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ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Mukhtar MM, Sharief AH, el Saffi SH, Harith AE, Higazzi TB, Adam AM, Abdalla HS.Detection of antibodies to Leishmania donovani in animals in a kala-azar endemic region in eastern Sudan: a preliminary report. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jan-Feb;94(1):33.". In: Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM, Hughes RA, Payan J, McColl I.Peripheral neuropathy and hyperthermia. Lancet. 1987 May 30;1(8544):1270-1. No abstract available.". In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Vol. 9 issue 3, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM; Benign Positional Vertigo as a clinical manifestation of Hyperuricaemia- RECENT DISCOVERY Journal of Neurological Sciences 187: s222. 2001.". In: RECENT DISCOVERY Journal of Neurological Sciences 187: s222. 2001. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, R. C. Hughes, J. Payan, I. McColl: Peripheral neuropathy and hyperthamia Lancet I : 1270-1271, 1987.". In: Lancet I : 1270-1271, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 10: 710-712, 2005.". In: Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2005 Jul;10(7):710-2. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the pattern of occurrence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Kenya. Study design Prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study of clinical, encephalographic and natural history of CJD, backed by histology in as many patients as possible. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with the criteria laid down by WHO expert committee for diagnosis of CJD were recruited between January 1990 and May 2004. We analysed the clinical features and electroencephalography of all participants and took brain biopsies from four patients. RESULTS: There were four definite, seven probable and two possible cases. The electroencephalographic and histological features were typical of sporadic CJD. CONCLUSION: Sporadic CJD occurs in Kenya and the clinical, encephalographic and histological features were no different to those described elsewhere. Although we did not see variant, hereditary and iatrogenic forms of CJD, neurologists should not exclude these in making diagnoses
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. Multiple sclerosis and epidemic in Kenya. 12: East Afr Med J. 1989 Aug;66(8):503-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Aug;66(8):503-6. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A.M. ADAM. Unusual form of motor neuron disease in Kenya. 10: East Afr Med J. 1992 Feb;69(2):55-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Feb;69(2):55-7. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992. Abstract
Over the period November 1978 to October 1988, 46 cases of motor neuron disease were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. One case was seen in private practice. A bimodal age distribution of the disease was identified with a peak in the fourth decade of life and another peak in the sixth decade of life. The disease seen in the fourth decade of life was different as seen in other parts of the world in that the majority of patients tended to present with very rapidly progressive disease despite the primary presentation with limb symptoms and signs. Serum cholinesterase activity in five of these patients and five of the classical motor neuron disease revealed no abnormalities. This unusually rapidly progressive disease in young adults has not been described anywhere. The disease seen in older age groups and especially in patients over fifty years of age was not different from the one seen in other parts of the world.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Progressive multi-system degeneration : Report of five cases. Health Line 1: 82 .". In: Report of five cases. Health Line 1: 82 . Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1997. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, H. J. Rogers, S. A. Amiel, and R. D. Rubens: The effect of acetylator phenotype On the dispostion of aminoglutethimide . British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18:495-505, 1984.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Oct;18(4):495-505. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Neurological manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Large teaching hospital in Africa. Advances in Neurology. J. S. Chopra et al editors, Amsterdam Elsevier science publishers, 1999.". In: J. S. Chopra et al editors, Amsterdam Elsevier science publishers, 1999. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, D. O. Orinda: Focal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of Steele .". In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 49: 957- 959, 1986. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM; Unusual cause of severe muscle stiffness: Historical aspects of genetics. The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. IV: 142-145. 2000.". In: The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. IV: 142-145. 2000. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM: Skull radiographic measurements of normals and patients with basilar impression Use of Landzert.". In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Vol. 9 issue 3, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM: Benign positional vertigo and hyperuricaemia. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):376-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):376-8. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. Co-author in Multi Center trial of azathioprine in Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. I: 179-183, 1988.". In: Lancet. I: 179-183, 1988. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1988. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
Adam AM. "Structural, thermal, morphological and biological studies of proton-transfer complexes formed from 4-aminoantipyrine with quinol and picric acid.". 2013. Abstract

