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Agwanda A. "Household and Family Demography in Kenya: An exploratory Essay.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A, Bocquier. "To What Extent did Economic Downturn in Kenya influence Entry into Parenthood in Nairobi City? .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference . Tunis, Tunisia; 2003.
Agwanda A. "Status of Migration Research in Kenya.". In: State of World Population 2006 Panel Discussion. 6th Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC) Nairobi, Kenya ; 2006.
Agwanda A. "Analysis of family building patterns when fertility has stalled in Kenya.". In: the 5th African Population Conference . Arusha International Conference centre ; 2007.
Agwanda A. Harmonization of Household and Family variables in the 1989 and 1999 Kenyan Censuses. . Minnesota University Population Center, International Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). The report and spreadsheet prepared for the IPUMS project on Census Data Use. The report formed part of the meta- data; 2001.
Agwanda A. Chapter 6: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey: Other Proximate Determinants of Fertility: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003 Report. Calverton, Maryland: . Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Health (MOH) and ORC MACRO ; 2004.
Agwanda A, Odipo G. " The Issue of non-numeric Responses to Questions on Desired family Size.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A. Youth Dialogue Tool submitted to Ministry of Youth Affairs . Kenya Country Office: UNFPA ; 2011.
Agwanda AO, Magadi M. " Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Published African Population studies. E Afr Med J; 2005. Abstract

African Journal of Reproductive Health   (Accepted)

Agwanda A, and BP, Kahasakhala A, Owuor S. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women in Nairobi .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference. Tunis, Tunisia: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda, A; Bocquier KOP; A; S. "A Socio-Demographic Survey Of Nairobi."; 2009.
Agwanda A. Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception in Kenya. Dakar: Union of African Population Studies; 2000.
Agwanda A. "Available Options for Estimating Basic Fertility Indicators for the 2010 Round of Censuses.". In: The conference on Needs assessment on census analysis. Dakar Senegal; 2010.
Agwanda A. Kenya Country Needs Assessment of Progress Towards the Achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the International Conference on Population and Development Goals . Partners In Development – South to South Initiative to be used for preparing the 2005-2015 Strategic Plan; 2004.
Agwanda AO. "Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Under review, International Family Planning Perspectives. E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A. Maternal health and well being in Kenya. 8-10th December 2004: Society for International Development (SID). Round table meeting on Maternal Health and Well being in Eastern Africa. Strategies for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals; 2005.
Agwanda A. Population Dynamics of Kenya. 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Agwanda A, and MM, Omollo D. "Early Teenage Pregnancy in South Nyanza.". In: Population of Association of America Annual Meeting . Minneopolis USA: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda" "A, Muganda" "R, Khasakhala" "AA, Rae" "G. Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health Programmes in Africa: Lessons from Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for the Study of Adolescence; 2003.
Agwanda" "A, Bocquier' "P, Khasakhala" "A, Owuor" "S. A Socio-Demographic Survey of Nairobi. Dakar, Senegal: CODESSRIA; 2009.
Agwata JF. "Water Management in the Tana Basin of Kenya: Potential Conflicts and Interventions.". Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol., 2(2): 69-74. ISSN 0972-9860; 2005. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Water Resources Utilization, Conflicts and Interventions in the Tana Basin of Kenya.". Forsch, G., Thiemann, S. & Winnege, R. (Editors), ; 2005. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Implications of Climate Change on Water Resources in Kenya and Adaptation Options.". Boga, H. I., Obudho, P. A., Agwata, J. F., et al., (Editors), The Principle of Sustainability: An Interdisciplinary View, Kenya DAAD Scholars Association, Nairobi. PP 196-201, ISBN 9966-923-41-1; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Spatial Characteristics of Drought Duration and Severity in the Upper Tana Basin, Kenya." International Research Journal of Environment Sciences. 2014;Vol. 3(4), 18-26. Abstract4.isca-irjevs-2014-37-spatial_characteristics_of_drought_duration_and_severity_in_the_upper_tana_basin_kenya.pdf

