Bio

PROF. NJERUH F. MWIHURIH

Prof. Njeruh is an Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology. He joined the department as a tutorial fellow in 1979 and later promoted to position of Lecturer in 1982, Senior Lecturer in 1987, and to Associate Professor in 1997. He graduated with a Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine in 1979 and registered the same year for Masters in Public Health for which he graduated in 1982. He enrolled for a PhD degree in 1985 and graduated in 1988. He has 27 publications in refereed journals and 16 conference papers.  Prof.

PROF. NJERU FRANCIS

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Publications


2006

2004

Ndirangu, PN, Njeruh FM, Gathura PB, Kyule MN.  2004.  The Potential Role Played by Various Livestock Intermediate Hosts in the Transmission of Hydatidosis in Kenya. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the potential role played by cattle, sheep, goats and pigs in the transmission of hydatidosis in Kenya. The fertility and viability status of the hydatid cysts collected from these livestock intermediate hosts, at slaughter, were used in this evaluation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Nairobi\'s Dagoretti slaughterhouse and Ndumbu-ini, pig abattoir during routine post-mortem meat inspection. All hydatid cysts detected in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were collected for laboratory analysis to determined by microscopic examination of harvested hydatid cysts fluid for the presence of protoscolices using the 0.1% Eosin Exclusion Test. Out of the 300carcasses of sheep, goats, and pigs examined, 7%, 8% and 5% harbored the cysts, respectively. Hydatid cysts from goats showed the highest fertility (87.5%), followed by those from cattle (81.4%), pigs (80%) and sheep (57.4%). Hydatid cysts from sheep showed the highest viability (100%), followed by those from goats with 85.7%, cattle with 68.6% and pigs 50%. Sheep and goats are the animals most commonly slaughtered for parties and other festivities where meat inspection is hardly carried out. Due to this as well as the high rates of fertility and viability showed by their cysts, sheep and goats may play a greatest role since all of the fertile hydatid cysts from this species were viable. These results indicate that in any hydatid disease control programme, sheep, goats, should be the livestock species included, if satisfactory control Hydatidosis is to be achieved in Kenya. This is because, only fertile and viable hydatid cysts are capable of transmitting hydatidosis to definitive hosts.

Njeru, FM, Kithuka JM, Maingi N, Ombui JN.  2004.  Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered at Dagoretti slaughterhouse in Kenya. Abstract

A cross sectional survey was carried out in Nairobi\'s Dagoretti slaughter house, where routine postmortem meat inspection was done. All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in Dagoretti were F. gigantica. A total of 1584 cattle, 989sheep and 954 goats originating from five out of the 8 provinces of Kenya were slaughtered at Dagoretti slaughter house, over the study period. 147 (9.3%) cattle, 8 (0.8%) sheep, 4 (0.4%) goats were shown to harbor liver fluke infection. It was concluded that fascioliasis is prevalent in cattle, sheep and goats of Kenya. This may be a cause of great economic losses at slaughter as a result of condemnation of infected livers

Kamau, JM;, Macharia JK;, Gitahi JN;, Kaburia HK;, Kitala PM;, Mbaria JM;, Njeruh, F. M., M; Gathura PB, Mbaka M.  2004.  An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi. Abstract

One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it\'s a good indictor of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E.coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.

2002

M, DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF.  2002.  An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.

2001

F. K, M, W. O O;, F. M N, E. S M.  2001.  Tetracycline residue levels in cattle meat from Nairobi salughter house in Kenya. Abstract

Two hundred and fifty beef samples were collected from five slaughterhouses in and around the city of Nairobi. The beef animals were sourced from various parts of the country. Samples of 50-100 grams were collected randomly from the liver, kidney and muscle of different beef carcasses. The samples collected were processed using multiresidue analytical methods that included liquid-gas partitioning and set-pat C18 cartridges chromatographic clean up. Chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline detection was done using Knauer Model 128 HPLC with an electron capture detector. Out of the 250 samples that were analyses for tetracycline residues 114 (45.6 %) had detectable tetracycline residues. Of the 114 samples with detectable tetracycline residues, 60 (24%) were liver samples, 35 (14%), were kidney samples and 19 (7.6%) were muscle samples. The mean (p>0.05) residue levels of tetracycline for the five slaughterhouses studied were as follows: Athi River 1,046 ug/kg, Dandora 594 ug/kg, Ngong 701 ug/kg, Kiserian 524 ug/kg and Dagoretti 640 /lg/kg. Of the 250 samples analysed 110 (44 % ) had oxytetracyclines while 4 (1.6 % ) had chlortetracyclines. The mean residue levels of the detected tetracyclines were higher than the recommended maximum levels in edible tissues. This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues in the various edible tissues. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal periods before slaughter. This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues in the various edible tissues. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before slaughter of the animals. Key words: Tetracycline residue, Nairobi, Kenya

1998

Gathura, PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM.  1998.  Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future.
MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1998.  The application of monoclonal antibodies in identification of a hydatid cyst antigen found in boiled sera from individuals with hydatid disease and its significance in Diagnosis of hydatid disease caused by E. granulosus in man. The Kenya Veterinarian: 23. journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1998.  A survey on the parasites of the swine and their prevalences over a ten year period. The Kenya Veterinarian: 23: 166 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.

1994

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1994.  Sandwich enzyme immunoassay for specialization of cooked meats and for detecting trace amounts of adulterants in phylogenically related species. A. Afr. Agric. For J. 59: 205 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI, PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF.  1994.  SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES. journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.

1991

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1991.  An assessment of microbiological quality of borehole water in the suburbs of the city of Nairobi, Kenya. East. Afr. Med. J. 67: 105 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.

1990

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1990.  An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for livestock hydatidosis based on partially purified thermo-stable antigen. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 38: 7 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1990.  A ten-year review of human hydatid cases seen at Kenyatta National Hospital (Kenya). Discovery and Innovation 2: 41 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.

1989

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1989.  Diagnosis of hydatid disease in surgically confirmed cases by the use of the indirect hemagglutination test based on a thermo-stable lipoprotein and an unfractionated hydatid cyst fluid. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 83: 299 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1989.  NJERUH, F.M., GATHUMA, J.M., TUMBOH-OERI, A.G. and OKELO, G.B.A. (1989). Purification and partial characterization of a thermo-stable lipoprotein (. journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1989.  Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two E. granulosus antigens in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East. Afr.Med. J. 66: 738. journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract

A total of 180 sera consisting of 50 sera from Kenyans with surgically confirmed hydatidosis and 130 sera from individuals without hydatid disease were examined. "Antigen 880" (which is suspected to be similar to Antigen B) showed a sensitivity of 88%. No false reactions were obtained with sera from individuals with non-hydatid infections, hence a specificity of 100% was recorded with this antigen. "Antigen 346" (which is similar to Capron's "Arc 5") showed a sensitivity of 52% and a specificity of 100%. It is concluded that "Antigen 880" may be more useful than "Arc 5" in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya due to the high sensitivity obtained with the antigen.

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1989.  Usefulness of indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East. Afr. Med.J. 66: 310 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1989.  The amino acid fatty acid composition of the thermo-stable lipoprotein (. journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.

1988

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1988.  Distribution and diagnosis of hydatid disease in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 12: 53 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.

1987

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1987.  NJERUH, F.M. and GATHUMA, J.M. (1987). Serodiagnosis of livestock hydatidosis by the use of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bull. An. Hlth. Prod. 35: 124 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.

1986

MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1986.  Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya II. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63: 318 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH, PROFNJERUHF.  1986.  Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63:311 . journal. : UN-HABITAT Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.

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