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Maloba F, Kagira JM, Gitau G, Ombui JN, Hau J, Ngotho M. "Astrocytosis as a biomarker for late stage human African Trypanosomiasis in the vervet monkey model." Scientia Parasitologica . 2011;12(2):53-59.
Malonza I, Keli F, Kaul R, Kimani J, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Temmerman M, Moses S. "Asymptomatic STDs and HIV Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract
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Mwaliwa HC. "Athari ya Kiswahili kwa Lugha Zingine za Kiafrika.". In: Kiswahili katika Elimu ya Juu. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Mwaniki JM, TIMAMMY RAYYA, Ndung'u MN. "Athari za Mtagusano Kati ya Jamii na Ekolojia Katika Ushairi wa Mberia: BaraJingine na Rangi ya Anga." East African Journal of Swahili Studies. 2019;Volume 4(1):23-34.
Mallika V, Goswami B, Rajappa M. "Atherosclerosis pathophysiology and the role of novel risk factors: a clinicobiochemical perspective." Angiology. 2007;58:513-522. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the root cause of the biggest killer of the 21st century. Mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. A number of theories-including the role of dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation and infection by certain pathogens-have been propounded from time to time explain this complex phenomenon. Recently it has been suggested that atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, multistep disease that involves chronic inflammation at every step, from initiation to progression, and that all the risk factors contribute to pathogenesis by aggravating the underlying inflammatory process. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis will aid in devising pharmaceutical and lifestyle modifications for reducing mortality resulting from coronary artery disease (CAD).A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the Web sites of the National Library of Medicine (http:// www.ncbl.nlm.nih.gov/) and PubMed Central, the US National Library of Medicine's digital archive of life sciences literature (http:// www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/). The data were accessed from books and journals in which relevant articles in this field were published. The whole spectrum of coronary artery disease evolves through various events that lead to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaque and finally its complications. Atherosclerosis is the culprit behind coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The pathogenic mechanisms are varied and complex. Of late, the role of lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, and inflammation and infection as prime culprits in pathogenesis of CAD is the subject of intense research and debate. The appreciation of the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis provides a mechanistic framework to understand the clinical benefits of newer therapeutic strategies, and a better understanding of pathogenesis aids in formulating preventive and therapeutic strategies in reducing mortality resulting from CAD.An in-depth knowledge of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis can help in substantiating the current existing knowledge about the CAD epidemic. This knowledge will help clinicians to better manage the disease, which affects Indians in its most severe form.

Bose S, Yap L-F, Fung M, Starzcynski J, Saleh A, Morgan S, Dawson C, Chukwuma MB, Maina E, Buettner M, Wei W, Arrand J, Lim PVH, Young LS, Teo SH, Stankovic T, Woodman CBJ, Murray PG. "The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma." J. Pathol.. 2009;217(3):345-52. Abstract

A micro-array analysis using biopsies from patients with EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and from cancer-free controls revealed down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (TSG) not previously associated with this disease; one such gene was the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Q-PCR confirmed down-regulation of ATM mRNA and ATM protein expression in tumour cells was weak or absent in almost all cases. In NPC cell lines, however, ATM was down-regulated only in the EBV-positive line, C666.1, and in none of five EBV-negative lines. In vitro infection of EBV-negative NPC cell lines with a recombinant EBV was followed by the down-regulation of ATM mRNA and protein, and only EBV-positive cells showed a defective DNA damage response following gamma-irradiation. Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease.

Murray PG, Woodman CB, Stankovic T, Teo SH, Young LS, Lim PV, Arrand J, Wei W, Buettner M, Maina E, others. "The ATM Tumour Suppressor Gene Is Down-regulated In EBV-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.". 2009. Abstract
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Mulrennan JA, Lamdin JM, Bolton HT, Hammond CL. "Atmospheric levels of propoxur aboard submarines after residual spraying." J. Econ. Entomol.. 1975;68(6):755-60.
M ENGDROGOLAJULIUS. "ATPS Workshop of Researchers, Naro Moru.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1994. Abstract

The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

M DRONYARIJOHN. "Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM and Mathu EM (2003), Removal of Cu (II) from an aqueous solution using a micaceous mineral of Kenyan origin,.". In: Adsorption Science Technology , 21 (3), 269-283. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
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MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "Attahiru, S., Shiundu, P. M., Onyari, M., and Mathu E. M. (2003) .". In: The Journ. of Geol. Soc. Japan, vol. 110 No. 2 pp. I-IV. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
CM M, MV G, C K. "Attitude and practices of sedation amongst critical care nurses working in a Kenyan national hospital." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2014;14(2):35-41.
M BK, M. MM, M.K J. "Attitude of Prospective Trainees: An Individual Determinant of Trainees’ Enrolment in Public TVETs in Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science . 2022;10(11):164-177 .
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. "Attitude towards girls work in selected urban areas in Kenya (study funded by ILO IPEC).". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
Attitude towards girls work in selected urban areas in Kenya (study funded by ILO IPEC)
Inyega J, Muchemi G. "Attitude towards undergraduate training in agriculture and veterinary sciences by secondary school students, teachers and parents in Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heautagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):8-18.
Kipturgo MK, LK-BW, AKK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making . 2014;14(35):1-8.
Kipturgo MK, Kivuti-Bitok LW, Karani AK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2014;14:35. Abstract

The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes.

Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Ongecha-Owuor F;, Kuria M;, Mutiso V;, Syanda J;, Kokonya D. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008. Abstract

A dissonance between a positive attitude toward psy- chiatry as a specialty and the choice of psychiatryas acareerhasbeennotedinanumberofstudies(1–5).Various explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon. According to one of the studies, the teaching of psychiatry at the undergraduatelevelwasdisorganizedornot done properly (1). Other studies have reported that compared to other specialists, psychiatrists are perceived to earnlessmoney,tobelessrespected,andtohavelessprestige (1, 6). Notwithstanding, psychiatry has been rated higher than any other discipline on intellectual challenge (5). Although the studies mentioned so far (1–5) generally reported that disparity between a positive attitude and choice as a career exists, the actual levels of dissonance varybetweenstudiesandbetweencountries.Oneprobable explanationforthiswidevariationcouldbethedifferences

MARANGA, R.O., HASSANALI, A., KAAYA GP, MUEKE JM. "Attraction of Amblyomma variegatum (ticks) to the attraction-aggregation- attachment pheromone with or without carbon dioxide in the field." Experimental and Applied Acarology . 2003;29:121-130.
MARANGA, R.O., HASSANALI A, KAAYA GP, MUEKE JM. "The attraction of Amblyomma variegatum to the aggregation-attachment pheromone with/without CO2 in the field.". In: 2nd African Acarology Symposium. ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Olanga, EA., Okal, M., Mbadi, PA., Kokwaro, ED, Mukabana WR. "Attraction of Anopheles gambiae to odour baits augmented with heat and moisture." Malaria Journal. 2010;9:6.
J.K. W, C.M. M, N.P. G, M.J. N, A.G. T, J. N. "Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya ." 0038-2809 Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver.. 2007;78(3):181-182.dr._pauline_gitonga_publication_5-atypical_dermatophilosis_of__sheep_in_kenya.pdf.pdf
Oyugi, Lutiali, Saka, Musumba. Au Sommet 3: Une approche Intégrée et communicative . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2005.
Mueni J. "Audience.". 2010.Website
Mulwa M, Lusike L. "Audiences to Users. The Paradigm Shift in the Role of Audiences in the Execution of Mobile Money Transaction in Kenya." Journal of New Media and Mass Communication.. 2015;35, 2015(ISSN 2224-3267 (paper) ISSN 2224 3275 (online) ).20824-22947-1-pb.pdf
Mulwa MM, Mukhongo LL, Samuel Ngigi. "Audiences to Users: The Paradigm Shift in the Role of Audiences in the Execution of Mobile Money Transactions in Kenya." New Media and Mass Communication. 2015;35:17-28.
Nzioki C, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Musoke R, English M. "AUDIT OF CARE FOR CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 59 MONTHS ADMITTED WITH SEVERE MALNUTRITION AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." Int Health. 2009;1(1):91-96. Abstract

We conducted a prospective audit of 101 children with severe malnutrition aged 6 to 59 months admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest tertiary level health facility, from February-April 2008. A structured tool was prepared to capture data to allow assessment of implementation of the WHO guidelines steps 1-8. Overall, 58% of children had marasmus and 47% of children were younger than one year old. Common co-morbidities at admission were diarrhoea (70.3%) and pneumonia (51.4%). The highest degree of implementation was observed for Step 5, treatment of potentially severe infections (90%, (95% CI 85.1-96.9)). Only 55% of the patients had F75 prescribed although this starter formula was available in this hospital. There was a delay in initiating feeds with a median time of 14.7 hours from the time of admission. There was modest implementation of Step 2, ensuring warmth (46.5%, 36.8-56.2), Step 3, treat dehydration (54.9%, 43.3-66.5) and Step 4, correct electrolyte imbalance, (45.5%, 35.6-55.8%). There was least implementation of Step 8, transition to catch-up feeding (23.8%, 13.6-34.0). We conclude that quality of care for children admitted with severe malnutrition at KNH is inadequate and often does not follow the WHO guidelines. Improving care will require a holistic and not simply medical approach.

Mwaura F. "An audit of environmental impact assessments for mining projects in Kenya." Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . 2019;119(5) :484-493.
Kimutai B, Kihara EN, Mutave R, Chindia ML. "Audit of imaging request forms at a teaching dental hospital." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2. Abstract
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Kimutai B, Kihara EN, Mutave R, Chindia ML. "Audit of imaging request forms at a teaching dental hospital." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2. Abstract
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M.M M, P. K. "Authentic instruction strategy in making learners assets to sustainable development in kenya: strategies and approaches.". In: Politics and Sustainable Development in Africa. Nairobi: : Centre for Democracy, Research and Development (CEDRED); 2020.
Magoha GAO, Afulo OK, Mwanda WO. "Autologous transfusion in surgical patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2001;78(11):564-7. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify autotransfusion strategies and their basis in elective surgery patients. DESIGN: A cross sectional prospective study. SETTING: General surgery and orthopaedic wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult patients of both sexes planned for elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Forevery patient, the following were enquired about and documented: age in years, sex, ethnicity, religion, occupation and educational standard. Blood values of haemoglobin, platelet counts, total and differential white cell counts, urea, electrolytes and liver function tests were assayed. Others were the number of units of blood donated before the operation, the type of surgery performed, time taken from diagnosis to performing the operation and whether the blood was transfused preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of sixty three cases constituting five per cent of all surgical patients admitted during the period of study were evaluated. Of these 53 (84%) were males and ten (16%) females. The age range was 15 to 65 years with a peak at 45-49 years. There were more Christians (90%) than Muslims (10%). In all, 32 (51.6%) had primary school education, 23 (36.5%) secondary school education, seven (11.3%) no formal education and one (1.6%) had attained college level. Employment pattern showed 50% were civil servants, 30% were self employed and 20% were unemployed. The duration of disease ranged from 1-24 weeks with two peaks at two weeks and six weeks. Orthopaedic cases constituted 78.7% and general surgery 21.3%. Preoperative haemoglobin ranged from 13.5-14.2 g/dl. Transfusions were given intraoperatively to 41 (66.1%) and to 12 (33.9%) postoperatively. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 13 days (range 5 to 21 days). 98.4% deposited only one unit while 1.6% deposited four units of blood. Only one patient required additional transfusion from homologous donors. CONCLUSION: The strategies and basis for autotransfusion have been demonstrated among a majority of adult patients requiring orthopaedic procedures. Major determinants are shown to be baseline blood count profiles and time to operation.

