food to urban populations. A strategy of dairy development through the creation of producer incentives, with producer prices and price controls as the main policy instruments, is limited chiefly by the need to strike a balance between the producer price and the retail price. The pricing problem appears to be at the core of programmes for improving dairy development and dairy marketing. Governments are often sensitive to the level of food prices, particularly for the urban poor. Variations in the quality of the products offered for sale, whereby consumer prices are differentiated, could help achieve certain nutritional objectives. For instance, the introduction of 'toned' (more expensive) and 'double-toned' (less expensive) liquid milk in India has made it possible to sell pasteurized milk to both higher-income and lower-income groups in the metropolitan areas. Generally, sub-Saharan Africa could learn from the experience of dairy development in India, where petty milk traders have been integrated into the overall milk collection and distribution system, thus creating a complementary rather than a competitive relationship in the operations of the country's dairy industry.

Ogana W. Days of Glamour (2nd edition, Collection of short stories). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1984.
Onyango OW. "Development Policy .". 1984.Website
Oucho JO. "The Effect of Culture and Religion on Family Formation.". In: Family and Population.; 1984.
Nguthi FN;, Chweya JA;, Kimani PM. "Effect of plant density on growth, yield and quality of bulb onions."; 1984.
Kioy PG. Electrophysiological Study Of Diabetic Autonomic And Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy.; 1984. Abstract

Neurological complications of Diabetes Mellitus were
looked for in a group of 31 patients using clinical examination
and electrophysiological tests. Clinically evident sensorimotor
neuropathy was found to be prsent in 41.9% and clinical
autonomic neuropathy in 15% of the patients. Electrophysiological
tests showed evidence of sensorimotor neuropathy in 80% and
autonomic nerve dysfunction in 35% of the same patients. Autonomic
neuropathy was found to occur always in association with
sensorimotor neuropathy.
The electrophysiological tests were found to be convenient
as they were easy, and required little cooeration from the patient.
Sensory nerve tests were found to be more sensitive than motor
nerve tests alone and the yield of anyone test was found to
increase the more nerves one examined. Electrocardiographic tests
for autonomic neuropathy ( i.e. 'beat to beat variation' of pulse
rate and the 'valsalva ratio' ) were found to be of equal
sensitivity, but the former was easier to carry out and is
therefore recommended. The use of postural blood pressure changes
to assess autonomic nerve function was found to be too insensitive
for any practical use. When postural hypotension is present, other
signs of neuropathy are usually grossly evident.

Mbatia OLE. "Financial analysis of production of French beans in Kenya (Phaseolus vulgaris)."; 1984. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the production costs of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and to assess the financial gain to farmers. The major growers in Kenya are small farmers. The French beans are grown mainly for export purpose and are produced largely near the city of Nairobi where the altitude is between 1 000 and 2 000 meters above sea level and where soil is well drained and rich in organic matter. French beans are among the major horticultural crops produced in Kenya for export. The export season of French beans is from November to April. The farmers visited used irrigation water for production. About 50 mm of water per week was applied using an overhead or furrow system of irrigation. The overhead system of irrigation, however, was comonly used. The farming of French beans is labor and capital intensive. The costing of the inputs such as fertilizers, seed, labor for land preparation and harvesting were estimated. Between 20 to 25 kg of seed per acre (49.4 – 61.8 kg/ha) was used, costing about Kshs 32 for 60 kgs; land preparation was about Kshs 500 per acre (Kshs 1 235.5/ ha). The price for fertilizer for one acre was Kshs 500 (Kshs 1 235.5/ha). The total variable cost was about Kshs 4 670 per acre (Kshs 11 539.6/ha). Gross margin per acre was 16 530 Kshs (Kshs 1 309.6/ha). The estimated labor input on large, mechanized farm for French beans amounts to 3 283 mh/ha. The harvesting, which include picking, selecting and packing approximately 1 300 cartons for export required the highest labor with 3 030 mh/ha; canning, 100 mh/ha; irrigation, 80 mh/ha with 20 applications; weeding, 35 mh/ha; spraying, 14 mh/ha; top dressing, 9 mh/ha and planting, 7 mh/ha. The average yield was between 600 to 1 000 cartons of 3 kg/acre (1 482.6 – 2 471.0 cartons/ha). The price at farm gate is Kshs 21 per carton of 3 kgs. Some of the small farmers had direct access to the export markets but the majority of them had to sell to the exporters. A good majority of the farmers estimated a profit of about 25 per cent but considered employment it provides for them and the rural people a very important benefit.

Nyikal RA. "Financing Smallholder Agricultural Production in Kenya: An Analysis of Effective Demand for Credit."; 1984. Abstract

Financing smallholder farming has been one of the major concerns of Kenya’s development efforts. Many credit programs have evolved over the years but with dismal performance. In a study that sought to find the best way to fund smallholder agriculture, it became necessary to analyze and document smallholders’ effective demand for credit. Of particular interest was the comparison of the existing production plans and production plans under strictly profit maximization. Linear programming model was used to formalize observed plans and determine those under profit maximization. Both the activities and the values of outputs under different objectives were compared. Farm Investment Analysis was undertaken to determine the suitability of funding farm activities through credit. The study was undertaken in selected zones of Murang’a and Kisumu districts, being typical smallholder areas. Sample farmers were visited and structured questionnaires administered to cover farm events and physical resources of short rains 1995 and long rains 1996. This formed a basis of formulating the farm plans. Ten years down the road, objectives of smallholders have not changed as have been observed during outreach programs. The results showed that: (i) farmers’ activities in the observed plans were different from those under strictly profit maximization; (ii) the observed plans had significantly lower profit than those under profit maximization; and (iii) meeting constraints through credit was only feasible when the objective was profit maximization. Smallholder agriculture, characterized by subsistence production, does not exhibit effective demand for credit, and funding it therefore requires means other than the competitive market.

