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Kimani M, Makoteku O. " The Effect of Socio-economic and Proximate Determinants on birth Intervals in Kenya .". In: Fertility in Africa (editors) I. Diamond and D. Holmes, International Statistical Institute. Voorburg: International Statistical Institute; 1991.
Mutuku A, Murungaru K, Magadi M.  Fertility in Kenya: Analysis of Birth intervals in Kenya. . Mauritius: VDM Publishing House LTD; 2010.
Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Hill K, Makoteku O, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1992.
Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Mosley H, Oyuke C, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1982.
Onjala J, Olsson B, Birungi P, Huda S, Motlaleng GR, Sterner T. " "Ranking Environmental Services in Different Countries"." Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2002;Volume 4(Part 1):Pp.73-93.
(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM, Gakuu PC, Mboroki DG, Ndiritu DA. "• University Managers’ Participation in Distance Education: What Role Does Their Level of Knowledge in Distance Education Play?". In: ACADEMIC CONFERENCE IN THE SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND DISTANCE EDUCATION. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND EXTERNAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, KENYA; 2013.university_managers_participation_in_de.doc
Abuya PE, Mukundi G. "• Assessing Asylum Claims in Africa: Missing or Meeting Standards? ." Netherlands International Law Review . 2006;2(53):171-204 .
Mulama SJ. “Usimulizi katika Utenzi wa Siri Li Asirali’. E.M. DM, K.W. PW, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mungai AFG. “Urban Village” an urban design for Pasadena. Califonia: University of Califonia; 1988.
Atieno R, Benjamin Okech, Mitullah WV. "“Understanding the Business Systems in Kenya: Firm Response to Changing Market Environment in the Metal Products Sector”.". In: Regional workshop on Business Systems in Africa . Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
and Maweu HWJM. "“The tension between ethics and ethnicity: Examining journalists' ethical decision-making at the Nation Media Group in Kenya”." Journal of African Media Studies. 2014;Volume 6(Issue 2):165-181.
Muleka J. "“The Paradoxes of Form and Style.” ." The Nairobi Journal of Literature, Kenya.. 2010;1(6):55-64.
Muleka J. "“The Knell of Readership: A Case of Censorship in Children’s Literature.”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2007;1(5):55-65.
Osaaji MG, Odari M, Muchiri J. "“The Agile Thinking and Subversion in Chinua Achebe’s The Education of a British-Protected Child”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2020;9(Special Issue):124-143.
Mbuthia E, Matei A. "“Thamani ya Ukoo”.". In: In: Sauti ya Matarajio na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
8.7. Owele, D.O., Misoi GK, D.M. M, Obonyo I. "“Spur Gear Train Optimal Design”." International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET). 2018;5(11).
Njihia JM, Mbeche IM. "“Soft" Systems Analysis: Road Construction and Maintenance: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: All Africa Engineers Conference. Kenyatta Conference Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994. Abstract
n/a
Mukhwana A. "“Sheng and Engsh: What They Are and What They Are Not”." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;2(1).
JANE KABUBO-MARIARA, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R, Mwabu G. "“Poverty-environmental Links: The Impact of Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security on Household Welfare in Kenya”." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2010;Vol. 2(1)(February, 2010):041-053.
Stigter CJ, den Van B, Daane JRV, Adam HS, Mohammed AE, Ng'ang'a JK, Mungai DN. "The “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison.". 1998. AbstractThe “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison

What distinguishes the “Picnic” model for research training at African universities from more classical models is reviewed and it is shown how the “Picnic” model deals with remaining drawbacks from the now popular “Sandwich” model. Starting with managerial experiences, criteria guiding this evaluation are used as sub-headings: realistic planning; adequate resource provision; partnership instead of aid; long term impact; high quality supervision; quality and quantity of student input; open and interactive communication; willingness to adapt to local circumstances; ongoing critical reflection; gradual expatriate withdrawal. The training output of the “Picnic” model tests in the four TTMI-countries is assessed after the actual and prospective jobs of its former students. The on-farm quantification of protecting systems/structures led in many TTMI PhD-research cases to improved design criteria for such systems/structures, with direct increases of yield or its preservation. In comparison with the “Sandwich” model, the “Picnic” model particularly incorporates institutional strengthening in the aim that the southern countries will become able to provide adequate education at the postgraduate level, teaching their students how to apply knowledge in their own environment. Degrees obtained at southern universities, therefore, have distinct advantages but joint responsibilities of universities for such degrees are difficult to organize, given the presently existing modes of output-related financing of Dutch universities. In a situation of institutional deterioration, such as Africa is experiencing, the best hope probably lies in strengthening networks of individuals and a collective sense of academic commitment, pending the revival of universities themselves. Emergency research related to the protection of the African agricultural environment by African universities, training NARS staff, must in the long run contribute to restoring an agricultural basis for part of the economies of the many poor African countries. Knowledge developed locally remains the most powerful vehicle for change from within.

