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2020
N A, N A, S M, S A, H H, S B, D M, A R, I K, O A-B, Y K, M R, V P, S C, K N, G G, A P, M F, A S, M M, A AA, D M, P P, J K, Y C, M D, J V, M A, J C, M N, I H, A V, A I, A K, E J, ME T. "Preparedness of dental academic institutions to manage the COVID-19 pandemic: a global survey." Int. J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;2021; 18:1445(2021; 18:1445):2021; 18:1445.
Kimenju JW, Ngugi RK, Chimoita EL, Muiruri EW, Amwoka E. "Preparing Agriculture Graduates for the Job Market: A Case Study of On-farm Experiential Learning by Students." RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345) 2018. 2020;17(3)(httpp://repository.ruforum.org):700-705.preparing_agriculture_graduates_for_the_job_market.pdf
Kimenju JW, Ngugi RK, Chimoita EL, Muiruri EW, Amwoka E. "Preparing Agriculture Graduates for the Job Market: A Case Study of On-farm Experiential Learning by Students." RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345) 2018. 2020;17(3)(httpp://repository.ruforum.org):700-705.preparing_agriculture_graduates_for_the_job_market.pdf
Kimenju JW, Ngugi RK, Chimoita EL, Muiruri E, Waitugi S, Amwoka E. "Preparing Agriculture Graduates for the Job Market: A Case Study of On-farm Experiential Learning by Students." RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345) 2018. 2020;17(3)(httpp://repository.ruforum.org):700-705.preparing_agriculture_graduates_for_the_job_market.pdf
Omondi HA, Gitau G, Gathura P, Mulinge E, Zeyhle E, Kimeli P, Bett B. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from livestock in North-Eastern Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2020:94.
Nancy M, Githigia S, Karanja D, Mbae C, Zeyhle E, Mulinge E, Magambo J, ogolla K. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in selected abattoirs in Kenya. ." Hindawi Scientifica . 2020;Article ID 5672140(https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5672140).
Muyodi MM, Bhatt KM, KAYIMA JK. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstractprevalence_of_and_factors_associated_with_ckd_in_osteoarthritis.pdf

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.

Muyodi MM, KAYIMA JK, Oyoo GO, Bhatt KM. "Prevalence of and factors associated with chronic kidney diseases is osteoarthritis patients at Kenyatta National hospital." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.
Key words: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Osteoarthritis (OA), Cockrauft-Gault (CG), Estimated Glomerular
Filtration Rate (eGFR), Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme
Inhibitors (ACEI), Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB)

Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum2 MO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;10(2):144-118.
Kitata M. "The Problematics of Naming in Kenyan Creative Narratives." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020;6(1):1-15. Abstract

There is a tendency in Kenyan literature, which can be defined as ahistorical ethnopolitanism. In this approach the writer chooses to use names of characters and places that indicate an attempt to see the Kenyan community from a distance. The result is that, in the push for inclusivity in works of literature, the very idea an authentic record of history and self-knowledge is lost: Real actors are alienated from the story of the history of the country; the background loses its referential significance; fantasy contexts are created to overlay and erase the real; and an atmosphere of namelessness is prioritised. This paper is a preliminary critique of these traits in contemporary Kenyan creative narrative. It seeks to highlight how such an approach – whose aim is to create a text that sidesteps ethnic politics – paradoxically undermines the writers’ efforts.

Kiuri J, MARU S, Ndwigah SN. "Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model. ." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23(2):60-66.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Scientific Research Publishing. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Koech OK, Mbau JS. "Projected Changes in Soil Organic Carbon over a 50-Year Period under Different Grazing Management Systems in Semi-Arid Grassland." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2020;10(4):357-369.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya." Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;5(1):9-15. Abstract

Proximate analysis of twenty fruits and vegetable waste from Nairobi County was evaluated. They were obtained from Kangemi and Wakulima markets. Standard procedures were used for the analysis of crude fat, protein,fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, nitrogen-free extract and energy. The results obtained revealed that moisture content was in the range of 82.8 to 95.86% apart from sweet potato and banana which was 62.05 and 74.30% respectively. Protein range was between 0.57 to 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado at 9.03%. The ash content was highest
in comfrey at 3.46% and lowest in mango at 0.44%. The carbohydrate level obtained by the difference method was lowest in courgette at 1.99% with crude fiber ranging from 0.69 to 2.73%. The total calculated energy ranged from 1.94 to 39.98 Kcal/100g. The macro-nutrient concentrations were 3.59 and 1.53% for potassium and calcium respectively. Lead, iron and zinc were detected at 15.1±3.6, 3742±235 and 176±11 ppm respectively. There is the presence of proximate properties in the edible portion of wasted fruits and vegetable and therefore, this study recommends proper fruits and vegetable handling during harvest, transportation, storage and marketing. Besides, the unavoidable waste should be used as biomass in energy production to deal with landfilling issues in the market places.

Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Report of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the Period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2020;23(3):79-86. Abstract

During the period 2011-2015, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) analyzed 1972 drug samples. The samples consisted of 21.5% locally manufactured and 78.2% imported products while the origin of 0.3% of products was indeterminate. Samples were subjected to compendial and/or in-house analytical specifications. The overall non-compliance rate was 4.5% comprising 2.5% local products and 2.0% imports. High failure rates were recorded for uterotonics (37.5%), hemostatics (33%), anthelmintics (17%) and anticancers (10.5%) while ophthalmic, immunomodulatory, musculoskeletal and endocrine drugs all complied with the quality acceptance criteria. Erectile dysfunction drugs, received by the laboratory for the first time, all complied with specifications. The results obtained demonstrate an improvement in the quality of samples submitted to DARU when compared to previous performance.

Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality control report of drugs analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020;23(3):79-86.
Mugo JW, Opijah F, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Rainfall variability under present and future climate scenarios using the Rossby Center Bias-corrected Regional Climate Model." American Journal of Climate Change. 2020;9(1):243-265.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
Gitari HI, Nyawade SO, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Raza MA, Maitra S, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Revisiting intercropping indices with respect to potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2020.
C O, K KC, N MJ. "Rice Straw and Egg Shell as Partial Replacements of Cement in Concrete." Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 2020;Vol 10(6):6481-6487.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Kithuka, J.M., Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of periodic markets in provision of manufactured goods and creation of income in rural areas: a case study of selected markets in Mukaa Sub County; Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2020;7(5 ):65-79.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

Muwanga S, Onwonga R, Keya SO, Komutunga E. "Sedentary Agriculture and Its Implications on Soil Quality in Agro-pastoral Semi-arid Karamoja, Uganda." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2020;2(4):148-162 .
Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Kipyego ES, Gitau G, Vanleeuwen J, Kimeli P, Abuom TA, Gakuya D, Muraya J, Makau D. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of Infectious rhinotracheatis virus( type1) in Meru county, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;104863.(175).
Kanori, E.N., Kimani G.N., Kalai JM. "Service tangibility, teaching and learning, and students’ satisfaction at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2020;1(2):16-28.
Kitata M. "Sexualising the performance, objectifying the performer: The twerk dance in Kenya." Agenda. 2020;34(3):11-21. Abstract

Shifting arenas of dance performance and youths’ counterculture have brought the twerk to the internet, thus exposing it to the discourse of cultural imperialism, appropriation, and cultural resistance. This has changed the symbolism of the art form: from a performance meant for celebration, to a dance of sexual rage. The media associates the dance with bottom provocation, prostitution or celebrity achievement stories − rarely celebrating the intellect, aesthetics or the expression of freedom in it. From a western point of view, twerking is overly sexualised and the performers participants in a cultural notoriety – thus, objectifying it. However, in its original context it is primarily a dance for festive celebrations. As a form of artistic expression resisting cultural destruction in Kenya, twerk is a way of re-politicising the African female body, and decolonising it from the male, western influenced gaze. Sexual expression in it is …

K. KM, Oleche OM. "Short and Long-Run Impact of Trade Liberalization on Agricultural Growth in Kenya." International Journal of Finance, Insurance and Risk Management. 2020;X(3).
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry . 2020;143.
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2020;143:107736.
Gummadi S, Kadiyala MDM, Rao KPC, Athanasiadis I, R. M, Kilavi M, Legesse G, T. A. "Simulating adaptation strategies to offset potential impacts of climate variability and change on maize yields in Embu County, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2020;15(11).
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Mbugua M, Nzuma J, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social networks and household food consumption smoothing in the presence of idiosyncratic shocks: insights from rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;30(3):383-393.
Kieti J, Waema TM, Ndemo EB, Omwansa TK, Baumüller H. "Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya." https://www.journals.elsevier.com/digital-business. 2020. Abstract

A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital
technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry
level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to
examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective
of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency
and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while
loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic
analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity,
as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally
transform agriculture in SSA countries.

Githinji EK, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Machani MG, Amito RO, Kemei BJ, Murima PN, Ombui GM, Wanjoya AK, Mbogo CM, Mathenge EM. "Species composition, phenotypic and genotypic resistance levels in major malaria vectors in Teso North and Teso South subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya. ." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2020;2020:1-17.
Karingithi M.G., Aosa E., K. O, Njihia J. M., and Mose J. M. "Strategy Typology, Organizational Factors and Performance of Freight Forwarding Companies in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review,. 2020;10(1):1-10.
Mugo JW, Opijah FJ, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Suitability of Green Gram Production in Kenya Under Present and Future Climate Scenarios Using Bias-corrected Cordex RCA4 Models." Agricultural Sciences. 2020;11:882-896.
Kerosi J, Ouma H, Langat K. "Sum Rate and Fairness Maximization in Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(2):6438-6443.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Meru AK, Ciambotti G, Ebong J, Kinoti MW, Mugendi-Kiarie RK. "Technology and Social Media in Customer Service.". In: Customer Service Management in Africa. Productivity Press; 2020. Abstract

The rapid transformation of technology in the business sector has brought unprecedented disruptions to traditional practices that relied heavily on human labour force. Technological advancement has made inroads in the entire supply chain with overwhelming ramifications on the firm-level customer interface. Over the years, the developed world and a few Asian countries have rapidly adopted multiple customer interfaces and integration to hasten provision of customer-centric information and services. Today, the same inroads are being witnessed in Africa, albeit at a slower pace. This is largely driven by rapid adoption of smartphones, artificial intelligence, cognitive computing and a myriad of other technologies. All the same, it is clearly emerging that, unlike the past technologies where African firms were deemed passive users, the trend is slowly changing the landscape and pointing to a slowly awakening continent.