4-Aminoantipyrine (4AAP) is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, biochemical experiments and environmental monitoring. However, residual amounts of 4AAP in the environment may pose a threat to human health. To provide basic data that can be used to extract or eliminate 4AAP from the environment, the proton-transfer complexes of 4AAP with quinol (QL) and picric acid (PA) were synthesized and spectroscopically investigated. The interactions afforded two new proton-transfer salts named 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-4-hydroxyphenolate and 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate for QL and PA, respectively, via a 1:1 stoichiometry. Elemental analysis (CHN), electronic absorption, spectrophotometric titration, IR, Raman, (1)H NMR and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the new products. The thermal stability of the synthesized CT complexes was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, and the morphology and particle size of these complexes were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that PA and 4AAP immediately formed a yellow precipitate with a remarkable sponge-like morphology and good thermal stability up to 180°C. Finally, the biological activities of the newly synthesized CT complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results indicated that the [(4AAP)(QL)] complex exhibited strong antimicrobial activities against various bacterial and fungal strains compared with standard drugs.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "R. W. Vaughan, A. M. ADAM, et. al. Major histocompatibility complex class I and II Polymorphism in chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 27: 149-153, 1990.". In: Journal of Neuroimmunology. 27: 149-153, 1990. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990. Abstract
Thirty-one chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) patients have been typed for HLA-A, -B and -C antigens serologically and for HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP class II genes by RFLP analysis. Our results confirm a previously reported slight association with HLA-B8 and identify a stronger association with HLA-Cw7.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Subacute demyelinating polyneuropathy in twelve Human Immunodeficiency Virus seropositive patients in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Neurosciences. 1: 92-92, 1993.". In: African Journal of Neurosciences. 1: 92-92, 1993. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, J Nganga and C Muthaura: The profile of N-acetylator status in healthy African volunteers. E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1981. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
Adam, A.M; Rogers HJ, Bradbrook ID;, Rogers HJ. "High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and acetylaminoglutethimide in biological fluids.". 1985. Abstract

A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A M ADAM, Hyperuricaemia as a cause of benign positional vertigo: European Journal of Neurology. 6: s85. 1999.". In: European Journal of Neurology. 6: s85. 1999. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. And H. J. Rogers: Gas-liquid chromatographic assay of aminoglutethimide And high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of its acetyl metabolite in biological Fluids. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985. Abstract
A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Environmental Protection in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation: A Case Study.Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585.". In: Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract

Implementation of environmental management in Russia is undergoing rapid changes. Federal responsibility rests with the Russian Federation State Committee for Environmental Protection (RFSCEP) and is delegated at regional level to local State Committees for Environmental Protection (SCEPs). This paper focuses on the functioning of the SCEP for Tomsk oblast' (region) in Siberia, which is strongly committed to forging constructive links with regional government, academia, industry, and environmental NGOs. Considerable difficulties exist for SCEPs in Russia, however, and prominent among these are (1) a rigidly vertical civil service structure, with separate organs having responsibility for different natural resources, persisting from Soviet times, which hinders effective intergrated and holistic environmental management; and (2) a lack of open access to environmental information from military and quasi-military sites

