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Mukolwe LD, Odongo DO, Byaruhanga C, Snyman LP, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Analysis of p67 allelic sequences reveals a subtype of allele type 1 unique to buffalo-derived Theileria parva parasites from southern Africa." PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0231434. Abstract

East Coast fever (ECF) and Corridor disease (CD) caused by cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva respectively are the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in the affected African countries. The p67 gene has been evaluated as a recombinant subunit vaccine against ECF, and for discrimination of T. parva parasites causing ECF and Corridor disease. The p67 allele type 1 was first identified in cattle-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa, where parasites possessing this allele type have been associated with ECF. Subsequent characterization of buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from South Africa where ECF was eradicated, revealed the presence of a similar allele type, raising concerns as to whether or not allele type 1 from parasites from the two regions is identical. A 900 bp central fragment of the gene encoding p67 was PCR amplified from T. parva DNA extracted from blood collected from cattle and buffalo in South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, followed by DNA sequence analysis. Four p67 allele types previously described were identified. A subtype of p67 allele type 1 was identified in parasites from clinical cases of CD and buffalo from southern Africa. Notably, p67 allele type 1 sequences from parasites associated with ECF in East Africa and CD in Kenya were identical. Analysis of two p67 B-cell epitopes (TpM12 and AR22.7) revealed amino acid substitutions in allele type 1 from buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern Africa. However, both epitopes were conserved in allele type 1 from cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa. These findings reveal detection of a subtype of p67 allele type 1 associated with T. parva parasites transmissible from buffalo to cattle in southern Africa.

Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Mwisukha A, E.R. G, Njororai WWS. "Analysis of Postgraduate Research in the department of Physical Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya. ." African Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology and Sports Facilitation. 2004;6:81-86.
Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM, MacDermott JJ, Omore AO. "Analysis of Public Health Risks From Consumption of Informally Marketed Milk in Kenya.". 2004. Abstract

Despite an unfavorable policy environment against informal milk markets, these market account for most milk sales in Kenya. Convenient delivery and lower prices are the principal benefits for poor consumers. Current milk handling and safety regulations in Kenya are derived from models in industrialized countries. These may not be appropriate for local market conditions. An important step in targeting policies better is to collect quantitative and qualitative information about milk-borne health risk under different market situations. Preliminary results of assessments of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers in central Kenya show very low apparent prevalence of zoonotic health hazards in milk from smallholder herds o[that contribute most marketed milk. Higher bacterial counts were associated with longer market chains and distance to urban areas. Most (up to 80%) of samples did not meet national bacterial quality standards. Over 96% of consumes boiled milk before consumption mainly to lengthen shelf life but also for health reasons. The most important health risks were judged to be from antimicrobial residues found in up to 16% of milk samples tested.

Ouma EA, Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM, Staal S, McDermott JJ, Omore AO. "Analysis of public health risks from consumption of informally marketed milk in sub-Saharan African countries.". 2000. Abstract

Despite policies to discourage them, informal milk markets account for over 80% of milk sales in most sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Informal milk market agents include farmer dairy co-operatives, small traders using bicycles and public or private transport and small retail outlets, such as dairy kiosks, and shops. Studies conducted by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and national collaborators (e.g., in Kenya1) show that convenient delivery and lower prices (reflecting lower handling and processing costs) are the principal benefits for consumers. Current milk handling and safety regulations in most SSA countries are derived from models in industrialised countries. These may not be appropriate for local market conditions where such regulations may unnecessarily inhibit efficient milk marketing. An important step in developing targeted policies more supportive of market participation of the majority is to collect quantitative and qualitative information about milk-borne health risks under different production and marketing situations. This paper gives an over-view of on-going activities in central Kenya aimed at assessing public health risks from informally marketed milk and presents preliminary results of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers

Mbaria JM, Class TJ, Backer R, Mitema ES, Maitho TE. "Analysis of Pyrethroids in Air using Commercial XAD Sampling Cartridges and Gas Chromatography." . The Kenya Veterinarian . 2005;29: 81-84.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Analysis of quantitative data in participatory breeding experiments.". In: Participatory breeding workshop, 17-25 May 2004, Kakamega, Kenya. Pan African Bean Research Alliance, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Analysis of Quantitative data in participatory plant breeding experiments.". In: Presented at Participatory Breeding Training Workshop, 12-15 May, Kakamega, Kenya. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Korir AK, Odhiambo GO,... "Analysis of river Kamiti water samples." Unpublished results. 1997. Abstract
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and Kihu S.M J.M. Njenga WRG, J.M. Gachohi, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Wairire GG, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya." Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci.. 2013;3(9):303-314.
S.M.Kihu, Gachohi JM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG. "Analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices as risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) spread in Turkana District, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2013;3(9):304-313.pub_2_kihu_et_al_303-314.pdf
JI Adungo, Mutispo VM, Ngugi M, Khainga S, A Mouki, Kimeu M. "Analysis of Soft Tissue Injuries and Scarring Following Terrorist Bomb Explosion at the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2015.Website
MANGALA MJ. "Analysis of soil for trace elements along two highways of Kenya." East African Journal of Science. 1998. AbstractWebsite

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique has been used to study the levels of lead and other toxic trace elements in the soil samples collected along two major highways (Mombasa and Thika) of Kenya at the various distances off the road. The soil samples from …

Mburu J;, Maundu P. "Analysis Of Stakeholder Organizations Involved In On-farm Conservation Of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables In Western Kenyatype Or Paste Your Content Here."; 2003. Abstract

This paper analyses the various stakeholders involved in promoting the utilization of indigenous vegetables in Western Kenya and classifies them into stakeholder organizations depending on how they related with the farmers. It aims at determining the kinds of stakeholders organizations involved in in-situ conservation of indigenous vegetables, the different kinds of strategies employed to enhance conservation and the driving factor leading to the emergence of these different strategies. The paper concludes by outlining several policy implications for promoting on-farm conservation of indigenous vegetables in the case study areas.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Analysis of structure, conduct and performance of bean marketing in Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Afr. Crop Science Conference, 12-17 Oct 2003, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Mbuthia EM. "An Analysis of Stylistic Trends in Published Kiswahili Short Story Genre." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5(8):32-42.
Mwimali MI, Kitaa JMA, Osoro LN, others. "An analysis of the causes of poultry condemnations at a Nairobi slaughter house, Kenya (2011-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;7:121-126. Abstract
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Indiatsy C, K' Obonyo P, Muindi F, M M. "An Analysis of the Effect of Employees Age on Employee Performance in Kenya State Corportations. ." Journal of Business and Social Science Review . 2020;1(11).
Indiatsy C, P OK', Muindi F, M M. "Analysis Of The Effect of Employees Age, HRM Practices, and Competence on Employee Performance." European Journal of Business and Management . 2019;22(30).
Kariuki DK;, Ritho CN;, Munei K. "Analysis of the Effect of Land Tenure on Technical Efficiency in Smallholder Crop Production in Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

Agriculture is the backbone of the Kenyan economy contributing 26% to GDP and 70% to employment. Majority of the farmers in Kenya are smallholder farmers possessing less than 3 acres of land. The agricultural sector in Kenya has been facing several challenges among them declining yields. While the decline in yields could be associated with several other factors, it could also be as a result of the effect of insecure land tenure systems which are little understood. This study examines the technical efficiency of alternative land tenure systems among smallholder farmers and identifying the determinants of inefficiency with the objective of exploring land tenure policies that would enhance efficiency in production. The study is based on the understanding that land tenure alone will not be enough to indicate the levels of efficiency of individual farms, other socio economic factors such as gender, education and farm size would also be expected to be important determinants of efficiency. A stochastic frontier was used to estimate technical efficiency and relate it to land tenure and socio economic factors using data from 22 districts from the main agro–ecological zones. The study found that parcels with land titles have a higher efficiency level. Other factors such as education status of head, access to fertilizers, and group participation were also found to significantly influence technical efficiency. The study recommends that the process of land registration should be extended to other regions of the country but at the same time other factors such as access to inputs and improvement of education status should also be addressed.