Drought is a recurring hazard in many countries of Africa, and Kenya is thus no exception. In the majority of the countries
in the continent, drought affects agriculture, since it is predominantly rain-fed and is the mainstay of the economies in
these countries. Various socioeconomic activities are highly prone to the impacts of drought. Since drought will always
occur, there is and will always be need for understanding its various manifestations to ensure that the effects associated
with its occurrence are managed in a sustainable manner. This study examined the spatial characteristics of drought
duration and severity in the Upper Tana Basin (UTB) of Kenya using discharge records from twenty two river gauge
stations (RGSs) in the basin. Drought duration and severity data were extracted from the discharge records using the runs
analysis technique and the data series subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) from which common factors for
the two drought events were examined. Results showed that drought duration and severity had distinct spatial patterns in
the basin. The two drought events were explained using four significant principal factors that cumulatively explained
nearly 59 percent variance for drought duration and 56 percent of variance for drought severity in the basin. The spatial
patterns of the factor loadings for drought duration showed large meridional patterns with anomalies confined to the
eastern and southeast parts of the basin. For drought severity, the spatial patterns of the factor loadings portrayed a zonal
pattern reflecting differences in the relief features between the western and eastern parts of the basin. The spatial
characteristics of the drought events may be used to plan for different land use activities in the basin.

Agwata JF, Nyaoro W. "Drought Coping Strategies at the Local Level: The Case of Masinga Division of Machakos District, Kenya.". The KDSA Annual Conference Workshop, Egerton University, Njoro, 17th-19th Oct., 2007; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF, Wamicha WN, Ondieki CM. "Modelling of Hydrological Drought Events in the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya." Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2014;Volume 11, (Issue 1 Ver. III):41-48. Abstractmodelling_of_hydrological_drought_events.pdfWebsite

Drought is a recurring hazard which affects many parts of Kenya. In most countries in Sub-Saharan
Africa, agriculture which is predominantly rain-fed is the main stay of the economies is highly prone to the
impacts of drought which, whenever it occurs, leads to serious socioeconomic challenges at various levels. The
study of drought duration, magnitude and severity have relevance in many areas such as waste load allocations,
issuance of pollution discharge permits, location of treatment plants and sanitary landfills, determination of
allowable water transfers and withdrawals both within, between and outside the affected areas and
determination of minimum downstream release requirements for hydropower water supply, cooling plants and
other facilities. Knowledge of the frequency distribution of the drought events is useful as it contributes to the
assessment of drought risks which have implications on the long term ecological, economic and social well
being of the biological and human communities that make use of water from the various streams in a basin. In
this study five frequency distributions were fitted to drought duration and severity as determined from discharge
data from representative river gauge stations in the upper Tana Basin of Kenya. The frequency distributions
fitted to the two drought events were the Generalized Normal (GN) or 3-parameter Lognormal, Generalized
Extreme Value (GEV) or the Extreme Value Type III, Generalized Pareto (GPA), Pearson Type III (P3) and
Generalized Logistic (GL). The distributions of best fit for the drought events were identified using the Z value
obtained from the average L-moment statistics of a particular candidate distribution and the average L-moment
statistics. The Z value for each homogenous region was determined from sample estimates of Lcv , Lcs and Lck that
were determined from probability weighted moment estimators and the weighted means of Lcv, Lcs and Lck using
records from the river gauging stations representing each hydrologically homogenous region. A frequency
distribution of best fit was selected if ׀ZDis׀ ≤ 1.64 and the one with the lowest ׀ZDis׀ value selected as the distribution
of best fit. Results showed that the frequency distribution of best fit for duration and severity was the Generalized
Normal while the Pearson Type III distribution was the distribution of worst fit for both duration and severity.
Key words: hydrological drought, drought events, frequency distribution, modeling

Agwata, J. F. WWN, Ondieki CM. "Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya using Stream flow Records.". Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, Vol 4, No 2 (www.ajol.info/journals/jcerp); 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF, Abwao P. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Concerns of Water Resources Management in Kenya with Particular focus on the Tana Basin.". Waswa, F., Otor, S., Olukoye, G. & Mugendi, D. (Editors), Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Higher Education in Kenya, Volume II, School of Environmental Studies and Human Sciences, Kenyatta University. PP 209-223, ISBN 9966-776-34-6; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "A Review of Some Indices used for Drought Studies." Civil and Environmental Research. 2014;Vol.6, No.2. Abstract10842-13144-1-pb.pdf

