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2017
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Mandala N, Kaijage E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Gender Diversity of Boards, Board Composition and Firm Performance." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(34):pages62-79,.
Mageto E.K, D. Makumbi, and K. Njoroge, Nyankanga R. "Genetic analysis of early-maturing maize (Zea Mays L.) inbred lines under stress and nonstress conditions." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017; DOI: 10.1080/15427528.2017.1315625(31:4, ):560-588.
Hayashi, H., K. Fujiwara, S. Meguro, S. K. Kiboi, P. C. Mutiso, Kage SK, Mutiso DC. "Growth dynamics of indigenous seedlings planted by a dense and mixed method in the Nairobi city, Kenya. ." Eco-Habitat. 2017;24(1):35-51.
Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract

Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

Kimilu RK, Huang RF, C.M H. "High-frequency excited non-premixed jet flames in crossflow." Journal of Marine Science and Technology. 2017;25(1):96-107.
Serem JK, Muturi JK, Wahome RG, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets." Global Veterinaria . 2017;19(1):478-486.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Kiama, S.G., Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological evaluation of spleen, liver and kidneys from pigs fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. Global Veterinaria,.". 2017;19(1):478-486.
Samuel SM, Mulwa DM, Migosi J, Kamau LM. "Home based Factors and Educational Wastage in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2017;5(2):116-119.
Masika M, Wachihi C, Muriuki F, Kimani J, R K. "Hypertension and obesity among HIV patients in a care programme in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV patients enrolled in the Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP), Nairobi, Kenya.

Design: A retrospective a study.

Setting: SWOP managed by the University of Manitoba, Nairobi team.

Subjects: We selected clinic visit records from HIV patients seen between 2011 and 2014, which had valid blood pressure and age entries.

Interventions: We analysed data to determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension and obesity in the study population. Associations were tested using chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables.

Main outcome measures: Hypertension and obesity.

Results: Three thousand one hundred ninety seven subjects were included in the study. All were HIV-positive and most (97.8%) were on ART. The mean age was 39.7 years (standard deviation = 8.8) and 72.4% of the subjects were female. The prevalence of hypertension was 7.7% (246/3197) and 31% of the study cases (798/2590) were either overweight or obese. Males were more likely to have hypertension (p < 0.001) while females were more predisposed to obesity (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Hypertension and obesity are important co-morbidities among HIV patients. Preventive and management strategies should be adopted as part of the comprehensive packages on offer at all existing HIV care and ART centres targeting those enrolled for services as well as their relatives and the community at large.

Olag D, Wolff C, Verschuren D, Daele MEV, Waldmann N, Meyer I, Lane CS, der Meeren VT, Ombori T, Kasanzu C. "ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017. AbstractFull Text

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and to assess the multi-faceted impact of this climate change on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) originally evolved and have lived ever since.

Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW, Gathumbi JK, Midiwo JO. "Identification of antimicrobial compounds in garlic grown in Laikipia county." Journal of Agricultural research and review,. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW, Midiwo JO. "Identification of the Antimicrobial Compounds in Garlic Grown at Laikipia County." International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Kodhiambo MO, B.K.Amugune, Oyugi J. "Impact of devolution on the trends of paediatric malaria admissions and mortality in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2017;3(1):3-6.
G. W, Koriyow Hussein A. "Impact of Subsidised Fees on Students’ Access to Quality Education in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2017;5(7):247-262 .abstract.pdf
Wanjala. G, Koriyow Hussein A. "Implication of Subsidised Fees Programme on Pedagogical Practices in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County , Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(8):19-34.abstract.pdf
Kiragu H, Kamucha G, Mwangi E. "An Improved Reconstruction Method for Compressively Sampled Magnetic Resonance Images Using Adaptive Gaussian Denoising." Springer International Publishing AG. 2017;416(LNEE):192-200.
Falkenstrom F, Gee MG, Kuria MW, Othieno CJ, Kumar M. "Improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy in two public hospitals in Nairobi." BJP Psych. International. 2017;14(3).
Amugune BK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "In Vitro Screening of Ten Selected Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in Vihiga County, Kenya for Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity. ." Int. J of Med Plants and Nat Prod. (IJMPNP) 3(2):37-44. 2017;3(2):37-44.
Kariuki BN, Saidi H, Ndung’u B, Kaisha W, Ogeng’o J. "INFLUENCE OF AGE ON GALLBLADDER MORPHOMETRY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(2):987-994. Abstractinfluence_of_age_on_gallbladder_morphometry.pdf