Mutua F, Balint Z. Analysis of the general climatic conditions to support drought monitoring in Somalia. Nairobi, Kenya: FAO and Somalia Water and Land Information Management (SWALIM) Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
MBWESA JOYCEKANINI. "Analysis Of The Instructional Effectiveness Of Asynchronous E-Learning Environments In Kenya: A Case Study Of The Wedusoft Platform, University Of Nairobi." Journal Of Continuing , Open And Distance Education. 2011;Vol. 1 (Issue 2 June ).
Mbuge DO. "Analysis of the Natural Degradation HDPE Plastic Lining for Water Reservoirs Using Time Dependant Properties.". In: 11th International Conference on Frontiers of Polymers and Advanced Materials (ICFPAM). University of Pretoria, South Africa.; 2011.
Munyasi D, Mutuli SM, ODUORI MF. "Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Kinematics.". 2013.Website
Munyasi D, Mutuli SM, ODUORI MF. "Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Kinematics.". 2013.Website
Munyasi D, Mutuli SM, ODUORI MF. "Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Kinematics.". 2013.Website
Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ngaina JN. "Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Total Column Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone over Nairobi, Kenya using Daily OMI Measurements." Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2015;8(5):530-540. Abstractanalysis_of_the_temporal_evolution_of_total_column_nitrogen_dioxide_and_ozone_over_nairobi_kenya_using_daily_omi_measurements.pdfAfrican Journals Online(AJOL)

Concurrent measurement and analysis of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)and Ozone (O3) are essential for improved understanding of ozone distribution. This study sought to analyse the temporal evolution of total column NO2 and O3 over Nairobi using satellite-derived daily data between 2009 and 2013. Seasonality is observed in O3 distribution with minimum and maximum occurring during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Additionally, a lag of about a month or two occurs between the onset of a season and corresponding minimum or maximum NO2 and O3 concentration. The established association between monthly NO2 and O3 is such that, above average concentration of NO2 is likely to lead to above average levels of O3 during the same month (r=0.79) and below average levels about 5 months later (r=0.39). The Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is the main phenomenon behind the oscillating biennial feature exhibited by NO2 and O3 interannual trend. The study shows that NO2 and O3 are increasing at annual average rates of about 0.27% and 0.46% per year compared to mean values, respectively. Daily variation of both NO2 and O3 depicts stagnating trends over the entire period of study. This difference is attributed to the fact that, whereas daily NO2 and O3 are influenced by mechanisms that control the slow shift between the dry and wet periods within the course of a year, interannual variability is driven by the differences in each year’s general weather conditions.

Key Words: Evolution, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Total Column, Quasi Biennial Oscillation

Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Ngaina JN. "Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Total Column Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone over Nairobi, Kenya using OMI Measurements." Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2015;8(5):530-540.
Augustus ON, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Analysis of the Use of Mass Media during Commuication Campaigns for Mental Health in Nairobi County." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 2).
Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256.
Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256. Abstract

Description

Unsustainable industrial development has created negative impacts to global ecosystem quality and biodiversity due to increased load of chemical and biological contaminants released into environment. Ecological sustainability of Nairobi River Basin in Kenya, hangs in the balance between socioeconomic exploitation and environmental management. Nairobi, Ngong and Mathare rivers constitute the three main tributaries of Nairobi River Basin. The basin has witnesssed increased pollution load, destruction of the wetlands and encroachment of the buffer zones due to rapid urbanisation. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contamination in Mathare and Ngong rivers. We collected water from eight sampling sites constituting the upstream, midstream and downstream of the two rivers. The samples were extracted using HPLC grade dichloromathane and analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) using a Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionisation Detector. TPH in Mathare River ranged from 59.66±8.64 to 463.92±2.63 µg/L, whereas levels in Ngong’River ranged from 11.85±0.10 to 1,219.95 µg/L. The concentration increased downstream indicating the influence of industrial and urbanistion on the pollution load. The results suggest that industries and municipal activities in the City are contributing to TPH contamination in the Nairobi River Basin tributaries and therefore they are likely to jeopardize ecological quality of the rivers ecosystems if protective measures are not taken.

Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2018;4(8):252-256. Abstract

Unsustainable industrial development has created negative impacts to global ecosystem quality and biodiversity due to increased load of chemical and biological contaminants released into environment. Ecological sustainability of Nairobi River Basin in Kenya, hangs in the balance between socioeconomic exploitation and environmental management. Nairobi, Ngong and Mathare rivers constitute the three main tributaries of Nairobi River Basin. The basin has witnesssed increased pollution load, destruction of the wetlands and encroachment of the buffer zones due to rapid urbanisation. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contamination in Mathare and Ngong rivers. We collected water from eight sampling sites constituting the upstream, midstream and downstream of the two rivers. The samples were extracted using HPLC grade dichloromathane and analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) using a Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionisation Detector. TPH in Mathare River ranged from 59.66±8.64 to 463.92±2.63 µg/L, whereas levels in Ngong’River ranged from 11.85±0.10 to 1,219.95 µg/L. The concentration increased downstream indicating the influence of industrial and urbanistion on the pollution load. The results suggest that industries and municipal activities in the City are contributing to TPH contamination in the Nairobi River Basin tributaries and therefore they are likely to jeopardize ecological quality of the rivers ecosystems if protective measures are not taken.

Mavuti K, Moreau J, Munyandorero J, Plisnier PD. "Analysis of trophic relationships in two shallow equatorial lakes Lake Naivasha (Kenya) and Lake Ihema (Rwanda) using a multispecifies trophic model.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

A multispecifies trophic model called ECOPATH II, which can be used to describe the trophic relationships in aquatic ecosystems on a quantitative basis, is briefly presented. When properly used, it can help to explain the trophic relationships in ecosystems and possible evolution of fishstocks after modifications of the environment (e.g. eutrophication, introduction of a new population and/or a significant increase of the fishing effort), and to compare the trophic structure of several ecosystems. Examples are provided on two shallow lakes: Lake Ihema and Lake Naivasha. They are compared with Lake George which was previously documented

Mwang'ombe AW, Kipsumba PK, Ochieng JW, Kiprop EK, Olubayo FM. "Analysis of" -Kenyan isolates' of Fusarium "safani f. sp. phaseoli from common bean using colony characteristics, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA.". 2008. Abstract

Fusarium solani (Mart) f.sp. phaseoli (Burk) Synd. and Hans., is a plant pathogeniC fungus that causes root rot in garden bean (Phaseo/us vulgaris L.). To evaluate methods used in classifying strains of this pathogen, 52 Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli isolates from infected bean plants grown on different farms in Taita hills of Coast province, Kenya, were cultured and characterized using morphology, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA. All the isolates showed high variability in aerial mycelial growth, mycelia texture, pigmentation (mycelia colour) when cultured on potato dextrose agar medium, and conidial measurements on Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer agar medium. Colonies were grouped into luxuriant, moderately luxuriant and scanty on aerial mycelial growth; fluffy and fibrous based on mycelial texture; purple, pink and white based on mycelia colour; and long, medium and short macroconidiallength. All the isolates were pathogenic on GLP-2 (Rosecoco), a susceptible bean variety commonly grown in Kenya. DNA analysis showed that the isolates carried a high genetic diversity (gene diversity = 0.686; mean number of alleles = 9). Neighbour-Joining phylogenetic clusters reconstructed using microsatellite variation showed three major clusters. However, the microsatellite groupings were independent of the altitude, colony characteristics and virulence of the isolates.

KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mwabu D, Ndenge G. "Analyzing the Correlates of Poverty in Kenya: An Institutional Approach." African Journal of Economic Policy. 2009;16(1):1-35.Website
Onyambu DCK, Aywak DAA, Osiemo DS, Mutala DTM. "Anaphylactic reactions in radiology procedures.". In: Asthma. Intechopen; 2020.
Onyambu CK, Angeline Anyona Aywak, Osiemo SK, Mutala TM. "Anaphylactic Reactions in Radiology Procedures.". In: Asthma. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Anatomic position of the asterion in Kenyans for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity." Clinical anatomy (New York, {N.Y.)}. 2010;23:30-33. Abstract

The asterion, defined as the junction between lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures, has been used as a landmark in posterolateral approaches to the posterior fossa. Its reliability however has been put into question due to its population-specific variability in position, using external palpable landmarks and its relation to the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. This study aimed at determining the anatomic position of the asterion in a Kenyan population. Measurements from the asterion to the root of zygoma and the tip of mastoid process, respectively were taken on both left and right sides of 90 (51 male, 39 female) human skulls. The relation of the asterion to the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction was also determined. The distances on the right and left sides from the asterion to the root of the zygoma were 58.85 +/- 2.50 mm and 58.44 +/- 2.12 mm, respectively. The asterion was 47.89 +/- 3.72 mm above the tip of mastoid process on the right side and 47.62 +/- 2.87 mm on the left side. This point was significantly higher in males (48.36 +/- 2.72 mm) than in females (46.62 +/- 3.37 mm) with a P-value of 0.041. Regarding its position from the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction, it was at the junction in 72 cases, below it in 17 cases (average 3.68 mm) and only one case had the asterion above this junction (2.57 mm). The asterion therefore can reliably be ascertained using the parameters from the root of the zygoma and the tip of the mastoid process. The safest approach would be posteroinferior to the asterion so as to avoid lacerating the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex.

Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Anatomic position of the asterion in {Kenyans} for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity." Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:30-33. Abstract

The asterion, defined as the junction between lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures, has been used as a landmark in posterolateral approaches to the posterior fossa. Its reliability however has been put into question due to its population-specific variability in position, using external palpable landmarks and its relation to the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. This study aimed at determining the anatomic position of the asterion in a Kenyan population. Measurements from the asterion to the root of zygoma and the tip of mastoid process, respectively were taken on both left and right sides of 90 (51 male, 39 female) human skulls. The relation of the asterion to the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction was also determined. The distances on the right and left sides from the asterion to the root of the zygoma were 58.85 +/- 2.50 mm and 58.44 +/- 2.12 mm, respectively. The asterion was 47.89 +/- 3.72 mm above the tip of mastoid process on the right side and 47.62 +/- 2.87 mm on the left side. This point was significantly higher in males (48.36 +/- 2.72 mm) than in females (46.62 +/- 3.37 mm) with a P-value of 0.041. Regarding its position from the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction, it was at the junction in 72 cases, below it in 17 cases (average 3.68 mm) and only one case had the asterion above this junction (2.57 mm). The asterion therefore can reliably be ascertained using the parameters from the root of the zygoma and the tip of the mastoid process. The safest approach would be posteroinferior to the asterion so as to avoid lacerating the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex.

Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Anatomic position of the asterion in {Kenyans} for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity." Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:30-33. Abstract

The asterion, defined as the junction between lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures, has been used as a landmark in posterolateral approaches to the posterior fossa. Its reliability however has been put into question due to its population-specific variability in position, using external palpable landmarks and its relation to the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. This study aimed at determining the anatomic position of the asterion in a Kenyan population. Measurements from the asterion to the root of zygoma and the tip of mastoid process, respectively were taken on both left and right sides of 90 (51 male, 39 female) human skulls. The relation of the asterion to the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction was also determined. The distances on the right and left sides from the asterion to the root of the zygoma were 58.85 +/- 2.50 mm and 58.44 +/- 2.12 mm, respectively. The asterion was 47.89 +/- 3.72 mm above the tip of mastoid process on the right side and 47.62 +/- 2.87 mm on the left side. This point was significantly higher in males (48.36 +/- 2.72 mm) than in females (46.62 +/- 3.37 mm) with a P-value of 0.041. Regarding its position from the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction, it was at the junction in 72 cases, below it in 17 cases (average 3.68 mm) and only one case had the asterion above this junction (2.57 mm). The asterion therefore can reliably be ascertained using the parameters from the root of the zygoma and the tip of the mastoid process. The safest approach would be posteroinferior to the asterion so as to avoid lacerating the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex.

Mwachaka P, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Anatomic position of the pterion among Kenyans for lateral skull approaches." Int. J. Morphol. 2008;26:931-933. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Anatomic position of the pterion among {Kenyans} for lateral skull approaches." Int. J. Morphol. 2008;26:931-933. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Anatomic position of the pterion among {Kenyans} for lateral skull approaches." Int. J. Morphol. 2008;26:931-933. AbstractWebsite
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Okahara M, Kiyosue H, Mori H, Tanoue S, Sainou M, Nagatomi H. "Anatomic variations of the cerebral arteries and their embryology: a pictorial review." European radiology. 2002;12:2548-2561. AbstractWebsite
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Ogeng’o JA, Masaki CO, Malek AA, Were FN, Olabu BO, Misiani MK, Murunga AK. "ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF RENAL ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION: CORRELATION WITH MARKERS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2016;5(1):650-660. Abstractanatomical_features_of_renal_artery_in_a_black.pdfWebsite

Knowledge of anatomical features of the renal artery is important in prediction, management and control
of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. These features show population variations but data from black
African populations are scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the anatomical features
of the renal artery in a black Kenyan population. Six hundred and ten (610) single renal arteries from
305 adult black Kenyans [206 males, 99 females; age range 22 – 79 years] were studied by dissection
at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Specimens with macroscopic features
of stenosis and dilatation were excluded. The implantation angle, length and branching pattern were
studied. These features were correlated with intima-media thickness and luminal diameter. The latter
were determined by micrometry on Eosin/hematoxylin stained 5 micron sections obtained from the
proximal segment of the renal artery. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16.0. Student’s t-test, was
used to test for statistical significance at 95% confidence interval where P value of < 0.05 was taken as
significant. The results are presented in a bar graph, tables and macrographs. The mean implantation
angle was 940±150 (range 580-1250). In 26.7% cases, the angle was more than 1000. Mean length was
34±1.4 mm with 21.6 % of arteries measuring ≤ 20 mm. Variant branching pattern was present in 40.5
% of cases. It comprised trifurcation (33 %), quadrifurcation (6.6 %) and pentafurcation (0.8 %). Higher
implantation angle, short arteries and variant branching were associated with statistically significant
higher intima - media thickness and luminal diameter. These results suggest that higher implantation
angle, shorter length and variant branching pattern constitute geometric risk factors for renal artery
atherosclerosis. Ultrasound screening for individuals with suboptimal geometric features for renal artery
atherosclerosis is recommended.

Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW, Malek A, Were FN, Misiani M, Waisiko B, Murunga A, Machira J. "ANATOMICAL RISK FACTORS FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION." Research Open Journal of Anatomy . 2013;1(1):01-07. AbstractANATOMICAL RISK FACTORS FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATIONWebsite

Carotid birfucation anatomy influences predisposistion to atherosclerosis, which is a common cause of ischaemic stroke. Due to increased prevalence of stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa, this study undertook to establish whether or not the population has geometric risk factors for atherosclerosis. Common carotid arteries were exposed by dissection in 208 cadavers and autopsy specimens of adult black Kenyans. The arteries were cleared of fibrofatty tissue and internal jugular vein and nerves retracted away. Mandible was also removed, branches exposed and followed to their destinations. Pattern of termination of common carotid artery was recorded and representative photographs taken with a high resolution digital camera. Angles of bifurcation were measured. Internal diameters of common, internal and external carotid arteries were measured and outlet: inlet area ratios calculated. Intimomedial thickness was determined and correlated with pattern of termination, bifurcation area ratio and angle. Frequencies, means and standard deviations were determined using SPPS17.0 for windows.
The commonest mode of termination was bifurcation (58.9%) followed by trifurcation (26.8%), quadrififcation (5.4%) and pentafurcation (1.7%). Mean bifurcation outlet: inlet ratio was 1.05, with 35.7% being above 12 and 30.4% being below 1.0. The mean angle of bifurcation was 24.1° (Range 9° to 39°). Most of the cases were between 20° and 30°. Among the cases studied, 30.4% were below 20° while 19.6% were above 30°. Intimomedial thickness increased with number of branches, bifurcation angle and area ratio.
Over 25% of the carotid bifurcations in the study population have anatomical risk factors for atherosclerosis, namely additional branches, wide bifurcation angle and non-optimal area ratio. Control measures against atherosclerosis should start early.

Ogeng'o J, Ongeti K, Malek A, Were F, Misiani M. "Anatomical Risk factors for atherosclerosis of left common carotid artery in a black Kenyan population. ." Res Open J Anat. 2013;1(1):1-7.
Kachlik D, Baca V, Bozdechova I, Cech P, Musil V. "Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights." Surgical and radiologic anatomy: SRA. 2008;30:459-466. Abstract

The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

Mandiola E, del Sol M, Sanz ME, Olave E, Gabrielli C, Prates JC. "Anatomical variability of superior cerebellar artery medial and lateral branches." Revista chilena de anatomía. 1997;15:85-91. AbstractWebsite
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McLachlan JC, Patten D. "Anatomy teaching: ghosts of the past, present and future." Medical Education. 2006;40:243-253. AbstractWebsite

‘Ghost of the Future,’ he exclaimed, ‘I fear you more than any spectre I have seen. But as I know your purpose is to do me good, and as I hope to live to be another man from what I was, I am prepared to bear you company, and do it with a thankful heart. Will you not speak to me?’ Ebenezer Scrooge (Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol) Introduction  Anatomy teaching has perhaps the longest history of any component of formalised medical education. In this article we briefly consider the history of dissection, but also review the neglected topic of the history of the use of living anatomy. Current debates  The current debates about the advantages and disadvantages of cadavers, prosection versus dissection, and the use of living anatomy and radiology instead of cadavers are discussed. The future  Future prospects are considered, along with some of the factors that might inhibit change.

