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2018
Gakuu, C. M., Kidombo HJ, Keiyoro PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application.. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2018.
Mwaniki JM. Generator Sound Proof Container.; 2018.
Kivisi Mbali, Mutembei Henry MJ. "Governance Aspects on Adoption of Biogas Technology in." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):81-86.mutembei-mbali-governance-2018.pdf
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kahiga RM. "Health, well-being and welfare in childhood in Kenya." Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies.. 2018.
Pweke, D. B. Ntwiga, Ogutu C, Kirumbu MK. "A Hidden Markov Model of Risk Classification among the Low Income Earners." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2018;6, (6):242-249 . AbstractWebsite

Low income earners have volatile incomes and most financial providers shun this group of borrowers even though they are motivated in managing the limited resources they have through savings and investments as a means to lower the fluctuations of their income. Peer groupings of the low income earners can assist in pooling the resources they have and improve the group risk mitigation process as group members act like social collateral in credit lending. The study used Kenya Kenya Financial Diaries data of 2013 from 280 households to analyze and understand the credit quality levels and credit scores of peer groups versus individuals among men and women. Hidden Markov model classified the low income earners into credit risk profiles wih a view of understanding the role of groups in low income group lending. Peer groups diversify risk inherent in individual borrowers with women only groups having higher credit quality levels as compared to men only groups. Women and their respective peer groups are more stable with less variability as compared to men. Financial technology providers can incorporate the wide array of soft information to lend to low income earners through mobile based peer groups.

Ntwiga DB, Ogutu C, Kirumbi M, Weke P. "A Hidden Markov Model of Risk Classification among the Low Income Earners,." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2018;6(6):242-249.
M.M K, K’ Obonyo P., M. O. "Human resource information system and competitive advantage of companies listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal Of Economics, Commerce And Management. 2018;6(1).
Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry . 2018;153:198-207. Abstract

Direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissues is important because it has an immense potential for biomedical applications. Unfortunately this is challenging because soft body tissues are characterized by dark matrix problems, weak analyte fluorescence, scattering, poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the analyte and spectral overlaps due to the properties of the detector and detection process. We report on hybridized utility of robust chemometrics approach for spectral preprocessing towards improving the quality of spectra towards quantitative analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissue. The study was based on (5–20 µm thick) paraffin wax model ‘standards’ spiked with biometals Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Na and Mg. Wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used conjointly for de-noising and mathematical enhancement of resolution. There was improved SNR of spectra by a factor of 3 compared to use of WT alone. The preprocessed spectra were used as input to artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) models for developing multivariate calibration strategies for quantitative analysis. Both models predicted the concentrations of the biometals better than when raw spectra were utilized (R2 ~ 0.892–0.954 before, and ~ 0.990–0.998 after preprocessing for ANNs; and R2 ~ 0.876–0.931 before, and ~ 0.977–0.992 after preprocessing for PLS). There was also improvement in prediction of Na and Mg in model tissue when both fluorescence and scatter were utilized conjointly (EDXRFS) i.e. R2 = 0.970 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.998 for both fluorescence and scatter for Na; and R2 = 0.934 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.993 for both fluorescence and scatter for Mg for ANN model. The accuracy of the calibration model was tested using Oyster tissue (NIST 1566b). The results of all analyzed elements were in agreement with certified values to ≤ 6%. This shows proof-of-concept for use of hybridized robust chemometrics approaches for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in soft tissue utilizing EDXRFS spectrometry; an approach that has potential for biomedical applications of EDXRF.

KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2018;153:198-207.
C. Siderius, K. E. Gannon, M. Ndiyoi, A. Opere, N. Batisani, D.Olago, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological Response and Complex Impact Pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." International Journal of Earth’s Future. 2018; RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2017EF000680.
Sirma AJ, Lindahl JF, Makita K, Senerwa D, Mtimet N, Kangethe EK, D.Grace. "The impacts of aflatoxin standards on health and nutrition in sub-saharan Africa: The case of Kenya ." Global food security . 2018;18:57-61.
Kathambi BE, Mutembei HM’I. "Implementing sustainable development Goals 1, 3.9, 7, and 13 through adoption of green concept in environmental management: Case of Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Science. 2018;12(3):1-10.
Mwangi W, KIMANI M, Syagga P, Museleku E. "Implications of Agricultural Land Subdivision on Productivity, A Case of Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2018;2(6).
Matiang’i M, Kibwage I, Ngatia P, Omoni G, Kiarie J, Bosire K, Inyama H, Muiruri F. "Improving access to Higher education for front-line health professionals in Kenya through Blended eLearning ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s health. 2018;12(2).
Kinyanyi D, Obiero G, Amwayi P, Mwaniki S. "In silico structural and functional prediction of African swine fever virus protein-B263R reveals features of a TATA-binding protein." PeerJ Inc.. 2018;6(3):e4396. Abstract

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of ASF, a fatal hemorrhagic fever that affects domestic pigs. There is currently no vaccine against ASFV, making it a significant threat to the pork industry. The ASFV genome sequence has been published; however, about half of ASFV open reading frames have not been characterized in terms of their structure and function despite being essential for our understanding of ASFV pathogenicity. The present study reports the three-dimensional structure and function of uncharacterized protein, pB263R (NP_042780. 1), an open reading frame found in all ASFV strains. Sequence-based profiling and hidden Markov model search methods were used to identify remote pB263R homologs. Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) was used to model the three-dimensional structure of pB263R. The posterior probability of fold family assignment was calculated using TM-fold, and biological function was assigned using TM-site, RaptorXBinding, Gene Ontology, and TM-align. Our results suggests that pB263R has the features of a TATA-binding protein and is thus likely to be involved in viral gene transcription.

