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1986
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. Staff Development for Improved Performance, Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. James Murimi; 1986. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. 1986. Reproduction and Herd Health. Kenya Vet. 10 (1) : 33-34.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1986. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Mwangi J.W. Guantai A.N., Muriuki G.m Essential oil of Plectrathus marrubiodes Benth. Kenya J. Sci. Technnol (A 63 1986.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technnol (A 63 1986. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part One, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Education,Science and Technology, 81 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part Two, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of EducationScience and Technology, 68 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. (1986). Distribution and biological characteristics of Apis mellifera varietieb in Kenya. Apimodia. 30, 115-1 18.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, June. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Rembold, H. (1986). Growth-regulating activity of Melia volkensii extracts on the larvae of Aedes aegypti.". In: 3rd Int. Neem Conf. p. 68. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & U. GRANHALL(1986). Nitrogen Fixation (C2H2 Reduction) Associated with Maize (Zea mays L.) in a Swedish soil. Swedish J. Agric. Res. 16:49-59.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B.(1986). Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to straw amendment and Inoculation with N2 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. "Mwongozo wa Kina cha Maisha, a students' swahili literature study guide. Heinemann Educational Books 1986, Nairobi.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Myth as a Phenomenon in Christianity.". In: Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, vol.1, No.3, pp 15-17.; 1986. Abstract
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M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM: Thesis for the University of Nairobi Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: 1986.". In: MMed Thesis, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, 1987. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Darrell JH. Epidemiological Markers of Klebsiella Infecting Hospital Patients. E.A. Med. J. 63: 22 - 28. 1986.". In: E.A. Med. J. 63: 22 - 28. 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., and Ngugi, G. K, 1986: Indices of comfort in some Towns in Kenya, w. pp. 190- 199.". In: Indices of comfort in some Towns in Kenya, w. pp. 190- 199. SMA; 1986. Abstract
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NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A. (1986): which toxic factors cause death during small bowel obstruction: Vet.Med.( 1986) 81(11): 1020,1022,1024-1025.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
DR. MISRA ANILK. "Nitrate reductase activity in the roots and leaves of Sorghum biocolor.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 1986. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 311 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya II. An Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 318 .". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya II. An Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 318 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Njoroge, B. N. K. .". In: Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Diego,California,. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. The Biology of the Kenya Reef Fish of the genus Siganus. M.Sc. Thesis.". In: University of Nairobi, Kenya. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The nutritional and fermentation aspects of .". In: Proceedings; Improving young child feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa. Household . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. N. 1986. Rehabilitation of Hand-dug Wells and Protected Springs, Kisii District, Kenya. M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 1986 .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Occurrence of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosu s.l. Diptera: Simuliidae in nine river system in Kenya.". In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 23:111-112. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda, J.O., B.Syuto., H.Kitagawa and S.Kubo: Solubilization and characterization of Clostridium botulinum toxin binding component from synatosomal membrane of rat brain.". In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Medical Scientific Conference page, 189. Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertion, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "OKOTH, M.W. & WILLIAMS, A. Thermal performance of some flat plate solar water heaters,. ." University of Nairobi.; 1986. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