McLachlan JC, Patten D. "Anatomy teaching: {Ghosts} of the past, present and future." Medical education. 2006;40:243-53. Abstract
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Mwanyumba PM, Wahome RG, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS. "An anaylsis of factors affecting smallholder mixed farming activities, performance and interactions in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;22.
M.M. O, C.M R. and Procedures in Project Planning and Management. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Anderson A J Harvey A L and Mbugua P M (1985): Effects of fasciculin 2, an anticholinesterase polypeptide from green mamba venom, on neuromuscular transmission in mouse diaphragm preparations Neurosci. Lett. 54: 123.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mbuthia, Sanja SF. "Anew Historicism Approach to Paradox in the Religious Faith in Selected Kiswahili Novels." Journal of International Journal of Science, Arts and Commerce - IJSA . 2017;1(12): 65-78.
Mugunieri, Lawrence Godiah; Omiti JM; IP. Animal Health Service Delivery Systems in Kenya s Marginal Areas under Market Liberalization: A Case for Community-Based Animal Health Workers.; 2002. Abstract2020nw_br02.pdf

This brief is based on the results of a research project funded under the competitive grants program of the 2020 Vision Network for East Africa. A research report bearing the same title has been published by the Network and is available upon request.

Mutinga MJ, Kaddu, J.B., Irungu LW. "Animal model for feeding Kenyan wild-caught phebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotomidae)." Insect Sc. Appl. . 1981;2:149-152.
Mwangi WE. Animal welfare issues in transport and slaughter of swine.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EGM, Mulei CM, Mande JD. "Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations.". 2009. Abstract

A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, legislations’, knowledge and sources of general information on animal welfare. The percentage responses to the questions before and after the customized lecture series were determined and differences compared using a paired t test. The level of awareness of animal welfare issues among students before and after the customized lectures was 33.11% and 68.03% respectively. Significant differences at p ≤ 0.05 on all the attributes assessed was observed. p=0.0056 on the understanding of animal welfare, p=0.0232 on what constitutes poor animal welfare and p=0.025 on conditions necessary to ensure a state of good animal welfare. A 50% increase in awareness of legislations on animal welfare was recorded after the lecture series. The major source of information on animal welfare was from the lecture series offered. This study confirms that inclusion of the customized lectures on animal welfare in training veterinary students was effective in promoting awareness on animal welfare. The contents of these lectures should be included in relevant subjects taught to students at the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine.

M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Ankel Dinkel, Ernest M. Njoroge, Anja Zimmermann, Marcus Walz, Eberhard Zeyhle, Ibrahim E. Elmahdi, Ute Mackenstedt, Thomas Romig (2004) A PCR system for the detection of species and the genotypes of the Echinococcus granulosus complex, with reference to .". In: International Journal for Parasitology 34: 645 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.
Sitati FC, Mogire TS. "Ankle Arthrodesis Using a Vertical Steinman’s Pin in a Severely Osteopenic Bone." East Central Africa Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(1):125-128.
Kugonza DR;, Okeyo AM;, Mutetikka D;, Mpairwe DR;, Nabasirye M;, Kiwuwa, GH; Hanotte O, Hanotte O. "Ankole cattle breed of Uganda: functions and criteria used in identification, selection and parentage assignment by herdsmen."; 2005.
Hawary, El., Yumoto, K., Yamazaki, Y., Mahrous, A., Ghamry, E., Meloni, A., Badi K, Kianji, G., Uiso CBS, Mwiinga N, Joao, L., Affluo, T., Sutcliffe, P.R., Mengestu, G., Baki, P., Abe, Ikeda, A., Fujimoto A. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. Earth and planets space; 2012.
Hawary ELR, Yumoto K, Yamazaki Y, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Meloni A, Badi K, Kianji G, Uiso CBS, Mwinge N, Joao L, Affluo T, Malinga S, Mengeshtu G, Baki P. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. KOGOSHIMA, JAPAN; 2009.
Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2012;106:244-250. Abstractinc_prev_paper.pdf

Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, ˇ, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection.
Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of ˇ was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4–11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8–43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence.

Nderitu JH, Kabira J, Tigoni David Kipkoech, MKU T, Mathenge S. ANNUAL PLANNING WORKSHOP FOR NCST SEED POTATO PROJECT. THIKA: KARI; 2013.annual_planning_workshop_for_ncst_seed_potato_project_final.pdf
Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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Milugo TK, Omosa LK, Ochanda JO, Owuor BO, Wamunyokoli FA, Oyugi JO, Ochieng JW. "Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:285. Abstract

The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals.

Milugo TK, Omosa LK, Ochanda JO, Owuor BO, Wamunyokoli FA, Oyugi JO, Ochieng JW. "Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:285. Abstract

The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals.

Ouma PO, van Eijk AM, Hamel MJ, Sikuku ES, Odhiambo FO, Munguti KM, Ayisi JG, Crawford SB, Kager PA, Slutsker L. "Antenatal and delivery care in rural western Kenya: the effect of training health care workers to provide "focused antenatal care.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Background

Maternal mortality remains high in developing countries and data to monitor indicators of progress in maternal care is needed. We examined the status of maternal care before and after health care worker (HCW) training in WHO recommended Focused Antenatal Care.

Methods

An initial cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2002 in Asembo and Gem in western Kenya among a representative sample of women with a recent birth. HCW training was performed in 2003 in Asembo, and a repeat survey was conducted in 2005 in both areas.

Results

Antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance was similar in both areas (86%) in 2005 and not significantly different from 2002 (90%). There was no difference in place of delivery between the areas or over time. However, in 2005, more women in Asembo were delivered by a skilled assistant compared to Gem (30% vs.23%, P = 0.04), and this proportion increased compared to 2002 (17.6% and 16.1%, respectively). Provision of iron (82.4%), folic acid (72.0%), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (61.7%), and anthelminths (12.7%) had increased in Asembo compared to 2002 (2002: 53.3%, 52.8%, 20.3%, and 4.6%, respectively), and was significantly higher than in Gem in 2005 (Gem 2005: 69.7%, 47.8%, 19.8%, and 4.1%, respectively) (P < 0.05 for all). Offering of tests for sexually transmitted diseases and providing information related to maternal health was overall low (<20%) and did not differ by area. In 2005, more women rated the quality of the antenatal service in Asembo as very satisfactory compared to Gem (17% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions

We observed improvements in some ANC services in the area where HCWs were trained. However, since our evaluation was carried out 2 years after three-day training, we consider any significant, sustained improvement to be remarkable.

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Background.

Maternal mortality, the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, remains disturbingly high in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that 270 000 maternal deaths occurred in the region in 2005 [1]. The UN millennium Development goal (MDG) on maternal health aims to reduce the number of women who die in pregnancy and childbirth by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015 [2]. To achieve this goal, it is estimated that an annual decline in maternal mortality of 5.5% is needed; however between 1990 and 2005 the annual decline was only 0.5% in the sub-Saharan region, compared to 4.2% for the middle income countries of Asia [1,3].

Maternal mortality occurs from risks attributable to pregnancy and child birth as well as from poor availability and quality of health services [4]. The most common causes of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa include haemorrhage (34%), sepsis/infections (10%), hypertensive disorders (9%), HIV/AIDS (6%), and other direct causes (5%); other indirect causes contributed approximately 17% [5].

Experiences from different countries have shown that reducing maternal mortality may depend in part on the availability and use of a professional attendant at labour and delivery and a referral mechanism for obstetric care for managing complications, or the use of basic essential obstetric care facilities for all deliveries [6]. In many developing countries however, the majority of births occur at home, frequently without the help of a skilled assistant (midwife, nurse trained as midwife or a doctor) [7].