Omole RA, Malebo HM, Nondo RSO, Katani S, Mbugi H, Midiwo J, Moshi MJ. "In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of Crude Extracts of Three Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for Malaria Treatment in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2018;24(4):1-7. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of three plants Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii which are used for malaria treatment by indigenous communities in Kenya. This work was done at the Department of Biological and Preclinical studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences in October 2016 to August 2017. Male and female albino mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) in the Peter’s four day suppression test. Five groups of mice; Group 1 (solvent: 5 mL/kg body weight of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose), Group 5 (10 mg/kg body weight chloroquine), Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of plant extracts. The results showed that 5% aqueous methanol extracts of R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis exhibited higher anti-plasmodial activity than the 1:1 dichloromethane: methanol extracts in the preliminary testing. The doses showing 50% parasite suppression (EC50) were 139.2, 169.4 and 245.1 mg/kg body weight for R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis, respectively. In vivo anti-plasmodial activity of the three plants has supported the traditional use of extracts of Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii for treatment of malaria. Isolation of compounds from these plants is in progress.

Mutavi T, A O, Kokonya D, L K, A M, M M. "Incidence of depressive symptoms among sexually abused children in Kenya." Child Adolesc Psychiatry Mental Health. 2018;12(40).
Mutavi T, A O, M M, Kokonya D, M D-G. "Incidence of Self-Esteem among Children Exposed to Sexual Abuse in Kenya, Global Social Welfare." Global Social Welfare. 2018;5(1):39-47.
Ntwiga DB;, Ogutu C;, Kirumbu MK. "Inclusion of peer group and individual low-income earners in M-Shwari micro-credit lending: a hidden Markov model approach." International Journal of Electronic Finance . 2018;9(2). AbstractWebsite

The M-Shwari micro-credit lending system has excluded the low income earners as they lack good financial options due to volatile and fluctuating income. This paper proposes a decision support system for credit scoring and lending of the low income earners who are customers of M-Shwari using the hidden Markov model. The model emits the credit scores of the customers, both for the peer groups and the individual customers. The learning and training of the model utilises the customers' socio-demographics, telecommunication characteristics and account activities. The peer groups have higher credit scores and are more attractive to offer credit facilities using M-Shwari when compared to the individual borrowers.

Davis B. Ntwiga, Ogutu C, Kirumbi M. "Inclusion of Peer Group and Individual Low–Income Earners in M-Shwari micro–credit Lending: A Hidden Markov Model." International Journal of Electronic Finance. 2018;9(2):121-133.
Maore, S., Munyoki, J.M., Kinoti M, J. O. "Influence of Brand Management Practices on Consumer Satisfaction among Universities in Kenya,." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research. 2018;51:23-33.
Kamau NP, M. DMM. "Influence of Managerial Skills on Growth of Projects in Kenya: A Case of Uwezo Funded Youth Projects in Thika Town." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,. 2018;8(9):575-585.kamau_publication.pdf
Kazungu TW, Gatumu JC, Origa JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Influence of Teachers' Pedagogical Preparedness on Students' Performance in Kiswahili Writing Skills in Secondary Schools in Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2018;Volume 2(6):16-35.
Mbusa HK, Ngugi K, Olubayo FM, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "The Inheritance of Yield Components and Beta Carotene Content in Sweet Potato." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):71-81.
Shah P, Krhoda G. Innovations for a Better Tomorrow: Human-Wildlife Interface in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kemboi E, Agwata JF, Anyango SO. "Institutional Impact on Pastoral Community Resilience to Drought in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) . 2018;7(9).
Gitahi N, Gicheru MM, Gathura PB, Karanja NK, Githinji WT, Nordin A. "Internalization of enteropathogenic human bacteria in lettuce and coriander plant tissue." ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences. 2018;Vol. 5(3): 28-32.
Gachoka, J.M., Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Intervening Effect of Internal Controls on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):53-79.
Muasya, Juliet N, Kahiga, Ruth M. "Invisible Obstacle' to Gender Equality: Gender Stereotype Messages in Early Childhood Education Books in Kenya." Global Journal of Educational Studies. 2018;4(1):69-89.
Karibe Wilson, Kunyanga Catherine IJ. "Isolation and Characterization of Probiotic Microorganisms from the Bovine Tripe." Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;3(2):58-65.
Kuria JKN, Ngethe EW, Kabuage LW, Gathura PB. "Isolation of Campylobacter spp and Escherichia coli 0157: H7 from free-range indigenous chicken value chain in Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(1):1116-1124.
Karoki WH, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Njagi LW. "Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages sold in Nairobi County." Hindawi International Journal of Food Science. 2018;Article ID 3861265(https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3861265).
L.C. B, Karanja DN, Njagi LW, Karoki WH. "Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Food Science. 2018;2018.abstract.pdf
Karoki WH, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Njagi LW. "Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Food Science . 2018;2018.
Mutembei HM’I, Kathambi BE. "The Kenyan Perspective on Adoption of Green Concept in Biodiversity Conservation: Case of Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Science. 2018;12(1):73-82.
Adeola O, Meru AK, Kinoti MW. "Kenya’s blooming flower industry: enhancing global competitiveness.". In: Africa’s Competitiveness in the Global Economy. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham; 2018.
Kimanzi E, Ikua, MBUYA TO. "Key Performance Indicators for Manufacturing Safety in Paint Manufacturing: A Case of the Kenyan Industry." International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. 2018;7(3):43-47 . Abstracthttp://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV7IS030043

