Publications

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Artwork
Miano K. "Leroy Newman on Safari". Nanyuki & Maasai Mara): Book Chronicling Neiman's work in Kenya; 1997.
Audiovisual
MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA. Methyl Bromide Alternatives in Africa: Floating Tray Technology. DVD Video (35 min). 1st ed. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP; 2010.
MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA. Methyl Bromide Phase-out and Floriculture. DVD Video (35 min).. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP; 2010.
Book
MAURI YAMBO. Field of Aaru (Poems).; Forthcoming. Abstract
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MAURI YAMBO. Two Bridges (Collection of Haiku).; Forthcoming. Abstract
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Mandela P. calling sin, SIN.; Submitted.
Mueni J. Kenyan women in music videos. Nairobi: Nairobi Academic Press; In Press.
Matei A, Mwamburi, Kikechi, Musembi, IRIBEMWANGI PI, N. A. Kurunzi ya Kiswahili: Kitabu cha Mwalimu. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Matei A, Mwamburi J, Kikechi K, Musembi L, IRIBEMWANGI PI, Afandi N. Kurunzi ya Kiswahili: Kitabu cha Mwanafunzi, . Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Makokha M, Abdalla S. Arabic for all Book 2. chance publishers Ltd.; 2021.
R. I, Mugambi M. The Curriculum in Perspective . Chisinau: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2021.
M M. K.C.S.E IRE revision Made Easier. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Four. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Four: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form One. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form one: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Three. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Three: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Two. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
Munyoki, J.M., Owino, J., Ndambuki VM. Marketing in Developing Economies: Theory, Practice, and Cases with Special Focus on Africa.. Exceller Books Press, India; 2021.
Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. Polymer-Silica Based Composites in Sustainable Construction: Theory, Preparation and Characterizations. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003231936

This book presents the application of Polymer-Silica Based Composites in the Construction Industry providing the fundamental framework and knowledge needed for the sustainable and efficient use of these composites as building and structural materials. It also includes characterization of prepared materials to ascertain mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and analyses results obtained using similar methods. Topics such as life cycle analysis of plastics, application of plastics in construction and elimination of plastic wastes are also discussed. The book also provides information on the outlook and competitiveness of emerging composites materials.

Covers theory, preparation and characterizations of polymer-silica based composites for green construction.

Discusses technology, reliability, manufacturing cost and environmental impact.

Reviews the classification, application, and processing of polymer-silica composites.

Gives a deeper analysis of the various tests carried out on polymer-silica composites.

Highlights role of such composites in the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies

The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in civil engineering, built environment, construction materials, and materials science.

M M, S A, M A. Simplified Arabic Language - Proficiency. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
omari HK, Makokha, Abdalla S. Arabic for all. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
M M, S A. Arabic for kids. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes Vol 6. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2020.
Magutu PO, Inyega JO, Nyaanga RO. Evidence-based training assessment approaches and methodologies in procurement planning and supply chain managemen. Knowledge Empowerment Foundation. ISBN: 978-81-942015-4-0; 2020.
M M, S A. My Arabic Harakaats and Sukuun (vowels and no vowel). Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
M M, S A. My Arabic Numbers Book (0 – 10). Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M, S A. My Arabic Numbers Book (11 – 50). Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M, S A. My Arabic Numbers Book (50+). Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M, S A. My Arabic single letters book. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
S A, M M. My Joined Arabic Alphabets. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M, S A. My Muduuds and Shadda. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M, S A. My Tanwiins (double vowels). Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2020.
omari HK, Makokha M, Masoud A, Abdalla S. Simplified Arabic Language. Nairobi: Chance Publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M. Simplified Arabic Language. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M. Simplified Arabic Language: Elementary. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
M M. Simplified Arabic Language: Intermediate. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2020.
Cecilia OM, John W, Gubbels P, Mokaya PO. Surviving COVID-19: The neglected remedy. A mini Barefoot Guide. South Africa: Alliance for Food Sovereignty In Africa ; 2020.
Maina. How to write a Good Proposal. Nairobi: Frajopa Printers & Publishers Mall; 2019.
Matula P, Kyalo N, Mulwa S, Gichui WL. Academic Research Proposal Writing. Principles, Concepts and Structure.. Nairobi: ARTS press; 2018.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 2. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2018.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes Vol 4. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2018.
Mwangi W, Nyika D. Land Administration, Principles and Processes. Nairobi: Quinexx Publishers; 2018.
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
Mwenda M. Njozi Yapata Mtenzi.; 2018.
Mbatiah M. Watoto wa Mwelusi.; 2018.
Maina. Design Materials and processes VOL 1. Nairobi: ISBN 978-620-2-00534-0 Frajopa Printers and Publishers Mall, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 3. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 3. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2017.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PM, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Musonye MM. Flower of a Stump. Nairobi: Oxford University Press; 2017.
N M, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, N N, L M, M B. Guidelines For Screening And Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2017.
Matula PD, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. Instructional Supervision:Bridging Theory and Practice(A handbook for students and Lecturers). Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2017.
Angu C, Muthama JN, Mutai BK. The Interconnection among Aerosols, Urbanization and Weather. Lambert Academic Publishing; ISBN-10:3330026537; 2017.
Thiankolu M, Mavisi VK. Judiciary Bench Book on Electoral Disputes Resolution. Nairobi: The Judiciary (Kenya); 2017.
Maina. The Language of Design. Seattle: Amazon; 2017.
Mungai C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P. Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya. Cham: Springer; 2017. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved. This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate-smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age, and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops, for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence the adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions that focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural, and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