Droughts are serious extreme events that have adverse effects on the physical environment and water resource
systems in both developed and developing countries. Consequently, there is need for adequate measures for
responding to and mitigating various impacts arising from drought occurrence. The design and implementation
of drought mitigation and response strategies requires an understanding of the various indices that are used to
examine drought both at single site and in an area. In the case of water resources management during critical
drought periods for instance, a means of objectively identifying drought events in terms time and duration of
occurrence, magnitude and severity is required. This is possible only using various indices to characterize
drought. In this paper, some of the key drought indices are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses
identified.

Agwata JF. "Potential implications of climate change on the attainment of the millennium development goals in Kenya.". Proceedings of the 8th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop, Mombasa Beach Hotel, 11-14 September, 2007; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Causes of Forest loss and Suggestions on Forest Conservation and Protection in Kenya." First Joint Environmental Research Seminar, Stanley Hotel, Nairobi, 12th June 2006; 2006. Abstract
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Agweyu A, Kibore M, Digolo L, Kosgei C, Maina V, Mugane S, Muma S, Wachira J, Waiyego M, Maleche-Obimbo E. "Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(11):1310-20. Abstract

To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya.

Ahangar S, Zaz M, Shah M, Wani SN. "Perforated subhepatic appendix presenting as gas under diaphragm." Indian Journal of Surgery. 2010;72:273-274. AbstractWebsite
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Ahmad J, Thomson S, Taylor M, Scoffield J. "A reminder of the classical biochemical sequelae of adult gastric outlet obstruction." BMJ Case Reports. 2011;2011. AbstractWebsite

The commonest cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or gastric carcinoma. Patients with GOO have unique metabolic sequelae, namely hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis with paradoxical aciduria and hypocalcaemia. A case of a patient presenting as GOO is discussed. The aim of this report is to highlight the metabolic abnormalities and management in patients with GOO.

Ahmed I, Asgeirsson KS, Beckingham IJ, Lobo DN. "The position of the vermiform appendix at laparoscopy." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:165-168. AbstractWebsite

Background The vermiform appendix has no constant position and the data on the variations in its position are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the various positions of the appendix at laparoscopy. Methods Patients undergoing emergency or elective laparoscopy at a university teaching hospital between April and September 2004 were studied prospectively. The positions of the appendix and the caecum were determined after insertion of the laparoscope, prior to any other procedure and the relative frequencies calculated. Results A total of 303 (102 males and 201 females) patients with a median age of 52 years (range 18–93 years) were studied. An emergency appendicectomy was performed in 67 patients, 49 had a diagnostic laparoscopy, 179 underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and eight had other procedures. The caecum was at McBurney’s point in 245 (80.9%) patients, pelvic in 45 (14.9%) and high lying in 13 (4.3%). The appendix was pelvic in 155 (51.2%) patients, pre-ileal in 9 (3.0%), para-caecal in 11 (3.6%), post-ileal in 67 (22.1%) and retrocaecal in 61 (20.1%) patients. Conclusion Contrary to the common belief the appendix is more often found in the pelvic rather than the retrocaecal position. There is also considerable variation in the position of the caecum.