Morphometric properties of the gallbladder such as length, diameter and volume are determinants of gallbladder
function. These parameters are altered with age and may explain the age-related reduction in gallbladder
contractility associated with gallstone formation. Ninety-two gallbladder specimens of subjects aged between 21
and 84 were sourced from City mortuary and the Department of Human anatomy during autopsy. For each
gallbladder specimen, measurements of length and circumference were taken to the accuracy of 0.1millimetres
(mm) and used to calculate the gallbladder volume. These measurements were standardized using
measurements of liver length and weight. Data were recorded by age categories in age groups of 21-30, 31-40,
41-50, 51-60 and 61 or more years. The mean gallbladder volume was 47.948 (±19.080) cm3 and showed a
statistically significant increase with age (p <0.001). There was also a significant increase of gallbladder length
(p =0.01) and diameter (p <0.001). A positive correlation was observed between gallbladder length, diameter
and volume; 0.282, 0.485 and 0.480 respectively (p = 0.01). The gallbladder volume which is a function of
length and diameter, shows a statistically significant increase with age. Notably, there is a marked increase in
these parameters after the fifth decade. This could explain the exponential increase in prevalence of cholelithiasis
by 4 to 10 times after the fifth decade of life.

Kimuyu DM, Veblen KE, Riginos C, Chira RM, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Young TP. "Influence of cattle on browsing and grazing wildlife varies with rainfall and presence of megaherbivores." Ecological Applications. 2017;27(3):786-798.
Chepchieng, J. K.., Kidombo H., C.M. G. "The Influence of Leadership Styles on Public Participation in Monitoring and Evaluation of Preschool Projects in Migori County, Kenya." The International Journal Of Humanities & Social Studies . 2017.
Macharia RW, Kibera PFN, Munyoki JN, Kinoti MW. "Influence of Organizational Demographics on the Relationship between Green Marketing Practices and Customer Satisfaction in the Soft Drink Industry in Nairobi Kenya ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research . 2017;32(2422):64-78.
Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "Influence of Perception and Quality of ICT‐Based Agricultural Input Information on Use of ICTs by Farmers in Developing Countries: Case of Sikasso in Mali." The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2017;83(1):1-21.Full website link
Mule, J.M., Kalai, J.M., Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of Principals' level of education on student leaders' involvement in secondary schools governance in Kenya." he Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(1):2304-2885.5.pdf
Mule, J.M., Kalai, J.M., Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of Principals' level of education on student leaders' involvement in secondary schools governance in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(1).
Wambua, P.M., Okoth, S.A, Kalai, J.M. "Influence of Principals’ Involvement of Students in Decision Making on Discipline in Secondary Schools, Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(22).7.pdf
Kibui AW. "Influence of School Environment on student's performance in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;6(4):2295-2300.
S MS, Mulwa D, Migosi J, Kamau M. "Influence of School-based Factors on Educational Wastage in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2017;7(1):257-262.
Mburu CW, Gaita SM, Knee CS, Gatari MJ, Karlsson M. "Influence of Yttrium Concentration on Local Structure in BaZr1−xYxO3−δ Based Proton Conductors." J. Phys. Chem.. 2017;121(30):16174-16181.
Klopp J, Orwa D, Wagacha PW, Williams S, White A. "Informal 2.0: Seeing and Improving Urban Informal Practices through Digital Technologies The Digital Matatus case in Nairobi." Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions. 2017;(16):39-43. Abstractfull text link

Conceived out of collaboration between Kenyan and American universities and the technology sector in Nairobi, Digital Matatus shows how to leverage the ubiquitous nature of cellphone technology to collect missing data for essential infrastructure - including those with high levels of informality. The project captured transit data in standardized form for Nairobi’s semi-formal bus system, developed the first public transit map for such a system and made the map and data free to the public, spurring innovation and improved services for citizens.
While most cities develop sophisticated IT projects to make their organization smarter, the Digital Matatus case suggests the value of a much more modest and bottom-up approach: it encourages reliance on common technologies like cellphones to understand and improve existing urban services – that often involve informality – in emerging countries. By developing the first-ever high quality data set and map of the Matatu network (very common semi-informal mini-buses in Kenya), the projects promotes a new, low-cost and more practical vision of smart and transit-oriented cities.

34. Godman B, Fadare J, Kibuule D, Irawati L, Mubita M, Ogunleye O, Oluka M. "Initiatives across countries to reduce antibiotic utilization and resistance patterns: impact and implications.". In: Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria and Cancer. Switzerland: Springer International ; 2017.
Barasa L, Kimuyu P, Vermeulen P, Knoben J, Kinyanjui B. "Institutions, resources and innovation in East Africa: A firm level approach." Research Policy. 2017;46:280-291.
Matula PD, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. Instructional Supervision:Bridging Theory and Practice(A handbook for students and Lecturers). Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2017.
Kimunduu GM, MWANGI MIRIE, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Intervening Effect of Cash Holdings in the Relationship Between Financial Performance and Dividend Policy." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(28):264-281. Abstract