The effect of antenatal care on maternal mortality is unclear [8-10]. However, there is broad agreement that antenatal care interventions can lead to improved maternal and newborn health, which can also impact on the survival and health of the infant [11]. Additionally, the ANC visit, which many women in sub-Saharan Africa attend, is an opportunity to reach pregnant women with messages and interventions. A global evaluation of antenatal care has resulted in the recommendation to deliver antenatal services in 4 focused visits (Focussed antenatal care; FANC), one within the first trimester and 3 after quickening, and this schedule is now endorsed by WHO [12,13]. Proven effective antenatal interventions include serologic screening for syphilis, provision of malaria prevention, anti-tetanus immunization, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV [14,15]. To fully benefit from these interventions, it is important that women start visiting the antenatal clinic (ANC) early in pregnancy.

We evaluated maternal care in western Kenya in 2002 and showed that preventive interventions received at the ANC were inadequate in spite of high (90%) ANC attendance [16]. After this evaluation, the Kenyan Ministry of Health in conjunction with the Johns Hopkins Organization for International Education in Training and Reproductive Health (JHPIEGO) trained healthcare workers in FANC and malaria in pregnancy in part of the study area (Asembo). FANC emphasizes goal-oriented and women-centred care by skilled providers, whereby the quality instead of the quantity of visits is important [17]. The FANC training in 2003 emphasized identification of pre-existing health problems, early detection of danger signs arising from pregnancy, health promotion, provision of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), provision of iron and folate, birth preparedness, blood pressure measurement, growth monitoring, urine albuminuria and preparation for post-partum family planning. The training was short (3 days) and focused on need-to-know information. An interactive training approach with user-friendly materials was used. These materials enabled the providers to cascade the training to their colleagues in the place of work. Supportive supervision to reinforce skills was undertaken following the training in May-June 2003 in a random sample comprising of 25% of the health facilities in which health care workers had been trained (because of resource constraints not all health facilities received supportive supervision). The focus of the supportive supervision was to identify any gaps and to reinforce knowledge on focused antenatal care and malaria in pregnancy.

In April 2005, we conducted a repeat cross-sectional survey among a random sample of women with a recent birth living in the same areas as the previous survey to assess whether there were improvements in antenatal and delivery care and if there were differences between the area where service providers were trained in FANC and the area where training did not occur.

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Methods.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Kenya Medical Research Institute (CDC/KEMRI) conduct a demographic surveillance system (DSS) in western Kenya, since 2002. The DSS area is located in Asembo (Rarieda Division, Bondo district) and Gem (Yala and Wagai Divisions, Siaya District), of Nyanza province in western Kenya, and covers 217 villages (75 in Asembo and 142 in Gem) spread over approximately 500 km2 along the shores of Lake Victoria. The vast majority of the population are members of the Luo tribe who earn their living through subsistence farming and fishing [18]. Residents of the DSS are visited in their homes every 4 months to record births, deaths, pregnancies, pregnancy outcomes, immigration and out-migration [19]. Health indicators are poor in the area when compared to national figures, with infant mortality rate estimated at 125 per 1000 live births compared to the national figure of 77 per 1000 live births, under-five mortality rate of 227 per 1000 live births compared to 115 nationally, and overall life expectancy at birth at 38 years (36 for men and 39 for women) compared to 48 nationally [19]. The maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 753 per 100,000 live births in 2003 compared to 414 per 100,000 live births nationally [20]. This area traditionally experienced intense perennial malaria transmission with an estimated entomological inoculation rate of ≈ 60-300 infectious bites per person per year [21]. However, the widespread provision of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during a bed net efficacy trial reduced transmission in the study area by about 90% and continuous provision of ITNs has maintained malaria transmission at a low level [22,23]. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anaemia was 36% and 53% respectively among pregnant women in a community survey in 2003 [24]. In the 2003 Demographic and Health Survey, the seroprevalence of HIV/AIDS in Nyanza Province (15%) was about twice as high as the national average of 7% [25]. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of HIV in men and women 13-34 years old in the DSS area were 11% and 21%, respectively (P. Amornkul, personal communication). A survey among 13 antenatal clinics in Asembo in 2005 revealed that 7 ANCs did not charge for ANC visits, and 9 provided treatments such as iron and folic acid without charge (P. Ouma, personal communication). We do not have this information for ANCs in Gem.

The sample size estimate for this study was based on a comparison of IPTp use in Asembo and Gem, and aimed to detect at least 50 percentage point difference in IPTp use in Asembo compared to Gem after FANC training, with 80% power and 95% confidence interval. Allowing for 15% failure to recruit, a random sample of 830 women was selected using a list of women who had delivered between 30th of September 2004 and 30th of March 2005 in the DSS [26]. Interviews were conducted by experienced interviewers in the local language using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked questions on ANC clinic visits, services received at the clinic, where their last delivery occurred, who assisted with the delivery and satisfaction with antenatal and delivery services. Interviewers were instructed not to probe with options. Questions were similar to the 2002 survey, except for the quality assessment of the maternal services, which had not been included in the 2002 survey.

Data management and statistical methods

We first compared the two areas in the survey in 2005, and then compared the results of the survey in 2005 to the survey in 2002. We examined the use of antenatal and delivery care, and the type of ANC services received, and the satisfaction with the services (2005 only).

Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. For the comparisons of medians, we used the Wilcoxon two sample test (non-parametric). Education level was dichotomized as < 8 years or ≥ 8 years, the minimum number of years required to complete primary education in Kenya. We used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) method to generate weights for the following broad household characteristics: occupation of participant and spouse, source and quality of water, source of fuel for cooking, livestock and asset ownership, and dwelling/housing structure. The scores were used to rank the study participants in socio-economic status (SES) quintiles [27]. A medium/low SES was defined as a rank in the bottom three quintiles of the wealth index. The statistical program SAS was used for all analyses (SAS for windows version 8; SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA).

Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the institutional review boards of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (Nairobi, Kenya) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA).

Makokha E, WAKASIAKA S, Inyama H, Oyieke J. "Antenatal care and birth outcomes relatedto HIV status among pregnant women at Pumwani Maternity Hospital. ." Kenya Journal of Nursing & Midwifery . 2017;2(2).
Kihara, A, Harries, AD, Bissell K, Kizito W, Van Den Berg, R, Mueke, S, Mwangi, J.W., Sitene, JC, Gathara, D, Kosgei, RJ, Kiarie, J.W, Gichangi. "Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya: 2007-2013." 2007-2013. PHA 2015; . 2015;5(1):23-29.
Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;37(5):1620-6. Abstract

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15;37(5):1620-6. Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15;37(5):1620-6. Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2004. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.
Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Vannevel V, Vogel JP, Pattinson RC, Adanu R, Charantimath U, Goudar SS, Gwako G, Kavi A, Maya E, Osoti A, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Rulisa S, Botha T, Oladapo OT. "Antenatal Doppler screening for fetuses at risk of adverse outcomes: a multicountry cohort study of the prevalence of abnormal resistance index in low-risk pregnant women." BMJ Open. 2022;12(3):e053622. Abstract

Few interventions exist to address the high burden of stillbirths in apparently healthy pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To establish whether a trial on the impact of routine Doppler screening in a low-risk obstetric population is warranted, we determined the prevalence of abnormal fetal umbilical artery resistance indices among low-risk pregnant women using a low-cost Doppler device in five LMICs.

