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Mbiuki SM, Mbai K, Gathumbi PK. "Actinobacillus seminis as a cause of ram infertility in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

An outbreak of epididymitis and orchitis associated with Actinobacillus seminis infection is reported. In the outbreak, both young unmated rams and mature breeding rams were affected. Infected rams were found to have abscessed testes and epididymi and semen of poor quality when compared with uninfected rams. Testicular and epididymal lesions in affected rams were similar to those observed in cases of brucellosis. While no other body systems were observed to be affected by the disease, severe losses may be incurred by farmers through the loss of breeding rams. Infection by A. seminis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of epididymitis and orchitis in Kenya.

Kohn, A; Bruce J, Bruce J, Kinoti G, Mutahi WT, Coles G, Katz N. "Action of oxamniquine on Schistosoma mansoni in mice experimentally infected with a strain from Kenya.". 1984.Website
Harrison, L.J.S, Obiero, G.O, Gumede, SP, Highes, A, McMahon, A.R, Rawatlal, R, MS S. Activation of Linear Alkanes to Oxygenated Intermediates and Products using Genetically Engineered Yeast streams. Richards Bay, South Africa; 2007.
Zheng Y, Yang X-W, Schols D, Mori M, Botta B, Chevigné A, Mulinge M, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C. "Active Components from Prevent HIV-1 Entry by Distinct Mechanisms of Action." Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9). Abstract

is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of , and showed that six bioactive compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the six compounds block HIV-1 entry into cells: oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, taxifolin, piceatannol, guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, and a novel compound named as cassiabrevone. We report, for the first time, that guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone inhibit HIV-1 entry (IC of 42.47 µM and 30.96 µM, respectively), as well as that piceatannol interacts with cellular membranes. Piceatannol inhibits HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber assay mimicking the female genital tract, as well as HSV infection, emphasizing its potential as a microbicide. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) showed that pharmacophoric groups of piceatannol are strictly required to inhibit HIV-1 entry. By a ligand-based in silico study, we speculated that piceatannol and norartocarpetin may have a very similar mechanism of action and efficacy because of the highly comparable pharmacophoric and 3D space, while guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone may display a different mechanism. We finally show that cassiabrevone plays a major role of the crude extract of by blocking the binding activity of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.

Mwazighe FM. "Active Components in the Essential Oil from Matricaria recutita L. Grown in Selected Areas in Kenya.". In: 5th SEANAC Conference . Mombasa, Kenya; 2014.
Barongo J, Macheyeki AS, Mdala H, Chapola LS, Manhica VJ, Chisambi J, Feitio P, et al. "Active fault mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 seismic event." Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2015;102:233-246. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift System (EARS) has natural hazards – earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides along the faulted margins, and in response to ground shaking. Strong damaging earthquakes have been occurring in the region along the EARS throughout historical time, example being the 7.4 (Ms) of December 1910. The most recent damaging earthquake is the Karonga earthquake in Malawi, which occurred on 19th December, 2009 with a magnitude of 6.2 (Ms). The earthquake claimed four lives and destroyed over 5000 houses. In its effort to improve seismic hazard assessment in the region, Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group (ESARSWG) under the sponsorship of the International Program on Physical Sciences (IPPS) carried out a study on active fault mapping in the region.

The fieldwork employed geological and geophysical techniques. The geophysical techniques employed are ground magnetic, seismic refraction and resistivity surveys but are reported elsewhere. This article gives findings from geological techniques. The geological techniques aimed primarily at mapping of active faults in the area in order to delineate presence or absence of fault segments. Results show that the Karonga fault (the Karonga fault here referred to as the fault that ruptured to the surface following the 6th–19th December 2009 earthquake events in the Karonga area) is about 9 km long and dominated by dip slip faulting with dextral and insignificant sinistral components and it is made up of 3–4 segments of length 2–3 km. The segments are characterized by both left and right steps.

Although field mapping show only 9 km of surface rupture, maximum vertical offset of about 43 cm imply that the surface rupture was in little excess of 14 km that corresponds with Mw = 6.4. We recommend the use or integration of multidisciplinary techniques in order to better understand the fault history, mechanism and other behavior of the fault/s for better urban planning in the area.

Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
A.M G, P. L, S. L, M. W, H. A-A, M. F, G. C, Z. Q, JP. S. "Active management of the third stage of labour with and without controlled cord traction: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial." Lancet. 2012;379(9827):1721-7. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether controlled cord traction can be omitted from active management of this stage without increasing the risk of severe haemorrhage.

METHODS:

We did a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in 16 hospitals and two primary health-care centres in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda. Women expecting to deliver singleton babies vaginally (ie, not planned caesarean section) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) with a centrally generated allocation sequence, stratified by country, to placental delivery with gravity and maternal effort (simplified package) or controlled cord traction applied immediately after uterine contraction and cord clamping (full package). After randomisation, allocation could not be concealed from investigators, participants, or assessors. Oxytocin 10 IU was administered immediately after birth with cord clamping after 1-3 min. Uterine massage was done after placental delivery according to local policy. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was blood loss of 1000 mL or more (severe haemorrhage). The non-inferiority margin for the risk ratio was 1·3. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat, excluding women who had emergency caesarean sections. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12608000434392.

FINDINGS:

Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 30, 2010, 12,227 women were randomly assigned to the simplified package group and 12,163 to the full package group. After exclusion of women who had emergency caesarean sections, 11,861 were in the simplified package group and 11,820 were in the full package group. The primary outcome of blood loss of 1000 mL or more had a risk ratio of 1·09 (95% CI 0·91-1·31) and the upper 95% CI limit crossed the pre-stated non-inferiority margin. One case of uterine inversion occurred in the full package group. Other adverse events were haemorrhage-related.

INTERPRETATION:

Although the hypothesis of non-inferiority was not met, omission of controlled cord traction has very little effect on the risk of severe haemorrhage. Scaling up of haemorrhage prevention programmes for non-hospital settings can safely focus on use of oxytocin.

FUNDING:
United States Agency for International Development and UN Development Programme/UN Population Fund/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research

AM G, M W, M M, Z Q, G P. "Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial." Reprod Health. 2009;6(2). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.

OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.

METHODS:
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.

MANAGEMENT:
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12608000434392

Karimurio J, Rono H, Barasa E, Mukiri M, Gichangi M. "Active trachoma is an infectious disease, stop treating it administratively." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. 2013;17(1):26-30.active_trachoma.pdf
Zhao S, Tian H, Ma L, Yuan Y, Yu RC, Ma M. "Activity-{Dependent} {Modulation} of {Odorant} {Receptor} {Gene} {Expression} in the {Mouse} {Olfactory} {Epithelium}." PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69862. AbstractWebsite

Activity plays critical roles in development and maintenance of the olfactory system, which undergoes considerable neurogenesis throughout life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) stably expresses a single odorant receptor (OR) type out of a repertoire of ∼1200 and the OSNs with the same OR identity are distributed within one of the few broadly-defined zones. However, it remains elusive whether and how activity modulates such OR expression patterns. Here we addressed this question by investigating OR gene expression via in situ hybridization when sensory experience or neuronal excitability is manipulated. We first examined the expression patterns of fifteen OR genes in mice which underwent neonatal, unilateral naris closure. After four-week occlusion, the cell density in the closed (sensory-deprived) side was significantly lower (for four ORs), similar (for three ORs), or significantly higher (for eight ORs) as compared to that in the open (over-stimulated) side, suggesting that sensory inputs have differential effects on OSNs expressing different OR genes. We next examined the expression patterns of seven OR genes in transgenic mice in which mature OSNs had reduced neuronal excitability. Neuronal silencing led to a significant reduction in the cell density for most OR genes tested and thinner olfactory epithelium with an increased density of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that sensory experience plays important roles in shaping OR gene expression patterns and the neuronal activity is critical for survival of OSNs.

Angima C B, Mwangi M. "Actuarial Risk Management Practices and Financial Performance of Property and Casualty Insurance Firms: Identification of a Moderating Variable." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2016;6(2):126-132.
Angima, C., Mwangi, J.W., Kaijage, Ogutu M. "Actuarial risk management practices, underwriting, risk and performance of P & C insurance firms in East Africa." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(22):207-226.
Kimeli P, Amuti S, Kipyegon A, Mbugua SW. "Acute abdominal aortic rupture in a mare on transit." International Journal of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine. 2015;3(2):20-22.kimeli_et_al__aortic_rupture_in_mare__2015.pdf
Kagunya EW, Mbaria JM, Kaingu CK. "Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity and phytochemical profile of Croton menyhartthii plant fromTana River County Kenya. ." Discovery Phytomedicine . 2020;7(3)(DOI: 10.15562/phytomedicine.2020.135):118-127.
Muthuma DK, Thoithi GN, Amugune BK, Gathumbi PK. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Dichloromethane-Methanol Root Bark Extract of Teclea trichocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) in Rats." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2015;18:75-80.
Musiny RI, Mbari JM, Ole-Mapenay IM. "Acute and Sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf extract of Lantana trifolia (Verbenaceae) in experimental rodents." The Journal of Phytopharmacolog. 2021;10(5):350-356.
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research . 2020;8:1444 .
Muia BM, Okumu MO, Okumu PO, Gitahi N, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research 2020. 2020;(8:1444).
R.W. W, P.G. K, Mbaria J.M., F.K N, G. N, S.O. R. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013; 3(1): 8-15.
Mudimba TN, Mbaria J, Maitho T, Taderera T. "Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of aqueous extracts of Carpobrotus edulis in Sprague Dawley rats." The Journal of Pharmacology. 2020;9(4):265-269 .
Muthee JK. Acute and Subacute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Mice and Calves Respectively. Nairobi; 2008. Abstractabstract.pdf