Karanja P, Mbugua L, Riungu J, Mulaku M, Okalebo F. "Time series analysis of consumption and short term forecasting of female contraceptives in the Kenyan public health sector." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2020;9(1):9-17.
Idowu TE, R. W, Lasisi, K H, Kiema JBK. "Towards achieving Sustainability of Coastal Environments: Urban Growth Analysis and Prediction of Lagos, State Nigeria." South African Journal of Geomatics. 2020;9(2):149-162.
Gakuya DW, Okumu MO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu PM, Nguta JM. "Traditional Medicine in Kenya: Past and current status, challenges and the way forward." Scientific African . 2020:pp. 1-7. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00360.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM. "Transmission of viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease through seed in commercial hybrids and effect on growth in the subsequent crop." Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2020;DOI:10.1080/03235408.2020.1826720.
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." journal of Education and Leadership Studies. 2020;1(2):25-39.use_of_social_media_platforms_and_content_delivery_in_higher_education.pdf
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies.. 2020;1(2):25-39.
Gichuhi, S, Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education: A Case of School of Education, University of Nairobi." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies. JHEPALS . 2020;2(1).
Beinah A, Kunyanga C, Ngugi K. "Utilization and Processing of Sorghum by Small Holder Farmers in Drought Prone Agro-Ecological Zones of Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2020;7(10):116-121.
de Llano-Pérula C, Kihara E, Thevissen P, Nyamunga D, Fieuws S, Kanini M, Willems G. "Validating dental age estimation in Kenyan black children and adolescents using the Willems method. ." Medicine, Science and the Law. . 2020;(https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802420977379).
Kedogo JL, Eyase F, Bulimo W, Asudi G, Kimani F, Muhia DM, Aluvaala E. "Validation of a Biomeme Smartphone-Based DNA Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Human Malaria at the Point of Care ." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2020;33(3):31-44.202032-article_text-506081-1-10-20201207.pdf
Ogolla KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kirui JC, Kitala PM. "Validation of efficacy of rabbit anticoccidial drugs commonly used in Kenya." African Journal of Rural Development,. 2020;3(4):341-349.
Ouko I, Obimbo MM, Kigera J, Ogeng’o JA. "Valve distribution of the popliteal vein: A structural basis for deep venous thrombosis?". 2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Objective

To describe the relationship between number and distribution of valves.
Methods

Sixty-six popliteal vein specimens were used for the study after routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The extents of the popliteal vein were identified at the adductor hiatus and soleal arch, cut at these points and then longitudinally sliced open. The number and distribution of valves were then recorded. Data were presented using photomacrographs and tables.
Results

The median number of valves was 1 (mean 0.8; range 0–2), with the lower part of the popliteal vein as the most consistent valve position. Most striking was the valve absence noted in 27 (41%) of the veins.
Conclusion

These findings suggest that a significant proportion of popliteal veins do not have valves thus providing a credible structural link that may predispose the popliteal vein to deep venous thrombosis in the study population.

"Fungomeli M", Cianciaruso M, Zannini P, Githitho A, Frascaroli F, Fulanda B, Kibet S, Wiemers B, Mbuvi MT. "Woody plant species diversity of the coastal forests of Kenya: filling in knowledge gaps in a biodiversity hotspot." Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology. 2020;154(6):973-982.
Korir BK, Wanyoike MMM, KURIA JOSEPHKN, Mwangi DM, Muge EE. "Cassava leaves and azolla as crude protein supplement feed to east african short horned Zebu Heifers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16:1457-1462. Abstract
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Mutisya JM, Mobegi VA, Kinyua JK, Kivecu MN, Okoth RO, Chemwor GC, Mwakio EW, Cheruiyot AC, Yeda RA, Okello CO, Juma JA, Opot BH, Juma DW, Roth AL, Akala HM, Andagalu BM. "Characterization of sulfated polysaccharide activity against virulent Plasmodium falciparum {PHISTb/RLP1} protein." F1000Res.. 2020;9:1268. Abstract

Background: The emergence of artemisinin resistance in South East Asia calls for urgent discovery of new drug compounds that have antiplasmodial activity. Unlike the classical compound screening drug discovery methods, the rational approach involving targeted drug discovery is less cumbersome and therefore key for innovation of new antiplasmodial compounds. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) utilizes the process of host erythrocyte remodeling using Plasmodium-helical interspersed sub-telomeric domain (PHIST) containing proteins, which are amenable drug targets. The aim of this study is to identify inhibitors of PHIST from sulfated polysaccharides as new antimalarials. Methods: 251 samples from an ongoing study of epidemiology of malaria and drug resistance sensitivity patterns in Kenya were sequenced for PHISTb/RLP1 gene using Sanger sequencing. The sequenced reads were mapped to the reference Pf3D7 protein sequence of PHISTb/RLP1 using CLC Main Workbench. Homology modeling of both reference and mutant protein structures was achieved using the LOMETs tool. The models were refined using ModRefiner for energy minimization. Ramachandran plot was generated by ProCheck to assess the conformation of amino acids in the protein model. Protein binding sites predictions were assessed using FT SITE software. We searched for prospective antimalarials from PubChem. Docking experiments were achieved using AutoDock Vina and analysis results visualized in PyMOL. Results: Sanger sequencing generated 86 complete sequences. Upon mapping of the sequences to the reference, 12 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for mutant protein structure analysis. Eleven drug compounds with antiplasmodial activity were identified. Both modeled PHISTb/RLP1 reference and mutant structures had a Ramachandran score of >90% of the amino acids in the favored region. Ten of the drug compounds interacted with amino acid residues in PHISTb and RESA domains, showing potential activity against these proteins. Conclusion: This research identifies inhibitors of exported proteins that can be used in in vitro tests against the Plasmodium parasite.

Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Lachenmeier DW, Teipel J, Scharinger A, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Grosch F, Bunzel M, Okaru AO, Schwarz S. "Fully automated identification of coffee species and simultaneous quantification of furfuryl alcohol using NMR spectroscopy." Journal of AOAC International. 2020;103:306-314. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Munywoki P, Achia T, Akolo M, Muriuki F, Muthui M, Kimani J. "High prevalence of non-communicable diseases among key populations enrolled at a large HIV prevention & treatment program in Kenya." Plos one. 2020;15:e0235606. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Munywoki P, Achia T, Akolo M, Muriuki F, Muthui M, Kimani J. "High prevalence of non-communicable diseases among key populations enrolled at a large HIV prevention & treatment program in Kenya." PloS one. 2020;15:e0235606. Abstract
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Osiro O, Kisumbi B, Kariuki D, Gathece L. "Implications of the Minamata Convention on Mercury on Oral Health in Kenya.". 2020. Abstract
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Wambugu JW, Kyalo D, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Access to Quality Services on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5. Abstract
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Wambugu JW, Kyalo D, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Access to Quality Services on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5. Abstract
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Wambugu JW, KYALO DOROTHYNDUNGE, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Quality Counseling on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2020;9:88-98. Abstract
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Wambugu JW, KYALO DOROTHYNDUNGE, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Quality Counseling on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2020;9:88-98. Abstract
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Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM, Kaingu CK, Muthee JK. "International Journal of Veterinary Science.". 2020. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-scale mapping of moir$\backslash$'e superlattices by Raman imaging of interlayer breathing mode and moir$\backslash$'e phonons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.13820. 2020. Abstract
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Kanduma EG, Emery D, Githaka NW, Nguu EK, Bishop RP, Šlapeta J. "Molecular evidence confirms occurrence of Rhipicephalus microplus Clade A in Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa." Parasites & vectors. 2020;13:1-15. Abstract
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Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC veterinary research. 2020;16:1-12. Abstract
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Lukandu OM, Koskei LC, Dimba EO. "Motivations for a Career in Dentistry among Dental Students and Dental Interns in Kenya." International journal of dentistry. 2020;2020. Abstract
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Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract
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Wang N, Yu X, Kong Q, Li Z, Li P, Ren X, Peng B, Deng Z, others. "Nisin-loaded polydopamine/hydroxyapatite composites.". 2020. Abstract
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Wang N, Yu X, Kong Q, Li Z, Li P, Ren X, Peng B, Deng Z. "Nisin-loaded polydopamine/hydroxyapatite composites: Biomimetic synthesis, and in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity evaluations." Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2020;602:125101. Abstract
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Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020;20. Abstract
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Nyongesa BS, Mwirigi K, Edalia LG, Kisumbi B, Dienya T, others. "Posttreatment endodontic disease among patients seeking treatment at a referral dental hospital in Kenya." Endodontology. 2020;32:8. Abstract
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Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality control report of drugs analyzed in the drug analysis and research unit during the period 2011-2015." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23:79-86. Abstract
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Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:125-131. Abstract
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Yebouet M-FA, Diby AK, Kaduki KA, Zoueu JT. "Unstained blood smear contrast enhancement using spectral time multiplexing super resolution." Journal of Spectral Imaging. 2020;9. Abstract
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Cosmas K, Kenichi A. "Utilization of FPGA for Onboard Inference of Landmark Localization in CNN-Based Spacecraft Pose Estimation." Aerospace. 2020;7. AbstractWebsite

In the recent past, research on the utilization of deep learning algorithms for space applications has been widespread. One of the areas where such algorithms are gaining attention is in spacecraft pose estimation, which is a fundamental requirement in many spacecraft rendezvous and navigation operations. Nevertheless, the application of such algorithms in space operations faces unique challenges compared to application in terrestrial operations. In the latter, they are facilitated by powerful computers, servers, and shared resources, such as cloud services. However, these resources are limited in space environment and spacecrafts. Hence, to take advantage of these algorithms, an on-board inferencing that is power- and cost-effective is required. This paper investigates the use of a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Systems-on-Chip (SoC) device for efficient onboard inferencing of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) part of such pose estimation methods. In this study, Xilinx’s Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC device is used and proposed as an effective onboard-inferencing solution. The performance of the onboard and computer inferencing is compared, and the effectiveness of the hybrid FPGA-CPU architecture is verified. The FPGA-based inference has comparable accuracy to the PC-based inference with an average RMS error difference of less than 0.55. Two CNN models that are based on encoder-decoder architecture have been investigated in this study and three approaches demonstrated for landmarks localization.