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM, Bhatt SM, Otieno LS.Beh.". In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Vol. 9 issue 3, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM:Human genetics in the Holy Qur'an and Sunna.J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2003;33(1):44-5.". In: J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2003;33(1):44-5. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there is any association between serum uric acid level and positional vertigo. DESIGN: A prospective, case controlled study. SETTING: A private neurological clinic. SUBJECTS: All patients presenting with vertigo. RESULTS: Ninety patients were seen in this period with 78 males and 19 females. Mean age was 47 +/- 3 years (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 12.4. Their mean uric acid level was 442 +/- 16 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.6 umol/l as compared to 291 +/- 17 (at 95% confidence level) with a standard deviation of 79.7 umol/l in the control group. The P-value was less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: That there is a significant association between high uric acid and benign positional vertigo.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED, M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Some effects of the rising case load of adult HIV-related disease on a hospital in Nairobi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40. Taylor & Francis; 1998. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, S. M. Bhatt. and L. S. Otieno: Behcet.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Aug;64(8):558-60. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM, Maritim MC.Pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a patient with sickle cell disease: case report. East Afr Med J. 2008 Feb;85(2):98-101.". In: The Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Anaesthesilogists. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2008. Abstract
An 18 year female sickler (HbSS) presented with repeated history of epistaxis and bleeding gums. Features consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum were observed, such as hyper-extensile redundant skin folds in the neck, axilla, inguinal areas and abdomen. The skin biopsy showed swollen, clumped and fragmented elastic fibres and calcium deposits in the deep and mid reticular dermis, consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. This is a well recognised complication of sickle cell disease which has not been described in Kenya.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, P. F. Atkinson, S. M.Hall, R. A. C. Hughes, and W. A. Taylor: Chronic Experimental allergic neuritis in Lewis rats. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 15: 249-264, 1989.". In: Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1989 May-Jun;15(3):249-64. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989. Abstract
An experimental chronic relapsing demyelinating neuropathy was produced by immunizing adult Lewis rats with bovine myelin in low (2.5 mg) and high (5 mg) doses, with and without Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the adjuvant. Each regime produced a similar disease course: acute severe hind limb weakness was followed by apparent recovery and then reappearance of mild neurological deficit with occasional spontaneous exacerbations. The partially recovered animals were relatively resistant to reimmunization with myelin. Immunization of four-week-old rats with myelin in complete adjuvant produced disease with a similar course. Subsequent immunization of these juvenile rats with adjuvant alone precipitated exacerbations. In the late stages, the prominent changes in peripheral nerves and nerve roots were axon loss, axonal regeneration and remyelination while inflammatory cell infiltration was confined to occasional foci. Onion bulb formation was extremely common in the dorsal root ganglia and affected in particular the nerve fibres close to the dorsal root ganglion cells. The cells forming the onion bulbs resembled the satellite cells surrounding the axon hillocks. Onion bulb formation also occurred in the portion of the ventral roots adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion but was rare elsewhere. Immunocytochemistry revealed only occasional lymphocyte infiltration but there was increased Class I and Class II MHC antigen expression throughout the peripheral nervous system. The results are relevant to the interpretation of biopsies from patients with chronic demyelinating neuropathy of possible inflammatory or autoimmune origin.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a case report.East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract
A 27 year old female with AIDS and disseminated histoplasmosis is presented. The clinical features include fever, weight loss, productive cough, splenomegaly and moderate pallor. The initial working diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made terminally from bone marrow aspirate examination. Disseminated histoplasmosis with its varied clinical picture is likely to be missed in a patient with AIDS, and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. PIP: A 27-year old female from Nairobi was admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital in May 1991. She presented with a 4-week history of productive cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. She acknowledged a history of contact with a patient known to have pulmonary tuberculosis. She has never received a blood transfusion. She was single and para 3 + 0. Examination revealed a sick patient, with moderate pallor, fever of 38 degrees Celsius, and who was wasted with moderate dehydration and oral thrush. There was no finger clubbing, lymphadenopathy, or pedal edema. Chest examination revealed bilateral basal pneumonia. The spleen was palpable 4 cm below the costal margin; the liver was not enlarged. The rest of the examination was normal. On admission, complete blood count showed a haemoglobin of 5.4 g/dl, total white cells were 12.5 x 10-9/L, with 82% polymorphonuclear cells and 18% lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 85 mm/hour, and platelet count was normal. The anemia was normocytic, normochromic, and no malaria parasites were seen. Urea and electrolytes and liver function tests were normal. Sputum showed no acid fast bacilli on Ziel-Neelson Stain. HIV-1 antibodies were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Bone marrow aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow with reversed M:E ration, dyserythropoesis, reticulum cell hyperplasia, plentiful golden yellow pigment, and clumps of Histoplasma capsulatum. Chest X-ray showed bilateral basal pneumonia. She was treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, but she remained febrile, her general condition progressively deteriorated, and she died a week after admission. Treatment for histoplasmosis had not been commenced, and no postmortem examination was carried out.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Adam AM.Relations among open-closed mindedness, social desirability and depression in students facing a critical situation involving authority. Nurs Res Conf. 1973;(9):241-76. No abstract available.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1973. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
ADAMS MROLOO. ""Comment on article by Ludeki Chweya "The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate,.". In: Regional Development Dialogue: Local Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Africa, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 2004.; 2005. Abstract
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ADAMS MROLOO. "Out For The Count: The 1997 Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya, Uganda.". In: Marcel Rutten, Alamin Mazrui and Francois Grignon, (eds.), Fountain Publishers, 2001.; 2001. Abstract

