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Gudu SO, Woomer PL, Karanja NK, Okalebo R, Othieno CO, Serem C, Maritim HK, Sanginga N, Bationo A, Muasya RM. "The African Green Revolution and the Role of Partnerships in East Africa.". 2006. Abstract

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region continues to experience perennial hunger, poverty and poor health of its people. Agricultural production has remained low over decades and is declining to extremely low staple maize yields below 0.5 t ha–1 season–1 at the smallholder farm scale, against the potential of 4–5 t ha–1 season–1 given modest levels of inputs and good crop husbandry. Constraints contributing to low productivity are numerous, but the planting of poor-quality seed, declining soil fertility, poor markets and value addition to products significantly contribute to poor productivity. Partnerships for development are weak even though there are numerous technologies to improve and sustain agricultural production arising from extensive research and extension in SSA. But, technology adoption rates have been extremely slow, and in some cases we find no adoption. In this chapter we highlight constraints which are bottlenecks for achievement of a green revolution in Africa. Success efforts are reported, but we moot a focus on efficient utilization of abundant and affordable African natural resources, such as phosphate rocks to replenish depleted phosphorus in soils. We argue that to achieve an African green revolution, partnerships with concerned global communities and national institutions, including universities, NGOs, CBOs and farming communities, need to be strengthened. Specifically, human capacity at all levels should be built through training. Without private sector’s strong participation on acquisition of inputs and marketing proven products, it will be difficult to achieve a green revolution

Mugambi JNK. "African Heritage and Ecological Stewardship.". In: Routledge Handbook of Religion and Ecology. London: Routledge; 2016.
Mugambi JNK, Otieno SM. "The African Heritage—Change and Continuity.". 1989.Website
Park J, Michira JN, Yun SY. "African hip hop as a rhizomic art form articulating urban youth identity and resistance with reference to Kenyan genge and Ghanaian hiplife." Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa. 2019;Vol. 16(No. 1-2):99-118.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. "The African Household in Socio-Economic Change: A Coceptual Problem in Research", in Research Methods in Social Sciences: A Quest for Relevant Approaches for Africa, Edited by Bashir O.M., Fadhalla d Fassil G. Kiros and published by Khartoum University Pr.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
S.O O, J.N M, R. T, M K. "African Images in Kithaka wa Mberia's Poetry." Asian Journal of African Studies, Institute of African Studies,Hankuk University of Foreign Studies. 2020;49(August 2020):3-28.
Nyangito HO, Nzuma J, Ommeh H, Mbithi M. "African Imperatives in the World Trade Order. Case Studies in Kenya.". In: African Imperatives in the World Trade Order. Case Studies in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) and Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA); 2005.
MISIGO MRAMATSIMBIHERBERT. "African Indigenous Education the case of the Tiriki Circumcision ceremonies, 1902 .". In: X-ray Spectrometry, Vol. 27, 205 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1996. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
Odote C, Makoloo O. "African Initiatives for Public Participation in Environmental Management.". In: The New "Public": Globalisation of Public Participation. Washington,D.C.: Environmental Law Institute; 2002.
Kimenyi MS, Mwega FM, Ndung'u SN. "The African Lions: Kenya country case study."; 2016.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. "An African Perspective on Development London: James Currey Publishers (with Ulf H. Himmerlstrand & Kabiru Kinyanjui).". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "African Pink stemborer, Sesamia calamistis (Hampson 1910).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru).: International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Arasa, J.N., Mulinge MM, Odiemo LO. "African Refugee Students’ Conceptions of Democracy: Implications for Conflict mitigation. ." African Renaissance. 2012;9(3-4):15-34.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "African Regional Security Issues in the Age of Globalisation.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Kilonzo G, Mburu J, Tarek O. The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2006.the_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdfWebsite
Muyila DW. "African values and the rights of the child: Aview of the dilemmas and prospects for change’ .". In: Women and children’s rights: African Views. Paris: Karthalah; 2011.
Githiri M, Njeri T, Muthoni FK, Yego R, Muchane M, Njoroge P, Giani A. "African wild dogs from south-eastern Kenya: recent records and conservation issues." Canid News. 2008;11. Abstract
M M, J M, Wanjohi. "THE AFRICANA WOMAN." Wajibu. 2002.
Winnie Mitullah, Bratton M, Gyimah-Boadi E, Mattes R. "Afrobarometer 3: The quality of democracy and governance in Kenya, 2005.". 2005.Website
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Age at Marriage and Completed Family Size". Journal of Social Biolofy. Vol.24, No.1, pp31-37, 1977: (with L. Bumpass).". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1977. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
Ogeng’o JA, Mwachaka P, Olabu BO, Ongeti KW. "Age changes in the tunica intima of the aorta in goat (capra hircus)." Anat J Afr. 2013;2(2):161-167.
Ogeng’o J, Mwachaka P, Olabu B, ONGETI K. "Age Changes In The Tunica Intima Of The Aorta In Goat (capra Hircus).". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Age changes in the aortic tunica intima may explain the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Goat is a suitable model for the study of cardiovascular disease but the age changes in its aortic tunica intima are unreported. This study therefore examined structural changes that occur in the tunica intima of its aorta. Six healthy goats three aged over 60 months, and three aged less than 12 months, were used in this study. The animals were euthanized with sodium pentabarbitone and specimens taken from the various segment of the aorta studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Materials for light microscopy were fixed 10% formaldehyde solution, processed for paraffin embedding and 7 micron sections stained with Mason’s Trichrome and Weigert’s Resorcin Fuchsin/Van Gieson stains. Those for transmission electron microscopy were fixed in 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde solution, post fixed in osmium tetroxide and prepared for durcupan embedding. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate, counterstained with lead citrate and examined by EM 201 phillips© electron microscope. Observations reveal that aging is characterized by endothelial discontinuities, presence of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the tunica intima, subendothelial thickening, vacuolation and disintegration of internal elastic lamina. It is concluded that the intimal breaches observed in intimal aging may promote ingression of macromolecules into the vessel wall, and underpin the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Control of serum atherogenic molecules should be enhanced in this age group.

Bukachi F, Waldenstrom A, Mörner S, Lindqvist P, Henein MY, Kazzam E. "Age dependency in the timing of mitral annular motion in relation to ventricular filling in healthy subjects: Umea General Population Heart Study.". 2008. AbstractWebsite


Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals.


A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals.


Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling

Greenfield C, Wankya BM, Musoke R, Osidiana V, Nyangao J, Tukei PM, Owino N. "An Age Related Point Prevalence Study Of Markers Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Kenya.". 1986.Website
Ndetei DM, Maru HM, Amayo EO, Kaka ZA. "Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria presenting with psychiatric symptoms in a Kenyan Citation.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

This case report presents a 26 year old man who had a history of childhood onset seizures, mild cognitive slowing and social withdrawal. He gradually developed symptoms of depression and attempted suicide once. He presented to the authors following a recurrence of his seizures. On examination they noted a normal general and neurological examination apart from some frontal lobe signs on mental status examination. He also had features of psychosis and labile mood. On CT brain scan he had agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC) with associated interhemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria. The authors suggest that clinicians in developing countries should be alert to organic disorders presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

Musumba GW, R.O. O, E.T.O. O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Musumba GW, R.Oboko GW, E.T.Omulo O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Mutoru T, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent based realtime continuous auditing.". 2011. Abstract
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.". In: 2nd Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC06. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2006.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.; 2006.
Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W, Ayienga E, Manderick B, Now A. "Agent-based Scheduler for Unrelated Parallel Machines using a load balancing heuristic.". 2011. Abstract
Wekesa B, Miriti E, Moturi CA. "Agent-based Vulnerability Assessment of Government Web Applications." NNGT Int. J. on Internet and Web Applications. 2015;2( International Journals of N&N Global Technology(IJNNGT)):1-6. Abstract

While most governments, including the government of Kenya, have improved their performance through allowing more information exchange using web support, there is increased spread of information crimes targeting government web applications. Structured Query Language (SQL) injection and Cross Site Scripting attack (XSS) are ranked as the two top most vulnerability attacks by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) top 10, 2013 vulnerability list. Recently there have been massive attacks on a number of websites including the government of Kenya. Agent orientation is emerging as a dominant research area and as a new paradigm in provision of solutions to problems. Agents provide developers and designers with a way of structuring applications around autonomous and communicative elements. In this paper, we present a solution that uses multi-agents to detect both SQL injection and XSS attacks vulnerabilities on web applications. The system has been developed using Java programming language and Prometheus methodology as an Agent Oriented Software. It will specifically target websites in development environment
for testing the vulnerabilities before being hosted in the production environment. We have also incorporated the testing of already hosted websites for the two vulnerabilities. The proposed system will help web developers and owners of websites to fix the vulnerabilities and enhance the entire security.

M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Agevi, E. and P.M. Syagga (1988), A Survey of Import Content of Building Materials Input in Umoja II Low-Cost Housing Project, HABRI, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1988. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
Barthel W, Markwardt F. "Aggregation of blood platelets by adrenaline and its uptake." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(20):1903-4.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "The Agikuyu, Rosen Publishers, New York USA.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Muchiri J, Osaaji M, Odari M. "The Agile Thinking and Subversion in Chinua Achebe’s The Education of a British-Protected Child." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2021;9:124-143.
Ogeng'o J, Mwachaka P, Ongeti K, Olabu B. "Aging Changes In The Tunica Intima Of Aorta In Goat (Capra Hircus)." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):161-167.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "Agnes W. Mwang.". In: International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 3(5): 40- 45. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
Middleton P, Kelly A-M, Brown J, Robertson M. "Agreement between arterial and central venous values for {pH}, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate." Emergency medicine journal: EMJ. 2006;23:622-624. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSION: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of agreement with the respective arterial values, with narrow 95% limits of agreement. These results suggest that venous values may be an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement in this clinical setting.

Hjort af Ornäs A, Bich PT, Musimba N;, Nashon; Nyangito M. "Agri-SMEs in action. Lessons for the entrepreneurial poor.". 2006.
Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Kahindi JHP, P; George T, de Moreira FMS, Karanja NK, Giller KE. "Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function in the tropics: the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.". 1997. Abstract

Among the nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria, the rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes are generally the most important in agriculture, although Frankia, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic free-living N2 -fixers may fix significant amounts of nitrogen under specific conditions. The taxonomy of N2-fixing bacteria is undergoing substantial revisions due to the advent of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, and in certain cases this has proved useful in unravelling ecological relationships among confusing groups. Molecular methods are also proving useful in studies of biodiversity within populations of rhizobial species. Rhizobia are surprisingly competent free-living bacteria, although few fix nitrogen in the free-living state, and the major factors that determine their population sizes in the absence of legume hosts are environmental stresses (such as soil acidity factors), protozoal grazing and some factors associated with agricultural intensification such as increases in salinity or heavy metal pollution of the soil. Rhizobial populations generally increase in response to the presence of the host legume. Due to the high degree of host-specificity between legume hosts and rhizobial species, loss of a single rhizobial species can result in loss of N2-fixation by that legume, although many legumes can be nodulated by several species of rhizobia. However, as only a single, compatible rhizobial genotype or strain is necessary for establishment of effective N, -fixation (i.e. the basis of the rhizobial inoculant industry), it is questionable whether biodiversity within species is necessary to ensure function, although this may confer resilience in the face of further environmental stresses.

MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Agricultural Land Use Patterns and Malaria Conditions in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Mukunya DM. "Agriculture."; 1976.
Mutero C;, Githure J;, Kabutha C;, Kimani V;, Kabuage L;, Gitau G;, Ssennyonga J;, Muthami L. "Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control.".; 2001.
Gitau T;, McDermott JJ;, Waltner-Toews D;, Gathuma JM;, Kang EK;, Kimani VW;, Kilungo, J K;, Muni RK;, Mwangi JM;, Otieno GO. "Agro-ecosystems, natural resources management and human health related research in East Africa."; 1989. Abstract

The paper briefly describes the application of agro-ecosystem health framework for characterization of an agro-ecosystem in central Kenya, and identification of the indications of its health. The lessons learnt from the application are briefly discussed.