The plant Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn, commonly known as the' apple of Peru' is a member of the solaneceae family. It has been widely associated with livestock poisoning in Kenya and elsewhere. The clinical signs reportedly associated with its poisoning are circling, tremors of the hind limbs, tachycardia, bloat, convulsions, coma and death. In the current study the acute toxicity was determined by intra-peritoneal injections of the aqueous extracts from different plant parts in a total of one hundred and fifty (150) white Swiss mice aged between to and 12 weeks and divided in groups of six (3 males and 3 females) for each dosage level. The median lethal dose (LDso) was then calculated by the method of Reed and Muench (1938). The subacute toxicity was determined by feeding five groups of two male Friesian calves each, aged between 8 and 10 months, at 0 (control), 4, 8, 16 and 32% levels of dried ground whole plant material in wheat bran for 14 weeks. The physiological parameters of rectal temperature, respiration, heart rate and ruminal motility were taken from all the calves every morning for the whole period of the experiment. The blood for hematology (5ml in EDTA) and biochemistry (l5ml without anticoagulant) was collected weekly via the jugular vene-puncture after thorough disinfection of the site with surgical spirit. LDso values for the leaf, fruit and whole plant extracts were 1.82, 2.58 and 3.62 g/kg body weight respectively, therefore, classifying the plant as slightly toxic according to Loomis (1978). The clinical signs showed by the mice were starry coat, slowed movements, fast respiration, gasping for air and leaping into the air before collapsing. The treated calves transiently exhibited muzzle drying, heart beat irregularity, loose feces, staggering gaits and lower growth rate than the control group. The activity of the enzyme gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT) and the mean corpuscular volume (MeV) were significantly lower (P0.05) between the treated and control groups in respect of the other assayed hematological (total protein. hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils) and biochemical (aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) parameters. There were no mortalities, no gross or histopathological lesions in all the groups. The possible reasons for the difference in behaviour between the calves in this experiment and the suspected natural cases were thought to be due to the variations in animal susceptibility or even plant toxin content. It is concluded that the plant Nicandra physaloides growing around the Kabete areas of Kenya may contain toxic phytochemicals that may cause poisoning in livestock if consumed. Nicandra physaloides is known to contain glycosides, steroids and alkaloids from earlier studies. More studies are necessary to determine the nature of these phytotoxins and their exact mode of action. Meanwhile livestock keepers are advised to control this plant in their pastures and avoid its consumption by animals.

Munyua, S.J.M.;, Williamson P;, Penhale MJ;. "Acute Cellular And Humoral Responses To Equine Streptococcal Endometritis.".; 1984.
Slyker JA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Maleche-Obimbo E, Emery S, Richardson B, Dong T, Iversena AKN, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Rowland-Jones SL. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection in Kenyan HIV-infected infants.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression
during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection
and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected
infants.
Methods: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIVexposed
uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers.
HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed
uninfected infants were studied for 1 year.
Results: CMVDNAwas detected frequently during the firstmonths of life; by 3months of
age,CMVDNAwasdetectedin90%ofHIV-exposeduninfectedinfantsand93%of infants
whohadacquiredHIV-1inutero.CMVviral loadswerehighest inthe1–3monthsfollowing
the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were
significantlyhigher in theHIV-infectedinfantscomparedwith theHIV-exposeduninfected
infants (mean3.2versus2.7 log10CMVDNAcopies/ml, respectively,P¼0.03).Thedetection
of CMV DNA persisted to 7–9 months post-CMV infection in both the HIV-exposed
uninfected (8/17, 47%) and HIV-infected (13/18, 72%, P¼0.2) children. Among HIVinfected
children, CMV DNA was detected in three of the seven (43%) surviving infants
tested between 19 and 21 months post-CMV infection. Finally, a strong correlation was
found between peak CMV and HIV-1 viral loads (r¼0.40, P¼0.008).
Conclusion: Acute CMV coinfection is common in HIV-infected Kenyan infants. HIV-1
infection was associated with impaired containment of CMV replication.

Slyker JA, Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Reilly M, Richardson B, Emery VC, Atzberger A, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased frequencies of activated and apoptosis-vulnerable T cells in HIV-1-infected infants.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection is associated with infant HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. The frequency of activated CD4(+) T cells was strongly associated with both concurrent CMV coinfection (P = 0.001) and HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.05). The frequency of apoptosis-vulnerable cells was also associated with CMV coinfection in the CD4 (P = 0.02) and CD8 (P < 0.001) T cell subsets. Similar observations were made in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. CMV-induced increases in T cell activation and apoptosis may contribute to the rapid disease progression in coinfected infants.

Sanderson JE, Namasaka JW, Chek AK, Ojiamdo HP, Watkins HM, Mugambi M. "Acute effects of nifedipine in African hypertensives.". 1984.Website
Richardson BA, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Acute HIV infection among Kenyan infants.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Clinical signs and symptoms of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants are not well characterized.
METHODS:
Serial clinical assessments and HIV PCR assays were conducted in a cohort of children born to HIV-seropositive mothers from birth to 2 years of age. Acute HIV infection visits were defined as those up to 3 months prior to and including the visit at which HIV DNA was first detected. Noninfection visits included all visits at which the child had test results negative for HIV, including the last visit at which a test result negative for HIV DNA was obtained in children who later acquired HIV infection. Differences in the prevalence of symptoms at acute infection versus noninfection visits were determined overall and were stratified by age at infection (<2 months vs. >or=2 months). HIV RNA was measured serially in infected infants and was compared between infants with and infants without symptoms of acute HIV infection.
RESULTS:
There were 125 acute infection visits (among 56 infants) and 3491 noninfection visits (among 306 infants). Acute HIV infection was associated with rash (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.8), failure to thrive (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.5), and lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8). Acute HIV infection was associated with lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0) in infants <2 months of age and with pneumonia (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.3) and dehydration (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.9-18.5) in infants >or=2 months of age. Infant peak viral load and mortality were not associated with symptoms of acute HIV infection. However, infants with symptoms had higher viral levels later in the course of infection than did those without symptoms (P=.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Infants may manifest symptoms early during the course of HIV infection, and symptoms of acute HIV infection may correlate with poor viral control. Rash, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, and dehydration may signify acute HIV infection in infants.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Acute HIV infection among Kenyan infants. Clin Infect Dis . 2008 Jan 15; 46 ( 2 ): 289-95 . PMID: 18171265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Richardson BA, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC.". In: Clin Infect Dis . 2008 Jan 15; 46 ( 2 ): 289-95 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2008. Abstract
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. BACKGROUND: Clinical signs and symptoms of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants are not well characterized. METHODS: Serial clinical assessments and HIV PCR assays were conducted in a cohort of children born to HIV-seropositive mothers from birth to 2 years of age. Acute HIV infection visits were defined as those up to 3 months prior to and including the visit at which HIV DNA was first detected. Noninfection visits included all visits at which the child had test results negative for HIV, including the last visit at which a test result negative for HIV DNA was obtained in children who later acquired HIV infection. Differences in the prevalence of symptoms at acute infection versus noninfection visits were determined overall and were stratified by age at infection (<2 months vs. >or=2 months). HIV RNA was measured serially in infected infants and was compared between infants with and infants without symptoms of acute HIV infection. RESULTS: There were 125 acute infection visits (among 56 infants) and 3491 noninfection visits (among 306 infants). Acute HIV infection was associated with rash (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.8), failure to thrive (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.5), and lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8). Acute HIV infection was associated with lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0) in infants <2 months of age and with pneumonia (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.3) and dehydration (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.9-18.5) in infants >or=2 months of age. Infant peak viral load and mortality were not associated with symptoms of acute HIV infection. However, infants with symptoms had higher viral levels later in the course of infection than did those without symptoms (P=.05). CONCLUSIONS: Infants may manifest symptoms early during the course of HIV infection, and symptoms of acute HIV infection may correlate with poor viral control. Rash, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, and dehydration may signify acute HIV infection in infants. PMID: 18171265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Makworo D, Laving AM. "Acute medical conditions in under five year old children at a public hospital in Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the prevalence of childhood preventable and treatable medical conditions and the parent's/guardian's knowledge about the conditions and their management.
DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Paediatric medical wards at Kenyatta National hospital
SUBJECTS:
All children aged 0-60 months with preventable conditions (that included pneumonia, malaria, diarrhoea/dehydration, meningitis and malnutrition) in paediatric wards who had stayed in the ward for 24 to 48 hours.
RESULTS:
Two hundred and fifty six parents/guardians staying with their children were recruited into the study. The vast majority (85.5%) of the children were aged less than two years. The prevalence of the acute treatable and preventable medical conditions was 88.6% over a one month period. The leading cause of admission for most children was pneumonia (31.6%) followed by malnutrition (16.8%) and gastro-enteritis (16%). Other conditions included neonatal sepsis (9.1%), measles (6%) and malaria (4.8%). The parents'/guardians' mean and median age was 26 years and the majority (89.8%) were mothers. A great proportion (46.5%) of the parents/guardians had attained at least some primary education. More than 70% of the parents/guardians were found to lack knowledge about their children's health problems and the drugs they were using. This was regardless of the parent's/guardians level of education and the frequency of admission of the child.
CONCLUSION:
Acute preventable and treatable medical conditions at KNH are highly prevalent, and the leading conditions include pneumonia, malnutrition and gastroenteritis. Most parents/guardians did not understand their children's health problems regardless of their level of education.