Manufacturing safety is a key priority in the success of any business, as it can affect both the present and future competitive position of an organization. Organizations must measure safety in order to find areas of weakness, and then implement actions aimed at raising safety levels. Industrial accidents in the chemical industry indicate a need for both leading and lagging indicators of safety in the workplace.

The purpose of this study was to formulate and validate a set of key performance indicators that can be used in the measurement and reporting of manufacturing safety, and ensure a safe working environment for the workers on a continuous basis. The final results consisted of 21 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), with fire safety being the most relevant KPI. The information gathered during a manufacturing safety performance measurement exercise can be used to implement activities directed towards reducing the level of worker exposure to health and safety risks within the factory, and thereby recommend application of these KPIs in managing of manufacturing safety in paint manufacturing and allied products industries.

Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
Kimeu M. "The Learning Resource Centre: Green building design in Nairobi”." Africa Habitat Review Journa. 2018;Volume 12 (Issue 12):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Konneh SS, Saleem A, Awange JL, Goncalves RM, Kiema JBK, Hu KX. "Liberia's coastal erosion vulnerability and LULC change analysis: Post-civil war and Ebola epidemic." Applied Geography. 2018;101:56-67.
S P, Simiyu BN, JY S, K T, FI W, KG DL, GES D, LV I. "Management of Mandibular Lateral Incisors with Vertucci Type II Canal Configuration." Journal of the Endodontic Society of the Philippines . 2018;11:19-23.
Shihembetsa DLU, Ketter GK. "MANAGING FLOODING IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF NAIROBI: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTH C." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge (IJIRK). . 2018;Vol-3, (Issue-9, September-2018 ):(27-43). ISSN-2213-1356.
Stephen F Omondi, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New Forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
Stephen F Omondi, Ongamo GO, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
Kumar M, Amugune B, Madeghe B, Wambua GN, Osok J, Polkonikova-Wamoto, Bukusi D, Were F, Huang KY. "Mechanisms associated with maternal adverse childhood experiences on offspring's mental health in Nairobi informal settlements: a mediational model testing approach." BMC psychiatry. 2018;18(1):381.
Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae D, Jung’a JO. "Metagenomic analysis of enteric bacterial pathogens affecting the performance of dairy cows in smallholder productions systems." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2018;12(17):387-398.
Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae D, Jungâ JO. "Metagenomic analysis of enteric bacterial pathogens affecting the performance of dairy cows in smallholder productions systems." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2018;12(17):387-398.
Karibe, Wilson G. KCIJNK. "Microbiological Status of Ready to Eat (RTE) Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions. ." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 2018;78:7-16.
Owino O. J., Kibera F, Musyoka R. "Microfinance market coverage and return on asset,." South East Asia Journal of Business, Economics and Law,. 2018.
Gachoka N, Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Moderating Effect of Organizational Characteristics on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):81-102.
Santis VD, Mwinami T, Chesire D, Musina J, Zaccara S, Kioko E, Owino JJ, Oduma JA, Ayiemba W, Harper DM, Crosa G. "Molecular pilot study on peripheral populations of Kenyan greenbul in an afromontane fragmented forest." African Journal of Ecology. 2018;56(3):610-619.
Ogeng’o J, H.Saidi, Kaisha W, Olabu B, Mumin A. "Morphology of the Left Atrial Appendage: Prevalence and Gender Diff erence in a Kenyan Population." Journal of Morphological Sciences. 2018;35(1): 1-86. Abstractmorphology_of_the_left_atrial_appendage_prevalence_and_gender_difference_in_a_kenyan_population.pdf

Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary urine loss, with the
prevalence of 17% to 24% in women over 65 years-old. It has a multifactorial cause,
being a condition that affects many people in all ages mainly postmenopausal women,
it is also found in athlete women who have a high level of training associated mainly to
high impact activities.
Objective The aim of this study is to conduct a literature review that relates the
influence of physical activity on functional performance and on UI among women on
the stage of aging.
Method The bibliographical review was done in Medline, Scielo, Pubmed and Sports-
Disco databases using the keywords physical activity or exercise, postmenopause or
aging and urinary incontinence and stress urinary incontinence.
Conclusion Elderly women engaged in a regular exercise program have a lower
incidence of UI.