Muleka J. "“Our Physical and Oral Heritage: A Link.” In Our Landscapes, Our Narratives" .". In: - Proceedings of the Conference on East African Oral Literature. Kisumu; 2006.
Muchiri J. "“Ng’ang’a Mbugua’s Different Colours as an Allegory of the Kenyan Nation.”." Chemchemi – International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;10(1):83-95.
Atieno R, Mitullah WV. "“Migration Labour Markets and Development: Inward Migration to North and West Africa”." Working Paper, International Labour Organisation, . 2010;Geneva, 2010.
MICHIRA DRJ, I.MWANGI. "“Kiswahili as an Official Language in Kenya: Its Past, Present and Future Roles and Challenges”." in Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies,. 2014;Vol. 3 :42-52.
Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
KABUBO-MARIARA JANE, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R, Mwabu G. "“Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya”." PREM Working Paper. 2006;PREM 06/06.
Nzioka C., Kibuka T., Oyugi S., Kimutai E., Orago A., Kilonzo N., Mwesigye I., Alwan F., Hassan A, A K. "“HIV and AIDS in cross border mobile populations: behavioral surveillance survey among truckers in the IRAPP – supported hotspots in Kenya.". 2014.
Osaaji MG, Odari M, Muchiri J. "“From Alterity to Agency: Pathways of Subversion and Resistance in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Personal Essays”. ." The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa (JOLTE). . 2021;11 no. 2(2021):1-16.
Reuben M. “Fani katika Utenzi wa Ayubu” . Mbuthia DE, Amiri DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Were E. “Fani katika tamthilia ya Kiswahili: Uchanganuzi wa kilio cha Haki na Kijiba cha Moyo” . Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Mwabu G. "“Economic Development and Malaria Prevalence: An Empirical Analysis with Reference to Kenya.". In: Malaria and Development in Africa ,. American Association for the Advancement of Science,; 1991.
Mbuthia E-DEM, Sanja E-ML. “Alionja Asali na hadithi nyingine” . Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2013.
Sinja J, Karugia J, Waithaka M, Miano D, Baltenweck L, Franzel S, Nyikal R. "“Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach”." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, . 2004;9(1):222-226.134898-article_text-362029-1-10-20160503.pdfWebsite
Mugambi JNK. "“Adaptation to Climate Change in Tropical Africa”.". In: Seminar on Climate Change. University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Theology; 2009.
Muola, J. M., Migosi JA. "“Academic Advising Needs among University Students in Kenya”." International Journal of Asian Social Science,. 2012;2(7):972-983.
Muola, J. M., Migosi JA. "“Academic Advising Needs among University Students in Kenya”." International Journal of Asian Social Science,. 2012;2(7):972-983.
Muola, J. M., Migosi JA. "“Academic Advising Needs among University Students in Kenya”." International Journal of Asian Social Science,. 2012;2(7):972-983.
Keesbury J, Onyango-Ouma W, Undie C-C, Maternowska C, Mugisha F, Kahega E, Askew I. “A review and evaluation of multi-sectoral response services (‘one-stop centers‘) for gender-based violence in Kenya and Zambia.”. Nairobi: Population Council; 2012.2012rh_sgbv_oscreveval.pdf
Muchiri J. "“A Human Rights Reading of Meja Mwangi’s Going Down River Road.”.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Perspectives. Nairobi: Focus; 2017.
Munene M. "“(In) accessible Universal Access in banks: Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya." Design for All Institute of India. 2015;(Vol-10 No-2 ).
Mukhwana, A. Mayora J. "“ Implicatures in Interviews in Kenyan Print Media: A Case of The East African Standard." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(8).
m, m. "’The Relevance of Odera Oruka’s Parental Earth Ethics as an Eco-Philosophy .". In: Odera Oruka in the Twenty-first Century Kenyan Philosophical Studies, II. Washington, D.C: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy; 2018.
Brauch HG, Grin J, Mesjasz C, Behera NC, Chourou B, Spring UO, Liotta PH, Kameri-Mbote P. "‘Water and food security in the River Nile Basin: The perspectives of governments and NGOS of upstream countries.". In: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin – Heidelberg – New York – Hong Kong – London – Milan – Paris – Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; 2008.
Aseto SA, Moronge JM. "‘Waste Management Practices in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study of University of Nairobi, Kenya'." The International Journal of Development Dialogue. 2017;Volume 2(Issue No. 1):pp 54-67.
Bowa O, Mulwa A, Kyalo N, Mboroki G. "‘The influence of ICT Infrastructure on Readiness to adopt E-Learning in Secondary Schools in Kitui District in Kenya’." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education. 2012;Volume 2 (Issue 1):page 23-66.abstract_influence_of_ict_infrastructure.pdf
Mwega F. "‘The Competitiveness of the Financial Services in Africa: A Case Study of Kenya’." African Development Review. 2011;23(1):44-59.
Mwega F. "‘Saving in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparative Analysis’." Journal of African Economies, Supplement. 1997;6(3).
MWIKYA NK, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. "‘Relational Coordination in the Airline Industry: Getting it Right to Enhance on-time Service Delivery at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport. .". In: The 9th Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa . International Conference Imperial Resort Beach Hotel, Entebbe, Uganda.; 2013.
Wainaina G, Michael M. "‘NEW’ STRATEGIES FOR FINANCING EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN AFRICA.". In: EDUCATION FOR ALL HIGH LEVEL PANEL MEETING. Addis Ababa; 2010.
Bevan D, Mwega F. "‘Introduction to the May 1996 Plenary Session, Political Economy and Effects of Macroeconomic Policies’." Journal of African Economies, Supplement . 1997;6(3).
MULWA SA, Kyalo N. "‘Influence of Connectivity on Readiness to adopt e-Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya’ .". In: ODL conference on Utilization of Open And Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges in Kenya Towards Fulfillment of the Vision 2030. Kikuyu Campus, UoN; 2013.
Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, jaldesa Guyo. "The ‘heat’goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya." Reproductive health. 2017;14(1):1-9.
Muasya J, Giatu GK, Thaiyah AG. "‘Estimation of Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) prevalence using antibody ELISA in Kenya’.". In: Regional conference on zoonotic diseases. Naivasha, Kenya; 2015.
KYALO DN, MULWA SA. "‘Education in Emergencies: An Analytical Review of Obstacles and Solutions to Quality Education for Internally Displaced Children in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Educational Reforms and Innovations in Enhancing Quality and Equity,. Kenyatta University; 2012.
Jadeed MA, Waris A, Musembi C. "‘Delimiting the Kadhis’ Courts Probate Jurisdiction under the 2010 Constitutional Dispensation’." East African Law Journal. 2019:95.
Mwinzi JM. "‘Challenges of Development in Africa.". In: Paper Presented: Philosophy of education in secondary school curriculum in Kenya.; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Njoroge WI, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "‘An Assessement of the Impacts of Cleaner Production in Manufacturing Industries in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;Volume 5(Issue No. 7):pp 173-186 .
Mercy D, Kinyanjui Sarah, Kiarie M. "‘Access to Justice for Intra Familial Child Sexual Abuse Victims in Kenya: A Mirage?" International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research.. 2019.
Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "‘A case of Voice Poverty? Towards a new Paradigm in the fight against Poverty in Kenya’.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2017.
VENZI S, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. "‘ Farmers Level of Education and Training and Sustainable Irrigation of Small Scale Dryland Farming in Kitui Central District’ .". In: The 4th African International Business And Management . Conference The University of Nairobi, School of Business, Lower Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
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LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