Many studies on relationship between financial performance and
dividend policy have resulted to controversial outcome with few studies
questioning the intervening effect of cash holdings. The purpose of this study
was to evaluate the effect of cash holdings on the relationship between
financial performance and dividend policy. The study applied positivism
research philosophy and descriptive causal research design. The study was
anchored on hypothetical view that the relationship between financial
performance and dividend policy of firms listed at the Nairobi securities
exchange is not intervened by cash holdings which was tested against a
sample size of 31 firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange selected
using purposive sampling technique. The research findings were as follows:
There was a significant direct association between operating cash flows and
dividend policy which was intervened by cash holdings. In general it was
concluded that the link between financial performance and dividend policy
of firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange was significant. The study
outcome augment existing knowledge on financial performance and dividend
policy for it is evident that firms with ability to generate income directly
influence dividend payout ratio and therefore, top management should
enhance financial performance an

Ren Y, Gallucci JC, Kinghorn DA. "An Intramolecular CAr–H••• O= C Hydrogen Bond and the Configuration of Rotenoids." Planta medica. 2017;83(14/15):1194-1199. Abstract

Over the past half a century, the structure and configuration of the rotenoids, a group of natural products showing multiple promising bioactivities, have been established by interpretation of their NMR and electronic circular dichroism spectra and confirmed by analysis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The chemical shift of the H-6′ 1H NMR resonance has been found to be an indicator of either a cis or trans C/D ring system. In the present study, four structures representing the central rings of a cis-, a trans-, a dehydro-, and an oxadehydro-rotenoid have been plotted using the Mercury program based on X-ray crystal structures reported previously, with the conformations of the C/D ring system, the local bond lengths or interatomic distances, hydrogen bond angles, and the H-6′ chemical shift of these compounds presented. It is shown for the first time that a trans-fused C/D ring system of rotenoids is preferred for …

Kariuki MI. Introduction to Financial Accounting. Nairobi,Kenya: Simpet Kenya Limited.; 2017.
Mwaniki OK, Abongo DA, Onyatta JO, Kithure JG. "Investigating the Effects of Formulation and Geographical Location on Degradation of Carbendazim in French Beans, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technolodge . 2017;5(2):44-51.
Kalui DM, Moturi CA, Muketha GM, Tarus JK. "An Investigation into Customers' Requirements for Electronic Banking: A Case Study of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. 2017;8(2):39-54. AbstractIGI Global

There is a general consensus that governments, businesses and all individuals need to harness the power of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and ICT enabled services for wider access and improved welfare standards. The requirements of MFI clients in regard to electronic banking (e- banking) have received limited attention in the reviewed literature. In Kenya, little is known and understood about the customers' requirements with emergence of e-banking. In this paper, the authors investigate the MFIs clients' e-banking requirements to align with the MFIs preparedness for sustainable success. Besides, it narrows the digital divide in provision of financial services to Kenyans. Findings from this study indicate that in Kenya, MFI clients are ready for e-banking. The paper finally recommends some possible solutions that MFIs could embrace towards successful implementation of e-banking.

Mbugua JK, Mbui D, Kamau GN. "Investigation of Rate of Photo-Degradation of Chlorothalonil, Lambda Cyhalothrin, Pentachlorophenol and Chlropysis on Tomato and Spinach." Mod Chem Appl. 2017;5(200):2. AbstractMod Chem Appl

Description
Photo-degradation of common pesticides and herbicides on the surface of tomato fruit and spinach leaves were studied. Samples were spiked with 100 mg/ml of lambda cyhalothrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyriphos and pentachlorophenol standard solutions in acetone. Thy were air dried for 1 minute and exposed to light of various intensities; sunlight, 40 w, 60 w, 75 w and 100 w bulbs after spreading on the surface of spinach and tomatoes for 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes and then washed in acetone. The pesticide concentration in the samples was analyzed with a UV Visible spectrophotometer. The rate of degradation of chlorothalonil, lambda cyhalothrin, pentachlorophenol and chlorpyriphos was also calculated and rate constants obtained for each residue. The results obtained indicated that the 100 W bulb degradation ranged from 20-95% for all the molecules in both tomato fruit and spinach leave surface. The residues breakdown followed a 1st order kinetics.

Loonturot PS, Mwero JN, Kabubo CK. "Laterized Quarry Dust and Crushed Bricks as Alternative Concrete Making Materials." Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017;Vol 3(1):1-14.
Kaimenyi C., Kidombo H, T. S. "Legal Framework and Implementation of Workforce Diversity Policies in Public Universities in Kenya.". In: Africa at Development Crossroads .; 2017.
Njuguna NM, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN. "A liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;51(2):153-158. Abstract

A simple, rapid isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups commonly available in the Kenyan market. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, ion pairing agent, buffer concentration as well as pH and column temperature on the selectivity with respect to analytes was investigated. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Gemini NX column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40°C and a mobile phase comprising methanol –triethylamine-0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 -water mixture (50:0.15: 40:9.85, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Upon validation, the proposed liquid chromatography method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and robustness. The method was applied in the analysis of commercial samples obtained from Nairobi County, Kenya. The method can be used in routine analysis of cold-cough syrups containing the specified compounds.