and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade One. Teacher’s guide..; 2018.
and Kahiga, R. M. NKWR. Movement activities. Grade Three. Teacher’s guide.. Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
and and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade Two. Teacher’s guide.. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
Nyakagwa F, Bore M, Gachago M, Kiage D. A multicenter study of the outcomes of combined cataract and trabeculectomy surgery in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kitonyo OM, Sadras VO, Zhou Y, Denton MD. "Nitrogen supply and sink demand modulate the patterns of leaf senescence in maize." Field Crops Research. 2018;225:92-103.
Kwena, K.M., Ayuke, F.O., Karuku GN, Esilaba AO. "No rain but bumper harvest: the magic of pigeonpea in semi-arid Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, 14(2), pp.181-203.. 2018;14(2):181-203.
Kwena, K.M., Ayuke, F.O., Karuku GN, Esilaba AO. "No rain but bumper harvest: the magic of pigeonpea in semi-arid Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology. 2018;14(2):181-203.
Mainga AO, Cenci-Goga BT, Malahlela MN, Tshuma T, Kalake A, M K. "Occurrence and characterization of seven major Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes from healthy cattle on cow-calf operations in South Africa. Journal of Zoonoses." Journal of Zoonoses Public Health.. 2018;Nov; 65(7):777-789.
Pokhariya GP, Kikechi CB, Simwa RO. "On Local Linear Regression Estimation of Finite Population Totals in Model Based Surveys." American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 2018;7((3)):92-101 . Abstracthttp://thescipub.com/journals/ajas

In this paper, nonparametric regression is employed which provides an estimation of unknown finite population
totals. A robust estimator of finite population totals in model based inference is constructed using the procedure of local linear
regression. In particular, robustness properties of the proposed estimator are derived and a brief comparison between the
performances of the derived estimator and some existing estimators is made in terms of bias, MSE and relative efficiency.
Results indicate that the local linear regression estimator is more efficient and performing better than the Horvitz-Thompson
and Dorfman estimators, regardless of whether the model is specified or mispecified. The local linear regression estimator also
outperforms the linear regression estimator in all the populations except when the population is linear. The confidence
intervals generated by the model based local linear regression method are much tighter than those generated by the design
based Horvitz-Thompson method. Generally the model based approach outperforms the design based approach regardless of
whether the underlying model is correctly specified or not but that effect decreases as the model variance increases.
Keywords: Nonparametric Regression, Finite Population Totals, Local Linear Regression, Robustness Properties,
Confidence Intervals, Model Based Surveys

Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Use of Z-Scores to Preserve the Pulmonary Valve Annulus During Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2018;9(3):285-288.tet_z-score_of_tap_use_-awori-2018.pdf
Korir PC, Salim AM, Odalo JO, Waudo W, Gitu LM, Yusuf AO. "Optimization of Extraction Condition and Characterization of Malva Verticillata Root Bark Mucilage." International Journal of Chemistry. 2018;10(2):1-9. AbstractInternational Journal of Chemistry