Α
Perciani CT, Jaoko W, Farah B, Ostrowski MA, Anzala O, MacDonald KS. "αEβ7, α4β7 and α4β1 integrin contributions to T cell distribution in blood, cervix and rectal tissues: Potential implications for HIV transmission." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2):e0192482. Abstract

Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45). Here we show that blood and cervix were enriched in α4+β1+CD4+T cells and α4+β7hiCD4+T cells, whereas the rectum had an equal frequency of α4+β7hiCD4+T cells and αE+β7hiCD4+T cells. Most cervical and rectal αE+β7hiCD4+T cells expressed CCR5 as well as CD69. Interestingly, αEβ7 was the predominant integrin expressed by CD4negT cells in both mucosal sites, outnumbering αE+β7hiCD4+T cells approximately 2-fold in the cervix and 7-fold in the rectum. The majority of αE+β7hiCD4negT cells expressed CD69 at the mucosa. Taken together, our results show unique tissue-specific patterns of integrin expression. These results can help in guiding vaccine design and also the use of therapeutically targeting integrin adhesion as a means to preventing HIV.

{
Kiptoo CC, Gerber A, van der Merwe A. {The ontological modelling of fruit fly control and management knowledge}.; 2016. Abstract

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Fruit fly control and management in Africa has been the topic of several scientific investigations resulting in diverse sources of knowledge on the topic. Despite the existence of this knowledge, frequently it is not readily accessible to all targeted beneficiaries; this can be due to, for example, the remote locations of farms and the complexity of the knowledge. However, recent technological developments such as web technologies and networking allow for the engagement and participation of stakeholder groups in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and these technologies can also be applied to fruit fly knowledge. In order to facilitate this stakeholder participation in fruit fly knowledge sharing, the relevant domain knowledge needs to be available in a format that can support stakeholder engagement, preferably through the Web. Fruit fly knowledge has not been modelled in this manner and this paper reports on an investigation to model and capture the relevant domain knowledge using ontologies. The objective of this work is thus the development of the domain ontology and its evaluation using a prototype stakeholder participation system for fruit fly control and management that was capable of utilising the ontology. We describe our findings on the use of ontology technologies for representation of fruit fly knowledge, the fruit fly ontology developed, as well as a prototype Web-based system that uses the ontology as a source of knowledge.