Keywords: diphenhydramine; promethazine; chlorpheniramine; ephedrine, cold-cough syrups.

Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living-Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017;32(2):134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related organ donation is practiced in Kenya. Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta national hospital from the 2010. The duration from 2010-2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this period but only 113 complete records were traceable. There were 113 medical records for both kidney graft donors and recipients from 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor-recipient relationships. The mean donor age was 32.94

Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1(4):268-274.
Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety,. 2017;1(4):268-274.
k Kaitany B, Mulaku MN, Amugune BK, Guantai EM. "Management of type 2 diabetes at Vihiga county referral hospital, Kenya: compliance with guidelines and prevalence of complications." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2017;Vol. 6(No. 1 , February 2017 ).
Kaitany BK, Mulaku MN, Amugune BK, Guantai EM. "Management of Type 2 Diabetes at Vihiga County referral hospital, Kenya: compliance with guidelines and prevalence of complications." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2017;6(1):43-47.
Derese S, Guantai EM, Yaouba S, Kuete V. "Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae).". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa. London: Elsevier Academic Press; 2017.
Kamau LN, Mbaabu PM, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes by traditional healers of 2338 Narok County, Kenya." Tang Humanitas Medicine. 2017;7(2):1-10.
Kamau LN, Mathiu M, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama S. "Medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes by traditional healers of Narok County, Kenya.". 2017;7(2):1-10.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Influence of External Resistors on Power, Current and Power Density." Journal of Thermodynamics & Catalysis. 2017;8(1):1-5. Abstract

The effect of external resistance on voltage, current, power, power density and current density is investigated in a microbial fuel cells using cowdung is investigated. This involves use of varying resistance resistors. The fuel cells were operated under anaerobic condition for 9 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using lamp wicks and potassium chloride. The obtained results indicated that the maximum voltage was on day 7 with 0.153 V across 33 kΩ resistor. The power was in the range of 0.000001 to 0.01 mW, current density was in the 0.1 to 23.29 mA/m2
range while the power density was in 7.5 × 10-7 to 3.1036 mW/m2 range.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB, Kamau GN. "Microbial fuel cells: influence of external resistors on power, current and power density." J Thermodyn Catal. 2017;8(1):100-182. AbstractJ Thermodyn Catal

Description
Copyright:© 2017 Kamau JM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Mose BR, Kil SD, Mbuya TO. "Microstructure and mechanical performance of a secondary cast aluminium piston alloy with minor element additions." International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2017;30(6):348-355. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/13640461.2017.1323455

The effect of individual and combined minor element additions (Sr, Sb, Mn, Cr and Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner) on microstructure and mechanical performance of a secondary cast aluminium piston alloy, with 1 wt-% Fe was investigated. It was observed that addition of Cr of up to 1% was better than a 0.53%Mn addition in improving tensile strength, impact energy and percent elongation of the alloy. The high mechanical performance recorded with addition of 1%Cr alloy was attributed to the significant reduction in porosity levels compared to all other minor element additions. It also resulted in a microstructure with fine compact intermetallic compounds. Other element additions also resulted in improved mechanical properties with 0.53%Mn performing better than 0.3%Mn + 0.2%Cr. Marginal improvements in mechanical performance were recorded with addition of 0.02%Sr (or 0.05%) and 0.02%Sb individually or in combination with 0.53%Mn. This was attributed to general increase in porosity and volume fraction of intermetallics.

Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kinyua AW, Okumu PO, Kiama SG. "Mitigative effects of Moringa Oleifera against liver injury induced by artesunate-amodiaquine antimalarial combination in wistar rats." Clinical Phytoscience. 2017;3(18):1-8.mitigative_effects_of_moringa_oleifera_against_liv.pdf
Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kinyua AW, Okumu PO, Kiama SG. "Mitigative effects of Moringa oleifera against liver injury induced by artesunate-amodiaquine antimalarial combination in wistar rats." Clinical Phytoscience,. 2017;3(1):18.mitigative_effect_moringa.pdf
Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kinyua AW, Okumu PO, Kiama SG. "Mitigative effects of Moringa oleifera against liver injury induced by artesunate-amodiaquine antimalarial combination in wistar rats." Clinical Phytoscience,. 2017;3(1):18.
Kasangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R, Angiro C, Agapitus Kato, Masembe C. "Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers reveal low genetic variation and the presence of two honey bee races in Uganda’s agro-ecological zones." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(2):112-121.
Wakoko-Studstill  F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health.". 2017.
Wakoko-Studstill F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health. The Pan African Medical Journal." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2017;27(4):18.
Mbugua JK, Guto PM, Madadi VO, Kamau GN. "Modeling of Experimental Adsorption Isotherm Data for Chlorothalonil by Nairobi River Sediment." IJSRSET,. 2017;3(5):259-268.
C.M. M, Towett PK, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke’s hinged tortoise ( Kiniskys spekii ). https://doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12374." .Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017; 40(5):439-446. AbstractWebsite