M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. ""Automated Exploration and Exploitation of Flow Injection Response Surfaces.". In: Anal.Chim.Acta, 237, 361-379. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract
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Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK. "Automatic Classification of Plasmodium Parasites Using Stained RGB Images.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages." In: s}ek VM{\v, Mautner P, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Tenth International Conference. Vol. 4629. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg; 2007:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4629. Abstract
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M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Autopsy study of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adult medical patients in Nairobi, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 May 1;24(1):23-9.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 May 1;24(1):23-9. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
HIV infection has now been consistently identified as the major cause of death in young Africans in both urban and rural areas. In Africa, several studies have defined the clinical presentation of HIV disease but there have only been a limited number of autopsy studies. Because of the scarcity of autopsy data and the possibility of differing type and frequency of opportunistic infections between different geographic locations we set out to study consecutive new adult medical admissions to a tertiary referral hospital in Nairobi and perform autopsies on a sample of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative patients who died in the hospital ward. Basic demographic data were collected on all patients admitted to two acute medical wards over an 11-month period. Final outcome and final clinical diagnoses were recorded at discharge or death. An autopsy examination was requested if the patient died in the ward. Autopsy examination was performed in 75 HIV-1-positive (40 men, 35 women) and 47 HIV-1-negative (28 men, 19 women) adults who died in the hospital. This represented 48.4% of all HIV-1-positive deaths and 33.3% of all HIV-1-negative deaths. Tuberculosis (TB) and bacterial and interstitial bronchopneumonia accounted for 96% of the major pathology in patients found to be HIV-1-positive at autopsy. TB was present in half the HIV-1-positive autopsy patients and was disseminated in over 80% of cases. Meningeal involvement was present in 26% of those with disseminated TB. By contrast, TB was much less common in the HIV-1-negative patients at autopsy in whom bacterial bronchopneumonia and malignancies were the most common pathologies. The type pathology found in the HIV-1-positive autopsy patients was not different than that found in other areas in Africa so far studied.
Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, hir Moses M Manene, Kipchirc IC. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1): 29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors.

Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
Isaac MM, Muya SM, Kiiru W, Muchai M, others. "Avian Abundance, Diversity and Conservation Status in Etago Sub-County Kisii County Kenya." Open Journal of Ecology. 2019;9:157. Abstract
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Makanya AN, Styp_Rekowska B, Dimova I, Djonov V. "Avian Area Vasculosa and CAM as Rapid in Vivo Pro-Angiogenic and Antiangiogenic Models." Methods Mol Biol.. 2015;2015;1214:185-96.
Mwangi J, Ndithia HK, Kentie R, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2018. Abstract
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Ndithia HK, Versteegh MA, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2019. Abstract
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Bett MC, Muchai M, Waweru C. "Avian species diversity in different habitat types in and around North Nandi Forest, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2016;54:342-348. Abstract
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Njoroge P, Muchane M, Wamiti W, Kamau KD, Githiru M. "Avifauna of Ishaqbini Community Conservancy in Ijara District, NE Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2008;28:15-24. Abstract
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Kimeli P, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EM. "Awareness and Practice of Claw Trimming in Cows within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Dairy Units in Kikuyu District, Kenya: A Survey Study." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):139-141.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ayoma WO, Ndavi PM, Wanjala, et al Seroprevalence of Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) in patients with acute inflammatory Disease (PID) at the Kenyatta National Hospital; Kenya AIDS Technical Bulletin Vol 1 No, 1:11-12 1990.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

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MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "B.". In: Forest Policy and Economics 11 (2009) 459. Ogutu J.O; 2009. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
E L, A O, M C, V C, G C, S M, R C, J N, W M, R I, K S, C B, Leoncini L. "B cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt Lymphoma is impaired at post-transcriptional level by miRNA altered expression. ." Int J. Cancer.. 2010;126(6):1316-26.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1981. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,  held in Nairobi, Kenya in
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
Obiero JA, Waititu KK, Mulei I, Omar FI, Jaoko W, Mwethera PG. "Baboon vaginal microbial flora." J. Med. Primatol.. 2016;45(3):147-55. Abstractbaboon_vaginal_microbial_flora.pdfPUBMED

Knowledge of the composition of vaginal microbial ecosystem is essential for understanding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of vaginal diseases. A baboon model has been used to provide detailed understanding of reproductive physiology and immunology applicable to women. However, little is known about the composition of its vaginal microbial ecosystem.

NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Murila DF, Wafula PEM, Obimbo DE. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya.
BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection.
PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Keter L, Too R, Mutai C, Mwikwabe N, Ndwigah S, Orwa J, Mwamburi E. "Bacteria contaminants and their antibiotic sensitivity from selected herbal medicinal products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya." American Journal of Microbiology. 2016;7(1):18-28.
Buruchara RA;, Mukunya DM;, Gathuru EM. "Bacterial black spot of mangoes in Kenya."; 1990.
Mukunya DM;, Muthangya PM;, Esele JPE. "Bacterial Blights Of Beans (phaseolus Vulgaris) In Kenya.".; 1981.
Kutto EK, MW N, Njagi L W. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the supply chains in Nairobi and its environment." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88:46-53. Abstract

46 East African Medical Journal February 2011
East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 2 February 2011
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala) ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN
NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. Kutto, BSc, MSc, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, M. W. Ngigi, MSc, Department of Agricultural economics, N. Karanja, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, E. Kange’the, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, L. C. Bebora, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi P. O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya, C. J. Lagerkvist, BAECON, MAECON, PhD, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7013-75007, Uppsala, Sweden, P. G. Mbuthia, Bvm, MSc, FRVCS(Dip. Path), PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, L. W. Njagi, Bvm, MSc, PhD, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology and J. J. Okello, PhD, Department of Agricultural economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29052-00625, Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya Request for reprints to: K. E. Kutto, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Kabete Campus, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29057-00625, Nairobi, Kenya

BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF KALE (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN NAIROBI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
E. K. KUTTO, M. W. NGIGI, N. KARANJA, E. KANGE’THE, L. C. BEBORA, C. J. LAGERKVIST, P. G. MBUTHIA, L. W. NJAGI and J. J. OKELLO
ABSTRACT
Objective: To assess the microbiological safety of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala)
produced from farms and those sold at the markets with special focus on coliforms,
E.coli and Salmonella.
Design: A cross sectional study.
Setting: Peri-Urban farms (in Athi River, Ngong and Wangige), wet markets (in
Kawangware, Kangemi and Githurai), supermarkets and high-end specialty store
both within Nairobi city.
Results: Mean coliform count on vegetables from farms were 2.6x105 ±5.0x105 cfu/g
while those from the wet markets were 4.6x106 ±9.1x106 cfu/g, supermarkets, 2.6x106
±2.7x106 and high-end specialty store 4.7x105 ±8.9x105. Coliform numbers obtained
on kales from the wet markets and supermarkets were significantly higher (p<0.05)
compared to those from farms, while kale samples purchased from high- end specialty
store had similar levels of coliform loads as those from the farms. E. coli prevalence
in the wet markets, supermarkets and high-end specialty store were: 40, 20 and 20%,
respectively. Salmonella was detected on 4.5 and 6.3% of samples collected from the
farms in Wangige and wet market in Kawangware, respectively. Fecal coliforms in
water used on farms (for irrigation) and in the markets (for washing the vegetables)
exceeded levels recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) of 103 organisms
per 100 milliliter while Salmonella was detected in 12.5% of washing water samples
collected from Kangemi market.
Conclusion: Poor cultivation practices and poor handling of vegetables along the
supply chain could increase the risk of pathogen contamination thus puting the health
of the public at risk, therefore good agricultural and handling practices should be
observed.

Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. Maputo, Mozambique; 2011.2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, M. PROFMACHARIAW. "Bacterial isolates in severely malnourished children at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi .". In: East Afr Med J 82:343-48. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To identify bacterial isolates and determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern in children with severe Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) presenting at the Paediatric Filter Clinic (PFC) of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Hospital based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Paediatric Filter Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a tertiary level teaching institution for the University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Children between two and sixty months presenting at the hospital outpatient filter clinic with severe malnutrition. RESULTS: Ninety-one children, forty six female and forty five males, were recruited for the study. Of these, sixty had Marasmus, twenty Kwashiorkor and eleven Marasmic-Kwashiorkor. HIV serology was positive in 43% of study subjects. There were 30 bacterial isolates from 26 subjects. Ten bacterial isolates were gram positive and twenty gram negative. Isolation rates did not vary by HIV serological status. Twenty one out of the 30 isolates were from blood culture. About 1/3 of the gram positive isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci, largely resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol and even Oxacillin. More than half demonstrated resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while 80% of all gram positive and negative isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Aminoglycosides, Gentamicin and Amikacin, and third generation Cephalosporins, Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime, were found to be effective against most gram-negative isolates. CONCLUSION: Nearly a third (28.9%) of children admitted with severe malnutrition at KNH have concomitant severe bacterial infections; primarily manifesting as bacteraemia. Gram-negative agents are responsible for most severe bacterial infections in children admitted at the KNH, regardless of their HIV serological status. Whenever possible, blood culture should be included in the initial septic screening of severely malnourished children at KNH. In the absence of culture and sensitivity information, ciprofloxacin should be considered among the first line options in the empirical treatment of severe bacterial infections among these children. Clinical trials to further evaluate in-vivo effectiveness of various single or combination antibiotics are recommended. PMID: 16167706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga P, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.abstract.pdf
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Mwadime JM, Wanja DW, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.
D.W. W, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Bebora LC. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." international Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic studies . 2019;7(2):295-301.
Gosling RD, Uiso LO, Sam NE, Bongard E, Kanduma EG, Nyindo M, Morris RW, Gillespie SH. "The bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis." American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2003;168:1342-1345. Abstract
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OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Bacteriology and sensitivity patterns of pyogenic meningitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Wanyoike MN, Waiyaki PG, McLiegeyo SO, Wafula EM.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):658-60. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
A descriptive cross sectional study on bacteriology and sensitivity patterns of laboratory-proven pyogenic meningitis was carried out over a six month period. A total of 92 patients (52 adults, 40 children) were studied. In 75 (82%) of the cases, the cerebrospinal fluid cultures were bacteriologically positive. Common isolates included Streptococcus pneumoniae (45%), Neisseria meningitidis (14%) and Haemophilus influenzae (12%). Other isolates included Cryptococcus neoformans from four (4.3%) adults who were also HIV-l positive. Sensitivity to antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method. There was no resistance to chloramphenicol among the three most common bacterial isolates. However, 7% and 15% of Streptococcus pneumoniae and N. meningitidis isolates, respectively, were resistant to crystalline penicillin. Twenty seven percent of Haemophilus influenzae was resistant to ampicillin. Sensitivity of the three organisms to the third generation cephalosporin (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone) a second generation cephalosporin (cefuroxime) and augmentin was almost 100%. We recommend that chloramphenicol and crystalline penicillin or ampicillin be initial blind therapy for adults and older children with pyogenic meningitis and ampicillin and chloramphenicol for pre-school children. The above cephalosporins and augmentin are alternative therapy but their use will be limited by cost.
MULIMBA JAO. "Bacteriology of Tonsils of Keynyatta National Hospital. E.A.M. J. 57 (4): 252, 1980.". In: E.A.M. J. 57 (4): 252, 1980. Springerlink; 1980. Abstract