Bragt JV. A Soga Ryōjin Reader. Muriuki W, ed. Nagoya, Japan: Chisokudō; 2017. Abstract
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Mbuthia E-EM. : “Fimbo ya Mbali na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: ''Fimbo ya Mbali na hadithi Nyingine; 2016.
Enabulele O, Esen E, Gonzalez-Perez MA, Harvey CR, Herrera-Cano A, Herrera-Cano C, Hiko A, Manterola FJ, Kaartemo V, Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
Gitao G, Maina S, Gathumbi P. Experimental infection of Peste des petits ruminants disease in Kenya. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2016.978-3-659-97197-6-1.pdf
Kibugi R, Makathimo M, Mwathane I. Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investments in Kenya: Is the Participation, and benefits for affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties . Nairobi: Land Development and Governance Institute ; 2016. Abstractlarge_scale_land_acquisitions_for_investment_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Land acquisitions, either driven by foreign investments or domestic investment needs have continued to polarize opinions. When this research was proposed, it was premised on arguments by scholars Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Helen Markelova, who had analysed agricultural land deals, and argued that there were potentially two schools of thought about foreign acquisitions over agricultural land. Their school of thought regards them as “beneficial investments” whereby investors are viewed as bringing needed investment, possibly improved technology or farming knowledge, thereby generating employment and increasing food production. Meinzen-Dick and Markelova further argued that because these land acquisitions, foreign and domestic, are ongoing at a very fast rate, it is necessary for host countries to focus on what they can do to seize the opportunities and mitigate the risks associated with the deals.
During implementation of the research project in Kenya, it became clear that although prior illustrations of land deals included foreign acquisitions (e.g. Dominion farms), a government economic policy focusing on mega- infrastructure projects was driving (or expected to drive) a much higher pace of land acquisitions either for primary infrastructure, or for the economic activities that flowed from the primary infrastructure. This is in the context of the Lamu South Sudan Ethiopia Transportation Corridor (LAPSSET) project, which is a flagship means for realization of Vision 2030; Kenya’s current national development plan. Thus, a national conversation is necessary to debate the crucial question of how to provide safeguards to protect the interests of local communities directly affected by these investments, including compensation of land that is taken, and their place in the socio-economic and environmental continuum of investment projects from design to implementation.
The following findings and recommendations have resulted from this research, and it is anticipated they will be valuable in setting the agenda and tone of such a useful national conversation, as well as tangible actions:

A. Lessons, Conclusions and findings requiring policy level interventions

1. Regularization of landholding and tenure systems.
The absence or weakness of formal landholding, and land registration systems was evident in most of the research sites, in Isiolo and Lamu. This is despite Kenya having put in place new land laws in 2012 to give effect to constitutional provisions to protect land rights. This has resulted either in emergence of informal land administration and conveyance systems (Lamu), or the emergence of a complex system of formal land allocation that brings about multi-allocation of land through repeated issuance of allotment letters, (Isiolo), or non-adjudication and registration of community lands (Isiolo, Lamu). In either instance this results in undermining security of tenure, and enhances the vulnerability of concerned communities who will face difficulties securing their interests in the land ahead of any large scale land acquisitions, due to the entry of speculators, and persons interested in grabbing the land by being first to obtain formal registration. The Kenyan national government should consider partnering with the County government in Isiolo in order to identify the nature and extent of, and take steps to resolve the problem of multi-allocations of land there. In addition, putting in place a programme for regularization of tenure rights by addressing the challenges of those without title is important as it will enhance the security of tenure of people affected by compulsory acquisition.