Abstract:
The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α2-adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37.5 μg/kg or 50 μg/kg, respectively, caused a highly significant reduction in the duration of the formalin-induced pain-related behaviour. The effect of clonidine was reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine at a dose of 26.7 μg/kg. The effect of yohimbine at a dose of 50 μg/kg was reversed by intrathecal injection of 20 μg/kg of the serotonergic receptor antagonist methysergide maleate. When performing antagonistic reactions, the administration of the antagonist was followed immediately by that of the agonist. The study indicates that for experimental purposes, intrathecal route of drug administration through the atlanto-occipital joint is effective in tortoises. The data also suggest that testudines have noradrenergic and serotonergic systems that appear to play a role in the modulation of pain in this species.

Mgalula ME, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Monitoring Vegetation Index Dynamics in Semi-Arid Rangelands Using Rainfall, Ground Survey and MODIS Data.". 2017. Abstract

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Kevin John Oratungye, Oludhe C, Moses Mwangi Manene, Komutunga E. "A multivariate analysis approach in determining potential hotspots of seasonal rainfall change over Uganda." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2017;2(1):31-41. AbstractWebsite

Evidence of climate change continues to emerge in Uganda as indicated by recent floods in Teso subregion and Kasese district, landslides in Bududa and long droughts experienced in Karamoja. The major objective of the study was to identify potential hotspots of rainfall change in Uganda during March-May and October-December seasons. Monthly rainfall data for the period extending from 1951 to 2010 were used in the study. ArcGIS, a geographic information system tool was used to determine geographical areas that have experienced changes in seasonal rainfall over the decades 1981-2010 relative to the longterm mean (1951-2010). Mbale, Mbarara and Moroto were identified as areas of potential rainfall change. The historical rainfall series for the identified areas were tested for inhomogeneities using Standard Normal Homogeneity and Pettitt tests and found to be homogenous. Multivariate two-sample Hotelling T2-test was used to generate evidence of rainfall change in the identified areas by comparing mean seasonal rainfall vectors between the sub-periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. Results indicated a significant simultaneous decrease in mean rainfall over Moroto and Mbarara areas across the March-May season with April having the highest decrease (11 mm and 18 mm respectively). Mean rainfall in Mbale was found to have increased simultaneously across both wet seasons with April and October experiencing the greatest increase (10 mm apiece). These changes have detrimental effects on crop and livestock farming as well as human lives. There is need for increased climate change adaptation and resilience action in the …

Kimilu RK, Huang RF, C.M. H. "Non-Premixed Burner-Attached Jet Flames in Crossflow Pulsed at Resonance Frequency." Journal of Propulsion and Power. 2017;33(No. 6).
Mwamuye MM, Kariuki E, D O, Kabii J, Odongo D, Masiga D, Villinger J. "Novel Rickettsia and emergent tick-borne pathogens: A molecular survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya." Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2017;8(2): 208-218.
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Z-Score Use in Surgical Decision-Making in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2017;8(3):385-388.pa-ivs_optimal_z_score_use_in_decision_making_awori_2017.pdf
Masai ST, Apolot OF, Ngʹwono OM, Kuria KTK, K CH, N MN. "Optimization and Validation of A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Nevirapine in Plasma." Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;9(5):175-181.
B K, Kaluli J.W, P N, G T’o. "Optimization of Maerua Decumbent bio-coagulant in paint industry wastewater treatment with response surface methodology." Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;164:1124-1134.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Organization and Performance of Water Resource Users’ associations in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2017;20 (3):401-4011.
Odira, B. A, Kimando N, Migosi J. "Organizational Factors Influencing Uptake of Women Enterprise Fund Credit in Kitui Central Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of social sciences and entrepreneurship. 2017;6(1):54-66.
UD A, K K, Gachago MM, A M. Outcome Of Age-Related Cataract Surgery At Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria In Year 2015. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Mukaria SM, Raphael G. Wahome, Michael Gatari, Thenya T, Karatu K. "Particulate Matter from Motor Vehicles in Nairobi Road Junctions Kenya." Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017;5( 2):62-68.
Kibui AW. "Pedagogical implication of schemata on reading comprehension in the English language." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2017;5 (4):89-94.
Omondi CJ, Onguru D, Kamau L, Nanyingi M, Ong’amo G, Estambale B. "Perennial transmission of malaria in the low altitude areas of Baringo County, Kenya." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):257.
Wang’ondu VW, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2017;16(2):41-51.
LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Mubenga O, Chipabika G, Ndemah R, Bani G, Molo R, Ong’amo GO, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini), with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics ." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TAXONOMY . 2017;270:1-36.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Sezonlin M, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogeny and systematics of the Acrapex apicestriata (Bethune-Baker, 1911) species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of eight new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(2):106-130.
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;DOI 10.1007/s40858-016-0114-4.
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractSpringerLink

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractFull Text

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, S MJ. "Plant species composition and diversity depending on piospheres and seasonality in the southern rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes, 6(1), 16.. 2017;6(1):16.
Mutala TM, Lazaro E, Odhiambo AO, Kimani NM. "Positive predictive value of prostatic multiparametric MRI in patients with high PSA levels: Nairobi experience." Cancer Imaging. 2017;17(Supp 1):29.
Nyamu DG, Guantai AN, Osanjo GO, Mwatha E, Gitonga I, Kanyiri ML. "Predictors of Adequate Ambulatory Anticoagulation Services among Adult Patients in a Tertiary Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):20-26. Abstract2017_-_predictors_of_adequate_ambulatory_anticoagulation_services.pdf

Background: Local anticoagulation services are inadequate and substantially underutilized despite compelling evidence showing that their appropriate use significantly reduces the risk of thromboembolic complications.
Objectives: To determine the predictors of adequate ambulatory anticoagulation services in Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methodology: A cross sectional study between December 2014 and April 2015 among 102 adult outpatients on anticoagulation using consecutive sampling was done. Information abstracted into a predesigned data collection tool included participants’ sociodemographic characteristics, regular sources of supply of anticoagulant, clinic pre-appointment reminders, indications of treatment and international normalized ratio tests. Data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 and logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of adequate anticoagulation, which was defined as international normalized ratio ranging 2 - 3.
Results: Females were majority (76.5 %) and only 27.5 % of patients had adequate anticoagulation control. The indication of warfarin for heart valve surgery (p=0.014) and deep venous thrombosis (p=0.021) were associated with adequate anticoagulation. Age above 60 years was associated with poor anticoagulation (p=0.006). Logistic regression revealed that the independent predictor of adequate anticoagulation was warfarin use due to heart valve surgery (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.2 – 7.9, p=0.017).
Conclusions: Ambulatory anticoagulation control in the hospital is poor. Further investigation is required to find out the reasons behind adequate anticoagulation in heart valve surgery patients.
Key Words: Ambulatory anticoagulation, anticoagulant, outpatient, international normalized ratio tests.

Butalanyi PK, Kiptoo J, Onditi A, Andala D, Bulimo W, Mwanza BK, Muchuna JK. "Preliminary Studies for Evaluation of a Fibre Optical Nano Chemical Sensor for Selected Carcinogenic Compounds." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. 2017;10(1):40-57.
Sheikh MA, Kemoli AM, Owino RO. "Prevalence of Dental caries and Gingivitis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus a ending an outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2017;2017;93(1); 82-88(2017;93(1); 82-88):2017;93(1); 82-88.
Mpatswenumugambo J, Bebora L, Gitao C, Mobegi V, Irahuga B, Kamana O, B S. "Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Distribution of Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Rubavu and Nyabihu Districts, Rwanda." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2017;(doi.org/10.1155/2017/8456713):1-8.jean_pierre.pdf
Alsanius BW, Kosiba AH, Onyango CM, Mogren L. "Produce quality and safety.". In: Rooftop Urban Agriculture. New York: Springer; 2017.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Properties of clinker and alkaline-activated aluminosilicates for experimental cements.". In: IADR AMER. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2017.
Omondi S, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Ochomo E, Muchoki M, KEMEI BRIGID, Mbogo C, Bayoh N. "Quantifying the intensity of permethrin insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes in western Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):548.
Kaniu MI, Angeyo HK, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2017. Abstract

This paper presents the radiometric survey results of the Mrima-Kiruku high
background radiation (HBR) anomaly complex of south coastal Kenya. Utilizing a portable γ-
ray spectrometer consisting of a 2.0 l NaI (Tl) backpack detector integrated with GPS to
perform the relevant in-situ radiometric measurements, a novel geospatial gating method
was devised to represent the measurements. The goal of this study was to assess radiation
exposure and associated natural radioactivity levels in the complex and to compare the

Kihanya, Oonge, Dulo. "Refinement of Gas generation estimates from anaerobic Lagoons." IOSR Journal of mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2017;14(5).
Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "Remarks on A-skew-adjoint, A-almost similarity equivalence and other operators in Hilbert space." Pure and Applied Mathematics Journal. 2017;6(3):101-107. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
In this paper, notions of A-almost similarity and the Lie algebra of A-skew-adjoint operators in Hilbert space are introduced. In this context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. It is shown that A-almost similarity is an equivalence relation. Conditions under which A-almost similarity implies similarity are outlined and in which case their spectra is located. Conditions under which an A-skew adjoint operator reduces to a skew adjoint operator are also given. By relaxing some conditions on normal and unitary operators, new results on A -normal, binormal and A-binormal operators are proved. Finally A-skew adjoint operators are characterized and the relationship between A-self- adjoint and A-skew adjoint operators is given.