It has been the view of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) that, like primary health care, there is primary surgery. The unit of provision of primary surgery is the district hospital. The training of surgeons for district hospitals starts at the undergraduate level, leading to the attainment of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B. Ch.B.) degree. After internship the doctor works in a district or provincial hospital for 2-3 years, then trains for the degree of Master of Medicine (M. Med. (Surg.)) for a period of 3 years. The training involves rotation through all branches of surgery, so that the surgeon should be able to handle all aspects of routine surgery in a district hospital. To equip the surgeon further, a period in an outside setting is considered advisable. There are arrangements for regional surgical colleges to standardise the form of surgical training in the ASEA region. To keep surgeons in touch with the outside world, specialist training is done outside the region, but arrangements are being made for localised specialised units to offer this training.

MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana .M.S, J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The development of dairy cattle industry in the medium potential Agro-climatic zones of Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the faculty of vetrinary medicine. Biannual scientific conference at Kabete, Kenya, 7-9/8/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana .M.S, J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The role of dairy goats in small scale farming areas in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the faculty of vetrinary medicine. Biannual scientific conference at Kabete, Kenya, 7-9/8/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M. S., J. D. Sutton, J. D. Oldman and A. Mowlem, (1990). The effect of amount of protein in the concentrates on hay intake and rate of passage, diet digestibility and milk production in British Saanen goats. J. Brit. Soc. Anim. Prod. 51: 333-342.". In: Proceedings of the First Biannual Conference of the African Small Ruminant Network, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya; 10-14 December 1990. ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa), pp. 505-515. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S and J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The dairy potential in Rangelands of Kenya: (i) Indegenous cattle and sheep.". In: A paper presented at the scientific confrence of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24- 26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S and J.W. Wakhungu (2002). The dairy potential in Rangelands of Kenya: (ii) Indegenous camels and goats.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24- 26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S, J.W. Wakhungu, Okeyo .A.M, Shaabani .S. (2002). Drought monitoring systems checking the effect of livestock production in the northern region of Kenya: A case study of Isiolo and Wajir districts.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24-26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S, J.W. Wakhungu, Okeyo .A.M, Shaabani .S. (2002). Drought monitoring systems checking the effect of livestock production in the northern region of Kenya: A case study of Isiolo and Wajir districts.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24-26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. & J.W. Wakhungu (2006): Stratified goat production in the Kenyan rangelands of the proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006.". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2006.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1989). Feeding lactating dairy goats. Paper presented to Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) symposium held at the Wildlife and Fisheries Training Institute, Naivasha, Nov. 30th to December 1st 1989.". In: Paper presented to Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) symposium held at the Wildlife and Fisheries Training Institute, Naivasha, Nov. 30th to December 1st 1989. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1989.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1990). The effect of level of protein in the concentrate on the performance of dairy goats. In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 232-236.". In: In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 232-236. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1991) Dairy cattle industry in Kenya. A paper presented in a seminar on vitamin nutrition in livestock, sponsored by H. Oldman La Roche Limited held on 14th .". In: A paper presented in a seminar on vitamin nutrition in livestock, sponsored by H. Oldman La Roche Limited held on 14th . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. (1992). Some factors affecting diet digestibility in goats, Bulls, Anim. Prod. Afr. (1992), 40,267-274.". In: A paper presented to the All African Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nov. 23 . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1992.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. and K. Kiugu (1989). The problems associated with feeding experimental animals. Paper presented in the First East African Conference on Laboratory Animals held on 7-10th November, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the First East African Conference on Laboratory Animals held on 7-10th November, Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1989.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S. and M.M. Wanyoike (1989). The potential of noncommercial feeds in dairy animals. Paper presented at Kenya Vet. Association Annual Conference on 19-21/4/1989, at Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute Muguga.". In: Paper presented at Kenya Vet. Association Annual Conference on 19-21/4/1989, at Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute Muguga. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1989.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., (1992). Forage utilization by dairy goats. Bull Anim. Prod. Afri. (1992). 40: 259-266.". In: A paper presented to the All African Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nov. 23 . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1992.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving Ruminant Livestock Production in Sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya. Paper presented to Pan Commonwealth Veterinary Conference Animal Health and Production 2001 Harare, Int.". In: Paper presented to Pan Commonwealth Veterinary Conference Animal Health and Production 2001 Harare, International Conference on Centre 10-14 September 1990. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., J. W. Wakhungu and R.O. Mosi, (2001). Feed budgeting of dairy cattle in the high potential areas of Kenya. A paper presented at a scientific conference of Animal Production Society of Kenya, held at Egerton University, 7-8/3/2001.". In: A paper presented at a scientific conference of Animal Production Society of Kenya, held at Egerton University, 7-8/3/2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., J.W. Wakhungu (2005). The Development of Dairy cattle industry in the medium potential agro-climatic zones of Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian (Submitted).". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2005.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana M.S., Okeyo A. M. Mahboub M. and Shaban (2001). Drought monitoring systems, indicators, interventions and impacts on livestock production in the Kenya arid and semi-arid lands. A case for Baringo and Samburu districts. A paper presented at the sc.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Animal Production society of Kenya, held at Egerton University 7-8/3/2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M. S. and J. D. Oldham, (1984). Factors affecting ration digestibility in goats. A paper presented at the FAO seminar on goat feeding and nutrition, Grangenenve, Switzerland. 16 .". In: A paper presented at the FAO seminar on goat feeding and nutrition, Grangenenve, Switzerland. 16 . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M.S. (1988). The principle and practice of feeding diary cattle during gestation. A paper presented to Kenya Vet. Association, Annual Scientific Conference held on 21-22 April 1988 at ILRAD .". In: A paper presented to Kenya Vet. Association, Annual Scientific Conference held on 21-22 April 1988 at ILRAD . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1988.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Badamana, M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving ruminant livestock production in sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 1st Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe 10th-14th September, 1990. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1990. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Badamana, M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving ruminant livestock production in sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 1st Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe 10th-14th September, 1990. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M.S., J. W. Wakhungu and R. O. Mosi (2004). Enhanced productivity indexing of goats. Bull Anim. Hlth, Prod. Afr.(2004), 52,31-38.". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2004.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Badamana, M.S., J.W. Wakhungu (2005). The Development of Dairy Goats in small scale farming areas in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian (submitted).". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2005.
M MRSKITHINJIANGELA. "Bank Loan Recovery Agency: Kenya Case-Critical Issues for Consideration,.". In: The Professional Journal of KASNEB, Issue No.4,. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2003. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Baptist, R. and M.S. Badamana (1990). Productivity assessment with many interacting components traits. In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 207-215.". In: In: Proceedings of the Eighth SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi Kenya 7-8/3/90 pp. 207-215. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
MBERIA PROFKITHAKAWA. ""Bara Jingine" (poem) In writers forum 1:58-60.". In: Proc.7th SR-CRSP workshop, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. 27th to 28th Feb, 1989. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1992. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Bariagabre, S.A. R.K, Ngugi, N.R. Musimba and D.M Nyakiri (2004). Chemical composition and feed value of spiny and spineless Cacti (opuntia) to livestock. Bull Anim. Health production in Africa, 198-202.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
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MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "Barigira, B.G. and E.M. Mathu (1994).". In: Proceedings of the International Geological Field Conference held in the Mozambique Orogenic Belt in East Africa, Arusha, Tanzania (1994). IGCP Project 348 (ABSTRACT). Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  

M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Barrack SM, Kyambi JM, Ndungu J, Wachira N, Anangwe G, Safwat S.Intestinal atresia and stenosis as seen and treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1993. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Barrientos, S., Opondo, M. and Smith, S., (2005), .". In: Participation in the Kenya Cut Flower Industry. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

Mbithi LM. "Barriers Faced by Women - Owned Businesses: Voices of East African women entrepreneurs." Journal of African Women Studies Centre. Vol. 1.. 2013.
Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Added Value Mobile Money Products by the Lesser off Segments in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(6):146-155.jun18049_1.pdf
ndeti ndati, M M. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking products targeting Poor and Marginalized populations in Kenya.". In: Reaching the Unreached: Mobile Money Uptake in Ghana. Accra, Ghana; 2013.
Mulwa M, Ndeti N. Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking Products Targeting Poor and Marginalized Populations in Kenya.. Dakar, Senegal: 4th International Conference on M4D Mobile Communication for Development; 2014.
Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(2):55-61. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi, S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Project." East Afr J Opthalmol. 2008;14(1):55-61. Abstract

Objective: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.
Design: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007
Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City
Subjects: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years.
Results: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary’s Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities.
Conclusion: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty).
Recommendations: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Baker T, Kiptala J, Olaka L, Oates N, Hussain A, McCartney M. "Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya.". In: Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya. International Water Management Institute (IWMI); 2015. Abstract

The 'WISE-UP to climate'project aims to demonstrate the value of natural infrastructure as a
'nature-based solution'for climate change adaptation and sustainable development. Within
the Tana River Basin, both natural and built infrastructure provide livelihood benefits for
people. Understanding the interrelationships between the two types of infrastructure is a
prerequisite for sustainable water resources development and management. This is
particularly true as pressures on water resources intensify and the impacts of climate change
increase. This report provides an overview of the biophysical characteristics, ecosystem
services and links to livelihoods within the basin.