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ADAMS DOLOO. "East Africa: One Identity or Multiple Identities?". In: East African Scenarios Project Research Compendium. NAIROBI: Society for International Development; 2007.
ADAMS DOLOO. "Commentary on article by Ludeki Chweya “The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate".". In: in Regional Development Dialogue: Local Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Africa. NAIROBI: Spring; 2004.
Addae-Mensah, Achenbach H, Thoithi G, Waibel R, Mwangi J. "Epoxychiromodine and other contituents of Croton megalocarpus." Phytochemistry. 1992;31:20552058.
Addae-Mensah, Muriuki G, Thoithi GN, Karanja C, Wandera C, Waibel R, Achenbach H. "Constituents of the stem bark and twigs of Croton macrostachy(u)s." Fitoterapia. 1992;LXIII:81-82.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Vollrath F. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DO:1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Jacques M. Kabaru, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and Thermal Degradation Properties of Silk from African Wild Silkmoths." J. APPL. POLYM. SCI. 2012;(DOI: 10.1002/APP.37873):5-15.
Addis Teshome, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, Nguku EK. "Study on Weight Loss and moisture Regain of Silk Cocoon Shells and Degummed Fibers from African Wild Silkmoths." Journal of Entomology. 2011;8(5):450-458. AbstractWebsite

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A study was conducted to determine weight loss and moisture regain properties of silk cocoon shells, shell layers and degummed fibers of the four African wild silkmoths Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae, Epiphora bauhiniae and Gonometa postica and compare "with the industry standard mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori. No. significant difference was observed between the moisture regain of the wild silk fibers after degumming. However, there were significant differences in weight loss and moisture regain between cocoon shells as well as shell layers. E. bauhiniae had the lowest weight loss and moisture regain of 23.19 and 5.64%, respectively while G. postica had the highest weight loss and moisture regain, 56.84 and 9.05%, respectively. The SEM micrographs also showed the presence of remnant sericin gum on the fibers surface. In both A. panda and E. bauhiniae, the outer shell layers had the lowest moisture regain and highest weight loss while the inner layer of E. bauhiniae and middle layer of A. panda lost the least weight. The physical structure and chemical composition ofthe cocoon shells and fibers contribute towards the variation in the moisture regain and weight loss and these features may have commercial implications due to their direct effect on the resulting fabric

Addis Teshome, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Onyari J. "Study on the microstructures of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers." International Journal of Biological Biomolecules. 2012;50(1):63-68.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DOi 1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
Addis Teshome, Vollrath F, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Onyari J. "Study on the microstructures of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers." International Journal of Biological Biomolecules. 2012;Vol. 50 (1):63-68.
Addisu A, Olago D, Wandiga S, Oriaso S, Amwata DA. "Smallholder Farmers Vulnerability Level to Climate Change Impacts and Implications to Agricultural Production in Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia." Journal of Agriculture and Crops, Academic Research Publishing Group . 2019; 5(12): 237-250. Abstractideas.repec.org