Ahoya CO, Ogollah K. "Influence of Information Technology Innovations on Performance of Kenya Commercial Banks ltd." International journal of innovative Reaserch & studies. 2014;3(4).ahoya_and_ogollah_2014.pdf
Ahramjian L, Carson A, Collins P, Kirloss R, Lang J, Makunda C, Moses Z, Oh SJ, Reinhardt J, Service E, Smith M, Styger K, Vagen K. The Philadelphia Public Space Project. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2008.
Ahuya CO;, Cartwright TC;, Ruvuna F;, Okeyo AM. "Additive and heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya."; 1987.
Ahuya CO;, Okeyo, A.M; Hendy. C, Hendy. C. "Community-based Livestock Improvement: A Case Study Of The Farm-africa."; 2001.
Ahuya, CO; Okeyo AM; MFM. Productivity of cross-bred goats under smallholder production systems in the Eastern highlands of Kenya1.; 2005. Abstract

Dairy goats have become increasingly popular among smallholder mixed crop-livestock farmers. Their profitability will determine their growth within smallholder production systems. A survey was carried out in 114 farmer groups, representing 435 goat herds and 1676 goats. Data on reproductive and growth performance, milk production and flock dynamics (deaths, births, and sales) were collected between October 2001 and September 2003. The genotypes involved were the local East African goat, pure Toggenburg (T) and their crosses (F1) and 3/4T. Using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC) as an input framework, herd structure, gross margins and herd growth were calculated based on feed efficiency. The parameter used was the annual total value of off- take per carrying capacity unit (CCU), which was defined as a standard livestock unit consuming 100 Mega joules of metabolisable energy (ME) per day. The goat enterprise proved to be profitable Annual gross margins of over US $259 were recorded indicating that dairy goat enterprises under smallholder production systems can be profitable,(the USD exchange rate at March 2005 was 77 Kenya shillings to US $1)

Ahuya CO;, Okeyo AM;, Peacock C. "Development of dairy goat industry in Kenya: A case study."; 2004.
AI K, Gachago MM, LO N, JM N. The Quality Of Life Of Primary Caregivers Of Children With Retinoblastoma At Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Aila FO, Nyangara CA, Ojera PB, Owaga EE, Odera O, Ogutu M. "The Future Of Organizations: Musings Of A Manager." ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES AND EDUCATION. 2013;2(2). Abstractthe_future_of_organizations_musings_of_a_manager.pdf

Dominant forces of the last century, developments in science and technology, the presence of ideological rigidities and the complexity of organizational environment will continually shape the future. Developments in human skills can readily catapult organizations to their future. Four views of the future highlighted include: the future is an extension of the past; the future is new; the future is now; and the future is somewhat “past”. In our attempt to (re)invent the future, we need a leadership skill that will propel the organization to its future.
Keywords: Future organizations, leadership, environment

AJ W, LS O. "Acute renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(2):110-3. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

AJ W, SO ML. "Cost consideration in renal replacement therapy in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1995;72(1):69-71. Abstract

End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.

AJ W, C S, JL A. "Oral herpes simplex virus type 1 infection following cadaveric renal transplantation in a young type 1 diabetic female. The role of acyclovir: a case report." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(12):709-11. Abstract

Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

AJ RODRIGUES, GP P, CA MOTURI. Reviews of Logistic Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology. University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 1994.
AJ O’o, Z Q, M O. "Infection in pregnancy; understanding impact on placental microenvironment and preterm birth: a review." JOGECA . 2018;29(1). Abstract

Background: Pregnancy increases susceptibility to and severity of infections caused by certain microbes and
parasites. The presence of these infectious agents at the maternofetal interface may lead to adverse pregnancy
outcomes including preterm birth either via direct action of the microbes or indirectly via alteration of the placental
microenvironment.
Objective: To summarize the literature regarding the role of various infectious agents in alteration of placental
microenvironment and predisposition to preterm birth.
Method: A review search using Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip database was conducted at the
University of California San Francisco. A total of 880 abstracts were reviewed and a total of 95 studies were included.
Studies were included if they reported any information on infection during pregnancy, effect on placenta or fetal
membranes or risk of preterm birth.
Results: The current evidence indicates that various infectious agents affect pregnancy and alter placental
microenvironment at the maternofetal interface. Severity of these infections increases with gestation. Additionally,
these infections are associated with the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes including preterm birth.
Conclusion: Prevention, early detection and treatment of these infections including those that are asymptomatic is
important in maintaining integrity of the placenta and in reducing the burden of preterm births.