Odwory M, Oyieke JBO, Machoki JM, Osoti A. "Antental care visits and pregnancy outcomes at a Kenyan rural District Hospita.". 2017.
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi, N., Gathumbi, P.K., Mwangi, J.W., Kibwage IO. "The anthelmintic activity of extracts from some medicinal plants of Kenya.". In: 9th Symposium of the Natural Product Research Network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA). Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antibacterial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;16:75-80.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukunu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2014;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae). ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hageniaabyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(4):77-82.
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi, N., Karume, D., Gathumbi, P.K., Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2003;5:60-66.2003._anthelmintic_and_other_pharmacological_activities_of_the_root_bark_extracts_of_albizia_anthelmintica_brongn.pdf
Thoithi GN, Maingi N, Karume D, Gathumbi PK, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:60-66.
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi N, Karume D, Gathuma PK, J.W. M, Kibwage IO. "Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(3):60-66.
Bjørn, H., Maingi N, Thamsborg SM. "Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep and goats in Denmark.". In: 24th Inter Norden Sheep Conference. .Aarhus, Denmark.; 1996.
Maingi N, Bjørn H, Thamsborg SM, Bøgh HO, Nansen P. "Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Denmark." Small Ruminant Research. 1997;23:171-181.1997._anthelmintic_resistance_in_nematode_parasites_of_sheep_in_denmark.pdf
Maingi, N., Gichanga EJ, Gichohi VM. "Anthelmintic resistance in nematode species of goats on some farms in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1993;41:195-201.1993._anthelmintic_resistance_in_nematode_species_of_goats_on_some_farms_in_kenya.pdf
Kinoti, G.K., Maingi N, Coles GC. "Anthelmintics usage in Kenya and its implications." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1994;42:71-73.1994._anthelmintics_usage_in_kenya_and_its_implications.pdf
Ngugi K, Jerono Cheserek, Muchira C, Chemining’wa G. "Anthesis to silking interval usefulness in developing drought tolerant." Journal of Renewable Agriculture . 2013;, 1(50):84-90.anthesis_to_silking_interval_usefulness_in_developing_drought.pdf
Kahiu Ngugi*, Jerono Cheserek, Muchira C, Dept GC’wa. "Anthesis to Silking Interval Usefulness in Developing Drought Tolerant Maize." Journal of Renewable Agriculture. 2013;1(5):84-88.anthesis_to_silking_interval_usefulness_in_developing_drought_tolerant_maize.pdf
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. Physica Status Solidi; 2004. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Anthracene sulfonic acid-doped polyanilines: Electrodynamics and Application as amperometric peroxide biosensor.". In: International Journal of Polymeric Materials. Research signpost, T.C 37166(2), Fort Post Office, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
Derese S, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich, Peter MG. "Anthraquinones, Pre-anthraquinones And Isoeleutherol In The Roots Of Aloe Species."; 1994.
Yenesew A, Endale M, M., Erdelyi, Ekberg A, HM A, Ndakala A, A., Sunnerhagen. "Anthraquinonesof the roots of Pentas micrantha." Molecules . 2013;18,:311-321. Abstractpaper_61_endale_et_al_molecules-2013-18-00311.pdf

Pentas micrantha is used in the East African indigenous medicine to treat malaria. In the first investigation of this plant, the crude methanol root extract showed moderate antiplasmodial activity against the W2- (3.37 μg/mL) and D6-strains (4.00 μg/mL) of Plasmodium falciparum and low cytotoxicity (>450 μg/mL, MCF-7 cell line). Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded nine anthraquinones, of which 5,6-dihydroxylucidin-11-Omethyl ether is new. Isolation of a munjistin derivative from the genus Pentas is reported
here for the first time. The isolated constituents were identified by NMR and mass spectrometric techniques and showed low antiplasmodial activities.

Keywords: anthraquinone; malaria; Pentas micrantha; Rubiaceae; 5,6-dihydroxylucidin-11-O-methyl ether 1.

Murage M.Wanjiku, Mbatia B.Nyambura MEKMMW. "Anti - oxidative potential of honey and ascorbic acid in yoghurt fortified with Omega - 3 fatty acids." Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 2016;6:702-706. Abstract
n/a
Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Makawiti DW, Oryem-Origa H, Odyek O. "The anti-bacterial bioactivity of some medicinal lants used in productive healthcare from western,Uganda.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

Bacterial infections in rural western Uganda,particularly in women are treated using herbal medicine.The ethanolic crude plant extracts of tetradenia riparia,tithonia diversifolia and geniosporum rotundifolium some of the medicinal plants used traditionally in treating bacterial infections were tested for their activity against microorganism.Test organism used were three species of gram-positive bacteria namely staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative bacteria escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for bioassay.Disk diffusion method was used to carry out the antimicrobial test and the inhibitory concentrations of both the MIC and IC of the herbal extracts were calculated Tetradenia riparia,Tithonia diversifolia and geniosprum rotundifolium showed promising results as antibacterial potential drugs. Thus plants used in traditional medicine for particular ailments are sometimes potential leads in drug discovery and development

Milugo T, Masila VM, Owuor B, Bulimo W, Julius Oyugi, Ochanda J, Wamunyokoli F, Omosa LK. "Anti-cancer activities of crude extracts from medicinal plants Moringa oleifera Lam and Rauwolfia caffra against selected cancer cell lines." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2016;11(3):59-64.milugo_et_al._2016.pdf
Johns T, Fambert GM, Kokwaro JO, Mahunnah R, Kimanani E. "Anti-giardial activity of gastrointestinal remedies of the Luo of East Africa." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;46(1):1-17.
Zheng Y, Mulinge M, Counson M, Yang X, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Devaux C. "Anti-HIV activities in an African plant extract." Planta Medica. 2014;80(10).
Kimondo J, Mutai P, Njogu P, Kimwele C. "Anti-inflammatory activity of selected plants used by the Ilkisonko Maasai, Kenya." Afr. J. Therapeut. Pharmacol. 2020;9(2):39-43.
Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Muriuki G, Munenge R. "Anti-inflammatory and Anti-diarrhoeal Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl." East Cent.Afr.J.Pharm.Sci.. 2003;6:26-29.
Mukavi J, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Nyaga J, Omole R, Bitchagno GTM, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory norhopanes from the root bark of Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) H. M. Gardner." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104690.mukavi_et_al_2020_fitoterapia.pdf
VM M, O MJ, J Z, BM G, R M, LK O, FT W, MR J, LA W, I M. "Anti-Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis activities of (-)-gossypol and derivatives from Thespesia garckeana." Natural Product Communications (NPC). 2015;10(4):613-616.masila_et_al.pdf
Hashim I, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Onyari JM, Maru SM, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts from Kenyan Macaranga Species Towards MDR Phenotypes Expressing Effux Pumps." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2021;11(2):119-126.hashim_et_al_2021_pharmacognosy_communications.pdf
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Derese S, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities and structure–activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1):1-15.
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Derese S, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities and structure–activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1):1-15. AbstractFull text link

In the current study forty eight compounds belonging to anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, benzoquinones, flavonoids (chalcones and polymethoxylated flavones) and diterpenoids (clerodanes and kauranes) were explored for their antimicrobial potential against a panel of sensitive and multi-drug resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations on the tested bacteria were conducted using modified rapid INT colorimetric assay. To evaluate the role of efflux pumps in the susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to the most active compounds, they were tested in the presence of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) (at 30 µg/mL) against selected multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. The anthraquinone, emodin, naphthaquinone, plumbagin and the benzoquinone, rapanone were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of bacteria with MIC values ranging from 2 to 128 μg/mL. The structure activity relationships of benzoquinones against the MDR Gram-negative phenotype showed antibacterial activities increasing with increase in side chain length. In the chalcone series the presence of a hydroxyl group at C3′ together with a methoxy group and a second hydroxyl group in meta orientation in ring B of the chalcone skeleton appeared to be necessary for minimal activities against MRSA. In most cases, the optimal potential of the active compounds were not attained as they were extruded by bacterial efflux pumps. However, the presence of the PAβN significantly increased the antibacterial activities of emodin against Gram-negative MDR E. coli AG102, 100ATet; K. pneumoniae KP55 and KP63 by >4–64 g/mL. The antibacterial activities were substantially enhanced and were higher than those of the standard drug, chloramphenicol. These data clearly demonstrate that the active compounds, having the necessary pharmacophores for antibacterial activities, including some quinones and chalcones are substrates of bacterial efflux pumps and therefore should be combined to efflux pump inhibitors in the fight against MDR bacterial infections.