Muchemi, L., Lwande O. Agro-Meteorological KMS for SS Farmers. Pretoria, South Africa: CSIR International Convention Centre; 2008.
Amugune, N.O., Anyango B, Mukiama TK. "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean. ." African Crop Science Journal. 2011;19( 3):137-147.
Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Agroforestry for soil and water in drylands. E. Afr. For. J. 62 (1). 151-162. Nairobi, Kenya, 1996.". In: Proc. of Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) held in Kampala, Uganda, Sept.1999. (ISBN No 9966-879-27-7) pp. 220-226. University of nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Mugo FW. "Agroforestry for woodfuel production.". In: Provincial and District Subject Matter Specialists in Nyanza province at ICRAF. Kisumu; 2001.
Mugo FW. "Agroforestry for woodfuel production. .". In: Provincial and District Subject Matter Specialists in Nyanza province. Kisii F.T.C; 2001.
Mungai DN, Ibrahim AA, Kainkwa RMR, Stigter CJ, Mohammed AE, Onyewotu LOZ. Agrometeorological research for protection and improvement of the tropical agricultural environment.; 1994.
Owino-Gerroh C, Keter A, Mbuvi JP. "Agronomic response estimates of acidulated and uncidulated phosphorus sources for tea (camellia spp l.) growing in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

Studies were conducted on two tea fields, one with tea bushes planted in 1957 and another with tea bushes planted n LgTg in Kaaga, Kenya to determine the response of green tea leaf production to acidulated (Tripleiuper phosphate) and unacidulated (Minjingu phosphate rock) phosphorus fertilisers in the 1993194 af,d lg%lg1 Cropping seasons. The soils yere fairly acidic, low in exchangeable Ca and Mg and high in exchangeable ,ciaty and Al. Al saturation was high ( > 480 g kg-') in both soils. In both tgg3tg4 and 1994195 cropping seasons significantly (P 50.001) higher tea yields were obtained in the field with tea bushes planted in 19?9. The yield for 1994195 cropping season was significantly (P S0.m1) higher. than that for the 1993194 cropping season. There were no significant differences between the two P sources and also that of the control. The higher yields observed in the field with tea planted n lg/g was attributed to the high yielding varieties (clones) which had been planted. Higher yields observed in the 1994195 cropping season were due to improved management practices compared to that of the previous year. The lack of significant response of the crop to either of the P sources was attributed to the 'Al complexation' tolerance mechanism whereby the plant is still able to absorb Ca and P.

Mwega F. "Aid Effectiveness to Infrastructure: A Comparative Study of East Asia And Sub-Saharan: Kenya Case Study." Japanese Bank for International Development (JBIC); 2008.
Mulindi SAZ. "The AIDS Crisis: Challenges, Consequences, and Recommendations for the World and Africa.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

AIDS is a global problem of unprecedent consequences in the history of epidemics. It poses serious health, economic, social, ethical, political, religious, legal, cultural and philosophical problems that threaten to undermine the fabric and the well being, adherence and understanding upon which societies must function and have functioned for centuries.

Piot PM, Kapita B, Ngugi EN, Mann JM, Colebunders R, Wabitsch R. "AIDS in Africa A Manual for Physicians, World Health Organization, Geneva.". 1994.Website
Mwamba PM, Mwanda WO BSRMLPJRSCN. "AIDS related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa : current status and realities of therapeutic approach." Lymphoma. 2012. AbstractWebsite

Today AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients the world over, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. While the overall incidence of AR-NHL since the emergence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era has declined, the occurrence of this disease appears to have stabilized. In regions where access to cART is challenging, the impact on disease incidence is less clear. In the resource-rich environment it is clinically recognized that it is no longer appropriate to consider AR-NHL as a single disease entity and rather treatment of AIDS lymphoma needs to be tailored to lymphoma subtype. While intensive therapeutic strategies in the resource-rich world are clearly improving outcome, in AIDS epicenters of the world and especially in sub-Saharan Africa there is a paucity of data on treatment and outcomes. In fact, only one prospective study of dose-modified oral chemotherapy and limited retrospective studies with sufficient details provide a window into the natural history and clinical management of this disease. The scarcities and challenges of treatment in this setting provide a backdrop to review the current status and realities of the therapeutic approach to AR-NHL in sub-Saharan Africa. More pragmatic and risk-adapted therapeutic approaches are needed.

pollution clean technology: a case for metal emisiion abatement A&, Mbuthia RN. Air pollution & clean technology: a case for metal emisiion abatement.; 2006.
…, Njau LN, Mukolwe EA, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ,... Air pollution in Kenya. Appendix 13.; 1995. AbstractWebsite

SUMMARY Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EXDRF) analysis of aerosol samples in Nairobi is presented. Results show that elemental concentrations is of the order of 10^ to lO" 10\ġfm^ for most elements analyzed. The total suspended particulate (TSP) matter were …

M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Air Transport and Growth of Tourism in Kenya, published in Nairobi,Kenya.". In: in HEKIMA, Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol.3, No.1:14-26,. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to takes its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya is one of the airports in the Eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic. Key Words: African aviation, hub-and-spoke, traffic forecasts
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Airflow resistance of parchment Arabica coffee." Biosystems Engineering. 2005;91(2):149-156.
M. MF. "Al Amin Mazrui Kama Mwandishi wa Ulimwengu wa Tatu." University of Nairobi. BA Thesis; 1992. Abstract
Basangwa D, Ndetei DM, Kuria M, Ongecha-Owuor F, Abdullahi A, Mburu J, Gakinya B. "Alcohol and Other Substance Related Disorders."; 2006.
David B, David N, Mary K, Francisca O-O, Abdulreshid A, John M, Benson G. "Alcohol and other Substance Related Disorders Chapter 35.". In: The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: AMREF; 2007.
Matheka CW, Karanja J, Ndetei DM, Muriungi SK. "Alcohol and substance abuse risk among students at the Kenya Medical Training College.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The object was to determine alcohol and substance use risk among students at the Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC). Data related to alcohol and substance use were obtained from 3107 first- and second-year basic diploma students from seven of the KMTC campuses in Kenya. Data were collected using a researcher-designed socio-demographic questionnaire and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test questionnaire. Most of the participants had low risk for alcohol use (98.1%), while a small percentage had moderate (1.7%) and high (0.25%) risk of alcohol use. Low risk of alcohol use was higher in females (99.15%) compared to males (97%). The risk for alcohol and tobacco use was comparable between those below 24 and those above 24 years. All the separated, divorced and widowed students (n=34) (100%) had low risk for sedatives and hallucinogens use. The risk of alcohol and substance use exists among KMTC students at different levels. There is need to screen students for substance use, increase awareness and provide appropriate intervention to prevent drug use and its related co-morbidities.

Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Alemu, D.T., Farah, K.O. & Nyariki, D.M. (1999). Influence of settlements on land-use and vegetation in the rangelands of north-eastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. Journal of Human Ecology, 10(5-6), 349-356.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Alemu, D.T., Nyariki, D.M. & Farah, K.O. (2000). Changing land-use systems and socio-economic roles of vegetation in semi-arid Africa: The case of the Afar and Tigrai of Ethiopia. Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2-3), 199-206.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract
Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Alex Ogacho Alex Ogacho Niobium Doped TiO2 (Nb:TiO2) : Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of TiO2. United Nairobi Club, Nairobi, Kenya: MSSEESA; 2013.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Wanjohi JM, Midiwo JO, Kerubo LO. "Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus." Planta medica. 2013;79(18):1762-1766. Abstract

Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

MARY DROMOSA. "Alila, P.O. & M. Omosa (1999) Rural Development Policies in Kenya. In: N. Ng.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1999. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND. Alkaline-active enzymes from Bacillus halodurans LBK 261 with potential applications in the textile industry. Mattiasson PB, Hatti-Kaul PR, Mulaa PFJ, eds. Lund, Sweden: Lund University; 2006.
Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Maina SM. "Alleviating Gaia’s Poly-mess;.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The deplorable state of the environment has lately become a major issue nationally and internationally. A major contributor to this sorry state is polythene (plastics). Towards better understanding of this issue, this paper cites myriad existing literature that decries the effects of polythene waste and its innumerable effects on health, habitat and future generations. The paper further apportions currently available methods of assimilating environmental aspects into product design and the product life cycle. On the Kenyan situation, the paper cites the incapacity and apathy in dealing with environmental issues and documents the growing crisis of haphazard heaps of solid waste, especially plastic waste. Using a multiple case study approach, a study whose objective was to evaluate the design process with the aim of investigating the level of incorporation of eco-ethical consideration in design of product designers was carried out. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected from primary and sources and analysed. Results revealed designer omission of eco-ethical strategies in the design process, a ruined environmental living dispensation and apathy and ignorance of eco-aspects. Based on these findings this paper recommends integration of eco-ethical aspects all along the product design process

Mugo SN, Njoroge K. "Alleviating the effects of drought on maize production in the moisture stress areas of Kenya through escape and tolerance." Symposium on developing drought and low nitrogen tolerant maize, El-Batan, Mexico. CIMMYT. 1996:35-38.
Oluoch-Kosura W, Kilungo JK, McDermott JJ. "Allocative efficiency in smallholder dairy production in Kenya."; 1999. Abstract

This study is aimed at analyzing the economics of smallholder dairy production in the Kiambu District, Kenya. The main objective was to “test for allocative efficiency” of the sample farms. The source of data was from randomly selected dairy farms in Kiambu. An analysis using a Cobb-Douglas form of production function was performed for the major inputs farmers used on their dairy animals. Results revealed that concentrates were being used inefficiently. This implied that there were potential gains which could accrue from reallocation of this resource. However, it was noted that there was efficiency in the use of operating capital, hired and family labour and farm by-products. This implies that, for those inputs used efficiently, further development in agriculture can be achieved only through the introduction of more modern technologies than those currently used. These could include new inputs, apicultural education, special skills and techniques, and competent guidance in farm planning.

Alexander RMN, Jayes AS, Maloiy GMO, Wathuta EM. "Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals.". 2010. Abstract

Measurements have been made of the leg muscles of mammals ranging from shrews Sorex to an elephant Loxodonta. Allometric equations based on body mass have been calculated for muscle masses, fibre lengths and moment arms and the thickness of a tendon, in several groups of mammals. Departures from geometric similarity in mammals in general (excluding bipedal hoppers) are noted and discussed. Differences between primates; fissipedes, bovids and bipedal hoppers are also demonstrated.

Maloiy GMO, Alexander, McN; R, Njau R, Jayes AS. "Allometry of the legs of running birds.". 2008. Abstract

The principal bones, muscles and tendons of the legs have been measured in a selection of running birds, ranging in size from 0–1 kg quail to 40 kg ostrich. Maximum stride frequencies of the same species have been determined from films. Allometric equations have been derived. Most of the exponents agree well with McMahon's (1973, 1975a) theory of elastic similarity, which is discussed.

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen GF, Knols, B.G.J. "Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae." Malaria Journal. 2004;3:1.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Allsopp, B.A. MacPherson, C.N.L., Jones, A. and Muchemi, G.K. 1984. Techniques for the identification of gastrointestinal helminths obtained from carnivores in Kenya. Proceedings of the KEMRI/KETRI Conference. Feb 1984. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Abubaker AS;, Abukanesha FF;, Anyango JJ;, Baruni A;, Bin-Taher AH;, Boinnet KJK;, Singh B;, Mutitu EW. "ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS."; 1988.
Ndunda EN, Madadi VO, Mizaikoff B. "An alternative clean-up column for Polychlorinated Biphenyls in solid matrices." Environmental Science. Processes and Impacts, Royal Society of Chemistry. 2015;17(12):2101-2109,.
Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Mwangi JW, P. K. Gathumbi, Kibwage IO, Thoithi GN, Oketch-Rabah HA. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharm. J. Kenya. 2001;(March):26-31.
Olale P, Makau J, Antonio D, Ochong R, Mkumbwa S. "Alternatives to Eviction: Scenarios for Access to Land by the Urban Poor in Kiandutu Informal Settlement, Kenya .". In: 2016 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC; 2016.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Alumina and Silica gel catalysed rearrangement of 2,2 Diaryl Oxiranes to 2,2 -Diarylacetaldehydes" J.Sci. Technol.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1983. Abstract
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Aluminium exporsure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.". In: 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Drinking of fresh vegetable raw juices for both cleansing and cure therapy has become very common in Kenya. Fresh raw vegetable juices have been recommended because they can boost the required minerals and vitamins in the body. This work was carried out to evaluate the amount of labile aluminium content in fresh raw vegetable juices and compare it with the total aluminium in vegetables. In addition, another objective was to determine the amount of aluminium leached out from aluminium pots during cooking. Out of 18 different vegetables analyzed, total alminium ranged from 0.096 mg g-1 to 1.06. mg kg-1; carrots contained the lowest values while parsely contained the highest values. Labile aluminium in fresh raw vegetable juice ranged from 0.003 mg ml-1 to 0.181 mg ml-1 and this gave 1 to 30% of the total aluminium. The amount taken per day during juice therapy, either as a detoxifier or a cure, ranged from 0.95 mg day-1 to as high as 40.22 mg day-1. But levels as high as 321.78 mg can be consumed depending on the volume of the juice consumed per day. The total aluminium consumed during juice therapy was found to be higher than that recommended by WHO. Aluminium pots were found to leach out some aluminium and the amount leached out was found to depend on the storage time and the age of the pot. Key words: Aluminium in vegetables, Nairobi, Kenya, vegetable juices, total and labile aluminium.
Njenga LW, Maina DM, Kariuki DN, Mwangi FK. Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.; 2007.
MBOGANIE DRMWANGIALICE. "AM Mwangi and DWJ Foeken, 1996. .". In: Hydrobiologia 316: 225-237. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1996.
James Mundia, Maina SM. "Amalgamation of a bookshop and a bookstore to meet contemporary readership needs in Kenya, Creativity and innovation ." CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION JOURNAL REVISTA CREATIVITATE ŞI INOVARE/. 2018;12 (2):250-279.
MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Amanda Koch, Sorjarto Djaja D, Mutiso Patrick Chalo et al., 2005; Antimalarial Abietane ditetane diterpene from Fuerstia africana T.C.E Fries.". In: Jour. Biochemical Systematic & Ecology pg 270. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Ambient Learning Conceptual Framework for Bridging Digital Divide in Higher Education." IGI Global. 2016;4:179. AbstractFull Text