Olela B, Mbaria J, Wachira T, Moriasi G. "Acute Oral Toxicity and Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Methanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020;Volume 2020 (Article ID 5651390 http:/doi.org/10.1155/2020/5651390).
Ngure RM, Eckersall PD, Jennings FW, Mburu J, Burke J, Mungatana N, MURRAY M. "Acute phase response in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense: a molecular gauge of parasite-host interaction.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.

MAINA DRMBURUJOHN. "Acute phase response in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense: a molecular gauge of parasite-host interaction.Ngure RM, Eckersall PD, Jennings FW, Mburu J, Burke J, Mungatana N, Murray M.Vet Parasitol. 2008 Jan 25;151(1):14-20. Epub 200.". In: Vet Parasitol. 2008 Jan 25;151(1):14-20. Epub 2007 Oct 22. CHAK Times; 2008. Abstract
Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.
Williamson P;, Penhale JW;, Munyua SJM;, Murray J. "Acute Reaction Of Mares Uterus Of Bacterial Infection."; 1984.
Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mande JD, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

Kipyegon AN, Mande JD, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Acute respiratory infections. Wafula EM.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):617-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
No abstract available.
Munyua P, Mbaria JM, Gathuma JM, Saini RK, Njeru FM. "Acute Toxicity of a Recently Identified Phenol-based Synthetic Tsetse Fly Repellent. ." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005; 29: 91-93.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiya AG. "Acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Cattle and Mice.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn (Solanaceae), commonly known as the ‘apple of Peru’ is widely associated with livestock poisoning. The clinical signs associated with its poisoning in ruminants appear within 6 hours of ingestion and are circling, tremors of the hind limbs, tachycardia, bloat, convulsions, coma and death. However, there is no published information on the toxicology of this plant in Kenya. This study documents Nicandra physaloides toxicity in two different zero-grazed dairy cattle herds that were inadvertently fed on Napier grass contaminated with Nicandra physaloides. In addition to the case studies, the toxicity of the aqueous extracts from the different parts of Nicandra physaloides was studied under experimental conditions in mice. The 24 hour median lethal dose (LD50) was determined after intra-peritoneal injection (i.p.) of the aqueous extracts of the plant into white Swiss mice and found to be 1820, 2580 and 3620 mg/kg body weight for the leaves, fruits and whole plant respectively. The clinical signs in mice appeared within 30 minutes of inoculation and included coat, decreased locomotor activity, increased respiratory rate, gasping for air and leaping into the air before collapsing into coma and death. There were similarities in the symptoms of the spontaneous poisoning in cattle and in the experimentally induced poisoning in mice.

Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiya AG, Gakuya DW. "Acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Cattle and Mice. ." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2009;33: 1-6.
Mbaria JM, Maitho TE, Muchiri DJ. "Acute toxicity of Pyrethrins in Red Masai sheep and New Zealand White Rabbits." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1994;42(3): 217-222.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Ochola FO, Okumu PO. "Acute toxicity of the aqueous methanolic Moringa oleifera(Lam) leaf extract on female Wistar Albino rats." International Journal of Basic Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;5(5):1-6.acute_toxicity_of_the_aqueous_methanolic_moringa_oleiferalam_leaf_extract_on_female_wistar_albino_rats.pdf
Mitchel O. Okumu, James M. Mbaria, Laetitia W. Kanja DGW, Stephen G. Kiama FOO, Okumu PO. "Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats." international journal of Basic and Clinical pharmacology. 2016;5(5):1856-1861.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Acute Toxicity Study of Nicandra physaloides(L) Gaertn in mice and cattle." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2009;33:1-6.
Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Maribei JM, Nyaga PN, Ngatia TA, Kamau JPM, Kinyuru JM. "Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

A study was carried out to determine the toxicity of unripe fruits of Solanum incanum L in sheep. The sheep were orally drenched with dried unripe fruits powder of S. incanum L at dose rates varying from 1,200mg to 3,600 mg/Kg /day for 9 weeks. Clinical signs were observed daily while blood with and without anticoagulant was taken weekly for haematological and biochemical analysis. Clinical signs started on day two with bloat. All sheep groups showed bloat and coughing. Signs of cerebellar hyperplasia were manifested in 25%, 75% and 25% of sheep in groups 2, 3, and 4 respectively, manifested by staggering gait, lateral recumbency, leg paddling movements, coma and death. The mortality rate was 25% for group 2 and 100% for groups 3 and 4. All sheep groups had pneumonia, froth in the bronchi, lung emphysema and congestion in the brain, liver and kidneys while groups 3 and 5 had hemorrhagic ulcers on distal abomasum to proximal duodenum and hemorrhagic enteritis from duodenum to colon. On histology, all sheep showed necrosis of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and Wallerian degeneration of neurons; lung emphysema and interstitial pneumonia, hemorrhagic enteritis, tubular necrosis in the kidneys and hepatocyte necrosis. The results indicate that S. incanum L is highly toxic to sheep and allowing sheep to graze on the plant is dangerous to their health.

Thaiya AG, Nyaga PN, Maribei JM, Ngatia TA, Kamau JPM, Kinyuru JM. "Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

A study was carried out to determine the toxicity of unripe fruits of Solanum incanum L in sheep. The sheep were orally drenched with dried unripe fruits powder of S. incanum L at dose rates varying from 1,200mg to 3,600 mg/Kg /day for 9 weeks. Clinical signs were observed daily while blood with and without anticoagulant was taken weekly for haematological and biochemical analysis. Clinical signs started on day two with bloat. All sheep groups showed bloat and coughing. Signs of cerebellar hyperplasia were manifested in 25%, 75% and 25% of sheep in groups 2, 3, and 4 respectively, manifested by staggering gait, lateral recumbency, leg paddling movements, coma and death. The mortality rate was 25% for group 2 and 100% for groups 3 and 4. All sheep groups had pneumonia, froth in the bronchi, lung emphysema and congestion in the brain, liver and kidneys while groups 3 and 5 had hemorrhagic ulcers on distal abomasum to proximal duodenum and hemorrhagic enteritis from duodenum to colon. On histology, all sheep showed necrosis of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and Wallerian degeneration of neurons; lung emphysema and interstitial pneumonia, hemorrhagic enteritis, tubular necrosis in the kidneys and hepatocyte necrosis. The results indicate that S. incanum L is highly toxic to sheep and allowing sheep to graze on the plant is dangerous to their health.

Thaiyah AG, Nyaga PN, Maribei JM, Ngatia TA, Kamau JPM, Kinyuru JM. "Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35:1-8. Abstract
n/a
Juma FD, Nganga JN, Mathenge SG, Kato A, Tachibana Y, Ichimaru M, Moriyasu M, Nishiyama Y. "Acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

From the dried bark of Ekebergia capensis, two novel acyclic triterpenoids, 2,3,22,23-tetrahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-6,10,14,18-tetracosatetraene and 2-hydroxymethyl-2,3,22,23-tetrahydroxy-6,10,15,19,23-pentamethyl-6,10,14,18-tetracosatetraene were isolated, along with known cyclic triterpenoids. The structures of these two new triterpenoids were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Adam A.M., Bhatt S.M. Behects syndrome presenting with multiple cerebral and Brainstem infarcts. E. Afr. Med. J. 1987; Vol. 64 No. 8: 558 .". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1987; Vol. 64 No. 8: 558 . Taylor & Francis; 1987. Abstract
We studied 506 consecutive adult acute medical admissions to hospital in Nairobi; 95 (18.8%) were seropositive for HIV-1, and 43 new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) were identified. TB was clearly associated with HIV infection, occurring in 17.9% of seropositive patients compared with 6.3% of seronegatives [odds ratio (OR) 3.2; 95% confidence limits (CL) 1.6-6.5]. Extrapulmonary disease was more common in seropositive than seronegative TB patients (nine out of 17 versus five out of 26; OR 4.7; 95% CL 1.01-23.6); this accounted for most of the excess cases of TB seen in seropositive patients. Mycobacteraemia was demonstrated in two of eight seropositive TB patients but in none of 11 seronegative TB patients. No atypical mycobacteria were isolated. The World Health Organization (WHO) clinical case definition for African AIDS did not discriminate well between seropositive and seronegative TB cases. Five out of seven seropositive women with active tuberculosis had delivered children in the preceding 6 months and were lactating, compared with only one out of eight seronegative tuberculous women. An association between recent childbirth, HIV immunosuppression and the development of TB is suggested
Nthakanio NP, Ireri KJ, Munji. KJ, Raphael W. Adaptability of PGMS and TGMS rice lines for hybrid rice seed production in Kenya..; 2012.
Josephine Wangechi Kirui, Muthama NJ, Gachuiri CK, Ngaina JN. "Adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change by smallholder dairy farmers: A case of Nandi county in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2021;4(1):39-47.
MUTONGA PENINAH. "Adaptation of Swahili architecture and identity, a case of Lamu and Shela." Africa Habitat Review Journal. Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
Mbwika JM, wa Mberia K, Oduor JAN. "Adaptation Strategies in Rabai Loanwords." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS). 2019;46(ISSN 2466- 1821.).
Marangu D, Mwaniki H, Nduku S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Jaoko W, Babigumira J, John-Stewart G, Rao D. "ADAPTING A STIGMA SCALE FOR ASSESSMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS-RELATED STIGMA AMONG ENGLISH/SWAHILI-SPEAKING PATIENTS IN AN AFRICAN SETTING." Stigma Health. 2017;2(4):326. Abstract