2. Enhancing tenure of certain communities through implementation of the provisions of Community Land Act.
This conclusion is drawn from findings in research amongst the Aweer (Bargoni), and Turkana communities (Ngare Mara) where residents expressed apprehension over their tenure security in the face of land acquisition for LAPSSET infrastructure. This is because the land has not been (fully) adjudicated or registered in favour of the community notwithstanding existence of the Land (Group Representatives) Act that preceded the 2016 community land law. It is recommended that the government expedites the application of the provisions of the Community Land Act for the Lamu and Isiolo communities faced by these land acquisition projects as a first step to guaranteeing the beneficial interests of the community members, first by protecting tenure rights, and subsequently providing for equitable community land governance mechanisms.

3. Clarification on the practice and methodology of valuation of land and non-land assets for compensation.
The repeal of the Land Acquisition Act, and with that the Schedule that defined the methodology of valuation of land requires to be resolved. In any event, based on the analysis in the research, and findings, there is need to formally resolve the entitlement to compensation for persons without legal title. In addition, it is imperative for Kenya to state in law or regulations the methodology to be applied in valuation of non-land assets, including the loss of livelihoods. Application of the full replacement cost methodology, as discussed, provides a viable option because, in addition to anchoring on the market value of the land, the replacement cost approach extends compensation to non-land assets, using the real cost of full replacement, and not factoring in any depreciation of the non-land assets being replaced, and takes into account all the transaction costs of purchasing (conveyancing fees, etc), or logistical costs of replacement of non-land assets.

4. Internalization of resettlement safeguards principles and practice into Kenyan law of compulsory acquisition of land
A review of the current legal situation in Kenya concerning compulsory acquisition of land discloses the absence of safeguards governing interaction with host community, as well as involuntary resettlement safeguards in the event of displacement by land acquisition. This includes exploring the possible application of an FPIC process that emphasizes the quality and meaningfulness of affected community participation, including the impact that views obtained during consultations have on the final decision. Equally critical is the decision to vertically integrate the process by requiring the consultation of the affected public during project planning. In the sense of feasibility studies, and project designs, this suggests that community participation may add value to the process by being conducted much earlier on in the process, and contribute to analysis of project sites, and alternatives.

For practical purposes, Kenya could consider a legal requirement for a national Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) that would govern internalization of resettlement safeguards, including participation of communities. Key to this is that if a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is required, in terms of EMCA, both the RAP and RPF would have undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment thereby providing a means for risk assessment in advance of major implementation steps being underway.

5. Policy linkage of investment promotion rules with investments flowing from land acquisitions to secure community benefit through contracts and business models
At a policy level, it is important for Kenya to revisit, in a framework sense, how to use investment promotion rules and binding contracts to safeguard socio-economic, environmental benefits and livelihoods of local communities. This is mainly in context of the continuum of an investment, from land acquisition, and during its implementation. The Investment Promotion Act, while addressing the benefit to Kenya threshold, is not aggressively applied, and as evidenced by the Dominion contracts, critical socio-economic safeguards were not included. A clear policy evaluation of business models application, either contracts in the context of farming investments, or other types, should be undertaken and public disclosure of the proposed business model(s) should be undertaken early enough, to ensure affected project communities do not experience anxiety over their future.

This could be done in context of section 12 of the Land Act, which requires the National Land Commission to make regulations to govern how investments on public land will safeguard community benefits and livelihoods. The details of these considerations have been discussed at length earlier in this report.

6. Regulations to regulate methodology for assessment of just compensation
Kenya is currently engaged in a number of infrastructural projects that call for the compulsory acquisition and compensation of land. As noted in the study, Section 111 of the Land Act requires the National Land Commission to develop rules to regulate the assessment of just compensation where land is compulsorily acquired. As at the time of this report, these rules had not yet been developed. The rules will help to standardize the methodology for the anticipated assessment and make the process more predictable and, in an environment where the government is involved in the development of infrastructure calling for massive compensation of compulsorily acquired land, the development of these rules should have been accorded priority.