MESHACK MROKUMUBENSON. "Okumu B.M. :The Evaluation and Improvement of the scientific and the legal frameworks of cadastral survey in Kenya, PhD. Proposal.". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
MESHACK MROKUMUBENSON. "Okumu B.M., 1986: On the summer practical Attachment at the Geodetic Survey of Canada, Ottawa, presented at the Geodesy Group Meeting, University of New Brunswick, Canada.". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Olembo J.O. Financing Primary School Buildings in Kenya. Transafrica Press, pp 73, 1986.". In: Quarterly of Religious Studies Vol. 1 No. 3 March 1986 (pp 15-17.; 1986. Abstract
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W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1986 .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1986. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1986b. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1986 English, Communication and Development in Kenya Proceedings of The Conference on English in East Africa. British Council, Nairobi, March 24th to 27th 1986.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1986 Research Methods in Syntax: An Illustrative Description of The Dholuo Nominal Group in Scale and category theory of grammar Derika Associates Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1986) The Great Drought. In: K. Adagala & W. Kabira [eds] Kenya Oral Narratives: A Selection. Nairobi: Heinemann. Pp. 85-86.". In: The Great Drought, Kenya Oral Narratives: A Selection. Nairobi: Heinemann. Pp. 85-86. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1986. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Omunyin, M.E. Gathuru and D.M. Mukunya, 1986. Las Cepas, del BCMCY. Su. Interaction Con Variedades de Frijol Con el Gene 1. Hojas de Frijol 8 (3).". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. Medical Morality.". In: MEDICUS: Journal of the Kenya Medical Association, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 1986 (pp 9).; 1986. Abstract
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P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. Myth as a Phenomena in Christianity.". In: Quarterly of Religious Studies Vol. 1 No. 3 March 1986 (pp 15-17.; 1986. Abstract
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MWERI DRKAHUNYOJ. "ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN CHICKEN EGGS: A SURVEY.". In: journal. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1986.
MWERI DRKAHUNYOJ. "ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN CHICKEN FAT: A SURVEY.". In: Nrb.Un.Dent.J. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1986.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya.". In: BSc. Dissertation University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P. Chitere and P. Kinyori, Action Aid-Kenya Young Farmers Scheme Evaluation, Parts I and II, Nairobi, June 1986.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1986. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, A. J. WILSON (1986). "Goat Trypanosomiasis:Trypanotolerance and Epidemiology among goat breeds in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 34: 93 - 97.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI (1986). " Ultrastructural studies of Eimeria apsheronica in goats". Sixth International.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Parastatal Enterprises in Africa at Crossroards.". In: paper presented at the second Triennial Congress of ossrea, held in Eldoret, Kenya. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Pattern of extracranial peripheral aneurysms in a Kenyan referral hospital.". In: BSc. Dissertation University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "Ph.D Thesis entitled "The Valuation of Waterfront Properties Along the Coastline of Kenya.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI, SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Photo - electrochemical methods for the utilization of solar energy.". In: International Journal of Ambient Energy, U.K. UNR; 1986.
Mureramanzi S, Tien HT. "Photoelectro-chemical methods for the utilization of solar energy." International journal of ambient energy. 1986;7:3-30. Abstract
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E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Physico-geopgraphical characteristics of South Nyanza District. Republic of Kenya. South Nyanza District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Priciples and Methods of Teaching the African Heritage, Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. 1 No. 2.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