Parmeejet A. 'FLEXIBILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1984.
OCHILO, GATELY. The Football Sub-Culture "The Case of Sydney Swan Team in Syney Australia". London: Mitchel University College; 1984.
KAAYA GP, ALEMU P. "Further observations on survival and fertility of Glossina morsitans morsitans maintained on immunized rabbits. ." . Insect Science and Its Application. 1984;5:443-446.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Haemoglobin A1C in children with sickle cell disease. East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 6745138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Juma FD, Gitau W, Bwibo NO, Gachoka C.". In: East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1984. Abstract

Despite the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Europe, the disease is poorly managed. Critical periods are the hospital stays during which the anaesthesiologist plays an important role. Understanding the molecular basis of polymerization processes of haemoglobin S can help to avoid triggering a crisis. Differentiation of the various haemoglobin phenotypes helps to estimate the individual perioperative risk. Knowledge of the patient's history and the actual haemoglobin S level facilitates general anaesthesia, surgery and postoperative care. Damage to liver, spleen, eyes, bones, lung and central nervous system increases the perioperative risk. Preoperative preparation includes early admission, intravenous volume substitution, continuing pain therapy and prophylactic antibiotic medication. General anaesthesia seems to be better for patients with a high-risk profile rather than regional anaesthesia. Careful perioperative and postoperative monitoring should allow hypoxaemia, hypovolaemia, hypothermia, acidosis and overtransfusion to be avoided. Effective pain therapy includes a combination of opioids with peripherally acting analgesia.

Kitonyi. "Haemophilia and Allied disorders in Kenya in “Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide.". In: Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide. A World Federation of Haemophilia Publication; 1984.
Mbeche OO. "Hydraulic ram pump in Kenya."; 1984.
Wandiga SO. "Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for exchange reactions in the antimony(III)–cysteine system and synthesis of antimony(III) compounds of 3,3-dimethylcysteine, toluene-3,4-dithiolate, dicyano-ethylene-1,2-dithiolate, and 2,3-bis(thiosemicarba." Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1984:1-5. Abstractpubs.rsc.org

AbstractExchange reactions in antimony(III)–cysteine and –3,3-dimethyl-D-cysteine (dmc) systems have been investigated. Exchange is rapid and independent of pH with antimony(III)–cysteine systems at pH 1–3 but is slow with potassium bis(tartrato)diantimonate(III)–cysteine. Antimony(III) compounds of dmc, toluene-3,4-dithiolate, Dicyano-ethylene-1,2-dithiolate, and 2,3-Bis(thiosemicarbazono)butane have been synthesized and characterized.

Indangasi H, Laguma A. ""In the Fog of the Seasons' End.".". 1984.Website
Kokwaro JO. The Kakamega forest of Kenya. Nairobi: ETMA; 1984.
Njoroge 4 K. "Katumani maize Breeding: The First Twenty Five Years." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 1984;40:287.
Lule, G.N; Shah GWMV; EM;. "Malabsorption Syndromes in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1984.
Mitaru BN, Reichert RD, Blair R. "Nutritive value of reconstituted sorghum grains for weanling pigs.". 1984. Abstract

Grains from a high and low tannin sorghum were reconstituted by adding distilled water at a 30% level (w/w) and stored for 20 d at 25 C with an acetic-propionic acid mixture added to deter fungal growth. Another batch of grain from the same sources was used as control (no moisture treatment). The grains treated as above were incorporated at a 75% level in soybean meal-based starter diets for pigs. Reconstitution reduced the tannin content of high tannin sorghum significantly. The weight gains and feed consumptions with untreated and treated sorghums were not different (P>.05). Feed efficiency (G/F) was better (P<.05) with reconstituted than with the untreated sorghums. Dry matter digestibility was improved (P<.05) by reconstitution. The diets containing high tannin sorghum had lower (P<.05) digestible energy than the diets containing low tannin sorghums. Reconstitution improved (P<.05) the protein digestibility of the high tannin sorghum, but not that of the low tannin sorghum.

Omara-Opuene AI, Varma S. "Occurence of Bovine squamous Cell Carcinoma in Kenya." Kenya Veterianarian. 1984;8(1):5-8.
Patel MS, Ottieno JAM. "Optimum two stage group-screening designs." Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods. 1984;13(21):2649-2663. AbstractFull text link

In this paper, emphasis has been given to both the expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions and two stage group-screening designs have been obtained which minimise one fixing the other or minimise some sort of cost function which connects the two. Some group-screening plans have been given at the end as illustrations.
Keywords: group-screening plans, orthogonal main-effect plans, group-factor

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Pamba H.O.:Schistosomiasis in Nyanza Province, Kenya.Rusinga Island.E. Afr. Med. J. 51: 1984, 1974.". In: Afr. Med. J. 51: 1984, 1974. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1984. Abstractschistosomiasis_in_nyanza_province_kenya_1_rusinga_island.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

Patel, Nilesh; Poo M-ming. "Perturbation of neurite growth by pulsed and focal electric fields." J. Neuroscience. 1984;4:2939-2947.
Juma FD, Koech DK, Kasili EG, Ogada T. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan African children with lymphoma.". 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophisphamide have been extensively discussed in adult man.A few studies have been done to compare the pharmacokinetics of this important anticancer agent in children and adults of a comparable population

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