Description
The study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions and establishing the physicochemical properties of the mucilage obtained from root bark of Malva verticillata. Effects of temperature, time, particle size and amount of water as a solvent on the yield and composition of mucilage were established. Micrometric, physical, chemical and structural properties were used to characterise the extracted mucilage. Result showed significant correlation between extraction conditions and mucilage yield. Low temperature and short extraction time results into pharmaceutically valuable mucilage with low protein content, high viscosity and good dispersion in aqueous solvent. Large and small size particles of the plant material results into low mucilage yield without significant difference (p= 0.054). The mucilage shows mixed cohesiveness with less tendencies to flow. It exhibits vibration bands in FTIR that are associated with the presence of polysaccharides and proteins. The mucilage contains 2.65% protein, 13.83% inorganics, 1.85% fats, and the rest carbohydrates. High extractive value˃ 80% and moisture content˃ 12% implies that mucilage has high tendency to microbial attack. Optimized extraction conditions results into high yield of the mucilage with the same physicochemical properties and mineral composition regardless of the plant material sampling sites.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., and Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya. ." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya. Carbon balance and management, 13(1), p.24." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
Wang’ondu V, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science . 2018;16 (2):41-51.
NJOROGE CECILIA, MANDE JOHNDEMESI, MITEMA SIMONERIC, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surgical patients and normal dogs." Bioteknologi Biotechnological Studies. 2018;15(1):13-25.
Maisori BM, Kinoti MW. "Point of Purchase Displays and Fixtures; Rationale for acceptance in Kenya Supermarkets." International Journal of Science and Business. 2018;2(2):153-181.
Okoth C, Opanga S, Okalebo F, Oluka M, Kurdi AB, Godman B. "Point prevalence survey of antibiotic use and resistance at a referral hospital in Kenya: findings and implications." Hospital Practice. 2018;46(3):128-136.okoth_et_al_2018.pdf
Okoth C, Opanga S, Okalebo F, Oluka M, Kurdi AB, Godman B. "Point prevalence survey of antibiotic use and resistance at a referral hospital in Kenya: findings and implications. ." Hospital Practice. 2018.
Boyle JH, Martins DJ, Pelaez J, Musili P, Kibet S, Kimani N, Kenfack D, Pierce NE. "Polygyny does not explain the superior competitive ability of dominant ant associates in the African ant‐plant, Acacia (Vachellia) drepanolobium)." Ecology and Evolution. 2018;8(3):1441-1450.
Boyle JH, Martins DJ, Pelaez J, Musili PM, Kibet S, Ndung’u SK, Kenfack D, N.E. P. "Polygyny does not explain the superior competitive ability of dominant ant associates in the African ant‐plant, Acacia(Vachellia) drepanolobium." Ecology and Evolution. 2018;8(3):1441-1450.
Ambuko J, Karithi E, M. Hutchinson, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, Owino W. "Postharvest shelf life of mango fruits stored in a CoolbotTM cold room." Acta Horticulturae . 2018:193-197.abstract.pdf
Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Ndungu JN. "Preparedness for renal replacement therapy among ambulant adult patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis in a referral hospital in Kenya: Kenyatta National hospital experience.". 2018. Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise locally and globally. The care for patients
with chronic kidney disease is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. The study aimed to explore the state of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy for patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta
National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. This cross-sectional descriptive study was to document the level of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy by the time the patients were initiated on haemodialysis. Despite
this contact with health provider before development of end stage kidney disease, 74.4% of the patients were
initiated on haemodialysis as emergency (p value 0.001) and 29.3% knew of dialysis as the only modality of
renal replacement therapy (p value <0.001). Acute catheters were used by about 85.30% of the patients as the
vascular access for initiation of haemodialysis with tunneled catheters use in 13.40% and arteriovenous fistulae
use in 1.2% (p value <0.001). Counseling and other supportive services such as health education and
nutritional counseling were not optimal was at least 20% of patients gave responses indicating deficiency of
information or knowledge in these domains. More than 40% of the patients had not been counseled about kidney
transplantation

Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Ndungu JN. "Preparedness for renal replacement therapy among ambulant adult patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis in a referral hospital in Kenya: Kenyatta National hospital experience.". 2018. Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise locally and globally. The care for patients
with chronic kidney disease is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. The study aimed to explore the state of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy for patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta
National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. This cross-sectional descriptive study was to document the level of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy by the time the patients were initiated on haemodialysis. Despite
this contact with health provider before development of end stage kidney disease, 74.4% of the patients were
initiated on haemodialysis as emergency (p value 0.001) and 29.3% knew of dialysis as the only modality of
renal replacement therapy (p value <0.001). Acute catheters were used by about 85.30% of the patients as the
vascular access for initiation of haemodialysis with tunneled catheters use in 13.40% and arteriovenous fistulae
use in 1.2% (p value <0.001). Counseling and other supportive services such as health education and
nutritional counseling were not optimal was at least 20% of patients gave responses indicating deficiency of
information or knowledge in these domains. More than 40% of the patients had not been counseled about kidney
transplantation

Tantawi ME, Folayan MO, FWACS, Mehaina M, Vukovic A, Castillo JL, Gaffar BO, Arheiam A, Al-Batayneh OB, Kemoli AM, Schroth RJ, Lee GHM. "Prevalence and data availability of early childhood caries in 193 United Nations Countries, 2007-2017." AJPH. 2018;8): 1066- 1072(8): 1066- 1072):8): 1066-1072.
Odongo DO, Tiampati CM, Mulinge E, Mbae CK, Bishop RP, Zeyhle E, Magambo J, Wasserman M, Kern P, Romig T. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya." Parasitology research. 2018;117(7):2065-2073.
Lamuka P, Mwihurih F, Gitao C, Matofari J, Khalif A, Kaliwa O. "Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance among Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Species from Camel Milk in Isiolo County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food sciences . 2018;6(1).ajafs.pdf
Lamuka P, Mwihurih F, Gitao C, Matofari J, Bowen R, Khalif A. "Prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in camel herds and associated public health risk factors in Isiolo County, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health Production . 2018;(DOI: 10.1007/s11250-017-1486-2).
Taiyebali MM, KAYIMA JK, Were AJO, Ogutu E. "PREVALENCE, SEVERITY AND OUTCOMES OF COMMUNITY ACQUIRED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN MEDICAL PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):24-28. Abstract

