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Muasya, MK, Ng’ang’a P, Opinya GN, Macigo FG.  2013.  Traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth in 12-15 year old children in Nairobi. Abstract

To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public primary schools in the City of Nairobi. Subjects: A sample of 1382 children (672 males and 710 females) were interviewed and examined. Results: Among the 1382 children examined, 222(16.1%) had experienced traumatic dental injuries (TDIs). Males had experienced a significantly higher prevalence of trauma 126(18.8%) than females 96(13.5%) p=0.008. Falls were the leading cause of TDIs as reported by 78(35.1%) children. Amongst the, male children, falls were the leading cause of traumatic injuries to the permanent anterior teeth 47(37.3%). Approximately half 43(44.8%) of the females did not remember the cause of injury while 31 (36.5%) had sustained TDIs due to falls. One hundred and seventy two (77.5%) children who had experienced TDIs had no symptoms associated with the traumatised teeth. Ninety six (43.2%) of the children were injured while in the home environment. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly traumatised teeth accounting for 220(73.5%) out of 299 injured teeth. The most frequently observed type of dental trauma was enamel fracture 206(68.9%) followed by enamel-dentin fracture 71(23.8%). Two hundred (90%) children had not sought treatment for TDIs. Conclusion: Overall traumatised permanent incisors were found to occur fairly frequently with males having experienced significantly more TDIs than females. The prevalence of TDIs was 16.1%; enamel fractures were the most frequently observed injury and falls were the leading cause of trauma.


F.G., M, Dimba E, Butt F, bahra J.  2012.  patterns of salivery tumours at a university teaching hospital in Kenya.



Akama, MK, F.G. M, chindia ML, Muriithi JM, Malupi E, Sang LK.  2010.  temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.


F.G., M, Ogwell AEO, Dimba EAO, Komu P.  2009.  cigarette smoking and oral health among health care students.


Dimba, EAO, F.G. M, IN N, P W, Chindia ML.  2008.  oral and dental effects of khat chewing in the Eastleigh area of Nairobi.
Chindia, M, W. GS, F.G. M, odhiambo W.A.  2008.  pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.
F.G., M, Wagaiyu EG, EM N, Gathece L, Mutara LN, T.K M.  2008.  Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly in Nairobi popolation.


  2007.   The State of Oral Health in Kenya. , Nairobi: University of Nairobi


F.G., M, Gathece LW, Wagaiyu EG, T.K M, E.K N, W. GS.  2006.  Oral Hygiene practices and Risk of oral Leukoplakia.



Wagaiyu, EG, T.K M, EM N, Gathece LW, F.G. M.  2004.  oral health seeking behaviour of an elderly in a Kenyan popolation.



F.G., M, S.W. G, Gathece LW.  2002.  Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.


Okallo, G, mwaniki DL, S.W. G, F.G. M.  2001.  symptoms of health personnel exposed to disincfectants.
F.G., M, odhiambo A W, Akama MK, W. GS.  2001.  Maxillofacial injuries caused by terorrist bomb attack in Nairobi.



Munenge, RW, Ngatia EM, Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Mutara LN, Wagaiyu EG.  1997.  Relaxant activities of Ageratum conyzoides extract on isolated trachea and uterus.



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