AJ W, A M, A T, R R, CD M, R G. "Netilmycin and vancomycin in the treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients." Clin Nephrol.. 1992;37(4):209-13. Abstract

This study was undertaken to evaluate: 1. The efficacy of netilmycin and vancomycin as combined first line antimicrobial regime, compared to cefuroxime, in the treatment of peritonitis. 2. To measure the levels of netilmycin and vancomycin in the serum and dialysate. 3. To report on the use of this combination over a one year period and compare it with that of cefuroxime used during the previous one year.

AJ H, AJ W, HF B, EB M, I L, R. G. "Hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia, hyperphosphataemia and hyperaluminaemia in CAPD: improvement in serum biochemistry by reduction in dialysate calcium and magnesium concentrations." Nephron. . 1996;72(1):52-8. Abstract

Phosphate binders are necessary to control hyperphosphataemia in the majority of dialysis patients. Whilst aluminium salts are efficient phosphate binders, their use is associated with toxic side effects. Calcium salts are a widely used alternative, but hypercalcaemia is a common side effect, limiting their use and raising concern about metastatic calcification. Reduction of the dialysis fluid calcium concentration has been shown to reduce hypercalcaemia in haemodialysis patients, with an associated decrease in serum PTH. We analysed the effect of reduced calcium/magnesium (1.25/0.25 mmol/l), 40 mmol/l lactate, PD fluid (PD4) on 11 CAPD patients with uncontrollable hypercalcaemia (> 2.65 mmol/l) and hyperphosphataemia (> 1.80 mmol/l). Only 1 patient remained hypercalcaemic, while phosphate fell in 6 patients (2.23 +/- 0.16 on no binder, to 1.68 +/- 0.08 mmol/l at 6 months (p < 0.05), but was unchanged in 5 (2.10 +/- 0.15 to 2.48 +/- 0.14 mmol/l [p = NS]). Overall mean calcium x phosphate product changed little. However, in a subgroup it fell significantly (p < 0.05). Geometric mean iPTH rose, but not significantly. The subgroup of patients whose calcium x phosphate product fell, exhibited a much smaller rise in iPTH than the others (57.3-73.2 vs. 52.8-167.1 pg/ml). 1.25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 was subnormal in all patients. Mean serum magnesium fell from 1.24 +/- 0.06 to 0.89 +/- 0.04 mmol/l (p < 0.001), whilst mean serum bicarbonate rose significantly (25.2 +/- 0.4 to 28.9 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; p < 0.01). Withdrawal of aluminium-containing phosphate binders resulted in mean serum aluminium falling significantly from 31.1 +/- 5.7 at start of PD4 to 15.4 +/- 2.7 mu g/l at 6 months (p < 0.05). In summary, in around 50% of CAPD patients with persistent hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia, reduction in PD fluid calcium can produce significant improvement in phosphate, reduction of calcium x phosphate product, and enable avoidance of aluminium-containing phosphate binders. Patients whose calcium and phosphate control remains poor, still benefit from the reduction, or cessation, of oral aluminium intake.

AJ RODRIGUES, CA MOTURI. Training of information analysts at the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi. New Delhi, India : Tata McGraw Publishing Company ; 1992. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Ajmani ML, Ajmani K. "The position, length and arterial supply of vermiform appendix." Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1983;153:369-374. Abstract

The arterial blood supply, position and length of appendix were studied in 100 Indian (Uttar Pradesh region) cadavers. In 39% more than one appendicular artery was demonstrated. The retrocaecal and retrocolic positions of the appendix were by far the commonest (58%). Incidence of postilial position was also fairly common (10%). The average length of the appendix was found to be 9.5 cm in the male and 8.7 cm in the female. The prevalence of the retrocaecal and retrocolic positions may partly explain the incidences of appendicitis.

Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Alex Ogacho Alex Ogacho Niobium Doped TiO2 (Nb:TiO2) : Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of TiO2. United Nairobi Club, Nairobi, Kenya: MSSEESA; 2013.
Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Niobium Doped Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The optical band gaps and crystal structure were investigated on niobium doped TiO2 (for atomic niobium concentrations ranging from 0.02 –0.06 at. % in the composite) prepared by high temperature diffusion method. The Nb:TiO2 films displayed an enhanced visible light absorption with a red shift of 18.2 nm of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for pure TiO2 film to 412.2 nm for 0.04 at. % niobium concentration representing a band gap lowering of 0.181eV due to the donor–type behavior of niobium. As the niobium concentration increased, the enhancement in light absorption at the investigated concentration range goes through a maximum at 0.04 at. % of Nb5+ with minimum band gap of 3.017eV. Despite higher rutilization, at the doping temperature of 850oC used, crystal sizes (39–43 nm) obtained from X-ray diffraction spectra depicted a significant increase in surface areas which is attributed to retardation of anatase - rutile phase transformation caused by Nb:TiO2 matrix.

Ajuoga, P. O, A., Mwabora JM, Aduda BO. "Effects of concentration of dopant states on photoactivity in niobium-doped TiO2.". In: 7th College on Thin Film Technology. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2006. Abstract

Various studies have revealed that incorporation of cations of valence higher than that of the parent cations e.g., W6+, Ta5+, Nb5+ into the crystal matrix of TiO2 enhances its rate of photoactivity. In the present study, we propose incorporation of Nb5+, pentavalent dopant into TiO2 matrix in order to attempt to establish its optimal concentration for maximum photoactivity. The niobium-doped TiO2 was prepared by high temperature diffusion of the doping cations into the crystal matrix of the parent oxide. The doped samples were found to change from white to light yellow/brown. XRD analysis for anatase-rutile content of the doped samples was performed. At low mol% Nb (0.1197 – 0.2360) in TiO2, the crystalline structure was predominantly rutile at calcinations temperature of 650 oC, but at high mol% Nb (> 1.0000), a relatively higher anatase content was observed at the same calcinations temperature for a period of 2.5 hours.

Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Financial Prudence on the Performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science. 2016;2(1):4.ajwang_karanja_ogollah_and_orwa_2016_2.pdf
Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Product Value on the performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science . 2016;2(1).ajwang_ogollah_karanja_and_orwa_2016_.pdf
Akala, H.M. "Modernization versus culture resilience in education in east africa." Journal of curriculum studies. 2006;38(3):365-372.
Akala, W. J. C& PK. "Status of Technical and Vocational Education and Training TVET) in Post-secondary Education in Kenya." Journal of Popular Education in Africa. 2018;2(7):15-25.
Akala, H.M. "The white architects of black education:Ideology and power inAmerica, 1865-1954." New york teachers College Press,. 2005;2001(37(6)):733-735.
Akala J, Maithya PM. "Effects of Teacher Recruitment and Utilization Policy on Quality of Secondary School Education in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) . 2014;Vol.4(No.1 Ver.III):10-17.
Akale J.E., Maina C.W., Nduhiu. G., Mainga.A., J.K. M, Kang'ethe E. K. "Prevalence of Cryptosporidia in Dogs and cats from selected kernels and veterinary clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference. U.o.N CAVS; 2014.04-3_abstract-cryptosporidia_in_dogs_2.pdf
Akama MK, Chindia ML, F.G. M, Guthua SW. "Pattern of Maxxillofacial and Associated Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents.". 2007.
Akama MK. Current pattern of road traffic accidents, maxillofacial and associated injuries in Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries sustained in Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs).
Study Area: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study including all patients involved in RTAs
brought to casualty and dental departments of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the
KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004.
Results: A total of 482 people involved in RTAs were included in the study. Four hundred and
thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries.
Nonfatal injuries. The 21-30-year-old age group was the most affected. The male to female ratio
was 4:1. Day time injuries were recorded among 60.3% of the participants. The incidence of
RTAs was highest on Fridays. There were 245 (59.5%) pedestrians and 139 (33.7%) passengers
involved. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatu) which were
responsible for 256 (62%) casualties whereas private saloon cars were involved in 150 (36.3%)
cases. Non- use of safety belts was reported in 90 (56.6%) cases whereas over-speeding was
reported by 120 (29.1 %) casualties. Alcohol use by drivers was reported in 26 (6.3%) cases
whereas vehicle defects accounted for 62 (15%) cases.Three hundred and seventy (89.6%)
casualties had soft tissue injuries (STls) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the
majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1 %) incidents of other STls than those of
the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the
casualties had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those
involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. The lower limbs were
more affected with 61 (43%) incidents followed by the upper limbs (24.6%). Pedestrians were
IX
most involved in sustaining skeletal injuries than other categories of road users.
Fatal RTAs: Sixty nine (14.3%) of the 482 participants were fatally injured. The 21-30- year-old
age group was the most affected (20%). The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Matatus and minibuses
were the leading cause of fatal accidents together having been responsible for 28 (40.6%) of
the accidents. Pedestrians (71.4%) were by far more involved than other categories of road users.
Most participants had multiple injuries with chest injuries having been the most common (50
cases). Fourty six (66.7%) victims had injuries to the head region with subdural haemorrhage
having been the commonest injury found at autopsy (47.8%). Injuries to the chest were found in
fifty (72.2%) victims whereas abdominal and limb injuries were recorded in 42 (60.9%) and 34
(49.3%) victims respectively. Head injury alone was the leading cause of death (37.7%) followed
by head and chest injuries combined (13.0%)
Conclusion: The majority of people involved in RTAs were in their third decade of life with
males having been the predominant group affected. Pedestrians were the leading casualties
amongst road users. Most of the accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles. The lower
limbs sustained most soft tissue and skeletal injuries compared to other anatomic sites other than
the craniofacial area. The leading cause of death was head injury.