It is however noted that regulations to operate the entire Land Act have not yet been developed. Perhaps the development of these regulations, and the rules to govern assessment for just compensation, may have been delayed by the amendments recently effected to the Land Act. Now that the amendments were concluded, it is recommended that the development of the rules to govern the assessment of just compensation payable to landowners affected by large scale investments on land be expedited.

B. Lessons, conclusions and findings requiring direct actions at community level
In this category, the conclusions and findings are drawn to highlight matters that directly affect the voice and equitable benefit or participation of affected local communities, either in land acquisition process, or in the continuum of investments introduced in their midst.

1. A community dissemination manual for transfer of knowledge about land laws, policies and land administration processes
In focus group discussions held in the course of field work, the research team got similar feedback multiple times that the (potentially) affected “had heard” on radio, or through other fora that Kenya had new land laws in place, they did not really know the content of these laws. A similar sentiment was expressed with regard to knowledge of details about the components of the various LAPSSET projects. Communities indicated that they would want to have some form of civic education on this, especially regarding tenure rights, the land administration system (surveying, adjudication and registration), the implications and contents of the new community land law, and legal protection of community rights during land acquisition. One key finding was a preference by community members to have some of their own members trained in order to pass the knowledge to the communities, a sentiment that arose from a desire to receive information from a trustworthy source who was part of the community. Another finding was that community members did not have clear details on available grievance mechanisms on the land administration system, and while some had managed to access the National Land Commission, they lamented that it was based in Nairobi.

This finding suggests there is a need to develop a basic community dissemination manual, that includes a provision for empowerment of community based trainers (through a Training of Trainers concept). In such an approach, the dissemination manual can be published in simple language, including translation to Kiswahili or local languages where preferable.

2. Enhancement of meaningful public participation in the entire continuum through effective consultations and disclosure of relevant information

In order to enhance the voice of the community ahead of any process of land acquisition, it will be helpful to integrate a constructive and meaningful process of consultation with potentially affected communities, from early on during project planning, feasibility studies to onboarding of investments. This would particularly aid in providing value on local circumstances and risks that may not be obvious to technical teams. Occurrences such as in the Isiolo Kiwanjani settlement (displaced for the airport) where residents of Kiwanjani Zone G Squatter complained that maps generated during the acquisition process continued to record their land as being part of the airport complex despite there being a 75 feet road between the airport boundary, and the plots in question, would be avoided.

Enhanced community participation would further provide a valuable avenue through which the [potentially] affected local community can enhance its voice by having an opinion (which is taken into account) early on in the stages of the project design. However, this approach would also require protection from speculative behavior, that could result in an artificial increase in market value of land, due to market behavior triggered by anticipation of a project, and land acquisition. Access to information requires that this type of information is made available to the public, but in order to control speculative behaviour that drives up the cost of land compensation, government can apply the new 2016 Access to Information Act to sieve out aspects that are either confidential or considered deliberative and therefore not to be publicly disclosed. Another helpful approach would be to undertake the feasibility studies focusing on multiple alternative sites, without showing preference for any particular site.

Meaningful community participation requires a legal or policy definition of how to ensure consultations are effective. This could include possibility of requiring consulting (public) agencies to return to the host community and disclose how they considered the various opinions, and provide feedback. The community dissemination manual proposed above would provide a valuable tool through which to structure techniques that affected local communities can apply in order to have meaningful consultations. The manual could also include implications of the procedures set out in the new 2016 Access to Information Act.

3. Promotion of Networking by Project Affected communities in various parts of Kenya to build knowledge and exchange thoughts
There are multiple instances of compulsory acquisition of land in Kenya (e.g. For LAPSSET projects), or the allocation of land by government for private investments (Siaya – Dominion). The processes are at various stages, either at conceptual point, or having gone through various steps of acquisition and onboarding of investments. Equally, others are complete and the investment has been operational for a number of years. In all these cases, there multiple lessons to be learnt between the various affected local communities. In both Lamu and Isiolo for instance, the research engaged with multiple focus groups drawn from within the same project locality but in different geographical sections – and there was evidence that there was no integrated system to promote consultations and learning from each other. Further, even where acquisition and investments have been undertaken in separate parts of the country, people from Isiolo or Lamu could learn coping techniques from those in Siaya, or by learning the adverse impacts in Siaya, become more interested in enhancing their voices in the local context to avoid a similar outcome. Therefore, the idea of a network that brings together representatives of the various communities is useful to consider. Such a network would also include policy makers drawn from the national and county governments. Already in most of these local communities, the research observed that chiefs (who are national government administration officers) are an integral part of the community process. Learning forums could be organized, and a feedback process put in place such that when representatives return to their local communities, they can provide details to their neighbours. Such a network would however require that policy makers also commit to provide valuable information and feedback to any questions and problems raised by participating communities.