ODHIAMBO DRSULEFREDRICKE. ""Problems of Establishment of Agro-Industrial Complexes in Kenya". Brochure published in Russian Language in.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 1986. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Properties, management and classification of vertisols in Kenya. In: FAO World Soil Resources Report No. 56 FAO, Rome, 22-30.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1986. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Quality of Secondary School Education and its relevance to self employment in the Rural areas of Kenya, Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1986. Abstract
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MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Reaching the Community: A Manual for Field Educators.". In: FPPS. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Reaching the People. A Guide for Field Educators.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Role of Indigenous NGO's in Africa Development: Consultancy Report Prepared On Behalf of Voluntary Agents Development Assistance (VADA), Nairobi, October, 1986.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1986. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ROSKAFT, E., ZACHARIASSEN, K.E., MALOIY, G.M.O. and KAMAU, J.M.Z.(1986) Temperature regulation and water balance of day active (Zophosis congesta) beetles in East Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2, 139-146.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1985: Surveying Education at the University of Nairobi with Emphasis on the Foundation Courses. Presented paper to the Colloquium on Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying Education in Africa: State and Prospects. Presented paper to the International Colloquium in Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985, and (with some modification) to the Third Symposium on Geodesy in Af.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying in developing Kenya: the role and the prospects. Inaugural Lecture, University of Nairobi, January 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "S. Yide and T. Groenewegen, Luke's Gospel, Weekly Review.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Intestinal anastomosis in cattle: Comparison of appositional techniques.". In: Proceedings of 14th World Congress on diseases of cattle (1986): 20. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, P.N. Nyaga, and G.M. Mugera. Healing of intestinal anastomoses in cattle: An evaluation of end to end approximating techniques.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYDATID DISEASE BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) USING PARTIALLY PURIFIED HYDATID CYST FLUID ANTIGENS.". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYDATID DISEASE BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) USING PARTIALLY PURIFIED HYDATID CYST FLUID ANTIGENS.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. ""Short Distance Runners", a case study of the works of Peninah Muhando and Jay Kitsao, published in Mwamko no. 3, 1986.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Small Scale Rice Irrigation Projects in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the Joint Seminar on Irrigation Policies in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Social Indicators and Integrated Developemnt Planning: The Case of Kenya.". In: Social-Economic Studes, No. 12. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Some Notable Patterns of Fertility Behaviour in Africa: The Case of Kenya". International Sociology, Vol.1 No.2, pp.203-211, 1986.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Some Reflections on the History of MEDICOM.". In: The African Journal of Medicine.; 1986. Abstract
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J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "State of the art computer science in East and Central Africa.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986. Abstract
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J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "State of the art computer science in East and Central Africa.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
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IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "State Policy on Culture and Economic Developemnt.". In: paper presetned at Regional Workshop on culture and Economic Developemnt, Arusha. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "A Study of the Suggested Needs of Learners in the 8th and 9th Year of Primary Education in Kenya. Kenya Educational Research Awards (KERA) Research Report Number 1.1., Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University, 1986. Monograph Publication. Pp. 6.". In: Kenya Educational Research Awards (KERA) Research Report Number 1.1., Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University, 1986. Monograph Publication. Pp. 63. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
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M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1986),"Mortgage Valuation". Ardhi, pp40-42.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1986. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1986), Overview of Low-Cost Housing Strategies. Paper presented at the Workshop on Appropriate Building Materials Production and Use for Low-Cost Housing in Kenya, Karen, Nairobi (6-31 October.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1986. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. ""Tana River Delta and other deltaic rivers in Kenya. A contribution in fluvial and environmental geomorphology". In Geomorphology and enviromental changes in Tropical Africa, Case Studies in Cameroun and Kenya, pp. 165-178. (Eds.) Hiroshi Kadomura. Hokkai.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "Technical Training and work experience in Kenya: A National Tracer Study of the leavers of Harambee Institutes of Technology and Youth Polytechnics.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Ted Groenewegen, R. Githige and J. Mugambi, Christian Religious Education Book 1, Nairobi: Longman.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Tenure issues in spontaneous settlement"; a paper for UNCHS International Seminar on Spontaneous Land Settlements in rural Regions; issues and Opportunities, November 11-20. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1986. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""The African agrarian crisis: its nature and pathology",.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1986. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Thematic geological map of the Lake Basin area. In Natural Resources Atlas for Lake Basin Development Authority (LBDA).". In: Published by the Regional Center in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing. 2p. Wiley Interscience; 1986. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Thomas, D.B,; E.K.Biamah; A.M.Kilewe; L.Lundgren and B.O.Mochoge, Eds.(1986). Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Proceedings of the Third National Workshop, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya. September, 1986.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Traditional Products and Cultural Identity.". In: Conference Proceedings Powai, India. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Uhakiki Wa Malenga wa Mvita (Literary criticism).". In: Hankuk University Press, March 1st, 1986, 132pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "WAINDI, E. N., GOMBE, S. & ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1986). D. Plasma testosterone in Trypanosoma conglense infected Togernburg goats. Archives Androl. 17: 9-17.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani 1986. Micropropagation of tuberose by in vitro somatic organogenesis of leaf friable callus. Intl. Congr. Plant-Tissue-Culture.6 Meet. 239.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1986. Micropropagation of tuberose by in vitro somatic organogenesis of leaf friable callus. Intl. Congr. Plant-Tissue-Cell- Culture, 6 meet. 239.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Wooding F.B.P. (1986). The role of binucleate cells in implantation in the goat. Society for the Study of Fertility and British Neuro-endocrine Joint Winter Meeting, Nottingham, UK.,Abstr. 114.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Local treatment of the commonest diseases in developing countries. World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. No abstract available.". In: World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1986. Abstract
Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE. Carcinoma of the oesophagus: alcohol, tobacco and vitamins. East Afr Med J. 1986 Sep;63(9):569-70. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1986 Sep;63(9):569-70.; 1986. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Rottaland, f. The Suba of Kenya: A Case of Growing Ethnicity with Receding Languages Competence.' In AAP Vol. 1, 115-126.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1986. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Women's Income and Fertility in Rural Kenya", Working Paper No.441, Institute for Development Studies (IDS, Univ.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
1985
Misoi GK, Gichaga FJ. "Study of Vehicle Dynamics and Road Corrugations in Kenya.". In: Seminar on Engineering Education– Industry Cooperation. University of Nairobi; 1985.
Kebler R, McDonald FD, Cadnapaphornchai P. "Dynamic changes in serum phosphorus levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1985;79:571-576. Abstract