Introduction
Acute kidney injury (AKI) results in a decline in the glomerular filtration rate. It has a high
prevalence both in the developed and developing countries and is frequently encountered in
hospitalized patients; it has a negative impact on mortality and morbidity.
Objectives
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of community acquired acute kidney injury
in all patients admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital during the study
period, to determine the severity of acute kidney injury based on the KDIGO criteria and to
elucidate the associated risk factors of acute kidney injury. The management modalities were
described as well as their outcomes at the point of discharge or after 2 weeks.
Method
A longitudinal study was carried out on acute kidney injury at Kenyatta National Hospital. All
patients over the age of 13 years admitted to the general medical wards were followed up
prospectively for 2 weeks and those diagnosed to have AKI were assessed daily for severity, risk
factors and outcome
Results
A total of 136 patients were enrolled from August 20th 2016 to November 22nd 2016. The period
prevalence was found to be 8.1% at admission. Most of the patients had stage 1 AKI (51.5%)
while the rest had stage 2 and stage 3 AKI (48.6%). Only 2 patients underwent RRT. The median
length of stay was 9 days, 11 days and 10 days in stages 1, 2 and 3 respectively. There was no
association between AKI severity and length of hospital stay. 60% had non-recovery while 21
patients (18.6%) recovered fully and the more severe the AKI, the lesser the chances of recovery
with a p value of 0.045. The in-hospital all- cause mortality during the study period was 23
patients (16.9%). The severity of AKI increased the chances of mortality with a p value of
0.012. The commonest cause of AKI was pre-renal, followed by intrinsic then obstructive.
Conclusion
AKI is common in our environment. Similar findings have been noted in developed countries.
Prevalence and mortality in patients with AKI is high. The severity of AKI was associated with
non- recovery, mortality and need of renal replacement therapy with no association in the length
of hospital stay.

Kalai JM, Kingi PM. "Principals’ influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary Schools, Kenya,." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;5(2):168-175.
Kong'ani LNS, Thenya T. "Project Management Experience in Mau Ecosystem.". In: Forest Resources Utilization, Livelihoods and Conflicts. Synthesis of five-year research under the “Stabilizing Kenya through solving forest related conflicts project,” (STAKE) 2012-2016. Lambert publishers; 2018.
x James Karenge GGWM &. "Public Policy Marketing Practices and Performance of Poverty Reduction Projects in the Agricultural Sector in Central Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Humanities . 2018;4(2).
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2018;17:330. Abstract

Background:
Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world’s malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities. Sampling of anti-malarial medicines from public and private hospitals, health centers and pharmacies was conducted between May and June 2014. Quality control tests were performed at the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, University of Nairobi, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. A test for microbial load was also conducted for suspension formulations.

Results:
A total of 39 samples were collected from public and private facilities across the Embu County. A visual inspection of the medicines showed no signs of sub-standard or falsification. All ACT passed identification, assay and dissolution tests. Of 11 suspension samples collected, none failed the microbial load test although one sample had 50 colony forming units (cfu). No oral artemisinin monotherapy medicines were encountered during the survey. Amodiaquine and chloroquine monotherapy products accounted for 5% of the collected samples, despite their ban in Kenya. Two herbal anti-malarial formulations were collected during the survey. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was also found to be available use for malaria treatment, not in accordance with malaria treatment guidelines.

Conclusion:
All the anti-malarial drugs analysed in this study passed the quality control tests. This is encouraging given the high malaria burden in Kenya. Regulatory actions are required to counter SP and herbal products for malaria treatment.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal . 2018;17:30.
Kaniu MI, Angeyo KH, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." J. Environ. Radioact.. 2018;188:47-57. Abstract

n/a

Kalai JM. "Relationship between administrative service quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-ESTEEM OF WOMEN IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Technology . 2018;3(3):39-53.joyce_kinuthia-adult_education_and_self-esteem4._may_2018.pdf
Katembu MS, Okunya LO. "Relationship between Alcohol Use Disorder and Expression Suppression among Youth Seeking Help in Rehabilitation Centers in Kiambu County, Kenya ." Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity . 2018;2(2).
Wangui M, Gitao C, Gathumbi P, Kinge S. "Relationship Between Serum IgM Levels and Liver Function in Rubella and Measles Infection of Children Below Five Years in Nairobi County." . Asian Journal of Medical Sciences . 2018;9(2(DOI:10.19026/ajms.9.5927)):10-15.
Kalai, J.M.& Kara AM. "Relationship between teaching quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):63-78.
Mulwa  NN, Kitaa JMA, Muasya DW, Ngetich W. "Retrospective Study of Canine Hemoplasmosis in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2018.
Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
Kariuki PM, Onyango CM, Lukhoba CW, Njoka JT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018;28(2):1-9.
Kariuki PM, Cecilia M Onyango, Catherine W Lukhoba JNT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018:1-9.
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
M.E Y, Kimani PM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Muthomi JW. "Screening Upland Rice Genotypes for Grain Yield and Grain Quality in Kenya." Research journali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2018;5(7):1-15.
Kiiru J, Barasa L. "Securing inclusive growth: Mentorship, youth employment and employment creation in Kenya.". In: M. Ramutsindela, & D. Mickler ed., Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals. Cham: Springer; 2018.
MUTURI NE, Khalagai JM, Pokhariyal GP. "Separation axioms on function spaces defined on bitopological spaces." Journal of Advanced Studies in Topology. 2018;9(2):113-118. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we introduce separation axioms on the function space p− Cω(Y, Z) and study how they relateto separation axioms defined on the spaces (Z, δi) for i = 1, 2, (Z, δ1, δ2), 1 − Cς(Y, Z) and 2 − Cζ(Y, Z). Itis shown that the space p − Cω(Y, Z) is pT◦, pT1, pT2 and pregular, if the spaces (Z, δ1) and (Z, δ2) are bothT0, T1, T2 and regular respectively. The space p − Cω(Y, Z) is also shown to be pT0, pT1, pT2 and pregular,if the space (Z, δ1, δ2) is p − T0, p − T1, p − T2 and p-regular respectively. Finally, the space p − Cω(Y, Z) isshown to be pT0, pT1, pT2 and pregular, if and only if the spaces 1 − Cς(Y, Z) and 2 − Cζ(Y, Z) are both T0,T1, T2, and only if the spaces 1 − Cς(Y, Z) and 2 − Cζ(Y, Z) are both regular respectively.

Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The shrinking grazing fields of the Maasai land under the changing climate system in Kajiado County, Kenya. International Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development.". 2018. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the last decade experienced disruptions in their economies and livelihoods following climate shifts. For instance, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet information on the various land uses is still fragmented. This has been worsened by the shortening famine cycles which has impacted pastoral livelihood system as they highly depend on natural resource. Yet, these key resources have been dwindling over the past 30 years compromising their ability to meet basic need such as food. To address this gap, the study focused on long term evaluation of land use. The study’s objective was to determine land use transformations and their impacts particularly on the pastoral livelihood system.

Muia D, Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Social Capital as a Coping Mechanism for Women Small Scale Traders in the Informal Economy in Nairobi, Kenya ." Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights . 2018;6(1):13-20.
Ngugi J, Kimotho S, Muturi S. "Social Media Use By The Deaf In Business At Nairobi, Kenya." AJBUMA JOURNAL. 2018;4(3). Abstractdeaf_use_of_social_media_in_21st_century_business.pdfWebsite

Social media for business is the new frontier for deaf Kenyans, due to the information gap they often experience as they navigate a largely speaking and hearing world. This case studyon the use of social media platforms for business by the deaf in Nairobi includes a special emphasis on the convergence of their natural visual language, sign language with video technology. The research is important to boost socio economic livelihoods of deaf Kenyans for equality in development as well as integrate the Kenyan business industry with the innovation and creativity introduced by the signing „genre‟ of business communication. The results of the study indicate that the dialectical gap between the deaf and hearing is significantly reduced as sign language users can informally interact and exchange ideas, information and updates on business. In addition, the general boost in vocabulary originating from deaf people‟ interest in on-line communication in Kenya is highlighted. It is recommended that the recent immersion of the Kenyan deaf community in the use of smartphones and dissemination of instant messaging needs to be enhanced, as it may yield answers to societal inclusion, while also highlighting deaf cultural pride proponents of the deaf business people‟ creativity.
KeyWords:Deaf, social media, business, Kenya

P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Mbau JS, Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." . Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2).
Hillary K Rotich., Richard Onwonga., Judith S Mbau., Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2):143-155.
Chebet E, Mbui D, Kibet J, Kamau G. "The Speciation of Selected Trace Metals in Nairobi River Water, Kenya." Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2018;13(4):1-11. AbstractEurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry

Description
Metal ions form complexes with naturally occurring ligands released from industrial effluent. The complexes are transported and enter the environment and biological system leading to environmental degradation and health problems. This contribution investigates the speciation of trace metals in water samples collected from Nairobi River. Heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Cu, Fe, Cr and Zn) were determined using spectroscopic techniques whereas sulfaver 4 method, diazotization, and titration methods were used to determine the concentration of SO42+, NO2-, F-and Cl-respectively. It was found that~ 69.8% of total iron was in oxidation state III; the dominant species being Fe2+, Fe (OH) SO4,[FeF4]-, FeSO4, Fe2+ and [Fe (OH) 2]+ during both the dry and wet seasons. Manganese was found exclusively in oxidation state II (100%) in which some of its major chemical forms were Mn2+ and [MnF6] 4-. Copper was present mostly in oxidation state II (Cu2+) while lead and zinc existed chiefly as ([Zn (SO4) 4] 6-and [Pb (SO4) 3] 4-) complexes. Chromium was trivalent with its main complexes being [Cr4 (OH) 6] 6+ and Cr (OH)(SO4)). Traces of free metal ions (Cu, Fe and Mn) were found in Lenana section of Nairobi River. Traces of free metal ions are the most aggressive water toxicants due to their high solubility in biological systems.

EN Muturi, Khalagai JM, Pokhariyal GP. "Splitting and Admissible Topologies Defined on the Set of Continuous Functions Between Bitopological Spaces." International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA). 2018;9(1). AbstractWebsite

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings.

Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.kiuru_et_al_2018.pdf
Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.
Gaitho PR;, Awino; ZB, Kitiabi RK, Ogutu, S.O. "Strategic leadership and Service Delivery Of County Governments: The Kenyan Experience." The International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(11).
Cheruiyot I.K, Kipkorir V, Henry B.M, Munguti J, Cirocchi R, Odula P.O, Wong L.M, B O, J.A W. "Surgical anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve: a systematic review and meta-analysis." angenbecks Archives of Surgery. 2018;10.1007/:s00423-018-1723-9.
Kimeu M. "Sustainable Design Strategies for Tropical Climates." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2018;Volume 12( Issue 1, June 2018):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanjac SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, characterisation and ion-binding properties of oxathiacrown ethers appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+. Selectivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+†." Journal of Royal Society of Chemistry. 2018;(8):3663-3672. Abstractwww.pubs.rsc.org

A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis absorbance with Hg2+ making it possible to detect mercury down to a detection limit of 68 ppm. The binding constants and limits of detection of the complexes have been calculated, with values ranging from 4.37 to 5.38 and 1.4 × 10−3 to 6.8 × 10−5 for log[thin space (1/6-em)]Ks and LOD respectively.

Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanja SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, Characterization and Ion-Binding Properties of Oxathiacrown Ethers Appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+: Selectivity Towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+." RSC advances. 2018;8(7):3663-3672. AbstractRSC Advances

Description
A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis …

Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Wambugu SK, Karugia JT, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. 2018;978-0-19-879928-3(ISBN):978-0-19-879928-3.
Saini P, E NYENZE, M J, A G, Kaguri S.K. "Terson’s Syndrome: Intraocular Hemorrhage in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage." The Kenya Journal of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Critical . 2018;04(1):15-16.
Muasya, Juliet N, Kazungu, Teresa W. "'The Unfinished Business' Exploring Teachers' Views on Gender and Pedagogical Practices in Public Preschools in Nairobi County, Kenya." African Educational Research Journal. 2018;6(1):10-19.
Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Arasio RL, Kaufmann B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2018;Vol. 119(No. 2).
Arasio RL, Kaufman B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2018;119(2)(ISSN 2363-6033):53-66.
PUlei AN, Shatry NA, Sura MK, Njoroge MW, Kibii DK, Mwaniki DK, Teko HP, Maranga O, Ogutu O, Vogel JP, Qureshi Z. "Updating of a clinical protocol for the prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(2). AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) affects 6% of births and accounts for almost 30% of maternal deaths. The use of clinical protocols for preventing and treating PPH is recommended by WHO. Protocols should be evidence-based, regularly updated, widely available and routinely adhered to.
Broad Objective: To update the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) PPH prevention and management protocol based on latest recommendations, and ensure its dissemination and use by providers.
Materials and Methods: A literature search identified selected PPH-related guidelines which were assessed using the AGREE-II tool for guideline quality. A matrix was created to compare recommendations across guidelines. Recommendations included in the KNH protocol were based on agreement across guidelines, guideline quality, publication year, and contextual factors in our setting. To aid implementation, an updated KNH protocol document, a clinical algorithm and a PPH management checklist were developed. These were reviewed and accepted as best practice by KNH and University of Nairobi.
Results: Six PPH-related guidelines were used (WHO, FIGO, RCOG, ACOG, FOGSI, and the Kenya National Guidelines for Quality Obstetrics and Perinatal care). The KNH protocol covers PPH prevention, including: active management of third stage, oxytocin after vaginal or caesarean delivery, other drugs for prevention (when oxytocin is not available), controlled cord traction and delayed cord clamping. It also covers PPH management (supportive and definitive measures).
Conclusion: An updated PPH prevention and management protocol for KNH was developed. Implementation and adherence will help standardize PPH-related care and improve health outcomes for women.

Muhula S, Opanga Y, Kuyo M, Qureshi Z, Memiah P, M N. "Use of performance dashboards in health care project management: a case of an international health development organization in Kenya." Africa Health Agenda International Journal. 2018;1(3). AbstractWebsite

In this paper we document the use of dashboards in health care project management in an international health non-governmental organization. All projects at the organization monitor output performance on specific indicators against set targets and report these as project outputs performance report every month. In addition, projects prepare quality improvement report, compliance report and financial report. The four reports are then used to generate the monthly integrated performance monitoring and management dashboard which is shared with all staff and used by project managers and programme directors to review projects performance in the 4 parameters of measure and then used to provide appropriate technical support. We conducted a client satisfaction survey among staff to assess their levels of satisfaction with the dashboard and it came out that staff consider the dashboard as a “must have” monthly project management tool as it results in timely measurement of projects’ financial performance, programmatic performance, quality of service performance and compliance performance at a glance without the need to go through detailed reports. Programme directors and project managers use the dashboard to quickly identify hotspots, detect outliers in indicators of measure in a project and use this to deeply analyse possible causes of poor performance in projects for targeted technical assistance.

Kamweru AK. "Using Public Health Regulations to Build Resilience Cities in Kenya: Utafiti News Issue No. 6." Utafiti News Issue 6, January 2019 (2018):15.
Essaji LT, KAYIMA JK, JOSHI MD, Otieno CF, Amayo A, Achieng L, Gacii M. "The utility of Physiochemical and modified physiological approach in metabolic acidosis at a tertiary level hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):36-40.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. Abstract

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. AbstractJ Appl Biotechnol Bioeng

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

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