Okaru AO, Scharinger A, de Rezende TR, Teipel J, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Validation of a quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic screening method for coffee quality and authenticity (NMR coffee screener)." Foods. 2020;9:47. Abstract
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2019
Kiriinya LK, GATARI MJ. "Isotope Tracing Application in Source Identification of Tropospheric Black Carbon in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: International Conference on Tracers and Tracing Methods. VIETNAM; 2019.
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Rono H, Gichangi M, Mwangi A, Kefa R. "Is task-shifting of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from eye specialists to technicians accurate?". In: East African Community East African Health Research Commission 7th East African Health and Scientific Conference. Dar es Salaam; 2019.invitation_letter_7th_eahsc_pg1_jefitha_karimurio1.pdfuse_of_technology_to_taskshift__prof_jefitha_karimurio.pdf
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
omari HK, Kayeli E. "Comprehensive sex education in Kenya: Islamic perspective.". In: THE 2ND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MACHAKOS UNIVERSITY, KENYA. machakos university; 2019.
Kimani MD, G.N K, R.N O, Muhammenda. "Simulating Maize (Zea Mays L.) performance using Aquacrop Model under Varying Irrigation Schedules and Water Depletion Levels in Bura Irrigation Scheme, Kenya.". In: AGRO 2019 Conference & Exhibition. College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science.; 2019.
Cosmas K, Kenich A. "Implementation of Machine Learning Methods on FPGA for Onboard Satellite Operation.". In: 70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: FiO/Laser Science (pp. JTu4A-13). Washington DC; 2019.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Mutwedu VB, Ayagirwe RBB, Bacigale SB, Mwema LM, Butseme S, Kashosi T, Mitima B, Manyawu GJ, Nyongesa AW. "Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on sexual behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus)." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019;51(5):1195-1202. Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Mucuna pruriens seed meal (MSM) on sexual behavior, semen, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks. Twenty-four 12-week-old rabbit bucks weighing 1002 to 1156 g were randomly allocated to three experimental diets containing 0, 1.5, and 3% of MSM in a 3-month trial. Sexual behavior parameters such as mounting latency, mounting frequency, successful mounting frequency, intromission latency, and post ejaculatory interval were monitored at the end of the experiment by mating with receptive females. Thereafter, rabbits were weighed, stunned, and humanely sacrificed and testes, epididymis, and vas deferens were harvested for evaluation of organ weights and semen characteristics. Results indicate that supplementing rabbit diet with MSM induced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mounting latency (69.7%) and intromission latency (19.7%), while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased successful mounting frequency (60%) as well as relative weight of testis (33.3%) and vas deferens (54.5%). There was a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in sperm motility (35.7%) and concentration (65.9%), serum albumin (19.1%) and protein concentration (9.9%), and a decrease in sperm morphological alterations (68.3%), serum cholesterol (13.4%), and urea (11.6%) in treatment groups where MSM was supplemented at 3% compared to controls. From the findings, it appears MSM is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance and quality of semen, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.

Dimova I, Karthik S, Makanya A, Hlushchuk R, Semela D, Volarevic V, Djonov V. "SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling is involved in blood vessel growth and remodelling by intussusception." J. Cell. Mol. Med.. 2019;23(6):3916-3926. Abstract

The precise mechanisms of SDF-1 (CXCL12) in angiogenesis are not fully elucidated. Recently, we showed that Notch inhibition induces extensive intussusceptive angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells and it was associated with increased levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the current study, we demonstrated SDF-1 expression in liver sinusoidal vessels of Notch1 knockout mice with regenerative hyperplasia by means of intussusception, but we did not detect any SDF-1 expression in wild-type mice with normal liver vessel structure. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling by AMD3100 perturbs intussusceptive vascular growth and abolishes mononuclear cell recruitment in the chicken area vasculosa. In contrast, treatment with recombinant SDF-1 protein increased microvascular density by 34% through augmentation of pillar number compared to controls. The number of extravasating mononuclear cells was four times higher after SDF-1 application and two times less after blocking this pathway. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDC) were recruited to vessels in response to elevated expression of SDF-1 in endothelial cells. They participated in formation and stabilization of pillars. The current study is the first report to implicate SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling in intussusceptive angiogenesis and further highlights the stabilizing role of BMDC in the formation of pillars during vascular remodelling.

Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Amzati GS, Djikeng A, Odongo DO, Nimpaye H, Sibeko KP, Muhigwa J-BB, Madder M, Kirschvink N, Marcotty T. "Genetic and antigenic variation of the bovine tick-borne pathogen Theileria parva in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa." Parasit Vectors. 2019;12(1):588. Abstract

Theileria parva causes East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. A live immunisation approach using the infection and treatment method (ITM) provides a strong long-term strain-restricted immunity. However, it typically induces a tick-transmissible carrier state in cattle and may lead to spread of antigenically distinct parasites. Thus, understanding the genetic composition of T. parva is needed prior to the use of the ITM vaccine in new areas. This study examined the sequence diversity and the evolutionary and biogeographical dynamics of T. parva within the African Great Lakes region to better understand the epidemiology of ECF and to assure vaccine safety. Genetic analyses were performed using sequences of two antigen-coding genes, Tp1 and Tp2, generated among 119 T. parva samples collected from cattle in four agro-ecological zones of DRC and Burundi.