The dynamic changes in serum phosphorus levels in 69 episodes of ketoacidosis in 48 diabetic patients were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age was 41 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SEM), and the duration of diabetes mellitus was 7 +/- 1 years. The serum phosphorus levels determined within the first six hours of admission were analyzed. Before initiation of therapy, the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was 94.7 percent. At the end of 12 hours, the mean serum phosphorus level fell from 9.2 +/- 0.6 to 2.8 +/- 0.3 mg/dl. Before therapy, the serum phosphorus level correlated positively with the serum glucose level, the effective plasma osmolality, and anion gaps, and correlated negatively with the serum chloride level. It is concluded that hyperphosphatemia is common in diabetic ketoacidosis before therapy. The increase in serum phosphorus is likely to be due to a transcellular shift. Potential factors responsible for the shift are serum glucose, through its osmotic effect, and the organic anions.

Rosenthal NR, Barrett EJ. "An assessment of insulin action in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic diabetic patients." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1985;60:607-610. Abstract

The effect of insulin treatment on the rate of decline of plasma glucose concentration was determined in nine patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis [HHNK; mean plasma glucose, 999 +/- 59 (+/- SEM) mg/dl] and in six normal subjects rendered hyperglycemic by a combined infusion of somatostatin and glucose (mean plasma glucose, 653 +/- 28 mg/dl). Both the fractional glucose turnover and the half-time of the fall in plasma glucose during low dose (5-10 U/h) insulin treatment were reduced 10-fold (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients compared with the hyperglycemic normal subjects. In the hyperosmolar patients, the mean glucose clearance during insulin treatment was only 7% that in the normal subjects (P less than 0.001). The rate of plasma glucose decline in our hyperosmolar patients after hydration and insulin administration was 80 +/- 7 mg/dl X h. This decline is comparable to the results reported in other series, although in striking contrast to the 508 +/- 32 mg/dl X h decline in normal subjects (P less than 0.001). Our findings do not support the clinical impression that HHNK patients are insulin sensitive. We conclude that marked resistance to infused insulin delays the correction of hyperglycemia during treatment of HHNK and suggest that resistance to the normal basal insulin levels encountered in some HHNK patients may contribute in part to the development of the hyperosmolar state.