Maingey Y, Opondo M, Olago D, Ouma G. "{The impacts of increasing water scarcity and the potential for water-related conflict in Lamu, Kenya}." Water Supply. 2021;22:1983-1994. AbstractWebsite

{In the age of climate change, the efficient allocation, distribution and use of water raises complex issues for water management, with far-reaching and often contentious consequences. As water becomes scarcer, water-related tensions are imminent on different scales. It is the interplay of these tensions with a number of socioeconomic, political, environmental and cultural factors that determine the probability of conflict. Lamu, found in the coastal part of Kenya, is a unique location in that access to water is already a major challenge. Combined with the negative impacts of climate change, and the ongoing large infrastructural development in the region, Lamu is on the verge of a water crisis. As such, there is a need for research into the context-specific factors that play a part in heightening the potential for water-related conflict amidst increasing water scarcity. The focus of this study was to identify and evaluate the context-specific factors that will amplify the potential for water-related conflict in Lamu. The findings suggest religion, migration, and poverty are factors that would heighten the potential for water-related conflict in the region amidst increasing water scarcity. The study recommends that these factors need to be addressed urgently and should be part of any water management mechanism in Lamu, in order to avoid water-related conflicts. Additionally, the findings imply that anticipating the stressors for water-related conflict in Lamu will play a significant role in managing conflict and facilitating negotiations over the region's water resources.}

de Mello MJ, Orsi AM, Padovani CR, Matheus S, Eleuterio ML. "{STRUCTURE} {OF} {THE} {AORTIC} {WALL} {IN} {THE} {GUINEA} {PIG} {AND} {RAT}." Journal of Morphological Sciences. 2004;21. Abstract
n/a
Nyunja C, Maina J, Amimo J, Kibegwa F, Harper D, Junga J. "{Stock Structure Delineation of the African Catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Selected Populations in Kenya Using Mitochondrial DNA (Dloop) Variability}." Journal of Aquaculture Research {&} Development. 2017;08. AbstractWebsite