Kipkorir A, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Removal of Fluoride Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Water Hyacinth Biomass as a Low-Cost Adsorbent." Elixir International Journal. 2017;110:48158-48161.
Kigwilu, P. C. A& WJ. "Resource utilization and curriculum Implementation in community colleges in Kenya." International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET. 2017;4(4):369-381.
KW M, Mbuthia P G, RM W, J N, JW M, Njagi L W, RH M, RH M, SK M. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Keter L, Too R, Mwikwabe N, Mutai C, Orwa J, Mwamburi L, Ndwigah S, Bii C, Korir R. "Risk of Fungi Associated with Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Medicinal Herbal Products in the Kenyan Market. ." The Scientific World Journal . 2017;2017:1-6.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11. Abstract

A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was
developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The
optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised
of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH2PO4 pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59
v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase
XTerra® (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range 50%–150% (r2 = 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.02% (20 μg) and 0.078% (78 μg), respectively, with a 100.7% recovery of azithromycin. Degradation products of azithromycin in acidic and oxidative environments at 37 °C were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient and thus the method is fit for the purpose of drug stability confirmation.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11.
Karema FM, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of commercial motorcycles in alleviating poverty in rural areas: a case study of Laikipia East Sub-County." World Review of Intermodal Transport Research. 2017;Volume 6(Issue No. 2):pp 155-175.
Khatete I. W., Mogute P.K., Kebenei P. J. "School Management Committees’ Influence on Provision of Teaching/Learning Resources in Public Primary Schools in Kenya; A Case of Kisii South Sub-County." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2).abstract_4.doc
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Ochwoto M, Korir R, Ngetich RK, Nginya G. "Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya." PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2017;11(9):e0005901.
Bayissa W, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, KAAYA GP, Wagacha JM, R Hanna, Maniania NK. "Selection of fungal isolates for virulence against three aphid pest species of crucifers and okra." Journal of pest science. 2017;90(1):355-368.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI. "Selection of impression materials and techniques by dentists in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(12):1040-1051.selectionofimpressionmaterialsandtechniquesemployedbydentists_kisumbietal2017.pdf
Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK, Shah, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Sero-prevalence of avian leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(3).
Nanyingi MO, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Ade F, Onyango CO, Kiama SG, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological survey of Rift Valley Fever in ruminants in Garissa, Kenya." Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases. 2017;2:141-146.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kimuyu DM, Sensenig RL, Chira RM, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Young TP. "Spatial scales influence long-term response of herbivores to prescribed burning in a savanna ecosystem." International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2017;26(4):287-295.
Kibui AW. "Stakeholders' perspective on disciplinary problems in Kenya's secondary schools." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2017;5(5):95-102.
Bwana M, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Bebora L, Wahome M, Mutinda W, Kitala P. "Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya." Poultry Science journal. 2017;97:447-454.
Kaluku LNEN&. "A study of students’ performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education with special reference to Biology." IJRDO-Journal of Educational Research. 2017;2(3):191-201.
Demmler K. M, Klasen S, Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):1-18.
Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Mararo E, Villinger J. "A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields." Crop protection. 2017;92:114-121. AbstractFull Text

The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne is one of the most economically damaging plant parasitic nematode groups, and are widely distributed in Kenyan agro-ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of Meloidogyne species in Kenyan sweet potato fields and identify sweet potato varieties that exhibit resistance to M. incognita. Meloidogyne species were collected from Nyanza, Western, Eastern and Central Provinces of Kenya. Mitochondrial DNA was used to differentiate Meloidogyne species. The most common species in all sampled regions was M. incognita. Meloidogyne hapla was recorded for the first time in Kenyan sweet potato growing areas (Mosocho, Matayos, Teso South, Manyatta, and Nzaui sub-counties), while M. enterolobii was observed in Kiharu, Matayos and Mosocho sub-counties and a novel Meloidogyne sp. was identified in Kiharu sub-county. Seventy-two sweet potato varieties collected from both agricultural fields and research stations in Kenya were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita under greenhouse conditions in two separate trials. Known susceptible (Beauregard) and resistant (Tanzania) sweet potato varieties were included as controls. Responses of sweet potato varieties to M. incognita infection was assessed by the number of eggs present and level of galling on a scale of 1–5, where 0 = 0 galls and 5 ≥ 100 galls. The reproduction index (RI) was used to classify the varieties as resistant or susceptible. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in the number of eggs, GI and RI among the varieties tested. Forty nine sweet potato varieties were considered very resistant and may be used in breeding programs to incorporate resistance against M. incognita into commercial cultivars of sweet potato or to use them in crop rotation programmes for management of RKN. The results on Meloidogyne species diversity in Kenyan sweet potato fields will also be useful in nematode management programs