Keywords:

Anthraquinones Benzoquinones Chalcones Antibacterial activities Multidrug resistance Efflux pump inhibitor

Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities of thirteen naturally occuring compounds from two Kenyan medicinal plants: Zanthoxylum paracanthum (mildbr) Kokwaro (Rutaceae) and Dracaena usambarensis Engl. (Asparagaceae) against MDR phenotypes." South African Journal of Botany, Elsevier. 2022;151(Part A):756-762, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2022.10.050.
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships of a Panel of 48 Compounds from Kenyan Plants against Multidrug Resistant Phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5:901.omosa_et_al._springerplus_paper.pdf
MATUMBARA-MABVENI ARS, KAAYA GP. "Antibacterial activity in Crop- borers haemolymph: Implications for biological control.". In: Proceedings of third International Conference on Tropical Entomology. Nairobi, Kenya; 1994.
Miaron DJO, Kariuki DDK, Mugweru J, Kerubo LO. "ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FIVE MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS USED BY THE MAASAI PEOPLE OF KENYA." international journal of humanities. 2014;2(7):1-6.miaron012.pdf
Kariuki DK, Miaron JO, Mugweru J, Kerubo LO. "Antibacterial Activity of Five Medicinal Plant Extracts Used by the Maasai People of Kenya." BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences (BEST: IJHAMS) . 2014;2(7):1-6.kariuki_et_al__2014.pdf
Musau JK, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW. "The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru Central District, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Five medicinal plants used by traditional medical health practitioners (TMP) in Meru central district namely: Piliostigma thonningii, Ajuga remota, Ocimum suave, Erythrina abyssinica and Harissonia abyssinica were investigated for their antibacterial activity against standard bacterial cultures namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of the methanolic and water extracts was determined using the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus) were more susceptible to the plant extracts than Gram negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). The MIC and MBC of the positive control antibiotics (Ampicillin for gram positive and Gentamycin for gram negative) were less than 1mg/ml. The most susceptible bacteria was S. aureus followed by B. cereus while the most resistant was E. coli followed by P.aeruginosa. Methanolic extracts of P. thonningii stem and Ocimum suave leaves had the best antibacterial activity against the four bacterial species. There was no significant difference between the water and methanolic extracts of all the plants. These results justify the use of these plants by the traditional medical practitioners for management of bacterial conditions and further investigation on their safety and phytochemistry is needed.

Musau JK, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW. "The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru Central District, Kenya." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2011;35(1):18-24.
Musi, C, MIRIKAU, N, D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(8):1003-1014 . Abstractantibacterial_antifungal_plectranthus_2017.pdfWebsite

Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and food uses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studied them in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents.
Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method.
Results:Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) againstMRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstrated broad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.
KEY WORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Bioguidance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Plectranthus

Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;Vol. 11,(Issue 8):pp 1003-1014.
Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN, Kibwage. IO. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida ( J. F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun)." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):14-18.
Kibwage IO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(2303-9841):14-18.abstract.pdf
Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Antibacterial and antifungal study of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun). ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):14-18.
Wagate CG, Gakuya D, Nanyingi W;, Mark O, Njonge, Francis K, Mbaria JM. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants.". 2008. Abstract

Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

WG C, GW D, MO N, FK N, JM M. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants." Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103(7):650-2.
Wagate CG, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Njonge FK, Mbaria JM. "Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of some Kenyan Medicinal plants." Memorias de Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2008; 103( 7).
Wagate GC, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Njonge FK, G Nduhiu, Mbaria JM. "Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of some Kenyan Medicinal plants.". In: . Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
C. WG, W. GD, O. NM, K. NF, G. N, M. MJ. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of some Kenyyan medicinal plants.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference.; 2008.
Jepkoech C, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Kenanda EO, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M. "Antibacterial secondary metabolites from Vernonia auriculifera Hiern (Asteraceae) against MDR phenotypes." Natural Products Research. 2021:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1953024.jepkoech_et_al_2021_natural_products_research.pdf
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Antibiotic and disinfectants susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens recovered from farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2020;2020(Article ID 8897338. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8897338).
Momanyi L, Opanga S, Nyamu D, Oluka M, Kurdi A, Godman B. "Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns at a Leading Referral Hospital in Kenya: A Point Prevalence Survey." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2019;8(3):149-154.momanyi_et_al-jrpp-8-149.pdf
Mbindyo SN, Abuom TO, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Antibiotic Resistance and Stewardship in Small Animal Practice-A Review." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences. 2022;5(1):1102.
DR I, SS J, KHM K, MM K, UC S. "The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of s. aureus; an ocular normal fl ora." East African journal of ophthalmology . 2008;14(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the changing of drug sensitivity patterns for s. aureas
as the second commonest bacteria of the conjunctival normal fl ora in Nairobi,
Kenya

Design: Descriptive retrospective study

Setting: University of Nairobi, Department of Ophthalmology and Kikuyu Eye Unit
Subjects: 37 (28%) asymptomatic volunteers at KNH and KEU with no signs of
ocular infections or ocular surface abnormalities from January 1994 to December
1997 were selected.

Results: A total of 37 cases were tested positive for S. aureus. The micro
organism showed high resistance to amoxtcillin, aminoglycosides, 1st and 2nd
generation Flouroquinolones except Ofl oxacin and tetracycline. It was sensitive
to carbenocillin, polymyxin B and chloramphenocol and highly sensitive to
Cephalexin and ciprofl oxacin.

Conclusion: The percentage of positive fi nding of S. aureus of the conjunctival
normal flora is comparable to that in other regions of the world. We found a high
resistance to most of the commonly locally prescribed antibiotics.

Barasa GB, Butt F, Onyango JF, Mutua FM, Dimba E. "Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic bacterial agents in post-surgical orofacial infections." Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12. Abstract
n/a
Magale HI, Kassim IA, Odera SA, Omolo MJ, Jaoko WG, Jolly PE. "Antibiotic susceptibility of organisms causing urinary tract infection in patients presenting at Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi." East African medical journal. 2015;92:333-337. Abstract
n/a
Plummer F, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Nagelkerke NJ, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibodies to opacity proteins (Opa) correlate with a reduced risk of gonococcal salpingitis."; 1994. Abstract

Acute salpingitis complicating cervical gonococcal infection is a significant cause of infertility. Relatively little data are available concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease. A cohort of 243 prostitutes residing in Nairobi were followed between March 1985 and April 1988. Gonococcal cultures were performed at each visit, and acute salpingitis was diagnosed clinically. Serum at enrollment was tested by immunoblot for antibody to gonococcal outer membrane proteins. 8.6% (146/1689) of gonococcal infections were complicated by salpingitis. Increased risk of salpingitis was associated with younger age, shorter duration of prostitution, HIV infection, number of gonococcal infections, and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis. Rmp antibody increased the risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa decreased the risk of salpingitis. By logistic regression analysis, antibody to Opa was independently associated with decreased risk of gonococcal salpingitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.17-0.76); HIV infection (adjusted OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.8) and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.4) were independently associated with an increased risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa appears to protect against ascending gonococcal infection, perhaps by interfering with Opa mediated adherence and endocytosis. The demonstration of natural immunity that protects against upper genital tract infection in women suggests that a vaccine to prevent gonococcal salpingitis is possible.

M.O.C. Ota, C. Oluwalana a HGOM-GOSRCM, a M.W. Mureithi, J. Townend SASAOMJS. "Antibody and T cell responses during acute and convalescent stages of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;15:282-288.
Plummer FA, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibody to Rmp (outer membrane protein 3) increases susceptibility to gonococcal infection.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The severe adverse effects of gonococcal infection on human fertility suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae would exert powerful selection for the development of a protective immune response in humans. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and must persist in humans to survive. Since it is an ecologically successful organism, it must have evolved strategies to evade any human immune response it elicits. In a longitudinal study among 243 women working as prostitutes and experiencing frequent gonococcal infection, younger women, women with HIV infection, and women with antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp) were at increased risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio 3.4, CI95% 1.1-10.4, P < 0.05). Rmp is highly conserved in N. gonorrhoeae and the blocking of mucosal defences may be one of its functions. As similar proteins occur in many gram negative mucosal pathogens, the enhancing effect of such proteins may be a general strategy whereby bacteria evade human immune responses.