This study genetically characterized five populations of the African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Kenya. Samples were obtained from five sites in the country–Athi River hatchery, Kisii Fingerling Production Centre (FPC), Jewlett hatchery, Sagana Hatchery Station and Lake Baringo. DNA was extracted from tissue samples, followed by amplification and sequencing of the dloop region. Haplotype diversities, phylogenetic structure and variation at the dloop region of mitochondrial DNA were assessed. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that the sampled species showed genetic diversity between its populations. The genetic results were congruent indicating the differences in diversities and haplotype similarities of catfish samples from different sites. The Sagana, Kisii FPC, Jewlett and Baringo population cluster overlapped indicating possibly shared source of brood stock. The Athi river population was in a different cluster and its distinctiveness is attributed to imported brood stock. Both Athi River hatchery and Lake Baringo populations were highly variable and has great potential for production.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. "The {Spinal} {Cord} {Circuitry} {Underlying} {Muscle} {Stretch} {Reflexes}.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The local circuitry within the spinal cord mediates a number of sensory motor reflex actions. The simplest of these reflex arcs entails the response to muscle stretch, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motor neurons innervating the muscle that has been stretched (Figure 16.9). As already mentioned, the sensory signal for the stretch reflex originates in muscle spindles, sensory receptors embedded within most muscles (see previous section and Chapter 9). The spindles comprise 8–10 intrafusal fibers arranged in parallel with the extrafusal fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle (Figure 16.9A). Large-diameter sensory fibers, called Ia afferents, are coiled around the central part of the spindle. These afferents are the largest axons in peripheral nerves and, since action potential conduction velocity is a direct function of axon diameter (see Chapters 2 and 3), they allow for very rapid adjustments in this reflex arc when the muscle is stretched. The stretch imposed on the muscle deforms the intrafusal muscle fibers, which in turn initiate action potentials by activating mechanically gated ion channels in the afferent axons coiled around the spindle. The centrally projecting branch of the sensory neuron forms monosynaptic excitatory connections with the α motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that innervate the same (homonymous) muscle and, via local circuit neurons, inhibitory connections with the α motor neurons of antagonistic (heteronymous) muscles. This arrangement is an example of what is called reciprocal innervation and results in rapid contraction of the stretched muscle and simultaneous relaxation of the antagonist muscle. All of this leads to especially rapid and efficient responses to changes in the length or tension in the muscle (Figure 16.9B). The excitatory pathway from a spindle to the α motor neurons innervating the same muscle is unusual in that it is a monosynaptic reflex; in most cases, sensory neurons from the periphery do not contact the lower motor neuron directly but exert their effects through local circuit neurons. Figure 16.9Stretch reflex circuitry. (A) Diagram of muscle spindle, the sensory receptor that initiates the stretch reflex. (B) Stretching a muscle spindle leads to increased activity in Ia afferents and an increase in the activity of α motor neurons that innervate the same muscle. Ia afferents also excite the motor neurons that innervate synergistic muscles, and inhibit the motor neurons that innervate antagonists (see also Figure 1.5). (C) The stretch reflex operates as a negative feedback loop to regulate muscle length.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. "The {Spinal} {Cord} {Circuitry} {Underlying} {Muscle} {Stretch} {Reflexes}.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The local circuitry within the spinal cord mediates a number of sensory motor reflex actions. The simplest of these reflex arcs entails the response to muscle stretch, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motor neurons innervating the muscle that has been stretched (Figure 16.9). As already mentioned, the sensory signal for the stretch reflex originates in muscle spindles, sensory receptors embedded within most muscles (see previous section and Chapter 9). The spindles comprise 8–10 intrafusal fibers arranged in parallel with the extrafusal fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle (Figure 16.9A). Large-diameter sensory fibers, called Ia afferents, are coiled around the central part of the spindle. These afferents are the largest axons in peripheral nerves and, since action potential conduction velocity is a direct function of axon diameter (see Chapters 2 and 3), they allow for very rapid adjustments in this reflex arc when the muscle is stretched. The stretch imposed on the muscle deforms the intrafusal muscle fibers, which in turn initiate action potentials by activating mechanically gated ion channels in the afferent axons coiled around the spindle. The centrally projecting branch of the sensory neuron forms monosynaptic excitatory connections with the α motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that innervate the same (homonymous) muscle and, via local circuit neurons, inhibitory connections with the α motor neurons of antagonistic (heteronymous) muscles. This arrangement is an example of what is called reciprocal innervation and results in rapid contraction of the stretched muscle and simultaneous relaxation of the antagonist muscle. All of this leads to especially rapid and efficient responses to changes in the length or tension in the muscle (Figure 16.9B). The excitatory pathway from a spindle to the α motor neurons innervating the same muscle is unusual in that it is a monosynaptic reflex; in most cases, sensory neurons from the periphery do not contact the lower motor neuron directly but exert their effects through local circuit neurons. Figure 16.9Stretch reflex circuitry. (A) Diagram of muscle spindle, the sensory receptor that initiates the stretch reflex. (B) Stretching a muscle spindle leads to increased activity in Ia afferents and an increase in the activity of α motor neurons that innervate the same muscle. Ia afferents also excite the motor neurons that innervate synergistic muscles, and inhibit the motor neurons that innervate antagonists (see also Figure 1.5). (C) The stretch reflex operates as a negative feedback loop to regulate muscle length.

Mandolesi G, Menna E, Harauzov A, von Bartheld CS, Caleo M, Maffei L. "A {Role} for {Retinal} {Brain}-{Derived} {Neurotrophic} {Factor} in {Ocular} {Dominance} {Plasticity}." Current Biology. 2005;15:2119-2124. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation is a classical tool to study the plasticity of visual cortical connections. After eyelid closure in young animals (monocular deprivation, MD), visual cortical neurons become dominated by the open eye, a phenomenon known as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity [1]. It is commonly held that the molecular mediators of OD plasticity are cortically derived and that the retina is immune to the effects of MD 2, 3 and 4. Recently, it has been reported that visual deprivation induces neurochemical, structural, and functional changes in the retina 5, 6 and 7, but whether these retinal changes contribute to the effects of MD in the cortex is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced in the retina influences OD plasticity. We found a reduction of BDNF expression in the deprived retina of young rats. We compensated this BDNF imbalance between the two eyes by either injecting exogenous BDNF in the deprived eye or reducing endogenous BDNF expression in the nondeprived eye. Both treatments were effective in counteracting the OD shift induced by MD. Retinal BDNF could also influence OD distribution in normal animals. These results show for the first time that OD plasticity is modulated by BDNF produced in the retina.