Akama MK, W GS, Chindia ML. "Pierre Robin Syndrome: case report.". 2000. Abstract

A case of a female neonate with Pierre Robin Syndrome with frequent cyanotic episodes and feeding difficulties which could not be adequately managed by positioning and oral airway placement is presented. Tongue-anterior mandible fusion procedure was performed with satisfactory results

Akama MK, F.G. M, chindia ML, Muriithi JM, Malupi E, Sang LK. "temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

Akamatsu N, Nakajima H, Ono M, Miura Y. "Increase in acetyl CoA synthetase activity after phenobarbital treatment." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1725-7.
Akanga, J; Kariuki SKFW; MOE; NE; B; A. "A Guide to Periodicals Section .". 1991.Website
Akaranga SI, Mwikamba CM. "Blessed are the rich and prosperous for theirs is the Kingdom of this world:The Kenyan Challenge." Research on Humanities and Soicial Sciences. 2015;Vol 5(14):138-141.
Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "African traditional cultural conundrums which make women prone to HIV/ AIDS infections: A case of the Maasai of Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.8(8):153-156.ijern_vol.1_no.8_august_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The Suppression of Women by Religion: A Kenyan Example." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2014;Vol1(No.4):48-60.
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "Internet access and Security in Kitinga Primary school in Mwingi central, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;4(11):1-12.
Akaranga SI, Ongong JJ. "The Phenomenon of Examination Malpractice: An Example of Nairobi and Kenyatta Universities." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2013;Vol.2 No.8(8):83-86.jep_vol_4_no._18_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Moywaywa CK. "Influence of selected lerarners' characteristics on their academic achievement in public secondary schools in Trans Nzoia and West Pokot counties, Kenya." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(2):67-78.
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The hermeneutics of the phenomenon of dialogue between Christians and Muslims in contemporary Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2016;6(5):157-162.
Akaranga SI, Moywaywa CK. "The Origins and Settlement of Hindus in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2015;4(8):115-121.
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "The hermeneutics of education management Information Systems for Kitinga primary school in Mwingi central, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2016;7(35):36-40.
Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "The dynamics of religiosity and spirituality in Kenyan public Universities." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.6(6):63-80.ijern_vol_1_no.6_june_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The Phenomenon of Intolerance and Its Impact on Christian - Muslim Relation in Kenya." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(8):105-121. AbstractWebsite