Vulnerability to climate change impact is the most pressing issues for less developed countries whose economy mainly depends on the agricultural sector. The demand for food is growing swiftly whereas impacts of climate change on the global food production are increasing. More area specific research outputs and evidences-based policy directions are needed to tackle the ever changing climate and to reduce its impacts on the agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate subsistence farmer household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and its associations with household’s agricultural production. Then primary data was collected from 400 households from Kolla Temben District, Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Multistage sampling techniques were applied to select households for interview from the district. In the first stage, 4 Kebelles (Kebelle - administration unit) were selected randomly out of 27 Kebelles and then400 households were selected for interview through systematic random sampling techniques (Figure 1). Multiple regressions were used to examine the associations between household’s vulnerability to climate change impacts and agricultural production. Grounded theory and content analysis techniques were use to analyze data from key informant interviews and focus group discussions. For every single unit increase in household vulnerability to climate change impacts, there was an average agricultural production decrease between 16.99 and 25.83 (Table 4). For single unit increase in household’s vulnerability to climate change impact, there was a decrease of total crop production, Total income, total livestock, total food consumption and food consumption per adult equivalent. Rainfall decrease, small farmland ownership, steep topography, frequent flood occurrences and large family size are among the major factors that negatively affect household’s agricultural production and total income. The more the vulnerable the households, the less in total annual crop production, total livestock size, total income from agricultural production and the more dependent on food aid). There is a negative association between household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and agricultural production (crop production, total livestock ownerships and total income from crop production). More access to irrigation and agricultural fertilizers, improved varieties of crops, small family size, improve farmland ownership size, more access to education and Agricultural Extension services are an effective areas of intervention to improve household’s resilient, reduce households vulnerability level to climate change impacts and increase household’s total agricultural production.

Adebambo AO, G. Bjørnstad, W. Bulimo, H. Jianlin, G. Kierstein, L. Mazhani, B. Podisi, J. Hirbo, K. Agyemang, C. Wollny, T. Gondwe, V. Zeuh D, Tadelle, G. Abebe, P. Abdoulaye, S. Paco, L. Serunjogi, M. Abrerrahman, R. Sow, S. Weigend, R. Sanfo, F. Gaye, E. Ssewanyana, M. D. Coulibaly, B. Teme, VSF(Sudan), Hanotte. O. "Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Analysis of South Western Nigerian Chicken." Archivos de Zootecnia. 2009;58:637-643. Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), Normal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

Adebanji A, Achia T, Ngetich R, Owino J, Wangombe A. "Spatial Durbin Model for Poverty Mapping and Analysis.". 2008.
Adeka R, Lukhoba C, Odhiambo J, Maundu P. "Morphological Traits as Indicators of Bitterness in Traditional Vegetables: The Case of Spider Plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in Kenya." Asian Journal of Research in Botany. 2019;2(3):1-15.
Adekunle AA;, Ellis-Jones J;, Ajibefun I;, Nyikal RA;, Bangali S;, Fatunbi O;, Ange A. "Agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from multiple-stakeholder approaches."; 2012.
Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. Abstract

Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5

Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "INCIDENCE AND CONTROL OF SEED-BORNE FUNGAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH POST-GERMINATION MORTALITY IN SEEDLINGS OF Melia volkensii GURKE." Journal of Experimental Biology. 2013;1:4.
Adero AO, Baki P, Kotze P, Mito CO. "Features of the Night-Time F-Region Currents over Equatorial Africa (August, 2001)." International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences. 2014;4(4):101-104.
Adeyinka K Akanbi MM. Towards semantic integration of heterogeneous sensor data with indigenous knowledge for drought forecasting. Vancouver, BC, Canada : ICM; 2015. Abstract

In the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, various heterogeneous ubiquitous devices would be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly, irrespective of the domain. Semantic representation of data through detailed standardized annotation has shown to improve the integration of the interconnected heterogeneous devices. However, the semantic representation of these heterogeneous data sources for environmental monitoring systems is not yet well supported. To achieve the maximum benefits of IoT for drought forecasting, a dedicated semantic middleware solution is required. This research proposes a middleware that semantically represents and integrates heterogeneous data sources with indigenous knowledge based on a unified ontology for an accurate IoT-based drought early warning system (DEWS).