Wamukowa N. Report of the training of African women in Entrepreneurial skills course, Financed by SIDA, executed by UNECA. College of Adult and Distance Education (CEDA), University of Nairobi; 1985.
"Language and Politics in the Horn of Africa.". In: International Symposium on the Horn of Africa. University of Cairo, Cairo; 1985.
Brun-Buisson CJ, Bonnet F, Bergeret S, Lemaire F, Rapin M. "Recurrent high-permeability pulmonary edema associated with diabetic ketoacidosis." Critical Care Medicine. 1985;13:55-56. Abstract

Delayed-onset pulmonary edema complicating severe diabetic ketoacidosis was observed twice in one patient. Hemodynamic measurements during the second episode showed normal transmural pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, suggesting an alteration in alveolocapillary permeability. Hyperventilation and acidosis may underlie this alteration. Vigorous fluid therapy, while decreasing oncotic pressure, may also contribute to the pulmonary edema. The two episodes in one patient suggest that pulmonary microvascular diabetic angiopathy may predispose some diabetics with severe ketoacidosis to increased-permeability pulmonary edema.

Gichaga FJ. "Engineering Education as a Continuing Process of Development.". In: Seminar on Continuing Education for Mechanical Engineers. Nairobi; 1985.
Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. "Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine." Environ. Health Perspect.. 1985;62:105-8. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW. "A comparative study of two antispasmodic products: Buscopan and NO-Spa." East Afr Med J. 1985;62(7):480-5.
Kinoti SN, Maggwa AB, Turkish J, Wasunna A. "Management of acute childhood diarrhoea with oral rehydration therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1985;62(1):5-11.
Gichaga FJ. "Cooperation between the Faculty of Engineering and the Kenyan Industry.". In: Seminar on Engineering Education – Industry Cooperation. University of Nairobi; 1985.
Parmeejet A. "Guidelines for the Classification & Equivalence of Foreign Degrees and Diplomas.". In: Public Service Commission, Government of the Republic of Kenya. Nairobi; 1985.
Parmeejet A. "'SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION IN KERIO VALLEY.". In: Arid & Semi Arid Region Development Programme (ASAL) . Nairobi; 1985.
"DESIGN ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUILDING MATERIALS VULNERABILITY. DURABILITY AND AVAILABILITY .". In: Regional Workshop on Construction Materials. Kampala, Uganda.; 1985.
KAAYA, G.P. OTIENOANDDARJILHN. "Cellular and humoral immunity in Glossina.". In: Proceedings of ISDCI invertebrate immunology conference. Montpellier, France; 1985.
Samanta P, Seshaman. Growth of the non - copper Industrial Sector in Zambia. University of Zambia; 1985.
Kibera FN. " “The Effect of Message Content and Source Credibility of Information Gain by Coffee Smallholders in Central Kenya." , Journal of Management Business and Economics, Institute of Business Administration, University of Dakar, Dhaka, . 1985;11(3).
Redfern PH, Sinei KA. "24-Hr variation in synaptosomal tryptophan-5- hydroxylase activity in the rat brain.". In: Circadian Rhythms in the Central Nervous System. London: MacMillan Press; 1985.
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Ogana W. "An alternative approach to the transonic flow problem, in S.O. Fatulna (ed).". In: Computational Mathematics I. Dublin: Boole Press Limited; 1985.
Sharif SK. Autoimmune Profile In Insulin' Dependent Diabetes Mellitus At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1985. Abstract

131 patients with IDDM attending K.N.H. were studied.
The mean age of onset of IDDM was 20.1 years. There
was a male predominance with M:F ratio of 1.4:1 There
was a low prevalence of IDDM among first degree
relatives of diabetic probands. Definitive history of
viral infection preceding the onset of IDDM was found in
one patient. None of the patients had thryroglobulin
antibodies; thyroid microsomal antibodies were found in
0.7% of the patients. Parietal cell antibodies were
found in 4.6% of the patients. Islet cell antibodies
were found in 3.7% of patients with IDDM.· The prevalence
of autoantibodies in Kenyan Africans with IDDM is much
lower when compared with Caucasians and Black Americans
with IDDM. In view of the low prevalence of autoantibodies
in Kenyan Africans with IDDM, primary autoimmune diabetes
mellitus is considered rare in Kenyan Africans with IDDM.