Karuga, SW, MJ G, Kelder EM, JCM M. "Morphological control of thin films: Application of electrospray technique.". In: European Aerosol Conference (EAC) 2019 . Gothenburg, Sweden; 2019.
Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase FL, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Muriithi SW, Andagalu B, Mbinda WM, Soge OO, McClelland SR, Sang W, Mancuso JD. "gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Microbiol.. 2019;19(1):76. Abstractkivata_et_al-2019-bmc_microbiology.pdf

Phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was first reported in Western Kenya in 2009 and later in Coastal Kenya and Nairobi. Until recently gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in Kenya had not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to analyze mutations in both gyrA and parC responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolated from heterosexual individuals from different locations in Kenya between 2013 and 2017.

Nthiwa D, Alonso S, Odongo D, Kenya E, Bett B. "Zoonotic Pathogen Seroprevalence in Cattle in a Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Kenya." Ecohealth. 2019;16(4):712-725. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife-livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo using ELISA kits. Data on putative risk factors for seropositivity of these pathogens in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level seroprevalence of brucellosis and leptospirosis was, respectively, 36.9% (95% CI 34.1-39.8) and 23.5% (95% CI 21.1-26.0). Brucella spp. seroprevalence was higher in zone 1 than in zones 2 and 3 (χ = 25.1, df = 2, P < 0.001). Zones 1 and 2 had significantly higher Leptospira spp. seroprevalence than zone 3 (χ = 7.0, df = 2, P = 0.029). Results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (female) and zones (high interface area) as significant predictors (P < 0.05) of animal-level seropositivity of Brucella spp. For Leptospira spp., important predictors of animal-level seropositivity were animal sex (female), zones (moderate interface area) and herds utilizing a communal grazing reserve. The seroprevalences of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in cattle were higher in areas with moderate to high wildlife-livestock interactions than those with rare interactions.

Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Kamau F, Strijdom H, Mwangi P, Blackhurst D, Imperial E, Salie R. "Antiretroviral drug-induced endothelial dysfunction is improved by dual PPARα/γ stimulation in obesity.". 2019;121:106577. AbstractWebsite

Obesity rates are rising in HIV-infected populations; however, the putative role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the development of endothelial and cardiovascular derangements in the presence of pre-existing overweight/obesity is unclear. Although dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha/gamma (PPARα/γ) stimulation mitigates HAART-induced metabolic dysfunction, vascular effects are unresolved. To investigate whether HAART induces vascular dysfunction in obesity and to explore the underlying mechanisms of PPARα/γ stimulation, male Wistar rats were placed on a high-calorie diet for 16 weeks. After 10 weeks, HAART (lopinavir/ritonavir, azidothymidine/lamivudine) with/without PPARα/γ agonist, Saroglitazar, was administered daily for six weeks. Excised thoracic aorta rings were subjected to isometric tension studies and Western blot measurements. HAART+Saroglitazar-treated obese animals recorded lower adiposity indices (4.3 ± 0.5%) vs. HAART only-treated obese rats (5.6 ± 0.3%; p < .01). Maximum acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation (Rmax), was lower in obese+HAART group (76.10 ± 3.58%) vs. obese control (101.40 ± 4.75%; p < .01). However, Rmax was improved in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar (101.00 ± 3.12%) vs. obese+HAART rats (p < .001). The mean LogEC50 was improved in obese+HAART+Saroglitazar vs. obese+HAART group; p = .003. Improved endothelial function in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar group was associated with upregulation of eNOS, PKB/Akt and downregulated p22-phox expression vs. obese+HAART group. Therefore, PPARα/γ stimulation attenuated HAART-induced endothelial dysfunction by upregulating vasoprotective eNOS, PKB/Akt signaling and downregulating pro-oxidative p22-phox expression.

Wangai FK, Masika MM, Lule GN, Karari EM, Maritim MC, Jaoko WG, Museve B, Kuria A. "Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem." PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0212131. Abstract

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

Kalai, J.M., Mulu C. "Determinants of Female Teachers' Progression to Governance Positions in Public Primary Schools in Mutitu Sub County , Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
Hammadi R, Kúsz N, Mwangi PW, Kulmány Á, Zupkó I, Orvos P, Tálosi L, Hohmann J, Vasas A. "Isolation and Pharmacological Investigation of Compounds From Euphorbia matabelensis." Natural Product CommunicationsNatural Product Communications. 2019;14(7):1934578X19863509. AbstractWebsite

This work deals with the isolation and pharmacological investigations of compounds of Euphorbia matabelensis. After multiple separation process, including thin layer chromatography (TLC), vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography, 1 diterpene (ingenol) and 2 flavonoids (naringenin and eriodictyol) were obtained from the methanol extracts prepared from the stems and roots of the plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS measurements and comparison with literature data. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. Eriodictyol was detected for the first time from a Euphorbia species. The compounds were tested for their antiproliferative (on HeLa, C33a, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and GIRK channel blocking activities. None of the compounds proved to be active in these test systems.