To adapt a validated instrument that quantitatively measures stigma among English/Swahili speaking TB (tuberculosis) patients in Kenya, a high burden TB country.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implementation Science. 2018;13(1):81.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Mindila A, Rodrigues A, McCormick D, Mwangi RW. "An Adaptive ICT-Enabled Model for Knowledge Identification and Management for Enterprise Development." International Journal of International Journal of System Dynamics Applications. 2014;3(3):19 pp.
Peng B, Liu D, Lü Z, Mart{\'ı R, Ding J. "Adaptive memory programming for the dynamic bipartite drawing problem." Information Sciences. 2020;517:183-197. Abstract
n/a
Awori M, Mehta N, Kebba N, Makori. E. "Adding Blood to St Thomas Solution Does Not Improve Mortality in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery; A Meta-analysis of a Homogenous Population." Annals of African Surgery. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Background: Cardioplegia is the gold standard for providing ideal operating conditions while effecting myocardial protection. Some studies suggest that adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution improves efficacy; this is generally accepted as true. However, the few meta-analyses conducted on children have pooled heterogeneous populations; this raises concern about the validity of their conclusions. Methods: PUBMED, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched systematically until March 2019 using the search terms “cardioplegia”; “myocardial protection”; “pediatric” “pediatric”; “children”; “infants”; “neonates”. Full text articles were examined if abstracts revealed that the studies possibly contained a blood cardioplegia arm and a crystalloid cardioplegia arm. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they had a 4:1 blood cardioplegia arm and a St Thomas solution arm. Meta-analysis was performed using Meta-Mar software. Results: The search retrieved 423 articles; 5 were included in the meta-analysis, representing 324 patients. The risk ratio for operative mortality was 0.77(95% CI 0.24–2.5; p=0.66). Little evidence was seen of heterogeneity of the pooled patients. Conclusion: Adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution did not improve in-hospital operative mortality; this may have implications for blood cardioplegia use.

Mwangi W.E., Mogoa E.M N-MJ, C.M. M. "Addition of xylazine in epidural ketamine anaesthesia causes cardiopulmonary depression but minimizes hematological changes in dogs." International journal of veterinary sciences. Submitted;5. Abstract
n/a
Gathumbi JK, Kimani, J.M., Mutisya P, Kombe, Yeri, Wamunyokoli, Fred W, Mbakaya, Charles FL. "The Additive Effect of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 to Liver Disease Burden: A Case Study in Kitui, Makueni and Machakos Counties, Kenya." Journal of Health and Medical Sciences. 2019;2(3):312-331.
Mwololo JK, Muturi PW, Mburu MWK, Njeru RW, Kiarie N, K.Munyua J, Ateka EM, Muinga RW, Kapinga RE. "Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis of genotype x environmental interaction among sweetpotato genotypes. ." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(3):148-155.
M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Addressing Social and Economic Disparities. Kenya Human Development Report 2001. I was a contributor giving the sociological input.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Adem A Asblom A Johansson G Mbugua P M and Karlsson E (1988): Toxins from the venom of the green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps that inhibit the binding of quinuclidinyl benzilate to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (BBA 12211). Biochim Biophys Acta 968 .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1988. Abstract

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712.

Primary cultures of spontaneously beating myocardial cells isolated from neonatal rat hearts were used to screen the cardiotoxic effects of Jamesoni's mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni) venom and components isolated from the venom by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, cellular viability, and alterations in spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused dose- and time-dependent leakage of LDH, disruption of the cell monolayer, decreases in viability, and inhibition of beating activity. Gel filtration of the venom yielded eight fractions (DjI to DjVIII). DjI (30 micrograms/ml), DjII (20 micrograms/ml), and DjV (20 micrograms/ml) caused significant (P less than 0.001) leakage of LDH, extensive morphologic damage, and decreases in viability. At lower concentrations DjI to DjVIII caused progressive inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The main fraction (DjV), which was the most toxic, was further separated into 14 polypeptides (Dj1 to Dj14) by ion-exchange chromatography using Bio-Rex 70. Based on the ability to induce LDH leakage, produce morphologic damage, lyse cell membranes, and arrest beating activity, four categories of polypeptides were identified: cardiotoxins, Dj1 and Dj2; cardiotoxinlike polypeptides, Dj3 to Dj8; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Dj9 to Dj13; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Dj14.

PMID: 3410805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

ACHIENG’ L, M. D. JOSHI, OGOLA EN, KARARI E. "Adequacy of Blood Pressure Control, and Level of Adherence to Antihypertensive therapy at Kenyatta N Hospital." East Afri Med Journal. 2009;86(11):499-506.Website
Kairithia Fredrick, Karanja, N.K, Eunice Cheserem, Kinuthia John, Mwangi C, Dalton W. "Adequacy of vital signs monitoring in post delivery mothers at the Naivasha District Hospital of Nakuru County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Medical and Clinical Sciences. 2015; 2(1): 030-035.
Gatuguta AW, Muchunga EK. "Adherence to Antiretroviral treatment among adolescents at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

All over the world and specifically sub-Saharan Africa, there is massive scaling up of availability and accessibility to highly active antiretroviral therapy. (HAART) which resulted in improved survival and reduced incidence of opportunistic infections among people living with HIV & AIDS. Nonetheless, whereas efforts to increase access to HIV & AIDS treatment have achieved the desired effects with respect to improvement in the quality of life, other issues such as adherence, sustainability and effectiveness of treatment have emerged.
The goal to sustain a near optimal adherence for successful antiretroviral treatment is undoubtedly a major concern in the management of HIV & AIDS. Among adolescents, the challenge assumes greater proportions given the unique circumstances the group is exposed to. For instance, emotional, neurocognitive and physical development changes are some of the challenges. The transition from paediatric to adult state coupled with the knowledge about their HIV status that prompts them to initiate treatment on their own is to say the least, monumental challenges for adolescents. Moreover, adolescents are generally in school where they are subjected to stigma, discrimination and unfavourable school schedules that do not permit them time to access treatment and medication. Several studies have concluded that a high level of adherence to HAART at 95% or higher is necessary in order to avoid treatment failure and emergence of resistant strains.
Consequently, patients with 95% or higher adherence are known to have a superior virological outcome, an increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, and a lower rate of hospitalization compared with patients with lower levels of adherence.
As cited earlier, a near optimal adherence is a challenge for all patients, and non-adherent behavior is a big problem during adolescent period.
The aim of the study was therefore to determine adherence levels to antiretroviral drugs among adolescents and also establish levels of appointment keeping to clinic visits and pharmacy drug refi 11.

Musalia AW, Mutungi A, Gachuno O, Kiarie J. "Adherence to national guidelines in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) contributes to over 90% of the paediatric HIV infections. The national PMTCT guidelines make recommendations for specific interventions to reduce perinatal transmission. Data on adherence to the guidelines by caregivers and quality of PMTCT care is however limited.
OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the extent to which PMTCT care offered to HIV positive women admitted for delivery at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) adheres to National Guidelines in order to reduce vertical transmission of HIV during labour and delivery.
DESIGN:

A cross-sectional study.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital from January to April 2009.
SUBJECTS:

All consenting HIV positive women admitted to the labour wards at the two facilities and planned for delivery.
RESULTS:

A total of 370 women were enrolled, 266 at Pumwani Maternity Hospital and 104 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Among the enrolled women 357 (96.4%) had been counselled on vertical transmission and 205 (55.4%) had HIV disease staging by CD4 cell count. There were no significant differences between the two study sites in the proportion of women counselled on MTCT (p = 0.398) and receiving HIV disease staging by CD4 testing (p = 0.28). Three hundred and forty nine (94.3%) women were offered varied ARV regimens for PMTCT. 101(27.3%) received HAART, 94 (26.9%) were given single dose nevirapine and 130 (37%) received AZT+NVP combination prophylaxis. Twenty one women received no ARV prophylaxis. Overall, 268 women (72.5%) had spontaneous vertex delivery. An episiotomy rate of 7% was observed and no vacuum delivery was recorded. A Caesarean section rate of 27.5% was recorded with PMTCT as an indication in almost half of the cases. Women delivered at KNH were more likely to receive HAART (p < 0.001) and to be delivered by elective caesarean (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION:

A great majority of HIV positive women admitted for delivery received counseling on vertical transmission and were offered ARVs for PMTCT. Many women did not get CD4 measurement and clinical staging as recommended in the National guidelines.

Musalia AW, Mutungi A, Gachuno O, Kiarie J. "Adherence to national guidelines in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(12):488-94. Abstract

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) contributes to over 90% of the paediatric HIV infections. The national PMTCT guidelines make recommendations for specific interventions to reduce perinatal transmission. Data on adherence to the guidelines by caregivers and quality of PMTCT care is however limited.