Adeyinka K Akanbi MM. "A Framework for Accurate Drought Forecasting System Using Semantics-Based Data Integration Middlewarev." International Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries. 2015;171:pp 106-110 . AbstractFull text link

Technological advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has made it become an invaluable component of a reliable environmental monitoring system; they form the ‘digital skin’ through which to ‘sense’ and collect the context of the surroundings and provides information on the process leading to complex events such as drought. However, these environmental properties are measured by various heterogeneous sensors of different modalities in distributed locations making up the WSN, using different abstruse terms and vocabulary in most cases to denote the same observed property, causing data heterogeneity. Adding semantics and understanding the relationships that exist between the observed properties, and augmenting it with local indigenous knowledge is necessary for an accurate drought forecasting system. In this paper, we propose the framework for the semantic representation of sensor data and integration with indigenous knowledge on drought using a middleware for an efficient drought forecasting system.
Keywords
Middleware Internet of things Drought forecasting Semantic integration Ontology Interoperability Semantic technology 

ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Nov;17(6):421-2. Non-penetrating chest blows and sudden death in the young.Thakore S, Johnston M, Rogena E, Peng Z, Sadler D.". In: J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Nov;17(6):421-2. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "You, Yourself and Your Portfolio.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Globalization of the Food and Agricultural Economy: Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Cattle and Small Ruminant Breeds Utilization and Assessment of the Impact of Breeding schemes on livestock productivity in East and Central Africa (2005 -2007) CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ASARECA AARNET.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Voices: The British Council Nairobi.". In: The British Council. ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
Adhiambo C, Blisnick T, Toutirais G, Delannoy E, Bastin P. "A novel function for the atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 in the assembly of the trypanosome flagellum." J. Cell. Sci.. 2009;122(Pt 6):834-41. Abstract

The atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 has been shown to traffic in sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans, where it participates in signalling processes but not in cilia construction. In this report, we demonstrate that RABL5 colocalises with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins at the basal body and in the flagellum matrix of the protist Trypanosoma brucei. RABL5 fused to GFP exhibits anterograde movement in the flagellum of live trypanosomes, suggesting it could be associated with IFT. Accordingly, RABL5 accumulates in the short flagella of the retrograde IFT140(RNAi) mutant and is restricted to the basal body region in the IFT88(RNAi) anterograde mutant, a behaviour that is identical to other IFT proteins. Strikingly, RNAi silencing reveals an essential role for RABL5 in trypanosome flagellum construction. RNAi knock-down produces a phenotype similar to inactivation of retrograde IFT with formation of short flagella that are filled with a high amount of IFT proteins. These data reveal for the first time a functional difference for a conserved flagellar matrix protein between two different ciliated species and raise questions related to cilia diversity.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Kaloli Letterforms; Registered by the International Typeface Corporation (ITC).". In: Makerere University and University of Nairobi, FADD. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