According to ITU (2012), digital divide is the difference between countries in
terms of levels of ICT development. This difference remains significant. In 2011, the ICT
Development Index (IDI) value of developed countries (6.52) was twice as high as that of
developing countries (3.24). The need to link the digital divide for universal broadband
Internet access is within the key international development goals, which include World
Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) goals and Millennium Development Goals

MBATIAH PMWENDA. ""Amina Mwelekevu"- published in Professional Lady Magazine (Nov, & Dec. Issue).". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1993. Abstract
Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Opot. B, Wadegu. M, Opanda. S, Mitei. K, Njiri. J, Nyambura. J, Mwangi. J, Majanja. J, Wurapa. E. "Amino acid changes at the hemagglutinin antigenic site amongst Kenyan Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in 2009-2011.". In: 2nd Medical and Veterinary Virology Research -2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
Mureithi AW, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ. "Amino acid Composition of Gelatin Extracted from the Scales of Different Marine Fish Species in Kenya.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Gelatin in this study was extracted by an enzymatic process from the scales of three marine fish species; Lutjanus
sebea (Red snapper), Lethrinus harak (Black spot emperor) and Scalus ghobban (Blue barred parrot fish).
Concentration of bacteria for mass production of enzyme was done in a fermentation medium using a bio reactor.
Scales were hydrolyzed at 500C and the pH maintained at 12. Complete hydrolysis took between 20 and 23 days for
all species. The yield for the dried gelatin was between 28.2% and 41.4% for the marine fish scales under study.
Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of amide bands and two other additional absorption bands,
indicating the presence of amide bonds for all the three species. The amino acid composition analysis for the gelatin
of three species was then done showing the presence of 16 amino acids. Glycine was the most abundant for all the
three species with about 35% followed by Alanine both adding up to around 50% of the total amino acid
compositions. The amount of Proline was high for red snapper at over 14.2% compared to 11.1% and 11.6% for
blue barred parrot fish and black spot emperor respectively.

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "The amino acid fatty acid composition of the thermo-stable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, James S, Ng’ayo M, Magana J, Bulimo W. "Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya." Virus Genes. 2011:1-6. AbstractWebsite

Although the important role of the nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus in virulence and replication is well-established, the knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Kenya and Africa is scanty. This study analysed the NS gene of 31 isolates from Kenya in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya. A comparison with the vaccine strain and viruses isolated elsewhere in Africa was also made. The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein, NS1 of the viruses from this study and the vaccine strain revealed 18 differences. Conversely, the nuclear export protein (NEP) of the isolates in this study had 11 differences from the vaccine strain. Analysis of the NS1 protein showed only one fixed amino acid change I123V which is one of the characteristics of clade 7 viruses. In the NEP, the amino acid at position 77 was the most mutable with 9 (39%) of all mutations seen in this protein. A mutation A115T which is a characteristic of clade 5 viruses was noted in the isolates from Lagos, Nigeria. The study shows a substantial number of mutations in the NS gene that has not been reported elsewhere and gives a glimpse of the evolution of this gene in the region.

George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Musa. N’ayo, Wallace. B. Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Ampicillin Resistance And Extended Spectrum Β-lactamases In Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Raw And Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk.". 2012. Abstract

The prevalence of ampicillin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBL)in the dominant Enterobacteriaceae from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusac) in Kenya and Somalia was characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. Globally important SHV and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs)were tested. The Enterobacteriaceaebelonged to 15 species from 10 genera. Dominant isolates wereEscherichia coli (50), Klebsiellapneumoniasubsp.pneumoniae (35) and Enterobactersakazakii (20).Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera and E. coli occurred at viable counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. ESBL was studied f or 96 E. coli, K. pneumoniasubsp. pneumoniae andE.sakazakii. Total of 61 (63% )isolates consisting of 46 (48%) ofE. coli, 45 (46%)K.pneumonia subsp.Pneumoniaand 16 (7%) E.sakazakiiwere resistant to ampicillin.blaSHV ,blaCTX-M-3-like blaCTX-M-14-like genes were detectedin 37 (60%), 25 (40%) and 11 (18%) of theEnterobacteriaceae isolates respectively.K.pneumonia subsp.pneumoniae harbored majority of these bla genes (74%)with1 strain possessing all 3 genes and 13 harbouring both bla SHV and bla CTX-M-3-like genes. Thediversity ofEnterobacteriaceae in camel milk calls for improvedhandling of camel milk.The ESBLgenes intheisolates fromremotesemi-arid regions emphasises the global antimicrobial resistanceproblemamong Enterobacteriaceae

Ross N, Iwuoha EI, Ikpo CO, Baker P, Njomo N, Mailu SN, Masikini M, Matinise N, Tsegaye A, Mayedwa N, Waryo T, Ozoemena KI, Williams A. "Amplification of the discharge current density of lithium-ion batteries with spinel phase Li (PtAu) 0.02 Mn1. 98O4 nano-materials." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:178-183. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

In this study the synergistic and catalytic properties of a novel nano-composite cathode material of nominal composition Li(M)xMn2-xO4 (M = Pt-Au; x # 0.2) has been explored. Li(PtAu)xMn2-xO4 nanomaterial for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was synthesized by incorporation of the Pt-Au (1:1) nanoparticles onto the spinel phase LiMn2O4. Ultra-low scan rate (0.01 mV s−1) cyclic voltammetry of the cathode material in 1 M LiPF6 (in 1:1 EC:DMC), showed four sets of redox peaks, which reflect the typical redox process of the active material in the spinel structure due to lithium intercalation and deintercalation. The Li/Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cell had less polarization as it effectively accommodates the structural transformation during Li+ ion charge and discharge. The Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cathode showed an increase in discharge currents densities with an exchange current density, i0, value of 2.8 × 10−4 A cm−2 …