An alternative to utilization of physical meetings for such a network is application of internet-based technology. In this case, a network can be developed through low cost options, such as through the WhatsApp Platform. Although this requires internet access through a smartphone, the Land Development and Governance Institute has been piloting a WhatsApp based platform that creates a Network aptly named Community Land Matters. The experience with this platform is discussed at length in section 9.

4. Involvement of Women in Community Interventions
The study exposes some good lessons in the involvement of women in community interventions and leadership on communal land rights. It was instructive that for instance in the discussion with the Aweer group in Bargoni, Lamu, some women participants in the focus group discussions were very active and made crucial contributions. In addition, the women also made distinguished contributions too during discussions with the Turkana community at Ngare Mara, Isiolo County, where critical leadership positions in the community are held by women.

Yet, the two communities, like many others in Kenya, are largely patriarchal. This experience provides a good benchmarking lesson that, despite the cultural practices that have informed many communities in the past, given opportunity, women may play critical roles in helping communities protect and mitigate their communal land rights where circumstances so demand.

5. Compensation to “occupants in good faith” without title to land
As noted in the study, Article 40(4) of the Constitution of Kenya states that ‘provision may be made for compensation to be paid to occupants in good faith of land acquired under clause (3) who may not hold title to the land”. While the rules to govern how the discretion implied by this Article are yet to be developed, the study reveals that the State has exercised this discretion positively in the studied Port site in Lamu and the Airport site in Isiolo. Despite land owners not holding title to their land in the two places, cash-for-land and land-for-land compensation was made to the claimants in Lamu and Isiolo respectively.

These are good precedents for other parts of the country where formal processes to register communal land have not been applied or completed. Lessons learnt from these two Counties may be borrowed to inform and improve similar compensation exercises elsewhere.

6. Protection of interests of legitimate beneficiaries during compensation

Incidents were recounted of husbands and fathers pocketing the proceeds of compensation and departing home with the entire compensation sum. This leaves the wives and children vulnerably exposed and without alternative livelihoods. Such people become a problem for the community and State. To avoid such negligence, the government should consider regulating the release of compensation funds. The practice under the Land Control Act Chapter 302 of the Laws of Kenya which regulates transactions of agricultural land could be borrowed. Though not written into the law, Land Control Boards always require the proprietor’s spouse to be in attendance before approval to any application for approval of a transaction such as subdivision or sale of family property. And where they are in doubt about the facts to any application, they will usually refer to an area elder or the Assistant Chief for pertinent information in an effort to ensure that spouse and children are in agreement. Such a procedure could be enforced in the case of compensation following acquisition.

It is recommended that the Government, in liaison with the National Land Commission, puts in place modalities to explore how a similar social safeguard procedure could be instituted in the proceedings for compensation under the Land Act to protect legitimate beneficiaries in instances where acquisition of land for projects has to be done with requisite compensation to landowners.

7. Preservation of indigenous and local knowledge:
Project activities involving large scale land acquisition have the inevitable consequence, in some cases, of interfering or totally defacing available traditional/indigenous knowledge from the affected site. This is the case in some parts of Lamu and Isiolo where invaluable oral and cultural knowledge, including some cultural sites, have been preserved over the years. In any event, if enhanced community participation is adopted, and a threshold placed to examine if the participation is meaningful, the indigenous and local knowledge of the communities will also benefit the project at the point of local risk assessment. In this case, recording of such knowledge can be undertaken for posterity use.
It is therefore recommended that the implementation of such projects be preceded by a quick knowledge mapping to determine and document such knowledge before destruction or adulteration, together with enhanced community participation. Where possible, such knowledge can be proactively preserved in collaboration with the relevant state organs. Such a mapping can still be done for the LAPSSET Corridor and Isiolo Resort City before implementation takes off.