Migowa AN, Gatinu B, RW. N. "Adherence to oral rehydration therapy among in-patient children aged 1-59 months with some or no dehydration. ." J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Apr;56(2):103-7. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp059. Epub 2009 Jul 14.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine adherence to oral rehydration solution (ORS) among in-patients aged 1-59 months suffering from gastroenteritis and having some dehydration (SD) or no dehydration (ND) in two rural hospitals in Kenya.
METHODS:

Children aged 1-59 months suffering from acute gastroenteritis with (SD) or (ND) were enrolled into the study, examined and medical records reviewed. On the second and third day of follow up, children were re-examined to ascertain hydration status and care-takers interviewed.
RESULTS:

Ninety-nine children were enrolled. Forty-five (75%) of the 60 children with SD received a correct prescription for ORS but only 12 (20%) received the correct amount. Among the 39 children with ND, 23 (59%) received a correct prescription for ORS, however only 16 (41%) received the correct amount. On the 3rd day, 9 (15%) of the 60 children with SD at baseline and 2 (5%) of the 39 with ND were classified as having SD.
CONCLUSION:

Four in five children with SD and 6 in 10 children with ND fail to receive the correct amounts of ORS.

Mutinda CM, Onyango FE, Maleche-Obimbo E, Kumar R, Wamalwa D, Were F, Osano B, Mburugu P. "ADHERENCE TO PNEUMONIA GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN 2 - 59 MONTHS AT GARRISA PROVINCIAL GENERAL HOSPITAL." East Afr Med J. 2014;91(1):13-20. Abstract

Clinical Practice Guidelines for childhood illnesses including pneumonia in Kenya are contained in the Ministry of Health Basic Paediatric Protocols. In the presence of a cough and/ or difficulty in breathing and increased respiratory rate for age, pneumonia is diagnosed. In addition to these the presence of lower chest wall indrawing denotes severe pneumonia; The presence of cyanosis, inability to drink/ breastfeed, grunting, level of consciousness using the AVPU scale less than A in addition to the aforementioned is classified as very severe pneumonia. Recommended management is intravascular Crystalline penicillin, gentamycin and oxygen for severe pneumonia, intravascular crystalline penicillin for severe pneumonia and oral amoxyl or cotrimaxole for pneumonia. These guidelines have been disseminated through the Emergency Triage And Treatment Plus (ETAT +) coursesheld since 2007. Implementation of guidelines into care has been shown to reduce case fatality from pneumonia by 36%.

Mutinda CM, Onyango FE, Maleche –Obimbo E, Kumar R, Wamalwa D, Were F, Osano BO, Mburugu P. "Adherence to Pneumonia guidelines for children 2 – 59 months at Garrisa Provincial General Hospital." East Africa Medical Journal. 2014;91:13-20.
M. PROFMACHARIAW, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Admani B, Macharia W and Were F: Prevalence of Varicella Zoster in Immune-compromised children at Kenyatta National Hospital .". In: E Afr Med. J. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
Mwangi JK. "Administration and Supervision in early Childhood Education.". In: Teaching Module for Bachelor of Education degree in Early Childhood Education Year 1. Nairobi; 2013.
Maina SM, Olima W, Anyamba T. "Adopting a new Eco-Ethical Philosophy of Living:."; 2013.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI, Maina S, Olima W. "Adopting a new eco-ethical philosophy of living; the diminishing options for Nairobi and humanity." Africa Habitat . 2010;Review 4 . Abstract

Burning refuse, especially plastics and other hazardous waste that affect air quality has been a common practice. Authorities point to a well balanced environmental past. During those good old days, people used to be able to throw garbage away. And garbage actually went "away." As they pose, Where is "away" now? "Away" is here. "Away" is someone's back yard. There is no place to go from here. We now see that we inhabit a smaller and smaller planet. "Away" has become very close indeed. Based on preliminary findings of a continuing research, and having used case study approaches to isolate pertinent issues, secondary data obtained through stratified random sampling points to unsustainable livelihoods. This papers objective was to highlight this problem from an eco-ethical perspective. The effect of lack of eco-ethics is numerous. From the very cradle of evolution, nature has been propagating to man in subtle ways the message 'use but don't abuse'. The ancient Bible has a message: After God created the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve, He took the two of them around and told them 'See the world I created, it is all for you, don't spoil it because no one will be there to restore it', (Genesis 2:15). This is probably the first and strongest statement, based upon which Humankind later developed ideas of nature and ecological ethics. Data reveals that humanity and designers, the case of this study, has ignored their responsibility to nurture their environment. This paper concludes that mankind has got a responsibility to future generations in the process of their current development endeavours.

Mwabu G, Tura M, Aredo D, Tsegaye W, TG, Mwangi W. "Adoption and Continued Use of Improved Maize Seeds: Case Study of Ethiopia ." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2010;5(17):2350-2358.
Mwikamba JN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Adoption of climate-smart horticulture practices and use of mobile phones in Taita-Taveta County, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2022;85(1-4):312-324.
Kamau A, Ngeranwa J, Ombaka D, Mutiso M. "Adoption of Eco-Friendly Dry-Land Agriculture and Water Technologies in Kitui County, Kenya.". In: Technology and Management at the Interface of Cultures: Harnessing culture and technology for sustainable development, good governance and innovative technology transfer. Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology (JOUST), Bondo; 2015.abstract_joust_final.pdf
Kong'ani LNS, Ang'u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu County, Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019; 1(1):19-24.
Kong’ani LNS, Ang’u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu county, Kenya. ." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):19-20.
Gichira CM, Kahonge MA, Miriti EK. "Adoption of Open Source Software by Organizations – A Framework for Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(7):25-32.
English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Mogoa W, Nyamai R. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting.". 2014;10(2013-305561):452-456. Abstractadoption_of_recommended_practices_and_basic_technologies_in_a_low-income_setting.pdf

Objective In global health considerable attention is focused on the search for innovations; however, reports tracking their adoption in routine hospital settings from low-income countries are absent. Design and setting We used data collected on a consistent panel of indicators during four separate cross sectional, hospital surveys in Kenya to track changes over a period of 11 years (2002–2012). Main outcome measures Basic resource availability,use of diagnostics and uptake of recommended practices. Results There appeared little change in availability of a panel of 28 basic resources (median 71% in 2002 to 82% in 2012) although availability of specific feeds for severe malnutrition and vitamin K improved. Use of blood glucose and HIV testing increased but remained inappropriately low throughout. Commonly (malaria) and uncommonly (lumbar puncture) performed diagnostic tests frequently failed to inform practice while pulse oximetry, a simple and cheap technology, was rarely available even in 2012. However, increasing adherence to prescribing guidance occurred during a period from 2006 to 2012 in which efforts were made to disseminate guidelines. Conclusions Findings suggest changes in clinical practices possibly linked to dissemination of guidelines at reasonable scale. However, full availability of basic resources was not attained and major gaps likely exist between the potential and actual impacts of simple diagnostics and technologies representing problems with availability, adoption and successful utilisation. These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions.

English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting.". 2013;(99):452-456. Abstract

Objective In global health considerable attention is focused on the search for innovations; however, reports tracking their adoption in routine hospital settings from low-income countries are absent.
Design and setting We used data collected on a consistent panel of indicators during four separate cross-sectional, hospital surveys in Kenya to track changes over a period of 11 years (2002–2012).
Main outcome measures Basic resource availability, use of diagnostics and uptake of recommended practices. Results There appeared little change in availability of a panel of 28 basic resources (median 71% in 2002 to 82% in 2012) although availability of specific feeds for severe malnutrition and vitamin K improved. Use of blood glucose and HIV testing increased but remained inappropriately low throughout. Commonly (malaria) and uncommonly (lumbar puncture) performed diagnostic tests frequently failed to inform practice while pulse oximetry, a simple and cheap technology, was rarely available even in 2012. However, increasing adherence to prescribing guidance occurred during a period from 2006 to 2012 in which efforts were made to disseminate guidelines.
Conclusions Findings suggest changes in clinical practices possibly linked to dissemination of guidelines at reasonable scale. However, full availability of basic resources was not attained and major gaps likely exist between the potential and actual impacts of simple diagnostics and technologies representing problems with availability, adoption and successful utilisation. These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low-income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions.

English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Mogoa W, Nyamai R. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting." Arch Dis Child. 2014;(99):452-456.adoption_of_recommended_practices_and_basic_technologies_in_a_low-income_setting.pdf
Missiame A, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Appiah-Kubi GD. ""Adoption of rural bank credit programs among smallholder farmers in Ghana: an average treatment effect estimation of rates of exposure and adoption and their determinants"." gricultural Finance Review. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Purpose
The study aims to estimate the rates of exposure to, and adoption of, rural bank credit programs by smallholder farmers in rural Ghana and the factors responsible for those rates.

Design/methodology/approach
The study used a random sample of 300 smallholder farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana, obtained through the multistage sampling technique. The study also employed the average treatment effects approach to estimate the average treatment effect of farmers’ exposure to rural bank credit programs, on their adoption of such programs.

Findings
The actual adoption rate is approximately 41%, and the potential, conditional on the whole population being aware of rural bank credit programs, is approximately 61%. Accordingly, there is a gap of about 20% in the adoption of rural bank credit programs, and is due to the incomplete exposure of smallholder farmers to the rural bank credit programs. Age of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer-based organizations and active savings accounts with a rural bank are the major contributors to smallholder farmer exposure to and the adoption of rural bank credit programs.