Ondiek MA, Moturi CA. "An An assessment of the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya." Innovation & Management Review. 2019;16(4):391-403. Abstract10-1108_inmr-08-2018-0058.pdf

Purpose – There has been a high rate of failure among the Living Labs in Kenya resulting in the expected
outcomes not fully realized. This paper aims to assess the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on the four capital method of sustainable development evaluation framework, data were collected through interviews and questionnaires from innovators, users and employees among the 25 living labs in Kenya.
Findings – The research found that some innovators are not familiar with the living labs, the living labs are innovative and prepared to survive in future, some labs have strategic plans on how to pursue future environment and have developed ways of choosing right people to incubate, inability to get enough funding from the host organizations and limited knowledge on the supervision level of the operations. A model is proposed that can be generalized to other living labs in developing countries.
Research limitations/implications – The study was done in Nairobi where most of the living labs are situated.
Practical implications – The study concludes by emphasizing on the user involvement during innovation process. There is need to expand the capacities of living labs to accommodate more people to ensure more innovations are supported at a time. The senior managers in charge of the living labs should increase the level of supervision to ensure that the labs are effective in their incubation efforts and institutionalize support of the host organization to the labs to ensure continued growth and expansion.
Originality/value – The findings of this study are of value to research community, the decision and policymakers as it seeks to document the current status of the living labs in the Kenya
Keywords Sustainableinnovation,Livinglabs,Innovationecosystem,Innovationlab, Innovation space, User-driven innovation

M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""An Unholy Trinity", Kenya Historical Review, Vol 2 No. 2.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1974. Abstract
Lissens G, Rabay K, Waweru M, Verstraete W, Morgan-Sagastume F, Aiyuk S. "Anaerobic Digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.". 2004.Website
Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." EIJST. 2014;3(6):61-66.
Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;Vol 3(6):61-66. Abstract

Anaerobic digestion was conducted at mesophilic (37oC) and thermophilic (55oC) conditions using sewage
wastewaters as the substrate and sludge and/or rumen fluid as the inoculum, with a view to optimize biogas
production. The substrate and inoculum were mixed in the ratios 1:1, 1:3, and 3:1 (volume by weight (where
sludge was used) or volume by volume (where rumen fluid was used).At mesophilic conditions for both
inocula, the 3:1 substrate/inoculum mixture produced the most biogas in a 24 hour period, with the rumen
mixture producing the highest yield (20 ml). At thermophilic conditions the 3:1 wastewater/sludge mixture
had the highest biogas yield (58 ml), whereas when rumen fluid was used as inoculum, the 1:3 mixture
produced the most biogas (66 ml). The thermophilic experiments using rumen as the inoculum were
repeated for a 10 day period and the 3:1 mixture achieved the maximum yield (140 ml) faster than the other
two (1:1 and 1:3 mixtures) indicating that the 3:1 substrate/inoculum ratio is the best.

Epiu I, Tindimwebwa JV, Tindimwebwa JV, Mijimbi C, Chokwe T, Lugazia E, Ndarugirire F, Twagirumugabe T, Dubowitz G. "Anaesthesia in Developing countries ." Value in Health . 2015;18(7):A679.
Mogoa EGM;, Ndurumo S. "Anaesthesia Practices Among Kenyan Veterinarians:."; 2008.
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013;2(6):41-45.the_journal_of_phytopharamacology-onzago_paper.pdf
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. 2014. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich), a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013; 2(6):41-45.
Kariuki DK, Kanui TI, Mbugua PM, Githinji CG. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 9-Hexacosene and Stigmasterol isolated from Mondia whytei.". 2012. Abstractanalgesic.pdfWebsite

The aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Mondia whytei
roots and to isolate and characterize the active constituents. Bioactivity guided
fractionation of the chloroform root extract yielded stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene.
Stigmasterol (15 mg/kg) and 9-hexacosene (30 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05)
inhibited chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid. Stigmasterol
(7.5, 15, 30 and 100 mg/kg) dose dependently reduced the time spent in pain behavior
in both the early and late phases of the formalin test. 9-hexacosene dose
dependently caused significant (p<0.001) antinociceptive effect on the late phase of
the formalin test. Co-administration of naloxone failed to antagonize the analgesic
activity of stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene in the formalin test. We concluded that
both stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene possess potential analgesic effects which are
most likely mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities rather than through
opioid receptor system.

K.Njunge, G.Muriuki, Mwangi JW, Kuria KAM. "Analgesic and antipsychotic effects of myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae)." Phytother Res. 2002;16:573-574.
Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae).". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity.

Mutua FM, Zaki AF. "Analyses of Annual Droughts in Kenya Using an Objective Annual Rainfall Drought Index." Journal of Met and Related Sciences. 2010;4:21-23.
Kanduma EG, Mwacharo JM, Githaka NW, Kinyanjui PW, Njuguna JN, Kamau LM, Kariuki E, Mwaura S, Skilton RA, Bishop RP. "Analyses of mitochondrial genes reveal two sympatric but genetically divergent lineages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2016;9:1-15. Abstract
Opot. B, Osuna. F, Gachara. G, Wadegu. M, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Analyses of selection pressure on the Hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses circulating in Kenya 2007-2011. .". In: 2nd Medical and Veterinary Virology Research -2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Analysis and Evaluation of Poverty in Kenya, in conjunction with others, Chapter 1, in J. Bahemuka, Benjamin Nganda and Charles Nzioka (ed), Poverty Revisited. February.". In: international Institute for Development Studies. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Wahome RG,... "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." … Pollution and Human …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Clean air is important for human health and well-being, air pollution has increased in many parts worldwide and thus posing a significant threat people's health. In Kenya, the traffic police officers who constantly un covered stand on road junctions continuously expose …

Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5:104-110. Abstract
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Abubakar LU, Bulimo WD, Masiga D, Mulaa FJ, Osir EO. Analysis of a serine protease gene expressed in midgut of African trypanosome vector, glossina fuscipes fuscipes.. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2004. Abstract


Mukabana, W.R., Takken W, Knols, B.G.J. "Analysis of arthropod blood meals using molecular genetic markers." Trends in Parasitology. 2002;18:505-509.
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, KK GC. "Analysis of Average Annual Rainfall and Average Maximum Annual Temperature for a Period of 30 years to Establish Trends in Kieni, Central." Journal of Climatol Weather Forecasting. 2019;7:249.