Mbatiah, Mwenda. Majilio ya Mkombozi. Nairobi: Moran; 2016.
Mbatiah, Mwenda. Riwaya ya Kiswahili:Chimbuko na Maendeleo Yake. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2016.
Michieka RW. Trials in academic and administrative leadership in kenya. Dakar: Codesria; 2016.
Kiptoo CC, Gerber A, van der Merwe A. {The ontological modelling of fruit fly control and management knowledge}.; 2016. Abstract

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Fruit fly control and management in Africa has been the topic of several scientific investigations resulting in diverse sources of knowledge on the topic. Despite the existence of this knowledge, frequently it is not readily accessible to all targeted beneficiaries; this can be due to, for example, the remote locations of farms and the complexity of the knowledge. However, recent technological developments such as web technologies and networking allow for the engagement and participation of stakeholder groups in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and these technologies can also be applied to fruit fly knowledge. In order to facilitate this stakeholder participation in fruit fly knowledge sharing, the relevant domain knowledge needs to be available in a format that can support stakeholder engagement, preferably through the Web. Fruit fly knowledge has not been modelled in this manner and this paper reports on an investigation to model and capture the relevant domain knowledge using ontologies. The objective of this work is thus the development of the domain ontology and its evaluation using a prototype stakeholder participation system for fruit fly control and management that was capable of utilising the ontology. We describe our findings on the use of ontology technologies for representation of fruit fly knowledge, the fruit fly ontology developed, as well as a prototype Web-based system that uses the ontology as a source of knowledge.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia P.G. Claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder zero-grazing units. Saarbrucken: Scholar's Press; 2015.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, Mbuthia P G. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Smallholder Zero-grazing Units. Saarbrucken, Germany: Scholars' Press; 2015.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia PG. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Varying Zero-Grazing Units. Scholars’ Press. ; 2015.
Moronge J. Economic Liberalisation and Industrial Restructuring in Kenya. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2015.
Matula PD, Wanjala G, Ankoma. Instructional Supervision. Nairobi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Muchiri J, Wasamba P(eds.). Kenya Meets Korea in Essays. Nairobi: College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2015.
Behrens R, Dorothy McCormick, Mfinanga D. Paratransit in African Cities: Operations, Regulation and Transformation. . London: Earthscan; 2015.
Matula PD, KYALO DN, Mulwa AS. Sociology of Education: Issues, Theories, Application, Revision Questions and Answers. Nairobi: Downtown Printing Works Ltd; 2015.
Mogambi H. Usilie Yakobo. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers Ltd; 2015.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, Mbuthia P G. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Smallholder Zero-grazing Units. Saarbrucken, Germany: Scholars’ Press; 2015. Abstract
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N. M, Mwangi I, Mbatiah M. Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima Na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali.. nairobi: Focus Books. ISBN 9966-01-224-1; 2014.
Mogambi H. Chozi Langu. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2014.
Maina SM. communication Skills, Edition for University and College Students. Nairobi: The Mwituria Publishers; 2014.
Gitao CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L. Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region. OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.978-3-659-61078-3_coverpreview2.pdf
J.N. M, Mbatiah M, Iribe M. Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali katika Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2014.
Imonje RK, Monda. A, Ndirangu CW. Flood and Education: Access to Education in Flood Prone Areas. Lambert publishing house; 2014.
M OM, F. M, J. AM. Human Resources Management. Mombasa, Kenya ; 2014.
Matula PD, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. Instructional Supervision:Bridging Theory and Practice(A handbook for students and Lecturers). Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2014.
Mutia Jemimah LG. Internal Efficiency and Public Secondary School Financing. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.
Murunga GR, Okelo D, Sjögren A. Kenya: The Struggle for a New Constitutional Order. London: Zed Books; 2014.
Saidi H, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Mwachaka P, Olabu B. Kiman's Histology Text and Manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
Mwangi WE, Kimeli P, Mathai LW, Muasya DW, Kipyegon AN. Management of puff adder (Bitis Arietans) snake bite and envenomation in dogs: case report. University of Nairobi; 2014.
Mutuli SM, BIRIR JK, Maina DM, Kairu WM, Gatari MM. Welding Quality in Kenya: Application of Radiography. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2014. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya, welding services are extensively employed in both the formal and informal sectors. The needs continue to increase with increasing population, infrastructure and vehicle fleet, and economic development. Welding need is even currently very important in support of …