Kwach JK, Onyango MA, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya.". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2011.
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2010.
Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Mutara LN, Mulli TK. Baseline Survey on Oral Health, Feeding Patterns and Nutritional Status of the Older People in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi District. Nairobi: Help-Age International Africa Regional Centre; 2004. AbstractWebsite

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. "Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1992;12:3554-3567. Abstract

Injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into the eye, intravitreally or subretinally, delays photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, as does local injury to the retina (Faktorovich et al., 1990). To determine whether this heparin-binding peptide or local injury is effective in any other form of photoreceptor degeneration, we examined their protective roles in light damage. Albino rats of the F344 strain were exposed to 1 or 2 weeks of constant fluorescent light (115-200 footcandles), either with or without 1 microliter of bFGF solution (1150 ng/microliters in PBS) injected intravitreally or subretinally 2 d before the start of light exposure. Uninjected and intravitreally PBS-injected controls showed the loss of a majority of photoreceptor nuclei and the loss of most inner and outer segments after 1 week of light exposure, while intravitreal injection of bFGF resulted in significant photoreceptor rescue. The outer nuclear layer in bFGF-injected eyes was two to three times thicker than in controls, and the inner and outer segments showed a much greater degree of integrity. Following recovery in cyclic light for 10 d after 1 week of constant light exposure, bFGF-injected eyes showed much greater regeneration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments than did the controls. bFGF also increased the incidence of presumptive macrophages, located predominantly in the inner retina, but the evidence suggests they are not directly involved in photoreceptor rescue. Subretinal injection of bFGF resulted in photoreceptor rescue throughout most of the superior hemisphere in which the injection was made, with rescue extending into the inferior hemisphere in many of the eyes. Remarkably, the insertion of a dry needle or injection of PBS into the subretinal space also resulted in widespread photoreceptor rescue, extending through 70% or more of the superior hemisphere, and sometimes into the inferior hemispheres. This implicates the release and widespread diffusion of some endogenous survival-promoting factor from the site of injury in the retina. Our findings indicate that the photoreceptor rescue activity of bFGF is not restricted to inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, and that light damage is an excellent model for studying the cellular site(s), kinetics, and molecular mechanisms of both the normal function of bFGF and its survival-promoting activity. Moreover, the injury-related rescue suggests that survival-promoting factors are readily available to provide a protective role in case of injury to the retina, presumably comparable to those that mediate the "conditioning lesion" effect in other neuronal systems.

E.Odada, D.Olago, M. Ntiba, Gichuki SO, N.Oyieke, W.Ochola. BASIC HYDROGEOLOGY IN GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS . South Africa; 2005.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "Baurnhoffer, A.H., C.H. Hauzenberget, E. Wallbrecher, G. Hoinkes and H. Fritz, J. Loizenbauer, E.M. Mathu, N. Opiyo-Akech and S. Muhongo .". In: Kenya and the Pare-Usambara Mts. N.E. Tanzania. Journ. Afr. Eath Sci. 30:10. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
Thierno Souleymane Barry, Oscar Ngesa, Onyango NO, Mwambi H. "Bayesian Spatial Modeling of Anemia among children under 5 years in Guinea.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Bacground: Anemia is a major public health problem in Africa with an increasing number of children under 5
years getting infected. Guinea is one of the most affected countries. In 2018, the prevalence rate was 75% in
children under 5 years. This study sought to identify the factors associated with anemia and to map spatial
variation of anemia across the eight (8) regions in Guinea for children under 5 years, which can provide
guidance for control programs for the reduction of the disease.
Methods: Data from the Guinea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) 2016 was used for this study. A
total of 2609 children under 5 years who had full covariate information were used in the analysis. Spatial
binomial logistic regression methodology was undertaken via Bayesian estimation based on Markov chain
Monte Carlo (McMC) using WinBUGS software version 1.4.
Results: Our findings revealed that 77% of children under 5 years in Guinea had anemia and the prevalence in
the regions ranged from 70.32% (Conakry) to 83.60% (N’Zerekore) across the country. After adjusting for non
spatial and spatial random effects in the model, older children (48–59 months) (OR: 0.47, CI [0.29 0.70]) were
less likely to be anemic compared to those who are younger (0-11 months). Children whose mothers have
completed secondary education or more had a reduced chance of anemia infection by 33% (OR: 0.67, CI [0.49
0.90]) and Children from household heads from Kissi ethnic group are less likely to have anemia than their
counterparts whose leader is from Soussou (OR: 0.48, CI [0.22 0.91]).
Conclusion: The spatial analysis allowed the identification of high-risk areas as well as the identification of
socio-economic and demographic factors associated with anemia among children under 5 years. Such an
analysis is important in helping policy makers and health practitioners in developing programs geared towards
control and management of anemia among children under 5 years in the country.