Boaz N, Wachira P, Kagot V, Okoth S. "Susceptibility of locally cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties to aflatoxin accumulation in Homa Bay County, Kenya." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017;Vol. 11(33 ):1329-1337.
Kahiga, Ruth M; Gatumu JNJC;. "SUSTAINABILITY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN NAIROBI AND NYERI COUNTIES." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017.
Opanga SA, Mulaku MN, Okalebo FA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Kuria KAM. "Systematic review, meta-analysis and grading of evidence on the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis for neurosurgical site infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):1-13.
Kingi, P. M. AKOGA &. "Teachers’ Level of Participation in Management of Change in Relation to Curriculum and Instruction and its Effects on Teachers Motivation in Selected Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research. 2017;4(12):3316-3322.
Milford C, Kriel Y, Njau I, Nkole T, P G, Cordero JP, Smit JA, Steyn PS, Team UPTAKEP. "Teamwork in Qualitative Research: Descriptions of a Multicountry Team Approach." International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2017;16 :1-10 .teamwork_in_qualitative_research.pdf
Kemoli AM. "The threat to the survival of the permanent first molar in children from developing nations." EC Dental Science. 2017;(2017): 120-124((2017): 120-124):(2017): 120-124.
Onsomu Z, Kaijage E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Tolerance, Demographics and Portfolio Performance." Journal of Business and Economic Policy. 2017;4(3):69-74.
Marco M, Deyou T, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. Two pterocarpans from Millettia dura and Millettia micans.; 2017.paper_86_marco_et_al-2017.pdf
Theuri A, Kaindi DWM, Mbugua SK, Karuri EG. "Under-fives rickets in a tropical dairy farming region Kiambu County, Kenya." JIARM. 2017;5(5):10-21.theuri_et_al._2017_abstract.pdf
AN P, PA M, KW O, J K, Omondi O. "Unilateral spontaneous tubal twin ectopic pregnancy: a rare occurrence." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6:819-823.
Mungai C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P. "Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya." springer link. 2017:587-601. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved.This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among the youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises of both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions which focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

Mungai C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P. Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya. Cham: Springer; 2017. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved. This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate-smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age, and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops, for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence the adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions that focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural, and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

Karimurio J, Rono H, Njomo D, Sironka J, Kareko C, Gichangi M, Barasa E, A M, Kefa R, Kiio F. "Use of validated community-based trachoma trichiasis (TT) case finders to measure the total backlog and detect when elimination threshold is achieved: a TT methodology paper." Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:18.
Nyagah PG, Onyambu CK, Kimani NM, Wambugu M, Aywak AA. "Utility of chest radiographs in management of patients in the intensive care unit at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9):718-734.
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Kabinga SK, Kayima J, MCLIGEYO SO, Wambugu B, NGIGI J, Chege R, Mutiso J. "Vascular thrombosis in patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis using indwelling venous catheters: Case reports and literature review." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2017;36(1):110-117. Abstract

Vascular access is key in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Thrombosis is a
significant contributor of access – associated morbidity. There are several documented risk factors that
predispose to thrombosis in patients with end stage renal disease. These include: inflammation, erythropoietin
therapy, hypotension, diabetes and old age among others. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients is
challenging. We present three cases of acute vascular thrombosis attended to in the Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi-Kenya, East Africa, renal department in one week and literature review.
Keywords: Vascular thrombosis; Haemodialysis catheter; endstage renal disease.

Wasonga OV, Musembi J, Rotich K, Jarso I, King-Okumu C. "Vegetation resources and their economic importance in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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Mutinda YA, Muthomi JW, Kimani JM, Cheminigw’wa GN, Olubayo FM. "Viability and Dormancy of Rice Seeds after Storage and Pre-treatment with Dry Heat and Chemical Agents." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(7):175-185.
Opanga Y, Opanga S, Mutisya R, Kaduka L. "Weight changes and associated factors among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy at a referral hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(3):134-141.
Kinoti MW, Kihiko MK, Cooney TM. "Women empowerment through Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) in Kenya.". In: Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017.
KIRUI G K, J. WANJARE, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F. "WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR CANE OUTGROWER COMPANIES IN KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research. 2017;2(4):ISSN: 2455-8834.
Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, jaldesa Guyo. "The ‘heat’goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya." Reproductive health. 2017;14(1):1-9.
Kibugi R. "Adaptation to climate change in smallholder agriculture in Kenya: the role of law.". In: Research Handbook on Climate Change and Agricultural Law. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017. Abstract
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Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya–A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract
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