M.M. O, C.M R. and Procedures in Project Planning and Management. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
Mboroki DG. Distance Education Versus the Mainstream:. Germany: LAP Academic Publications; 2013.
Kirui OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal R, Mbogoh SG. Impact of Mobile Money Transfer Services in Kenyan Agriculture. LAP LAMBERT ; 2013.
Mukabi ML. Introduction to Unit Operations. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Mogambi H. Makali’s Turn. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2013.
Oketch NA, Masibo M, Olago DO. Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources.; 2013. Abstract

The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products. Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible. Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the 1950s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin.

Aketch NO, Masibo M, Olago DO. Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources: A natural Outlook-Geoenvironmental Resources and Hazards..; 2013. Abstract

The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products. Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible. Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the 1950s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin.

Mutoro HW, Wafula GK. Mizizi A Collection of Essays on Kenya's History. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013. Abstractmizizi-the_development_of_archaelogy_in_kenya.pdf

The Development of Archaeology in Kenya Since the Early 1960's

The history of archeology in Kenya broadly parallels that of the broader East African Region. This, in part, is because the region shares a related cultural history and in part, because, socio-political and economic environments in the countries of the region are largely related. In addition, international trends in archaeology pertaining to method and theory, affected the region in a more or less similar manner. Despite this, and for purposes of this chapter, the discussion confines itself to historical developments that relate to Kenya, since the early 1960's.
Archaeological studies in Kenya, as in the East African countries, have been conducted in two major dimensions, one concerned with human origins, and the other concerned with aspects pf later prehistory (Robertshaw 1990:78). The chapter will shed light on the social, political and economic environments under which archaeology as a discipline has thrived; explain how international trends in archaeology in method and theory have influenced archaeological studies in the country were conducted and how their results were interpreted.

M IJ. OCEANOGRAPHY. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

Welcome to Oceanography (SMR 411). This course is offered to both Meteorology students and atmospheric students. While this course does not require pre-requisites, a basic knowledge on climate and atmospheric circulation will enable the leaner to comprehend the concepts presented in the course.

Oceanography is the study of the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the world ocean. All the global oceans together with the seas cover nearly three-quarters of the surface of the earth. The major goals of oceanography are to understand the geologic and geochemical processes involved in the evolution and alteration of the ocean and its basin, to evaluate the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere so that greater knowledge of climatic variations can be attained, and to describe how the biological productivity in the sea is controlled.

Oceans play an important role on weather and climate. Have you ever heard of El Niño, tropical cyclones, the Atlantic hurricane season and storm surges? How does the oceans contribute to these phenomena? These and many other interesting features will be learnt in this course.

Kameri-Mbote P, Odote C, Musembi C, Murigi K. Ours By Right: Law, Politics and Realities of Community Property in Kenya. Nairobi: Srathmore University Press; 2013.
Kameri-Mbote P, Odote C, Musembi CN, Kamande W. Ours by Right: Law, Politics and Realities of Community Property in Kenya. Nairobi: Strathmore University Press; 2013.
Janet K, Mwathi L, Kiganjo G. Physical Education Form Two Teachers Guide.; 2013.
MBWESA JOYCEKANINI. Principles And Practices Of Peace Education. NAIROBI: Center for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2013.
Michael N. Research Methods: A thesis building skills Approach. Nairobi: Longhorn.; 2013.
Maundu P, Bosibori E, Kibet S, Morimoto Y, Odubo A, Kapeta B, Muiruri P, Adeka R, Ombonya J. Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage: a practical guide to documenting traditional foodways. Paris: UNESCO; 2013.
Maundu P, E B, Kibet S, Morimoto Y, Odubo A, Kapeta B, Muiruri P. Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage: a practical guide to documenting traditional foodways. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2013.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives of Ubanization in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives on Urbanisation in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Onyango C, Unbehend G, Mewa EA, Mutahi AW, Lindhauer MG, Okoth MW. Strategies for the production of gluten-free bread from sorghum cassava flour blend. Dresden: TUDpress; 2013.trend_and_opportunities.pdf
Mbithi PM;, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN. Veterinary handbook on Routine Operative Surgical Procedures.; 2013.Website
Mbuthia E-DEM, Sanja E-ML. “Alionja Asali na hadithi nyingine” . Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2013.
Moore KL, Persaud TVN, Torchia MG. The developing human: clinically oriented embryology.. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders; 2013. Abstract
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Kinyua AM, Maina DM, MANGALA MJ, GATARI MJ. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) in non-destructive testing of oil samples. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2013. AbstractWebsite