Originality/value
The current study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Ghana on rural bank credit programs. It takes into account the extent to which smallholder farmers are exposed to such credit programs and how it influences their decisions to access or adopt.

Muli E, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Adoption of Self-Study for University Education in Kenya.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA). Nairobi; 2014.
Magutu PO, Omondi GO. "The Adoption of Strategic Human Resource Management Practices In Commercial Banks: The Process And Challanges In Kenya.". In: Journal of Human Resources Management Research. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Developing an effective human resource system that is compatible with organizational strategy is critical for the functioning and success of an organization in the competitive business arena. The main objectives of the study were to establish the extent of adoption of strategic human resource management practices among commercial banks in Kenya; and to determine the factors that influence adoption of strategic human resource management practices by commercial banks in Kenya. The research questions were systematically generated from the objectives. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics and factor analysis were used to help draw comparisons and conclusions based on the results. It was assumed in the data analysis that the results obtained were quite representative for the general population considering the sampled size.
The conclusions of the study are based on the research questions leading to the main purpose of the study. First, a number of human resource practices can be used as strategic weapons for organization to remain competitive. The key strategic resources management practices can be broken into two components. The first component is post-entry/ on-the-job strategic human resources management practices, which include the implementation of chosen human resources management strategy. The second component is pre-entry strategic human resources management practices, which include the recognition of the individual roles of employees before they are employed, keen selection and development. Secondly, the factors that have discouraged the adoption of strategic human resource management practices by commercial banks in Kenya can be broken into three components. The first component is poor communication and decision making process, which include failure of union representatives and managers to meet often to discuss concerns and cooperate in finding solutions to human resources issues. The second component is poor planning on HR issues, which include the failure to cover employees by a "non-traditional" incentive pay plan which applies across shifts of workers. The third component is on poor job orientations which includes lack of extensive efforts to set clear expectations about required work behaviors of the new workers.
Keywords: Strategic Human Resource Management Practice, Commercial Banks and Kenyas.

MUIGUA" "KARIUKI, FRANCIS" "KARIUKI. "ADR, Access to Justice and Development in Kenya ." Strathmore Law Journal. 2015;1(June, 2015):1-21.
Muigua DK. "ADR: THE ROAD TO JUSTICE IN KENYA." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya Branch). 2014;Volume 2 Number 1 (2014):28-94.paper_on_adr_the_road_to_justice__in_kenya_-_ciarb_conference_presentation.pdf
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madadi VO, Zeranyika M, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,4,5,6-Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (Chlorothalonil) by Nairobi River Sediments: Adsorption characteristics and Related Thermodynamic Data." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madandi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,5,6-tetra chloroisophthalonitrile by Nairobi river sediments: Adsorption characteristics and related thermodynamic data." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira IN, Madadi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of Atrazine pesticide by sediment and soil samples: Effect of Equilibration Time on the Freundlich Parameter (n)." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:31-41.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira I, Madadi V, Zaranyika M, Kamau G. "Adsorption of Atrazine Pesticide by sediments and soil samples: Apparent thermodynamic properties." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2013;07(10).
K. MJ, Mbui DN, G.N. K. "Adsorption of Dursban (Chlorpyrifos) Pesticide by Loam soil fro Limuru, Kenya: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1(1):1-9.
Mwaniki JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions and Wastewater using Water Hyacinth Powder ." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) . 2019;4(1):1-5.
Mwaniki JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions and Wastewater using Water Hyacinth Powder." Adsorption. 2019;4(1). AbstractAdsorption Journal

ABSTRACT
The adsorption of heavy metals on water hyacinth powder from both
wastewater and aqueous solution was studied using batch experiments. The
adsorption efficiency of water hyacinth powder was evaluated in this study.
The levels of heavy metals in wastewater were in the range of: 1.2-75.3 ppm
for lead, 0.4-87.6 ppm for chromium, 0.1-63.5 ppm for nickel, 0.5-95.5 ppm for
zinc and 0.8-52.7 ppm for cadmium. The levels of zinc, lead and cadmium were
above the limits set by the write NEMA in full then bracket (NEMA) for
discharge into the environment (0.01 ppm for cadmium and lead, 0.5 ppm for
zinc). The adsorption efficiency of hyacinth powder was higher in aqueous
solution than in wastewater while at low metal concentrations (0.1-3.2 ppm),
the adsorption efficiency of water hyacinth powder was 100% in both
wastewater and aqueous solution. The study showed that water hyacinth
powder is a low cost adsorbent which could be used to remove heavy metals
from wastewater and aqueous solution.

Sherrif SS, Madadi V. "Adsorption of Lambda Cyhalothrin onto Athi River Sediments: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(3):568-574.
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba JN. "Adsorption of malachite green dye from aqueous solutions using mesoporous chitosan–zinc oxide composite material." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2020;2:115-125. AbstractAbstract

Description
Chitosan–zinc oxide composite with an average size of 33 nm was synthesized by facile chemical precipitation technique for application in the removal of water contaminants such as dyes. Malachite green (MG) was the model colorant for the sorption process. Material characterization was achieved using selected spectroscopic techniques. Elemental analysis results revealed that the material had high concentration levels of Zn (965,000 ± 53.2 mg/kg) compared to Fe (756.5 ± 45.3 mg/kg) and P (166 ± 26.6 mg/kg). Batch adsorption experiments of the dye onto chitosan–ZnO (CS–ZnO) composite was investigated with a UV–Visible photometer. The rate of dye removal was greatly influenced by pH, dye strength, amount of adsorbent and contact time. High removal capacity of 98.5% was achieved with reducing dye strength of 2.3 mg/L, dosage of 0.6 g and pH 8 within 180 min equilibration time. Langmuir model …

Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husks: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. AbstractWebsite

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto rice husks: Kinetic and equilibrium studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. Abstract

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Muinde V, Onyari JM, Wamalwa BM, Wabomba J. "Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husks: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215-230 . AbstractJournal of Environmental Protection

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Cheruiyot GK, Wanyonyi WC, Kiplimo JJ, Maina EN. "Adsorption of toxic crystal violet dye using coffee husks: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study." Scientific African. 2019;5:e00116. Abstract
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Opanga MA, Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Nose HM, Mirikau CW, Umuro M. "Adsorption Studies of Trimethoprim Antibiotic on Powdered and Granular Activated Carbon in Distilled and Natural Water." IJSRSET. 2018;4(11):223-230.
Oloo CM, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Wabomba JN, Muinde VM. "Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2020. AbstractEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Description
Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution using dried bark powder of mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata was studied. Characterization of adsorbent was done using FTIR and SEM. Batch experiment was carried out to examine the viability of using mangrove bark for adsorption of CV dye from aqueous solutions under different process conditions. The result revealed that removal of CV increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and decreased with increased particle size and ionic strength. pH 7 was the optimum pH for CV dye removal. The adsorption equilibrium for CV dye by Rhizophora mucronata stem-bark was attained within 60 min with removal efficacy of up to 99.8%. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was best used to describe sorption kinetics while Freundlich isotherm model was appropriate for describing adsorption isotherm. The results demonstrated …

Oloo CM, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Wabomba JN, Muinde VM. "Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. In Press. AbstractEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Description
Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution using dried bark powder of mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata was studied. Characterization of adsorbent was done using FTIR and SEM. Batch experiment was carried out to examine the viability of using mangrove bark for adsorption of CV dye from aqueous solutions under different process conditions. The result revealed that removal of CV increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and decreased with increased particle size and ionic strength. pH 7 was the optimum pH for CV dye removal. The adsorption equilibrium for CV dye by Rhizophora mucronata stem-bark was attained within 60 min with removal efficacy of up to 99.8%. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was best used to describe sorption kinetics while Freundlich isotherm model was appropriate for describing adsorption isotherm. The results demonstrated …

Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya J, Ayieko B, Ndinya-Achola JO, Magoha GA. "Adult male circumcision outcomes: experience in a developing country setting.". 2007.Website
Magoha GAO. "Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya." British Journal of Urology. 2005;96:1109-1113. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current global status of female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision practised in various countries. DATA SOURCE: Major published series of peer reviewed journals writing about female genital mutilation (FGM) over the last two decades were reviewed using the index medicus and medline search. A few earlier publications related to the FGM ritual as practised earlier were also reviewed including the various techniques and tools used, the "surgeons or perpetrators" of the FGM ritual and the myriad of medical and sexual complications resulting from the procedure. Global efforts to abolish the ritual and why such efforts including legislation has resulted in little or no success were also critically reviewed.
CONCLUSION: FGM remains prevalent in many countries including African countries where over 136 million women have been 'circumcised' despite persistent and consistent efforts by various governments, WHO and other bodies to eradicate the ritual by the year 2000 AD. This is as a result of deep rooted cultures, traditions and religions. Although FGM should be abolished globally, it must involve gradual persuasion which should include sensitisation and adequate community-based educational and medical awareness campaign. Mere repression through legislation has not been successful, and women need to be provided with other avenues for their expression of social status approval and respectability other than through FGM.