Mukunya DM. "Bean Diseases In Kenya.".; 1974.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Bean Improvement for smallholder farmers in East and Central Africa.". In: Presented to Grain Legume Planning Workshop, 29-30 March 2005, Yaounde, Cameroon. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Bean Improvement for smallholder farmers in ECA: An Overview.". In: CMPG workshop, 1-3 April 2005, Leuven, Belgium. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Bean research for development strategy in central and eastern Africa. CIAT in Africa. Highlight Number 14. CIAT,.". In: Kampala, Uganda. December 2004. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Nderitu JH;, Kayumbo HY;, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly Infestation on Common Bean."; 1990. Abstract

The population patterns of eggs, larvae and puparia on bean plants and leaf punctures made by adults were investigated during cropping (March-July; October-January) and noncropping (July-October) seasons at two sites in Kenya. Bean grown in noncropping seasons had more leaf punctures, eggs, larvae and puparia than bean grown in cropping seasons. Bean sown in noncropping seasons attracted unusually high beanfly populations from surrounding weeds as well as previous crops. Under field conditions, the Onhiomyi beanfly species, sencerella Greathead and 0. phasepli Tryon, bean infested plants in all seasons. Both species normally oviposited in punctures on the leavesbut 0. spencerella also oviposited in the stems of bean seedlings.

Nderitu JH, Kayumbo HY, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly infestation on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1990;11(1):34-41.
Nderitu JH, Kayumbo HY, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly infestation on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1990;11(1):34-41.
Mutinda WU, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G. Muchemi. "Bebora and G.Muchemi. 2014. Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2014.
N A, NM A, MO F, Y K, JI V, OB A-B, SZ M, S A, H H, S B, DA M, A R, I K, M M, M R, V P, S C, Y C, E J, JL C, K N, A S, G G, A P, P P, D M, J K, MM A, A A, MA D, M N, I H, MM A, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Behavior change due to COVID-19 among dental academics - The theory of planned behavior: stresses, worries, training, and pandemic severity." PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9): e0239961(15(9): e0239961):15(9): e0239961.
Manguriu GN, Mwero JN, Abuodha SO. "Behavior of Reworked Steel Reinforcement Bars in Reinforced Concrete.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Steel reinforcement bars are a key component in reinforced concrete and are mainly employed to carry tensile stresses since concrete on its own is weak in tension. Sometimes these bars are wrongly bent, straightened and re bent, resulting in the altering of their original characteristics. Some of such steel has been used and some condemned as unfit for reinforcing purposes. This paper reports on the behavior of these reworked bars in reinforced concrete. In the investigation, test concrete beams built using reworked bars were built, cured and tested in bending to ultimate failure. Load-deflection relationship, beam side strains, cracking patterns and ultimate loads were investigated. Some tensile tests were also carried out on the reinforcement bars to give an indication of the behavior of the reinforcement steel, both normal and reworked. Beams built using reworked bars were found to be stiffer in the plastic range of the tensile reinforcement bars. From these results it was found that reworked reinforcement bars could be used for reinforcing concrete if the design formulae provided in the design codes were modified to cater for the slight changes in the properties of such steel.

Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "The Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: 1st African Material Science and Engineering Network (AMSEN) Conference. Windhoek, Namibia); 2010.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: International Symposium on: Modernizing Local Sustainable Technologies as the Engine for Sustainable Development. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Magutu, Peterson Obara; Lelei JK; NAO. "The benefits and challenges of electronic data interchange.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Many organizations are applying Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to improve operational efficiency, enhance information quality, and achieve reductions in processing time of critically important business information. EDI today represents an opportunity to improve business processes and business controls directly even though challenges are expected. It is in light of the opportunities and challenges that this study is done, specifically focusing on the benefits and challenges of implementation and application of EDI in Kenya considering the case of Kilindini Waterfront Project. Data was collected from 45 managers of the firms selected using convenient sampling. The respondents were asked about perceived benefits of EDI application and perceived challenges of EDI implementation and application. The questionnaires were mainly hand delivered to the respondents. The data collected was analyzed with the use of frequency tables, proportion, percentages, cross tabulations and factor analysis using SPSS. Majority of the firms that were studied had less than 1,000 employees which may possibly mean the firms are less labor intensive and therefore relying more on automated processes. This study also show that most of the respondents were experienced with EDI implementation and application and therefore had the necessary knowledge sought for. From the factor analysis carried out on the variables of the benefits of EDI application, the deduction drawn indicates that firms that apply EDI benefited. Some of the benefits include reduced errors, access to information, enhanced competitive capacity and improved trading partner relationship. Despite the benefits of EDI application, it was also found that there are several challenges encountered in the implementation of EDI. From the factor analysis carried out on the variables of the challenges in the EDI implementation, the deduction drawn indicates some of the challenges to be lack of top management support, negative staff attitude, inadequate IT staff training and inadequate non IT staff training. This study also indicated that there were challenges encountered in the application of EDI. From the factor analysis carried out on the variables of the challenges of EDI application, the deductions drawn indicate some of the challenges to be inadequate non IT staff training, lack of trust of other EDI partners, lack of flexibility, lack of maintainability and lack of awareness of benefits of EDI.

and Mureithi S. M., Verdoodt A. NGVRJTCKK. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating A Degraded Semi-Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2341.. 2014.
Wairore JN, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Nyberg G. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi-Arid Rangeland in Private Enclosures in West Pokot County, Kenya." Land Degradation & Development. 2015. Abstract
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Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Wairore JN, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Nyberg G. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Private Enclosures in West Pokot County, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2015.

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