A rapid non-destructive, multi-elemental and ultra-sensitive analytical technique of engine oil analysis is described. Using" an x-ray excitation source and Si (Li) detector for the1 measurements, the deterioration of an internal combustion engine) is evaluated from results …

Mbithi PM;, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN. Veterinary handbook on Routine Operative Surgical Procedures.; 2013. AbstractWebsite
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Musonye MM, Ndivo L. Heart to Heart: Reflective Poetry from Kenya. . Nairobi: Centre for Research, Publications and Consultancy – Daystar University; 2012.
R NYONJE, KYALO DN, MULWA ANELINE. ). Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes: A Hand Book for Students and Practioners. Nairobi: Aura Books-ISBN 9966-123-456-7 ; 2012.
Mwaliwa HC, et al. 6. A Unified Orthography for Bantu Languages of Kenya. Cape town, South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Mogambi H. Chozi Langu. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2012.
MURIITHI EVANSONMURIUKI. CURRICULUM FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING; 2012.
Migosi J. Determinants of Research Productivity of University Faculty: Experiences from a developing country. Germany: Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2012.
michael_k._chirchir_and_githii_wainaina. dms_111_manual.; 2012.dms_111_manual_by_michael_k._chirchir_and_githii_wainaina.pdf
Shah P, mwaura F, Moronge J. Environmental Audits and Education Institutions. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J, kiiru DH. Essay as a Handshake. Nairobi: CHSS; 2012.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J, DH Muchugu Kiiru(eds.). The Essay as a Handshake: Impressions on the Kenyan-Korean Interface. Nairobi: Bridging the Divide: Networking African and Korean Researchers’ Project; 2012.
K.Gakunga D, makatiani M. Foundations of Comparative Education TFD 616. Nairobi: University of Nairobi e-Learning Portal; 2012.
Nyamwange O, Magutu PO, Mbeche IM, Onsongo C. An Introduction to Project Management. Nairobi: Lelax Global Ltd; 2012.
and Magutu O. P., Imbeche I. M. NOSOCO. An Introduction to Project Management: A textbook for Business Management Students: ISBN: 789-078-013-001 . Nairobi: Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2012.
Mandela P. Living the Mysteries of the Holy Rosary. London: Xlibris Publishing Corporation; 2012.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Majira ya Tufani. NAIROBI: Longman Kenya Ltd; 2012.
Mutua E, Olungah CO. Men as partners against gender based violence. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2012.
Kibui AW, Muasya JN. Module on Distance and Open Learning . TEC 108-Health and Safty for pre-schools; 2012.
Mulwa A.S.; Kyalo NDN; RO. Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programs. Nairobi, Kenya: AURA; 2012.
Mbuthia DEM. Mwongozo Changanuzi wa Mstahiki Meya . Nairobi: Target Publishers ; 2012.
Mukhwana A, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Othello. Nairobi: Oxford University Press (OUP); 2012. AbstractOthello_Cover.pdf

Iago ameapa kulipiza kisasi dhidi ya Othello kwa kuivuruga ndoa ya Othello na Desdemona. Njia pekee ya kufanikisha azma yake ni kumghilibu Othello kwa kumdanganya kuwa mkewe ni mwasherati. Je, Iago atafaulu katika azimio hili? Je, Othello atazikubali hila za Iago? Endapo atashawishika, atamchukulia hatua gani Desdemona? Haya ni kati ya maswali anayoyajibu William Shakespeare katika tamthilia hii ya tanzia, ingawa inaburudisha, inafunza na ambayo imekaidi mpito wa wakati. Tafsiri hii imefanywa kwa ufundi mkubwa hivi kwamba ule mvuto na mnato wa kazi asilia umedumishwa.

Maina SM. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods Simplified. Nairobi: mwituria publishers; 2012.
Maina. Qualitative and Quantitative research methods simplified. Nairobi: Frajopa Printers & Publishers Mall; 2012.
Mbuge(3) DO, Gumbe L, Rading G. Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO, Rading GO. Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining - Prediction Using Viscoelasticity. Saarsbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.

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