Dean W, Gichuhi S, Buchan J, Matende I, Graham R, Kim M, Arunga S, Makupa W, Cook C, Visser L, Burton M. "Survey of ophthalmologists-in-training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: A regional focus on ophthalmic surgical education." Wellcome Open Res. 2019;4:187. AbstractWebsite

There are 2.7 ophthalmologists per million population in sub-Saharan Africa, and a need to train more. We sought to analyse current surgical training practice and experience of ophthalmologists to inform planning of training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. This was a cross-sectional survey. Potential participants included all current trainee and recent graduate ophthalmologists in the Eastern, Central and Southern African region. A link to a web-based questionnaire was sent to all heads of eye departments and training programme directors of ophthalmology training institutions in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, who forwarded to all their trainees and recent graduates. Main outcome measures were quantitative and qualitative survey responses. Responses were obtained from 124 (52%) trainees in the region. Overall level of satisfaction with ophthalmology training programmes was rated as 'somewhat satisfied' or 'very satisfied' by 72%. Most frequent intended career choice was general ophthalmology, with >75% planning to work in their home country post-graduation. A quarter stated a desire to mainly work in private practice. Only 28% of junior (first and second year) trainees felt surgically confident in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS); this increased to 84% among senior trainees and recent graduates. The median number of cataract surgeries performed by junior trainees was zero. 57% of senior trainees were confident in performing an anterior vitrectomy. Only 29% of senior trainees and 64% of recent graduates were confident in trabeculectomy. The mean number of cataract procedures performed by senior trainees was 84 SICS (median 58) and 101 phacoemulsification (median 0). Satisfaction with post-graduate ophthalmology training in the region was fair. Most junior trainees experience limited cataract surgical training in the first two years. Focused efforts on certain aspects of surgical education should be made to ensure adequate opportunities are offered earlier on in ophthalmology training.

Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Kong'ani LNS. "Towards Replacing Kerosene with Bioethanol in Developing Countries: A Review.". In: Conference on the Status of African Women. University of Nairobi; 2019.
K O. "Institutional Independence & Accountability: Some Ideas for Enhancing Accountability of the Judiciary to Address Corruption.". In: Kabarak Law School International Conference on Corruption. Kabarak Law School, Nakuru, Kenya; 2019.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-composite NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of maize, kale and capsicum29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) held in Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town,Nakuru County from 18th-22nd Nov2019.". In: 29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) . Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town, Nakuru County ; 2019.
Sorensen, Olago, D. O., Dulo, Kanoti, Gaye, Faye, Pouye, Owor. "Real-time indication of faecally contaminated drinking water with fluorescence spectroscopy: towards understanding the causation.". In: 10th International Groundwater Quality Conference (GQ 2019). Liège, Belgium; 2019.
Mbuge DO, Negrini R, Nyakundi LO, Kuate SP, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Muiru WM, Baldwyn Torto RM. "Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.". In: 2nd International Conference of the Pan African Society of Agricultural Engineers (PASAE), . Rabat, Morocco; 2019.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Mureithi SM, Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Karuku G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi, S.M., Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Kehinde M, Barasa L. "Absorptive capacity, marketing capabilities and innovation commercialization in Nigeria." European Journal of Innovation Management. 2019;22(5):790-821.
Awori M, Mehta N, Kebba N, Makori. E. "Adding Blood to St Thomas Solution Does Not Improve Mortality in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery; A Meta-analysis of a Homogenous Population." Annals of African Surgery. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Background: Cardioplegia is the gold standard for providing ideal operating conditions while effecting myocardial protection. Some studies suggest that adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution improves efficacy; this is generally accepted as true. However, the few meta-analyses conducted on children have pooled heterogeneous populations; this raises concern about the validity of their conclusions. Methods: PUBMED, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched systematically until March 2019 using the search terms “cardioplegia”; “myocardial protection”; “pediatric” “pediatric”; “children”; “infants”; “neonates”. Full text articles were examined if abstracts revealed that the studies possibly contained a blood cardioplegia arm and a crystalloid cardioplegia arm. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they had a 4:1 blood cardioplegia arm and a St Thomas solution arm. Meta-analysis was performed using Meta-Mar software. Results: The search retrieved 423 articles; 5 were included in the meta-analysis, representing 324 patients. The risk ratio for operative mortality was 0.77(95% CI 0.24–2.5; p=0.66). Little evidence was seen of heterogeneity of the pooled patients. Conclusion: Adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution did not improve in-hospital operative mortality; this may have implications for blood cardioplegia use.