Githang'a JN. Chromosomal Abnormalities In Childhood Acute Leukaemia At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 14 patients aged from
ten months to 13 years admitted to KNH with acute leukaemia
(AL). Chromosomal analysis was successfully performed in
nine children. The clinical and laboratory features of the
patients were also analysed in relation to cytogenetic
abnormalities identified.
The study revealed that eight out of 14 (57!1~) of the
patients had acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) and 43%
had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Out of the five
children with ANLL who had chromosomal analysis performed
three (60%) had karyotype abnormal it i es: two pat i en ts had
hyperdiploidy, one with AML M5a had 47 chromosomes, and the
other with AML M2 had trisomy 21; the third patient had
monosomy 7. None of the four patients with ALL who had
chromosomal analysis performed had any karyotype
abnormalities.
Four out of the nine patients, whose karyotypes were
determined, died. All the four had normal karyotypes . Two
died of haemorrhage having had platelet counts less than 20
x 109/1 which is a poor prognostic feature. The other two
died of overwhelming infections.
Surface marker studies done during the course of the
study were helpful in making a final
complemented the morphological diagnosis.
diagnosis and

Evidence from the study shows that karyotypic
abnormalities in ANLL occur as frequently as those found in
other studies. The prognostic significance of the
chromosomal abnormalities has not been clearly demonstrated
in this study in view of the sample size. It is therefore
recommended that further similar but larger studies be
performed. A larger study should also bring out any
associations between certain karyotypes and morphologi cal
types of acute leukaemia.

Kahurananga J;, Akundabweni L;, Jutzi S;, Kategile JA. "Collection and preliminary forage evaluation of some ethiopian trifolium species. Proceedings.".; 1985.
Wachira TM;, Gathuma JM;, Cheruiyot, H; McPherson CNL, Cheruiyot, H; McPherson CNL. "Comparative Morphological Study Of 35 Day - Old Echninococcus Granulosus Of Sheep, Cattle And Goat Origin In Kenya."; 1985.
El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "Comparison between generations and reproduction of Amblyseius gossipi when maintained on natural diets, Eriophyes dioscoridis or pollen grains and the artificial diet, royal jelly of honey bees (Acari Phytoseiidae : Eriophyidae). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt,65:.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "Comparison between the toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids and other compounds to the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi (Mesostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol., 1: 185." Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March.. 1985. AbstractWebsite

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike M;, Ruvuna F;, Gichuru WN;, Cartwright TC;, Wachira JD. "Comparison of edible meat yields among different goat breeds and crosses."; 1985.
Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike M;, Ruvuna F;, Gichuru WN;, Cartwright TC;, Wachira JD. "Comparison of edible meat yields among different goat breeds and crosses."; 1985.
Murunga PA, Gichaga FJ, Mawenya AS. "Computation of Deflections and Radii of Curvature of Flexible Road Pavements using Finite Element Method." African Journal of Science and Technology.. 1985;4(No. 2).
Onyari JM. "The concentrations of Mn.". 1985.Website
Ndetei DM. "Content of grandiose phenomenology."; 1985. Abstract

The content of grandiose ideas and delusions in patients of various cultural groups admitted to a London psychiatric hospital were compared. There were no overall differences but certain trends were apparent. It was found that religion was the commonest content of grandiose symptoms in all the groups. Its frequency was higher in the African and Jamaican groups, an observation that can be understood from the cultural background of these groups. The other types of content, namely royals, identity and ability were less frequent in all groups

Omara-Opuene AI, Varma S. "Crosurgery of Bovine Squamuos Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva." Veterinary Record. 1985;117:518-520.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Widdowson D;, Wangaruro S;, Mugane C;, Karani FN. "Current Status of Legume Inoculant Production in Kenya.".; 1985.
Yamoah CF;, Mulongoy K;, Agboola AA;, Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Decomposition and nitrogen contribution by prunings of selected legumes in alley cropping."; 1985.
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Patterns .". 1985.Website
Ikamari LDE. 'Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Kenya'. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi; 1985.
Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