The aim of the study was to analyze average annual rainfall and average maximum annual temperature records for
30 years in the study area to establish trends hence confirm the presence or absence of climate change. The analysis
was accomplished with the use of MS Excel spreadsheets. The meteorological datasets were 1984-2013 records for
rainfall and 1981-2012 for temperature. The rainfall climatological standard normal was computed for a 25-year
period between 1989 and 2012 which was used to compute the average annual rainfall anomaly. The temperature
provisional normal was computed for a period of 10 years due to lack of adequate data. The average annual rainfall
anomaly for 1984-2013 periods was -8.8 mm an indication of a declining rainfall trend while the annual maximum
temperature for 1981-2012 period was 0.5°C a positive trend showing that the annual maximum temperatures
are rising in the study area. Therefore, the declining average annual rainfall accompanied with rising maximum
temperatures were indicators of the presence of climate change.

Keywords: Average annual rainfall; Average maximum temperature; Trends; Climatological standard normal;
Datasets; Climate change

MUTUKU AK. Analysis of birth intervals in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN. "Analysis of Blue Chamomile Essential Oil produced by multi-solvent Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation Method." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):1-10. Abstract

Blue colored essential oil samples were obtained from chamomile flowers
by a Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation (SECD) method and by the
standard Clevenger distillation of Chamomile flowers. The solvents used
were hexane, acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and
methanol. The solvents were evaluated in terms of the yield of extract, and
the quality of extract (determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass
Spectrometry). Of all the SECD extracts, the DCM extract gave the highest
yield of the essential oil while the hexane extract gave the lowest yield of
the blue essential oil.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN. "Analysis of Blue Chamomile Essential Oil produced by multi-solvent Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation Method." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;Vol 2(1):1-10. AbstractWebsite

Blue colored essential oil samples were obtained from chamomile flowers by a Solvent Extraction Clevenger Distillation (SECD) method and by the standard Clevenger distillation of Chamomile flowers. The solvents used were hexane, acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvents were evaluated in terms of the yield of extract, and the quality of extract (determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Of all the SECD extracts, the DCM extract gave the highest yield of the essential oil while the hexane extract gave the lowest yield of the blue essential oil

Maina EN, Webb T, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "Analysis of candidate imprinted genes in PWS subjects with atypical genetics: a possible inactivating mutation in the SNURF/SNRPN minimal promoter." Journal of human genetics. 2007;52:297-307. Abstract
Maina EN, Webb T, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "Analysis of candidate imprinted genes in PWS subjects with atypical genetics: a possible inactivating mutation in the SNURF/SNRPN minimal promoter." J. Hum. Genet.. 2007;52(4):297-307. AbstractWebsite

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities of chromosome 15q11q13. The majority of cases result either from a deletion approximately 4 Mb in size, affecting chromosome 15 of paternal origin or from UPD(15)mat; these account for approximately 70 and approximately 20-25% of PWS cases, respectively. In the remaining 3-5% of PWS cases where neither the deletion nor UPD is detectable, PWS is thought to be caused either by a defect in the imprinting centre resulting in a failure to reset the paternally inherited chromosome 15 derived from the paternal grandmother or, very occasionally, from a balanced translocation involving a breakpoint in 15q11q13. Nine probands with a firm clinical diagnosis of PWS but who had neither a typical deletion in the PWS region nor UPD(15)mat were investigated for inactivating mutations in 11 genes located in the PWS region, including SNURF and SNRPN, which are associated with the imprinting centre. Other genes studied for mutations included MKRN3, NDN, IPW, HBII-85, HBII-13, HBII-436, HBII-438a, PAR1 and PAR5. A possibly inactivating mutation in the SNRPN minimal promoter region was identified. No other inactivating mutations were found in the remainder of our panel of PWS subjects with atypical genetics. Expression levels of several of the candidate genes for PWS were also investigated in this series of probands. The results indicate that PWS may result from a stochastic partial inactivation of important genes.

Njiru EN;, Kironchi, G; Mbuvi NJP; S, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Njiru, E N; Kironchi MNG; JP;, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Adolwa IS, Okoth PF, Mulwa RM, Esilaba AO, Mairura FS, Nambiro E. "Analysis of Communication and Dissemination Channels Influencing the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Western Kenya." The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 2012;18(1):71-86.
Mogambi, H., Nzonzo, D. "Analysis of Communication and Information Communication Technologies Adoption in Irrigated Rice Production in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;Vol. 4 ( No. 12):295-316.
Musita CP, Ariga E. "Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children.". In: Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children. London: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2012. Abstractbook_cover_and_abstract_nutrition_care_and_support_musita_and_ariga_detailed.pdf

The impact of Human Immune Deficiency/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is evident in the rising numbers of those orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Apart from death, millions of children live in households with sick and dying members. These Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) affected by HIV/AIDS are stigmatized, isolated, discriminated against, disinherited and often deprived of basic education and care. This study was carried out in Kadibo Division, Kisumu District. Systematic random sampling was used. The sampling frame consisted of all the households with OVCs supported by various Community Based Organizations (CBOs) . A total of 111 households were interviewed and nutritional assessment for 322 children was done. The study was designed to assist CBOs improve their effectiveness in provision of optimal nutritional care for OVCs. Data collection applied both quantitative and qualitative methods. Pearson’s product correlation moment was applied to determine the strength of association between independent and dependent variables. Probit regression model was developed from the independent and dependent dichotomous variables.

Menjo DK, Okeyo AM, Ojango JM. "Analysis of early survival of Holstein-Friesian heifers of diverse sire origins on commercial dairy farms in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The use of imported semen within the Holstein-Friesian cattle population in Kenya has contributed to increased milk production per cow, however, information on how this has impacted on functional traits, particularly early life survival and reproductive performance is scarce. This study evaluated age at first calving (AFC), survival to age at first calving, and survival to four years of age using survival analyses techniques, in Holstein-Friesian cattle on four dairy farms in Kenya. The heritability estimate obtained for AFC was 0.15 +/- 0.06 for an average AFC of 1058 days. Animals sired by New Zealand and Australian born bulls had the earliest average AFC (907 days). On average, 25% of all the heifers born were culled prior to attaining a first calving, while 34% were culled prior to four years of age. Though the highest proportion of losses was due to unspecified reasons, the relative risk of being culled was highest when an animal had a specific disease, and the first 60 days of life were the most critical for survival. Daughters of sires from South-Africa and Israel tended to have better survival rates than those sired by bulls originating from other regions. Unfavourable selection towards animals sired by Kenyan born bulls was evident. The economic implications of the high rate of early mortality need to be evaluated in order to assist livestock producers make informed decisions on choice of sires for breeding.