Gathumbi JK, Kimani, J.M., Mutisya P, Kombe, Yeri, Wamunyokoli, Fred W, Mbakaya, Charles FL. "The Additive Effect of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 to Liver Disease Burden: A Case Study in Kitui, Makueni and Machakos Counties, Kenya." Journal of Health and Medical Sciences. 2019;2(3):312-331.
Kong'ani LNS, Ang'u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu County, Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019; 1(1):19-24.
Kong’ani LNS, Ang’u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu county, Kenya. ." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):19-20.
Opanga L, Mulaku MN, Opanga SA, Godman B, Kurdi A. "Adverse effects of chemotherapy and their management in Pediatric patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Kenya: A descriptive, situation analysis study." Expert Review of anticancer therapy. 2019;19(5):423-430.
Gitari HI, Shadrack N, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Agronomic assessment of phosphorus efficacy for potato (Solanum tuberosum L) under legume intercrops.". 2019.
Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
KJ G, AM M, GO A’. "ANAEMIA AMONG BREASTFEEDING INFANTS (0-6 MONTHS) AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN A LOW INCOME URBAN SETTING OF KENYA." African Journal of Food , Agriculture,Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(2):14303-14319.
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, KK GC. "Analysis of Average Annual Rainfall and Average Maximum Annual Temperature for a Period of 30 years to Establish Trends in Kieni, Central." Journal of Climatol Weather Forecasting. 2019;7:249. Abstractwww.longdom.org

The aim of the study was to analyze average annual rainfall and average maximum annual temperature records for
30 years in the study area to establish trends hence confirm the presence or absence of climate change. The analysis
was accomplished with the use of MS Excel spreadsheets. The meteorological datasets were 1984-2013 records for
rainfall and 1981-2012 for temperature. The rainfall climatological standard normal was computed for a 25-year
period between 1989 and 2012 which was used to compute the average annual rainfall anomaly. The temperature
provisional normal was computed for a period of 10 years due to lack of adequate data. The average annual rainfall
anomaly for 1984-2013 periods was -8.8 mm an indication of a declining rainfall trend while the annual maximum
temperature for 1981-2012 period was 0.5°C a positive trend showing that the annual maximum temperatures
are rising in the study area. Therefore, the declining average annual rainfall accompanied with rising maximum
temperatures were indicators of the presence of climate change.

Keywords: Average annual rainfall; Average maximum temperature; Trends; Climatological standard normal;
Datasets; Climate change

Olali T, Karani R. "Analyzing the Perspectives and Strategies in Localizing Software in Kiswahili." International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation. . 2019;5(1):15-20.
Kenanda EO, Omosa LK. "Anti-leishmanial activity of some surface compounds of Tarchonanthus camphoratus." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology. 2019;2 (2):30.kenanda_et_al_05082019.pdf
Momanyi L, Opanga S, Nyamu D, Oluka M, Kurdi A, Godman B. "Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns at a Leading Referral Hospital in Kenya: A Point Prevalence Survey." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2019;8(3):149-154.momanyi_et_al-jrpp-8-149.pdf
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. AbstractJournal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Mpatswenumugabo, JP, Bebora LC, Gitao, C.G., Kamana, O, Mobegi, VA, Irahuga B, B S. "Assessment of Bacterial contaminations andmilk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in North-western region of Rwanda." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;13(29 ;http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2018.8919 ):640-648.second_paper_published-jean_pierre.pdf
Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Zahida Q. "Assessment of characteristics of patients with pregnancy related acute kidney injury in Kenyatta National hospital.". 2019. Abstract

Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) remains a grave complication of pregnancy. Studies on patient characteristics are few and demonstrate diverse patient features. Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H) Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with gestation age equal to or above 28 weeks and on women in postpartum, within six weeks after delivery. The principal investigator or study assistant introduced study requirements to patients with diagnosis of PRAKI. After consent, clinical and demographic information was obtained from participants through verbal interviews and from medical records using a data capture form. Follow up was until discharge or maximum of two weeks which ever came first. Management of patients was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Results Out of 2068 admissions, 66 participants were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. The mean age was 28 years with peak age between 26-30 years. Forty-two (63.6%) were referred from other health facilities, of whom, 24(57.1%) were from rural areas. Nineteen (27.8%) had pre-pregnancy medical conditions, predominantly cardiovascular. All participants developed one or more obstetric complication: -preeclampsia 28(42.4%), eclampsia eight (9.1%) and hemolysis with elevated liver enzyme low platelet (HELLP) syndrome 17(25.8%). Sixty (91%) pregnancies were delivered. Average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks, with 33(55%) preterm births, of whom, 10 (30.3%) were fresh still births. Severity of PRAKI at presentation was evenly distributed across stages 1 to 111. Forty-one (62.1%) participants improved on conservative management and 25(37.9%) worsened, of whom, 19 (76.0%) were dialyzed. No maternal mortality was reported during the study. Conclusion: We demonstrate a prevalence of PRAKI of 3.2% in K.N.H. Hypertensive disorders were the main associated factors. There was high rate of premature births and a six-fold increase in fresh still births among participants.

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, hir Moses M Manene, Kipchirc IC. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
BIRIR JK, Kairu W, Gatari, M.J; Boman J, RAJAGOPAL P. "Back to Basics: Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves." ISNT Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation. 2019;(December).
Kairu WM, GATARI MJ, BIRIR JK. "Back to Basics: Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves." ISNT Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation. 2019.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
M M, Vander Stoep A, Kuria M, Obondo A, Kimani V, Amugune B, M M, Child M, Unützer J KJ. "Building Mental Health Research Capacity in Kenya: A South-North Collaboration." Global Social Welfare. 2019;6(3):177-188.
Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae DK, Jung'a JO, IshagAJour HZA. "Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected from Dairy Cow Feces and Rumen Fluid bacterial pathogens." Africa Journal of Microbial Research. 2019.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.

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