Masland R. "The {Neuronal} {Organization} of the {Retina}." Neuron. 2012;76:266-280. AbstractWebsite

The mammalian retina consists of neurons of >60 distinct types, each playing a specific role in processing visual images. They are arranged in three main stages. The first decomposes the outputs of the rod and cone photoreceptors into ∼12 parallel information streams. The second connects these streams to specific types of retinal ganglion cells. The third combines bipolar and amacrine cell activity to create the diverse encodings of the visual world—roughly 20 of them—that the retina transmits to the brain. New transformations of the visual input continue to be found: at least half of the encodings sent to the brain (ganglion cell response selectivities) remain to be discovered. This diversity of the retina’s outputs has yet to be incorporated into our understanding of higher visual function.

Naraynsingh V, Ramdass M, Singh J, Singh-Rampaul R, Maharaj D. "{McBurney}'s point: {Are} we missing it?" Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2002;24:363-365. AbstractWebsite

A prospective study of 100 post-evacuation barium enemas was done. Films were centered at McBurney's point, with an opaque skin marker at that point. Analysis of these revealed that in only one case (1%) was the base of the appendix at McBurney's point. In 67% it was cephalic and in 32% it was caudal to this point. The limitations of McBurney's point as an anatomical landmark should be recognized. This needs to be highlighted in teaching anatomy, especially to surgical trainees. Planning and choice of surgical incisions should be based on an understanding of these anatomical variations since McBurney's original description was clinical rather than anatomical. The French version of this article is available in the form of electronic supplementary material and can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-002-0069-7

Githui EK, Kibegwa FM, Kamau JM, Mutura SK, Okwany ZA, Ngigi DM, Mwangi EW. "{Genetic relationships of indigenous goats reared by pastoralists in Kenya based on mitochondria D-loop sequence}." Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales. 2016:1-8. AbstractWebsite

Kenya indigenous goat breeds ( Capra hircus ) have not been accurately described. Therefore, there is threat of erosion of unique genotypes such as those associated with adaptability and disease resistance, through indiscriminate crossbreeding. The Kenyan goats classification based on phenotype/morphology identifies three breeds: Small East African (SEA) goats, the Galla goat and crosses of SEA and the Galla. In the present study, we sampled goats from two main geographic regions of Kenya with pastoralist communities, the Maasai and Somali/Boran. DNA was extracted from whole blood and polymerase chain reaction amplified using primers flanking a fragment of Cytocrome-b and D-loop regions of mitochondria DNA. The sequences derived were analysed both within Kenya goat populations and also compared with phylogeographic-related datasets. These data show that the majority of Kenyan indigenous goats are not distinct and their genetic structure is very diverse; however, distinct haplogroups were present. Genetic diversity showed weak positive in Tajima D test for Kenyan indigenous goats, while the Iberian/Mediterranean/Middle-East dataset had a more pronounced negative value indicating that the two populations are under different selection pressure. These analyses enabled phylogenetic relationships between and within species and the comparisons of local goats to related breeds geographically. The information can be applied management of conservation-guided breeding programmes by crossing the indigenous breed's unique genes with high productivity traits from another source.

Ogeng’o J, ONGETI K, Obimbo M, Olabu BO, Mwachaka P. "{FEATURES} {OF} {ATHEROSCLEROSIS} {IN} {THE} {TUNICA} {ADVENTITIA} {OF} {CORONARY} {AND} {CAROTID} {ARTERIES} {IN} {A} {BLACK} {KENYAN} {POPULATION}." Anatomical Research International. 2014;2014. Abstract
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Moore K, Persaud T. The {Developing} {Human}: {Clinically} {Oriented} {Embryology}. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. Abstract
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Ho VM, Lee J-A, Martin KC. "The {Cell} {Biology} of {Synaptic} {Plasticity}." Science. 2011;334:623-628. AbstractWebsite

Synaptic plasticity is the experience-dependent change in connectivity between neurons that is believed to underlie learning and memory. Here, we discuss the cellular and molecular processes that are altered when a neuron responds to external stimuli, and how these alterations lead to an increase or decrease in synaptic connectivity. Modification of synaptic components and changes in gene expression are necessary for many forms of plasticity. We focus on excitatory neurons in the mammalian hippocampus, one of the best-studied model systems of learning-related plasticity.

Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG. "{CDC} definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of {CDC} definitions of surgical wound infections." Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 1992;13:606-608. Abstract
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Viegas KAS, Orsi AM, Matheus S, Francia-Farje LAD, Orsi DC, Mello JM. "{CARACTERÍSTICAS} {ESTRUCTURALES} {DE} {LA} {AORTA} {DE} {CONEJO} ({Oryctolagus} cuniculus)." Revista chilena de anatomía. 2001;19:131-137. AbstractWebsite
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DR GITAU WILSON, DR OLUDHE CHRISTOPHER, PROF OGALLO LABAN, MR ATHERU ZACHARY, MR AMBENJE PETER. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2011"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2012;93(7):S180-S182.
DR OLUDHE CHRISTOPHER, PROF OGALLO LABAN, MR AMBENJE PETER, MR ATHERU ZACHARY, DR GITAU WILSON. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2010"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2011;92(6):S194-S196.
DR. CHRISTOPHER-OLUDHE, PROF. LABAN-OGALLO, MR. PETER-AMBENJE, MR. ZACHARY-ATHERU, MR. WILSON-GITAU. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2009"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2010;91(7):S154-S156.
Mosin VI, Radbil' OS. "[Cyclic nucleotides and intestinal function]." Klin Med (Mosk). 1976;54(10):23-8.
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Muchemi, L., Maingi, N., Otieno, R.O, Mkoji. G.M., Mungai B. "Zoonotic helminth parasites recovered from dogs in Kisumu and their public health importance.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi Biennial Scientific Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 2006.
Kemunto N, Mogoa E, Osoro E, Bitek A, Njenga MK, Thumbi SM. "Zoonotic disease research in East Africa." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18(1):545.
Macaques R, Ott-Joslin JE, Lasiey BL, Zucker EL, Miller TJ, Bennett B, Stover J. "Zoo Zoology.". 1987.Website
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MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Yumi Nishiyama, Patrick B. Chalo Mutiso, Simon G. Mathenge, Atsushi Kato et al, 2003, Isoquinoline Alkaloids from monodora grandidieri,.". In: Jour. Natural Medicines 57(2) 74 (2003). University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2003. Abstract
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MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Yumi Nishiyama, Momoyo Ichimaru, Atsushi Kato, Simon G. Mathenge, Patrick B. Chalo Mutiso et al, 2000. Secondary and Tertiary Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Monodara junodii.". In: Jour. Natural Medicine 54(6( 338-34. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2000. Abstract
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MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Yumi Nishiyama, masantaka moriyasu, Atsushi Kato, Patrick B. Chalo Mutiso ,S.G. Mathenge et al 2004. Quarterway isoquinoline alkaloids from xylopia parviflora.". In: Jour. Phytochemistry 65(2004)939 . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
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Mitei HK. "Youth, Technology and ‘Freedom Culture’ in Kenya: The role of Christian Educators in Advancing a Contextualized Theology." Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 2014;3(3):140-144.
M.Ngesu L, Gunga S, Wachira L, Kahigi C, Mutilu B. "Youth Violence in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Prevalence, Manifestations and Prevention." IJIRS. 2013;vol.2(Issue 12):199-211.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow Recomended by KIE as teaching Material for Social Education and Ethics.". In: Kenya Episcopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow book Two (Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Conference).". In: Kenya Episcopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow Book One: A guide to Family Life Education for Youth(Kenya Episcopal Conference).". In: Kenya Espicopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mutua E, Bukachi S, Bett B, Estambale B, Nyamongo I. "Youth Participation in Smallholder Livestock Production and Marketing." IDS Bulletin . 2017;48(3):95-108.
MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "Youth participation in Environmental Planning and management in Malindi Municipality, October 2002.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Youth Forum. A magazine for Young People.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Kimani DN, Kariuki PC, Machio PM, Murigi MN, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MURANG’A COUNTY, KENYA.". 2016.
Kimani DN, Kariuki PC, Machio PM, Murigi MN, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MURANG’A COUNTY, KENYA.". 2016.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A. "Your A-Z on Mental Health.". 2010.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Yoder, O and D.M.Mukunya, 1972. A host specific toxin metabolite produced by Phyllostica maydis. Phytopathology 62:799.". In: A seminar paper presented to the members of the institute of Botany and Physiology. July, 1976. Shangai, People. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1972. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
Njoroge K, M’ragwa LR, Ngure M. "Yield stability in F1 hybrid composite varieties of maize in semi-arid Kenya." Africa Crop Science Conference Proceedings. 1997;Vol.3:221-224.
Mwangi DM, Miriti JM, Heng LK, Esilaba AO, Gachene CKK. "Yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Eastern Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in eastern Kenya. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize–cowpea and single crop maize with manure. The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency (WUE). Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages. The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. When averaged across the seasons and tillage systems, the cropping system with the manure treatment increased (P ≤ 0.05) maize grain yield, grain WUE and dry matter WUE by 36%, 30%, 26% respectively, compared to treatments without manure. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop.Highlights ► We studied crop yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea under different tillage practices in semi-arid Kenya. ► Plant available water was highest in tied ridges, followed by ox-ploughing and least in the ripping tillage system. ► Tillage did not have significant effects on maize grain yield and but it had on crop water use efficiency. ► Cowpea yielded less under ripping than ox-ploughing. ► Maize yield was reduced by intercropping but was improved by manure application.

MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "Yenesew, A. Wanjohi, J. M., Midiwo, J. O., Heydenreich, M. Peter, M. G., Brun, R., Maksimenka, K., Mutanyatta, J., and Bringmann, G. (2006). Joziknipholones A and B: The first axially chiral dimeric phenylanthraquinones from the roots of Bulbine frutescen.". In: Bulbine frutescens. SITE; 2006. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Moroff G, Brandt KG. "Yeast glutathione reductase. Studies of the kinetics and stability of the enzyme as a function of pH and salt concentration." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):21-31. Abstract

1. The pH dependencies of the apparent Michaelis constant for oxidized glutathione and the apparent turnover number of yeast glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) have been determined at a fixed concentration of 0.1 mM NADPH in the range pH 4.5--8.0. Between pH 5.5 and 7.6, both of these parameters are relatively constant. The principal effect of low pH on the kinetics of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is the observation of a pH-dependent substrate inhibition by oxidized glutathione at pH less than or equal 7, which is shown to correlate with the binding of oxidized glutathione to the oxidized form of the enzyme. 2. The catalytic activity of yeast glutathione reductase at pH 5.5 is affected by the sodium acetate buffer concentration. The stability of the oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C in the absence of bovine serum albumin was studied as a function of sodium acetate concentration. The results show that activation of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at low sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on a reduced form of the enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at high sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on the oxidized form of the enzyme.

Moroff G, Brandt KG. "Yeast glutathione reductase. Studies of the kinetics and stability of the enzyme as a function of pH and salt concentration." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):21-31. Abstract

1. The pH dependencies of the apparent Michaelis constant for oxidized glutathione and the apparent turnover number of yeast glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) have been determined at a fixed concentration of 0.1 mM NADPH in the range pH 4.5--8.0. Between pH 5.5 and 7.6, both of these parameters are relatively constant. The principal effect of low pH on the kinetics of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is the observation of a pH-dependent substrate inhibition by oxidized glutathione at pH less than or equal 7, which is shown to correlate with the binding of oxidized glutathione to the oxidized form of the enzyme. 2. The catalytic activity of yeast glutathione reductase at pH 5.5 is affected by the sodium acetate buffer concentration. The stability of the oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C in the absence of bovine serum albumin was studied as a function of sodium acetate concentration. The results show that activation of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at low sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on a reduced form of the enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at high sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on the oxidized form of the enzyme.

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Chindia ML, Owibingire S, Moshi JR, Butt FMA. "Xeroderma pigmentosum: a review and case series.". 2010. Abstract

Xeroderma pigmentosa (XP) is a condition inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and is characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin ageing and malignant tumour development resulting from the defect in DNA repair. The management of complications of XP, especially orofacial tumours entails an enormous surgical challenge to the clinicians. We present five cases of XP.

Negera A, Matthias H, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H, Sewald N, Yenesew A. "A xanthone and a phenylanthraquinone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens and the revision of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;9:67-73.
MANGALA MJ, Patel JP. "X-ray fluorescence analysis of fluorite minerals for major and trace constituents." Journal of trace and microprobe …. 1996. AbstractWebsite

Sauf mention contraire ci-dessus, le contenu de cette notice bibliographique peut être utilisé dans le cadre d'une licence CC BY 4.0 Inist-CNRS/Unless otherwise stated above, the content of this bibliographic record may be used under a CC BY 4.0 licence by Inist-CNRS/A …

MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "X-ray diagnosable pneumonia in children with severe malnutrition at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J . 1998 Oct; 75 ( 10 ): 567-71 . PMID: 10065188 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Ngamau DW, Onyango FE, Mirza NM, Njeru EK.". In: East Afr Med J . 1998 Oct; 75 ( 10 ): 567-71 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of radiologically evident pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of commonly used clinical indicators of pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition. METHODS: All children with severe malnutrition and admitted at the then Paediatric Observation Ward without congestive cardiac failure, severe anaemia, or severe dehydration, were clinically evaluated and a posteroanterior chest X-ray taken for each child. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of radiological changes consistent with pneumonia as reported by an experienced radiologist. The performance of the various clinical parameters as diagnostic tests for pneumonia were also evaluated. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary level teaching institution for the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: One hundred and seven children comprising 68 males and 39 females were recruited into the study. Of these children, 38 had kwashiorkor, 40 had marasmus, while 29 had marasmic kwashiorkor. Radiological evidence of pneumonia was found in 58% of children with kwashiorkor, 75% with marasmic kwashiorkor, and 82% with marasmus. All the commonly used clinical parameters performed poorly as diagnostic tests for pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of pneumonia was very high among children with severe malnutrition. Available clinical parameters, singly or in combination, are poor diagnostic tools for pneumonia in children with severe malnutrition. It is advisable to treat children with severe malnutrition as if they had pneumonia, even in the absence of suggestive clinical signs. PMID: 10065188 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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