PIP:

Between March 1985 and July 1986 researchers enrolled 243 female prostitutes in Pumwani community of Nairobi, Kenya, in a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between the antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp Ab) and gonococcal mucosal infection. Few women used condoms. 69% were HIV-1 seropositive. Just 9.5% (23) of the women had not had any gonococcal infections, despite probable exposure to them, indicating the possibility of some acquired protective immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoea. 90.5% had had at least 1 gonococcal infection. Women with Rmp Ab faced a greater risk of gonococcal infection than those who were Rmp Ab negative (OR = 3.4;l p .05), denoting that Rmp Ab increases susceptibility to gonococcal mucosal infections. Women older than 29 years were at lower risk of gonococcal infection than those younger than 29 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3; p .03). Women who used oral contraceptives (OCs) were also likely to be infected with N. gonorrhoea (OR = 3; p = .062). Further, 31% of OC users had cervical ectopy compared to just 14% of nonusers (OR = 2.8; p .005), suggesting that the effect of OCs on the cervix make it more susceptible to gonococcal infection. Rmp Ab also exists in many other gram-negative mucosal pathogens, often playing the same role as it does in N. gonorrhoea infection. Thus, Rmp Ab may be a common scheme bacteria used to elude human immune responses. These findings provide more understanding as to why N. gonorrhoea is an ecologically successful human pathogen

Kavoi BM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG. "Anticancer drug vinblastine sulphate induces transient morphological changes on the olfactory mucosa of the rabbit.". 2012. Abstract2012.anticancer_drug_vinblastine_sulphate_induces_transient_morphological_changes_on_the_olfactory_mucosa_of_the_rabbit..pdf

Vinblastine sulphate (VBS) is an anticancer drug that acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics of highly mitotic tissue cells. The consequences of VBS on the olfactory mucosa (OM), a tissue with high mitotic numbers, are not clearly understood. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the structural changes that may be produced on the rabbit OM by VBS. Following a single dose (0.31 mg/kg) of this drug, the structure of the mucosa was greatly altered on the first 3-5 days. The alteration was characterized by disarrangement of the normal layering of nuclei of the epithelia, degeneration of axonal bundles, occurrence of blood vessels within the bundles, localized death of cells of Bowman's glands and glandular degeneration. Surprisingly on or after day 7 and progressively to day 15 post-exposure, the OM was observed to regenerate and acquire normal morphology, and the vessels disappeared from the bundles. Relative to control values, bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers decreased to as low as 53.1, 75.2 and 71.4%, respectively, on day 5. Volume density for the bundles, which was 28.6% in controls, decreased to a lowest value of 16.8% on day 5. In contrast, the volume density for the blood vessels was significantly lower in controls (19.9%) than in treated animals at day 2 (25.8%), day 3 (34.3%) and day 5 (31.5%). These findings suggest that the changes induced on the rabbit OM by VBS are transient and that regenerative recovery leads to the restoration of the normal structure of the mucosa.

© 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID:
22443492
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kavoi BM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG. "Anticancer drug vinblastine sulphate induces transient morphological changes on the olfactory mucosa of the rabbit." Anat Histol Embryol. 2012;41(5):374-87. Abstract

Vinblastine sulphate (VBS) is an anticancer drug that acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics of highly mitotic tissue cells. The consequences of VBS on the olfactory mucosa (OM), a tissue with high mitotic numbers, are not clearly understood. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the structural changes that may be produced on the rabbit OM by VBS. Following a single dose (0.31 mg/kg) of this drug, the structure of the mucosa was greatly altered on the first 3-5 days. The alteration was characterized by disarrangement of the normal layering of nuclei of the epithelia, degeneration of axonal bundles, occurrence of blood vessels within the bundles, localized death of cells of Bowman's glands and glandular degeneration. Surprisingly on or after day 7 and progressively to day 15 post-exposure, the OM was observed to regenerate and acquire normal morphology, and the vessels disappeared from the bundles. Relative to control values, bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers decreased to as low as 53.1, 75.2 and 71.4%, respectively, on day 5. Volume density for the bundles, which was 28.6% in controls, decreased to a lowest value of 16.8% on day 5. In contrast, the volume density for the blood vessels was significantly lower in controls (19.9%) than in treated animals at day 2 (25.8%), day 3 (34.3%) and day 5 (31.5%). These findings suggest that the changes induced on the rabbit OM by VBS are transient and that regenerative recovery leads to the restoration of the normal structure of the mucosa.

Mukundi MJ, Piero MN, Mwaniki NE, Murugi NJ, Daniel AS, Gathumbi PK, Muchugi AN. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Acacia nilotica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice. Mukundi et al; 2015.mukundi-_acacia_nilotica_2015.pdf
Nyaga SN, Mathiu PM, Onyango CM, Areba GO. "Antidiabetic properties of Solanum villosum and Solanum nigrum var.sarrachoides in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2019;8(11):2396-2402.
Ndurumo MS;, Mande JD;, Kihurani D;, Abuom TO. "Antidrool Cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery Of The Canine Lip. Poster Presentation.".; 2006.
Ndurumo MS;, Mande JD;, Kihurani D;, Abuom TO. "Antidrool Cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery Of The Canine Lip. Poster Presentation.".; 2006.
Ndurumo MS;, Mande JD;, Kihurani D;, Abuom TO. "Antidrool Cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery Of The Canine Lip. Poster Presentation.".; 2006.
Fulano AM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Antifungal Activity of Local Microbial Isolates against Snap Bean Pathogens." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(12):112-122.
Nanteza A, Obara I, Kasaija P, Mwega E, Kabi F, Salih DA, Njahira M, Joyce Njuguna, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Skilton RA, Ahmed J, Clausen P-H, Lubega GW. "Antigen gene and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) diversity in Theileria parva parasites from Ankole cattle in south-western Uganda: Evidence for conservation in antigen gene sequences combined with extensive polymorphism at VNTR loci." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:99-107. Abstract

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.

Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti J;, Macharia, J M;, Shimanter E;, Panshim, A;, Lipkin M. "Antigenic characterisation of Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) Isolated in Kenya."; 1996.
Murithi CK, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, w. Lukhoba C. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(4):395-406.published_paper_june_2014.pdf
Murithi CK, Fidahusein DS, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." Int J Edu Res. 2014;2:395-406.
Murithi CK, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(5).
Oketch-Rabah HA, Dossaji SF, Mberu EK. "Antimalarial Activity of Some Kenyan Medicinal Plants." Pharmaceutical Biology (formerly International Journal of Pharmacognosy). 1999;37(5):329-334. Abstract

This paper describes the in vitro antimalarial activity of eight species of plants popularly used traditionally to treat malaria in Kenya. Organic and aqueous extracts from different parts of the plants were tested. Generally, a stronger antimalarial activity was observed in the organic extracts. The most active extracts were of Vernonia brachycalyx O. Hoffm. Schreber. (Compositae) leaves which showed an IC 50 of 6.6 g/ml for methylene chloride: ethyl acetate (1:1) extracts, while the aqueous and more polar methanolic extracts gave IC 50 values of 29.6 and 30 g/ml, respectively. The findings of this study support the use of this plant as a traditional remedy for malaria. The rest of the plants tested gave IC 50 values between 30–100 g/ml.

Gakunju DM, Mberu E, Dossaji SF, Gray I, Waigh RD, Waterman PG, Watkins WM. "Antimalarial Activity of the Alkaloid Nitidine, isolated from a Kenyan Herbal remedy." Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, (39), 2606.. 1995;39:2606.-2609. AbstractWebsite

Bioassay guided fractionations of extracts of Toddalia asiatica, a plant used by Pokot tribe in Kenya to treat fevers, has yielded the alkaloid nitidine as the major antimalarial component. Fractions containing nitidine have in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations against Plasmodium falciparum in the range of 9 to 108 ng/ml for range of chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains. The results show a lack of cross-resistance between chloroquine and nitidine

Okalebo FA, Rabah HA, A.N.Guantai, Maitai CK, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Masengo W. "The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(1):18.
Okalebo FA, Rabah HA, Guantai AN, C.K. M, Kibwage IO, J.W. M, Masengo W. "The antimalarial and antimicrobial and Brine shrimp toxicity of Clematis brachiata extract. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5:15-18.
Ongarora DSB, Strydom N, Wicht K, Njoroge M, Wiesner L, Egan TJ, Wittlin S, Jurva U, Masimirembwa CM, Chibale K. "Antimalarial benzoheterocyclic 4-aminoquinolines: Structure-activity relationship, in vivo evaluation, mechanistic and bioactivation studies." Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 2015;23(17):5419-32. Abstract

A novel class of benzoheterocyclic analogues of amodiaquine designed to avoid toxic reactive metabolite formation was synthesized and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against K1 (multidrug resistant) and NF54 (sensitive) strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of highly promising analogues, the most potent of which had IC50s in the nanomolar range against both strains. The compounds further demonstrated good in vitro microsomal metabolic stability while those subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies had desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. In vivo antimalarial efficacy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated for four compounds, all of which showed good activity following oral administration. In particular, compound 19 completely cured treated mice at a low multiple dose of 4×10mg/kg. Mechanistic and bioactivation studies suggest hemozoin formation inhibition and a low likelihood of forming quinone-imine reactive metabolites, respectively.

Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the
treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus (Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret. (Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels (Combretaceae), Senecio syringitolius O. Hoffman. (Compositae), Ocimum suave Willd (Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.

Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20096761
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Antimalarial Remedies of Musambweni, Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;128 :424-432.

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