Magoha GAO. "Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya. ." British Journal of Urology: Vol. 96: 1109-1113, 2005.. 2005;96:1109-1113. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current global status of female genital mutilation (FGM) or female circumcision practised in various countries. DATA SOURCE: Major published series of peer reviewed journals writing about female genital mutilation (FGM) over the last two decades were reviewed using the index medicus and medline search. A few earlier publications related to the FGM ritual as practised earlier were also reviewed including the various techniques and tools used, the "surgeons or perpetrators" of the FGM ritual and the myriad of medical and sexual complications resulting from the procedure. Global efforts to abolish the ritual and why such efforts including legislation has resulted in little or no success were also critically reviewed.
CONCLUSION: FGM remains prevalent in many countries including African countries where over 136 million women have been 'circumcised' despite persistent and consistent efforts by various governments, WHO and other bodies to eradicate the ritual by the year 2000 AD. This is as a result of deep rooted cultures, traditions and religions. Although FGM should be abolished globally, it must involve gradual persuasion which should include sensitisation and adequate community-based educational and medical awareness campaign. Mere repression through legislation has not been successful, and women need to be provided with other avenues for their expression of social status approval and respectability other than through FGM.

Gow L, Gulati R, Khan A, Mihaimeed F. "Adult-onset cystic hygroma: a case report and review of management." Grand Rounds. 2011;11:5-11. AbstractWebsite
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M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Aduol, F.W.O., P.M. Syagga (et al) (1995), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1995. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Size as Determinants of Organizational Structure." Researchjournali’s Journal of Technology Management . 2015;Vol. 2(issue. 4 ):1-26.2223.pdf
Musebe E. A, Bolo, Z.A., K’ Obonyo P., R. K. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Competitive Advantage, and Performance of Large Manufacturing Companies In Kenya." DBA Management Review Journal. 2020;10(3):90-114.
Musebe E. A, Bolo, Z.A., K’ Obonyo P., R. K. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Organizational Resources and Performance of Large Manufacturing Companies In Kenya." DBA Management Review Journal. 2020;10(2):1-33.
Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Advances in animal/plant–plastic composites: preparation, characterization and applications.". In: Plant and Animal Based Composites. Berlin: De Gruyter; 2021. Abstract

This book chapter aims at exploring the preparation, characterization and applications of plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The book addresses several key research work that have been happening as well as some of the drawbacks that affect the application of these composites in real-life applications. Each chapter begins with an overview of the various forms of plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymer composites, followed by examples of composites made up of plant/animal fibers and their promising future in terms of research and development and application in domestic and engineering products. Today, man has realized that if the environment is not preserved, the over-consumption of naturally existing resources and a drastic reduction in the amount of fresh air generated in the world would endanger him. Forest conservation and the efficient use of agricultural as well as other renewable resources such as solar, wind and tidal energy have already become critical issues globally.With this kind of concern, the utilization of renewable materials such as plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymeric composites is slowly becoming a key design requirement for the design and development of parts for a wide range of industrial products. An extensive research into such composites can, to an extent, lead to an even greener and healthier environment

Gavamukulya Y, El-Shemy HA, Meroka AM, Madivoli ES, Maina EN, Wamunyokoli F, Magoma G. "Advances in green nanobiotechnology: Data for synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles from ethanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of Annona muricata." Data in brief. 2019;25:104194. Abstract
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Obiero K, Lawrence T, Ives J, Smith S, Njaya F, Kayanda R, Waidbacher H, Olago D, Miriti E, Hecky RE. "Advancing Africa’s great lakes research and academic potential: Answering the call for harmonized, long-term, collaborative networks and partnerships." Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2020. Abstractdio.org

Abstract
The African Great Lakes (AGL) have rich fisheries and are renowned “biodiversity hotspots”. Consequently the AGLand the ecosystem services they provide, underpin the welfare and livelihoods of over 50 million people across 10 countries. Despite the recognized importance of the AGL, these vital ecosystems and their livelihood support systems are threatened by numerous anthropogenic stressors at local, regional, and global scales. Past and continued efforts to address critical challenges on these lakes are often short-term, parochial, disparate, and uncoordinated resulting in a lack of comprehensive and comparable scientific data and inadequate resources to influence evidence-based policy. Over the past two decades, several international workshops, conferences and scientific publications have identified the need for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and harmonization of research and management as key elements to enhance conservation efforts in the AGL. In this commentary, we introduce the African Center for Aquatic Research and Education (ACARE), which aims to strengthen research and provide the scientific evidence needed to make informed decisions related to sustainable fisheries and aquatic resource management in the AGL. To do this, ACARE will administer a highly collaborative network of experts with three long-term goals: (1) strengthen global and regional research partnerships; (2) establish transboundary and inter-jurisdictional lake advisory groups; and (3) build capacity of freshwater scientists through experiential education and public engagement.

Keywords
African Great Lakes Collaborative networks Transboundary lake advisory groups, educationResearch partnerships

Mbuge DO, D.M. "Advantages of Harvesting Rainwater in Urban Areas.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineering (KSAE) Annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
Majesky MW, Dong XR, Hoglund V, Daum G, Mahoney, Jr WM. "The adventitia: a progenitor cell niche for the vessel wall." Cells, tissues, organs. 2012;195:73-81. Abstract

Recent observations suggest that the adventitial layer of blood vessels exhibits properties resembling a stem/progenitor cell niche. Progenitor cells have been isolated from the adventitia of both murine and human blood vessels with the potential to form endothelial cells, mural cells, osteogenic cells, and adipocytes. These progenitors appear to cluster at or near the border zone between the outer media and inner adventitia. In the mouse, this border zone region corresponds to a localized site of sonic hedgehog signaling in the artery wall. This brief review will discuss the emerging evidence that the tunica adventitia may provide a niche-like signaling environment for resident progenitor cells and will address the role of the adventitia in growth, remodeling, and repair of the artery wall.

Masese JO, Rashid JR, Nyamu GD, Ombega JN, Mwangangi EM. "Adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and uninfected adults receiving anti-tuberculous therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Background: Information about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-tuberculous therapy in Africa is limited due to unavailability of local data or publications and hence the basis of this study.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and HIV uninfected adult patients on anti-TB therapy.
Design: A retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.
Subjects: HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-TB therapy between January 2006 to December 2007
Main Outcome Measures:Documented adverse drug reactions.
Results: Three hundred and fourteen records were reviewed, 157 for both HIV infected and HIV uninfected. Of the 314 patient files, 96 (30.5%) had ADRs; 70 (44.6%) verses 26 (16.6%) for HIV infected and HIV uninfected respectively. Overall, the most frequent ADR among the two groups was gastrointestinal disturbances (21.7%) verses (10.2%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=2.44 [1.28-4.63], P=0.006). This was followed by peripheral neuropathy (16.6%) verses (4.5%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=4.25 [1.79-10.12], P=0.005). 73(46.49%) of the HIV infected patients were also receiving anti-retroviral therapy, of
which 36(49.31 %) of them had ADRs documented. Twenty five (29.8%) of the HIV infected who were not taking anti-retroviral therapy, had ADRs documented.
Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disturbances and peripheral neuropathy were the most common ADRs in both groups. Surveillance systems should be established in hospitals for ADRs monitoring and control.

Masese JO, Rashid JR, Nyamu GD, Ombega JN, Mwangangi EM. "Adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and uninfected adults receiving anti-tuberculous therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Background: Information about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-tuberculous therapy in Africa is limited due to unavailability of local data or publications and hence the basis of this study.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and HIV uninfected adult patients on anti-TB therapy.
Design: A retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.
Subjects: HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-TB therapy between January 2006 to December 2007
Main Outcome Measures:Documented adverse drug reactions.
Results: Three hundred and fourteen records were reviewed, 157 for both HIV infected and HIV uninfected. Of the 314 patient files, 96 (30.5%) had ADRs; 70 (44.6%) verses 26 (16.6%) for HIV infected and HIV uninfected respectively. Overall, the most frequent ADR among the two groups was gastrointestinal disturbances (21.7%) verses (10.2%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=2.44 [1.28-4.63], P=0.006). This was followed by peripheral neuropathy (16.6%) verses (4.5%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=4.25 [1.79-10.12], P=0.005). 73(46.49%) of the HIV infected patients were also receiving anti-retroviral therapy, of
which 36(49.31 %) of them had ADRs documented. Twenty five (29.8%) of the HIV infected who were not taking anti-retroviral therapy, had ADRs documented.
Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disturbances and peripheral neuropathy were the most common ADRs in both groups. Surveillance systems should be established in hospitals for ADRs monitoring and control.