Obel AO, W.M KT-, Ellison R.H MM. "Dietary sodium/potassium ratios in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension." East African Medical Journal. 1985;( 62):507-514.
Okeyo AM;, Kitlit JK;, Ahuya CO;, Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC. "Disease and prolificacy characteristics of the Galla and East African Breeds at Ol'Magog."; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle, E; Romig T,; Mwangi, M.; Rees P,; McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
Magambo MJS;, Waithaka K. "The Effect Of Conventional Methods Of Growing Tea On Yields."; 1985. Abstract

Tea bushes are manipulated so as to form strong woody frames with the largest possible plucking surface area. Studies on dry matter production and partitioning of tea bushes have shown that the harvest index is low in old bushes and high in young bushes. The low indexes in old bushes are partly due to large amounts of wood in the primary frame which provide a large cambial sink for photosynthates. Reducing the plant size by maintaining bushes at low heights greatly increased yields per unit area of plucking surface. Thus, maintaining large bushes does not necessarily mean high yields. The impression from dry matter production and partitioning studies is the need for a thorough reinvestigation and revision of the conventional methods of growing tea which encourage the development of unnecessary large amounts of woody tissues.

Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

MCLIGEYO SO. The experience at Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective and Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Shihembetsa LU. Factors in the provision of low income housing a case study of kariobangi .; 1985. Abstract

Housing for the low-income group has been and is still a major problem in the developing countries. More attention has been put on this problem by the world in.the recent years. Kenya being one of the developing countries faces this problem like any other developing country. The population growth rates In third world countries' cities is too high as compared to developed countries. This study looked at the factors in the provision of low-income housing and how these factors hinder the process of provision of shelter. The factors included inter alia, National Housing Policy, Land, Financial Resources, Construction costs and Building standards. These factors were analysed independently in the various chapters of this study and then findings we r e drawn. The findings were used as guidelines for the recommendations made. The study was organised in six chapters. Chapter one was an introduction, giving what the study was all about. Chapter two looked at the National Housing Policy of Kenya pointing out the weaknesses of the policy. The study found that the policy has vague, unrealistic and too ambitious

Abate A;, Kayongo - Male H;, Wanyoike MM. "Fodder for High Potential Areas in Kenya.".; 1985.
Dindi EW. GEOPHYSICAL STUDIES OF ANZA GRABEN, NORTH EASTERN KENYA.; 1985. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Anza Graben is situated in the north and northeastern Kenya. It is about 120 km wide and approximately 600 km long. The area of the present study is located mainly in NE Kenya and constitutes a strike length of about 300 km. The graben is almost entirely sediment filled and is estimated to be of Cretaceous age. It is characterized by a prominent negative Bouguer anomaly reaching -40 mGal.

Several studies were made in an effort to determine its subsurface structure. These involved interpretation of a number of seismic reflection profiles, 3D interactive gravity modelling using fixed density contrasts between the sediment infill and the basement, and the analysis by filtering and modelling of the aeromagnetic data hover the graben. A crustal modelling of refraction data along the western shoulder of the Anza graben using 2D ray tracing was also performed.

Two major basins are recognizable from the results of the studies, namely the southern basin which has a northeasterly dip and the northern basin having a southwesterly one. This alternating asymmetry is also indicated for an adjoining smaller basin located to the west of the graben. The density contrast used for the final gravity model is -300 kg/m3 which indicates a maximum sediment thickness of about 8 km. The modelling of aeromagnetic data however favour a maximum thickness of at least 10km. A 2D refraction crustal P wave model of the western shoulder indicates that the crust thins northwestwards with the Moho depth decreasing from 35 km under Chanler's Falls to approximately under the southeastern shores of Lake Turkana. The abrupt shallowing of the Moho in the Lake Turkana area is attributed to the effects of the Kenya Rift Valley. However the gentle variation in the Moho depth along the remaining section of the shoulder of Anza Graben appears to depict a regional phenomenon also attributable to the formation of the Kenya Rift Valley. It is proposed from the study that sections of the graben shoulder are underlain by slightly denser rocks and that the crustal thinning associated with Anza Graben is not significant.