One of the common euphemisms today is: “Religion is inherently violent, the cause of all major wars in history”. The interlocutors accuse religion without remembering that the last two world wars were fought not on account of religion, but, because of other interrelated social, material and ideological factors, the chief of which being competition for scarce resources. Yet, when the observers cite the Crusades, the Inquisition and wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, not to mention the recent spate of terrorism committed in the name of religion, it is hard to belittle euphemism. Like religion, terrorism is difficult to define. Generally, however, it is a deliberate use of violence or threat of its use against innocent people, with the aim of intimidating them specifically or others into a course of action they could not otherwise take. Terrorism is fundamentally political, even when other motives-religious, economic or social are involved. It is about power, acquiring it or keeping it. This is probably why, the discussion of apparent tension between Christians and Muslims here in Kenya can hardly be discussed without due consideration of the role of Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda. The association of Islam with terrorism in the recent past first came to global attention with the assassination of Anwar Sadat in Cairo, the then president of Egypt. This wave of violence claiming religious justification became more rampant in the 1980’s finally culminating in the atrocity of September 11, 2001, in New York. Here in Kenya, there have been attacks against public institutions, bus stops and markets; an action of hostility which threatens amicable relationship between the two religions. This is why; critics of religion acknowledge that monotheism is prone to violence and intolerance. If however, there is one thing we can reliably predict about this century, it is that, an increasing share of Kenya’s people is going to identify with either Christianity or Islam. And, examples of disastrous accounts of conflict can hardly enhance amicable coherence even if done in the name of religion. To meet the challenges of our time and create a desirable Kenyan society, we need to accurately assess our religious affiliations. It is not enough to assume the nature of these two Abrahamic religious traditions and their roles in Kenya. The central question this paper asks and attempts to answer is: If religion can be used as an instrument of destruction, how come it has continued to survive as the most influential social phenomenon? To facilitate our discussion the paper adopts theories of Emile Durkheim and Myerson to explain the functional relationship between religion and violence; and cultural interpretation of violence. The paper therefore, examines the following three objectives:

Ambivalent nature of religion,
Existential justification for hermeneutic of suspicion and,
Abrahamic tradition: A basis for interfaith dialogue.
Keywords: terrorism, violence, religion, dialogue, suspicion, tradition and exegesis.

Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Determinants of Secondary school learners’ performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan sub county, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2016;7(5):125-130.
Akaranga SI. "Prosperity Gospel in Kenyan Urban Centres: Come, See, Pay and Receive Your Miracles and Healing." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(10):199-208. AbstractWebsite

In this part of the 21st century, the impact of ‘New Age” religions created by secularization have exposed the western Christianity to several challenges which seem not only divergent to biblical doctrine but tend to give new image to God. Even here in Kenya, we are not foreign to these challenges. Some of which include; ordination of women, gender mainstreaming, marriage of the same sex, sex scandals of celibate clergy, leadership struggle, corruption and prosperity gospel, to mention but a few. This paper investigates the impact of prosperity gospel, an offshoot of neo-Pentecostalism in Kenyan urban centres with emphasis in Nairobi. This Christian social phenomenon teaches that true Christian faith results in material wealth and physical well-being. It claims that the Bible teaches that financial blessing is the will of God for Christians (vide Wikipedia, the free Encylopedia). That is, instead of the gospel of the forgiveness of sins, the centre is occupied by miracles and the improvement of the quality of life, along with temporal blessings from God (Anssi Simojoki, 2002: 272). This explains why the churches associated with prosperity gospel are popular in the eastern side of the city of Nairobi. The main question is whether the prosperity gospel is authentic Christian theology that satisfactorily improves the lives of the faithful? To facilitate our discussion, we have discussed the following four objectives: the origin and background of prosperity gospel, its teachings and impact, to make possible recommendations. The collection of data included both primary and secondary materials. We administered 250 oral interviews. Ninety members from the churches associated with the phenomenon, seventy students from both Kenyatta University and University of Nairobi and ninety adults outside the two categories.

Key words: Prosperity/gospel, Pentecostalism/charismatic, Miracle, Interlocutors, Hermeneutic

Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "Ethical considerations and their applications to Research: A case of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(12):1-9.429-825-2-pb.pdf
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