Opanga L, Mulaku MN, Opanga SA, Godman B, Kurdi A. "Adverse effects of chemotherapy and their management in Pediatric patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Kenya: A descriptive, situation analysis study." Expert Review of anticancer therapy. 2019;19(5):423-430.
MARTIN DROGUTU. "Advertising Agencies in Kenya: Their Nature and Operations (MBA Research Project,).". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1983. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
Kebenei P. J, Khatete I. W, M C, S C, Khatete D. L. "Advisory Role of Education Standards and Quality Assurance Council on Provision of Quality Education at Primary Schools in Kenya, A Case Of Bomet County." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1):21-26.abstract_7.doc
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Mutai BK. "Aerosol Optical Depth Patterns Associated with Urbanization and Weather in Nairobi and Lamu." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2015;8(3):26-40.
Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Mutai BK. "Aerosol optical depth patterns associated with urbanization and weather in Nairobi and Lamu." J. Meteorol. Related. Sci.. 2016;8:26-40.Website
Ngaina JN, Opere A, Ininda JM, Muthama N. "Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Deep Convective Clouds Over Equatorial East Africa." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2015. AbstractThe SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

Deep convective clouds (DCCs) associated with tropical convection, are significant sources of precipitation in Equatorial East Africa. The DCCs play a fundamental role in hydrological and energy cycle. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with detailed bin-resolved microphysics are used to explore the diurnal variation of DCCs under maritime/clean and continental/polluted conditions. The sign and magnitude of the Twomey effect, droplet dispersion effect, cloud thickness effect, Cloud Optical Depth (COD) susceptibility to aerosol perturbations, and aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation is evaluated. Twomey effect emerges as dominant in total COD susceptibility to aerosol perturbations. The dispersion effect is positive and accounts for 3-10% of the total COD susceptibility at nighttime, with greater influence on heavier drizzling clouds. The cloud thickness effect is positive (negative) for a moderate/heavy drizzling (light thickness) clouds. The cloud thickness effect results in 5-22% of the nighttime total cloud susceptibility. Cloud microphysical properties and accumulated total precipitation show a complex relationship under varied aerosol conditions. The mean of core updraft and maximal vertical velocity increased (decreased) under low (high) CCN scenarios. Overall, the total COD susceptibility ranges from 0.28-0.53 at night; an increase in aerosol concentration enhances COD, especially with heavier precipitation and in a clean environment. During the daytime, the range of magnitude of each effect is more variable owing to cloud thinning and decoupling. The ratio of the magnitude of cloud thickness effect to that of the Twomey effect depends on cloud thickness and base height in unperturbed clouds while the response of precipitation to increase in aerosol concentration was non-monotonic.

Ngaina JN, Opere A, Ininda JM, Muthama N. "Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Deep Convective Clouds Over Equatorial East Africa." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2015. Abstract SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep convective clouds (DCCs) associated with tropical convection, are significant sources of precipitation in Equatorial East Africa. The DCCs play a fundamental role in hydrological and energy cycle. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with detailed bin-resolved microphysics are used to explore the diurnal variation of DCCs under maritime/clean and continental/polluted conditions. The sign and magnitude of the Twomey effect, droplet dispersion effect, cloud thickness effect, Cloud Optical Depth (COD) susceptibility to aerosol perturbations, and aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation is evaluated. Twomey effect emerges as dominant in total COD susceptibility to aerosol perturbations. The dispersion effect is positive and accounts for 3-10% of the total COD susceptibility at nighttime, with greater influence on heavier drizzling clouds. The cloud thickness effect is positive (negative) for a moderate/heavy drizzling (light thickness) clouds. The cloud thickness effect results in 5-22% of the nighttime total cloud susceptibility. Cloud microphysical properties and accumulated total precipitation show a complex relationship under varied aerosol conditions. The mean of core updraft and maximal vertical velocity increased (decreased) under low (high) CCN scenarios. Overall, the total COD susceptibility ranges from 0.28-0.53 at night; an increase in aerosol concentration enhances COD, especially with heavier precipitation and in a clean environment. During the daytime, the range of magnitude of each effect is more variable owing to cloud thinning and decoupling. The ratio of the magnitude of cloud thickness effect to that of the Twomey effect depends on cloud thickness and base height in unperturbed clouds while the response of precipitation to increase in aerosol concentration was non-monotonic

Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Okasha T, Mrumbi K, Kilonzo G, Musisi S, Szabo CP, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Aetiology in Psychiatry."; 2006.
Maitai CK. "Aetiology of cancer." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(2):32-33.
Magoha GAO. "Aetiology, diagnosis and management of haemospermia." East Afr Med J. 2007 . 2007;(Dec;84(12):):589-94. Abstract

To provide an overview of the aetiology, investigations and the various treatment methods currently available in the management of haemospermia. DATA SOURCE: Review of literature was effected through medline and index medicus search of major published indexed journals and books. DATA SELECTION: Published data on haemospermia, hemospermia, haematospermia and semen over the last five decades (1967-2007) were utilised. DATA EXTRACTION: Abstracts of selected articles were read and analysed to determine their possible contribution and relevance to this article. DATA SYNTHESIS: All relevant articles were reviewed in full and contribution extracted for this review as necessary. CONCLUSION: Haemospermia (haematospermia) is a relatively frequent, distressing and frightening symptom in sexually active men. It is usually a benign self-limiting condition resolving within several weeks except for the few with underlying aetiology including prostate malignancy and idiopathic. Patients presenting with haemospermia should have a detailed medical history, physical examillation including blood pressure measurement, genital and digital rectal examination. Persistent and recurrent haemospermia is best investigated by TRUS, CT, MRI, urethrocystoscopy, and biopsy and histological confirmation of malignancies. Specific treatment depends on the underlying pathological cause but often involves only minimal investigations and simple reassurance

E.I. T, W.A. ODHIAMBO, M.K. A, S.W. G. "Aetiology, Occurrence and Management of Maxillofacial Injuries at Mulago Teaching Hospital, Uganda." East Africa Medical Journal. 2013;Vol. No1 January 2013.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Affirmative Action .". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Affirmative Action and the Quest for University Education: The Case of Kenya.". In: Globalisation, Societies and Education, 6(4),409 - 414. Elimu Publishers; 1999. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Mwabu G, Arrow K, Danzon P, Gelband H, Jameson D, Laxminarayan R, Mills A, Panosian C, Peto R, White N. "Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria: killing it slowly." The Lancet. 2012;380(9857).
Mwanda OW. "Aflatoxicosis: health implications.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Author:

Mwanda OW

Source:

East African Medical Journal. 2005 Jun; 273-274.

Abstract:

Aflatoxicosis remains unrecognised by medical professional experts till several people are involved yet the global scale would show that approximately 4-5 billion people living in developing countries are chronically exposed to unacceptable aflatoxin levels. There is also no comprehensive data set from which to evaluate the exact extent and severity of biological exposure and direct measurements(1). Aflatoxin is a common contaminant of food particularly the staple diets of many developing countries. The toxin is produced by a fungal action during food production, harvest, storage and processing. The most affected are grains, rice, maize/corn; others are cassava, nuts, peanuts, chilies and spices. The toxins are produced as secondary metabolites by Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi when the temperatures are between 24°C and 35°C and the moisture content exceeds 7% to 10%. These conditions are prevalent in geographical latitudes between 40° N and 40° S of the equator.

Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Sirma AJ, Makita K, Grace D, Senerwa D, Lindahl JF. "Aflatoxin exposure from milk in rural Kenya and contribution to the risk of liver cancer." Toxins. 2019;11:469.
Laila A, Mwangi C, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 . 1 (1): 19-23 A KeSoBAP Publication ©2012 . All rights reserved. 19 Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbe s and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic s ubstances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential s ource of promising antimicrobial compounds with nov el mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extrac ts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro . Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted u sing methanol and chloroform and tested for activit y against Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli , Shigella sonnei , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by a ssaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells . Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observ ed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was p resent in the methanol extracts compared to chlorof orm extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against h uman erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echino derms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.

M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "AFRAS, Journal of African and Asian Studies, University of Sussex.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1972. Abstract

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M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Africa and Diaspora, Teaching Literature in Kenya Schools.Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1980. Abstract

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Mwega F, Muga KL, Oyejide A, Lyakurwa W, Njinkeu D. "Africa and the World Trading System: The Case of Kenya." New Jersey: Third World Press; 2007.
Mureithi L, Wilson P, Sall A. "Africa In The Global Scenarios.". 2005.Website
M ENGDROGOLAJULIUS. "Africa Technology Policy Studies (ATPS) workshop of Researchers, Harare, Zimbabwe June 15.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1992. Abstract

The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

Magutu PJ. "AFRICAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WORKSHOP Naivasha, Kenya.". In: Scientific Research in Africa, Anecdotes on Field Research and Experience in Africa: Findings and Prospects, in Whydah,. in Whydah, Vol. 2, No.3. ; 1990.
MASU DRSYLVESTER. "African Architecture and Planning in the 21st century. The challenge of our time November, 24-25, 1994.". In: journal. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1994. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
M. MJ, Tiagha WE, Mwaura M. "African Banking Systems." a chapter in a book titled MANAGEMENT OF ORGANISATIONS IN AFRICA . 1995;Vol.2 .
Bishop RP, Hemmink JD, Morrison WI, Weir W, Toye PG, Sitt T, Spooner PR, Musoke AJ, Skilton RA, Odongo DO. "The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes." Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2015;4(3):333-42. Abstract

African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva.

M. DRAKECHJOSEPHMIGAI. "African Custoary law and the Common Law Presumption of marriage: Strange Bedfellows University of Nairobi Law Honoural vol.1. 1994.". In: Law Journal, Vol.2,. Departmental seminar; 1994. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
M. DRAKECHJOSEPHMIGAI. ""African Customary Law and the Common Law Presumption of marriage: Strange Bedfollows?" University of Nairobi. Law Journal, vol. 1,.". In: Law Journal, vol. 1,. Departmental seminar; 1994. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Makunda CS. "African Development and Management: 6A - Development in Nairobi: Three Into One Does Not Go!". In: Intrinsic Capability: Implementing Intrinsic Sustainable Development for an Ecological Civilisation. London: World Scientific; 2019.
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "The African Diaspora presented during the American Day. Nyungu Cultural Centre Nairobi Nyungu publications.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract

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