Waithaka K. "Growth And Runner Production Of Everbearing Strawberries In Kenya."; 1985. Abstract

Strawberry production in the tropics is hampered by lack of enough propagative material. Propagation in Kenya is mainly by crown division because the continuous short day condition in the tropics does not favour enough runner production. Physical manipulation of the parent plants proved a little beneficial in runner production in two everbearing cultivars. Defoliation of the older leaves promoted runner production in Turft and Tioga. This resulted in an increase of daughter plants for propagation. Defoliation had no influence in all cultivars used in the study. Deblossoming promoted runner production in Turft, but failed in Tioga and Aiko. Defoliation and deblossoming or a combination of the two treatments failed to promote runner production in Aiko.

MCLIGEYO SO. Haemodialysis - The Experience At Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective And Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Ojwang PJ;, Ogada T;, Webber BB;, Wilson JB;, Huisman TH. "Hb Savaria or alpha2 (49)(CE7)Ser----Arg beta2 in an indigenous female from Kenya.". 1985.
Lule GN;, Okoth F;, Ogutu EO;, Mwai SJ. "HBV markers (HBsAg, HBSAb, HBCAb in 160 medical students at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985. Abstract

In an exercise to study the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Engerix B vaccine, 160 medical students were screened for Hepatitis B Markers (HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb) with a view to vaccinating those that were negative. 18% were HBsAg + ve, 33% were HBsAb + ve and 38% were positive for the HBcAb. These figures were extremely high and obviated the need to vaccinate the students as they begin their clinical years

Chrysant, SG; Gollub DMI; BIS; DKJRS; R;. "Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of enalapril in patients with heart failure.". 1985. Abstract

Placebo and enalapril were added on a double-blind basis to conventional treatment in 14 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), New York Heart Association class II-III. The patients were followed for 14 weeks and their performance was evaluated by a treadmill test, ejection fraction by nuclear scan, cardiothoracic ratio, and Yale Scale score. Metabolic studies were done to test any adverse effects of the drugs. Enalapril decreased arterial pressure and cardiothoracic ratio, and increased ejection fraction. Placebo exerted no significant effects. However, both drugs improved treadmill time and Yale Scale score. No adverse metabolic or clinical effects were observed with either drug. Based on these limited observations we conclude that: Enalapril is a useful ancillary agent to conventional treatment of CHF; it exerts its effects through afterload and preload reduction; and it is safe and well tolerated and has a prolonged duration of action.

de Cock, K. M; Hodgen LSLRAN; JE;. "Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Kenya: an assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).". 1985. Abstract

Sera from 124 adult Kenyan patients with chronic splenomegaly and from 93 geographically matched controls without splenomegaly were tested for evidence of Schistosoma mansoni infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ova of S. mansoni were detected on stool or rectal snip examination in 23.4% of all patients, whereas 57.3% had a positive ELISA. All patients with parasitological or histological evidence of schistosomal infection had a positive ELISA, and a negative test reliably excluded schistosomiasis. On the basis of liver histology, 23 patients (18.5%) were considered to have hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, of whom 17 (73.9%) had a positive stool or snip. The ELISA was positive in 47.5% of cases of non-schistosomal splenomegaly, and in 52.7% of apparently normal controls. This high seropositive rate in the latter two groups emphasizes that schistosomal infection does not signify disease, and limits the diagnostic value of the test in individual cases of splenomegaly. Marked tribal and, therefore geographical, differences were noted in the prevalence of infection.

Adam, A.M; Rogers HJ, Bradbrook ID;, Rogers HJ. "High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and acetylaminoglutethimide in biological fluids.". 1985. Abstract

A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide.

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