Mburu, Ackello-Ogutu, C., Mulwa, M R. "Analysis of Economic Efficiency and Farm Size: A Case Study of Wheat Farmers in Nakuru District, Kenya." Economics Research International. 2014;2014:1-10.
Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Using ADI-FDTD Method." Journal Of Information Engineering and Applications . 2012;2(No. 8):1-8. Abstract

In this paper, a rectangular Cavity Backed Slot Antenna (CBSA) Model excited by a probe is investigated.
The analysis is carried out using the Alternating Direction Implicit - Finite Difference Time Domain (ADIFDTD)
Method which is applied to investigate its characteristics in terms of radiation patterns and power.
This is because the method is capable of providing a more accurate definition of the electromagnetic fields
within the rectangular apertures, while eliminating the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) stability condition
which is present in the regular Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. A cavity-backed slot
antenna structure with dimensions of 14cm×22cm×30cm is analyzed with the slot and aperture
measurements done at 3GHz. Results showing current distribution on the material surrounding the
apertures are presented and a discussion on the physical aspects of the aperture radiation phenomenon is
also presented.

**This research was sponsored by The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)**

Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, Gamal A, P G, Opiyo A, Holland1 CA, IN H. "Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Low Survival of Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in Kenya. ." PLoS ONE . 2013;8(10):e78411. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078411.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Onywera VO. "Analysis of Factors that affect the standard of soccer in Africa. The case of East African countries." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES). 2012;12(1):135-139.
Mbuya TO, Sinclair I, Moffat AJ, Reed PAS. "Analysis of fatigue crack initiation and S–N response of model cast aluminium piston alloys." Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2011;528(24):7331-7340. Abstract

Fatigue crack initiation and S–N fatigue behaviour of hipped model Al7Si–Sr and Al0.7Si piston alloys have been investigated after overaging at 260 °C for 100 h to provide a practical simulation of in-service conditions. The results show that hipping did not affect the S–N behaviour of Al7Si–Sr. This is attributed to the lack of significant change in porosity distribution in this alloy because of its low porosity levels even in the unhipped state. However, hipping profoundly improved the fatigue performance of alloy Al0.7Si due to the significant reduction in porosity. In this investigation, it was observed that porosity was rendered impotent as a fatigue crack initiator in both hipped alloys. Instead, fatigue cracks were observed to originate mainly from intermetallic particles (particularly the Al9FeNi phase) in both alloys and sometimes from oxide particles in Al0.7Si alloy. Fatigue cracking was also frequently observed at intermetallic clusters in hipped Al0.7Si. The observed scatter in fatigue life is discussed in terms of the size of fatigue crack initiating particles and the overall particle size distribution which follows a power law distribution function.

S G, M. NL, Motuka JM, M. MK. "Analysis of Gender Equity in Secondary Schools in Mandera East District, Mandera County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies . 2014;3(3):480-492.
Kamau, L., Mukabana, W.R., Hawley, W.A., Lehmann, T., Irungu, L.W., Orago AA, Collins, F.H. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci. ." Insect Molecular Biology. 1999;8:287-297.
Marete AG, Jung’a JO, Mosi RO. "An analysis of inbreeding levels and factors affecting growth and reproductive traits in the Kenya Alpine dairy goat.". 2011. Abstract

The level of inbreeding of the Kenya Alpine dairy goat was investigated by use of Brian Kinghorn’s Pedigree viewer© software. From 1,067 doe records, data on parentage was extracted and this resulted to 3,516 individual records that were used for calculating individual inbreeding coefficients for the period 1999 to 2009. The rate of inbreeding (ΔF) was estimated as the difference between the individual inbreeding (Ft) and the inbreeding of the parents (Ft-1) divided by (1-Ft-1). The proportion of animals that was inbred increased from 0.00 (average F = 0) in 1990 to 0.38 in 2009 (average F = 0.012). Inbreeding depression on body weight was significant (P<0.05). In general the level of inbreeding in this population was very low. Further investigation on the birth weight and weaning weight was carried out. Regression analysis indicated that birth weight (p<0.05) and weaning weight (p<0.01) had improved in inbreds. The decrease in weight at first service and at first kidding was statistically insignificant. Kidding interval increased (p<0.01) due to inbreeding. Rate of decline in weight at first service and at first kidding, was different from zero (p<0.01). Effect of inbreeding on growth and reproductive traits in Kenya Alpine goats was not very pronounced in the flock.

Kaua, CG., Thenya, Mutune JM. "Analysis of Informal Microfinance Institutions Structures in Relation to Performance in Tharaka South Subcounty, Kenya. ." European Journal of Sustainable Development . 2020;9(3):457-475.
Makumbi L, Miriti EK, Kahonge AM. "An Analysis of Information Technology (IT) SecurityPractices: A Case Study of Kenyan Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2012;57(18):975-8887.securiy_practices_in_smes.pdf
R.Birithia, S.Subramanian, H.R.Pappu, Muthomi J, R.D.NARLA. "Analysis of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) replication in vector and non-vector thrips species." Plant Pathology . 2013;(12057).
Staal S, McDermott JJ, Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM. "Analysis of milk-borne public health risks in milk markets in Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

The major role played by informal milk markets in Kenya and the benefits to those associated with it are now widely acknowledged. The benefits include higher prices for farmers, income generation for the market agents and convenient delivery and lower prices for poor consumers. However, in spite of these benefits, regulations governing informal marketing of milk continue to be unfavourable and do not reflect local realities of milk marketing, having been based on models derived from industrialised countries where virtually all milk destined for the market is pasteurised and packaged. Results of risk assessment, including HACCP analysis, of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers in central and southern Kenya show variable apparent prevalence of zoonotic health hazards in marketed milk, high bacterial counts especially in outlets associated with longer market chains. Notably, the ineffectiveness of current regulations was reflected in the lack of difference in the quality of milk sold by licensed and non-licensed traders. The study shows that health risks from the bacterial hazards identified are mitigated by the common consumer practice of boiling milk before consumption. The most important health risks were judged to be from two main sources: (i) anti-microbial residues found in up to 15% of milk samples tested and (ii) consumption of naturally fermented milk. Proposals for management of these health risks and the engagement of stakeholders and key players in the process to achieve more favourable policy environment policy are presented and discussed.

Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Diversity, abundance and seasonal variations-a. Cape Town- South Africa on May 2014 ; 2014.
Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Edaphic factors influencing nematode communities-b. CAPE TOWN ON MAY 2014 ; 2014.
Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.

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