Design has, over the years been a reflection of creative individuals who seek to foster a style. In the early part of the 21st Century designers experimented with free form and looked for relationships with the environment particularly nature. Designers examined the things that nature provided such as seeds the stars, animals and the clouds and combined these with their innermost selves in order to conceive creative form. Then, as it is now, the early chemistry worked to produce design that touches the depths of the viewer's sout while reflecting the designer's own perceptions of visual experience. This concept is manifested and reflected in the development of Kaloli letterfbrms that were developed after an intensive creativity workshop that brought together Africa's artists and designers. In order to appreciate this letterform, this paper outlines the motivation, aesthetic and artistic qualities and7 the functional capacity of Kaloli letterfbrms. Design has a unique relationship with nature and it has been stated that design is a reflection of nature. This implies that design is a custodian of nature and, has the duty to protect, reflect and enhance the position of nature in human life. Paul Klee (1879-1933), one of the greatest architect and designer, stated that, '...artistic form without direct connection to natural form was inconceivable.' If we examine the design around us. we can say that it is inspired by the flora and fauna, the birds and the bees, the things that infer good feelings, in the process, the things that infer bad or unpleasant or dangerous feelings become secondary. Kaloli is not dangerous, but, as a source of inspiration for letterforms. it was as unlikely as any dangerous snake.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Application of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in Product Design within Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Mozambique and Kenya.". In: Mozambique. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "The Role of Rural Factor Markets in Reducing Poverty, Risks and Vulnerability in Rural Kenya: the case for Kakamega and Vihiga districts. Under the broader .". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2004. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Burkitt , versus diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a practical approach Bellan C, Lazzi S, Defalco G, Rogena EA, Leoncini L.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid tumours as an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, characterized by a high degree of proliferation of the malignant cells and deregulation of the c-MYC gene. The main diagnostic challenge in BL is to distinguish it from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While in children BL and DLBCL types probably do not differ clinically, and the differential diagnosis between BL and DLBCL may theoretically appear clear-cut, in adults daily practice shows the existence of cases that have morphological features, immunophenotypic and cytogenetics intermediate between DLBCL and BL, and cannot be classified with certainty in these categories. Distinguishing between BL and DLBCL is critical, as the two diseases require different management. This review summarizes the current practical approach, including the use of a large panel of antibodies, and cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic techniques, to distinguish between BL, DLBCL and the provisional category of B-cell lymphoma, unclassificable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, now listed in the updated WHO classification. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "A gender differentiated analysis of the profitability and constraints in use of Improved Fallow in Western Kenya. CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ECAPAPA (just concluded).". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "P. M. Guthiga, J. T. Karugia, and R. A. Nyikal .". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Informal Sector in Migori; A Baseline Survey.". In: Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
Adhiambo C, Forney JD, Asai DJ, LeBowitz JH. "The two cytoplasmic dynein-2 isoforms in Leishmania mexicana perform separate functions." Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.. 2005;143(2):216-25. Abstract

Eukaryotic organisms with cilia or flagella typically express two non-axonemal or "cytoplasmic" dyneins, dynein-1 and dynein-2. Interestingly, we find that Leishmania mexicana is unusual and contains two distinct cytoplasmic dynein-2 heavy chain genes (designated LmxDHC2.1 and LmxDHC2.2) along with a single dynein-1 heavy chain (LmxDHC1). Disruption of LmxDHC2.2 resulted in immotile parasites that had a rounded cell body. Although they assume amastigote morphology, immunoblot analysis of these cells demonstrates protein expression consistent with the promastigote stage. Ultrastructural analysis revealed non-emergent flagella that lacked the paraflagellar rod and an axoneme with deficiencies in several components. We confirmed the absence of paraflagellar rod proteins PFR1 and PFR2. These results show that LmxDHC2.2 is required for flagellar assembly and also participates in the maintenance of promastigote cell shape. In contrast to the results with LmxDHC2.2, we were unable to generate homologous disruptions of LmxDHC2.1. This result suggests that, unlike LmxDHC2.2, LmxDHC2.1 is an essential gene in Leishmania. Together, these findings demonstrate that the two dynein-2 heavy chain isoforms in Leishmania perform distinct functions. The observation that the genomes of Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma brucei also contain two dynein-2 isoforms suggests that this unusual aspect of cytoplasmic dynein is a conserved feature of the kinetoplastids.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Lands on Campus, Report: African Design Perspectives as Discussed by PJ Aranador (Philippines).". In: Faculty of Architecture, Design and Development, facilitated by Product Design and Development Center, Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

The Department of Design, University of Nairobi recently hosted internationally reknowed Filipino Design Consultant, PJ Aranador. This event was a milestone, in many ways, for design in Kenya in that we had a distinguished designer, with an equally distinguished audience, discussing an important economic aspect lof national development. PJ is a design consultant for all major Philippine Trade Fares and a product development consultant for his government. He has been interviewed by CNNs' Elsa Klench in "Style:. And, "PJ" products sell on the international market with the buy line - "Style made modern". These styles include casual wear, swim wear and youthful clothes. PJ also indulges in interior and industrial design. The lecture included slides, posters and transparencies and was attended by a record assembly of over 100 participants from the major tertiary institutions in Kenya that offer design courses such as Evelyn College of Design, Marion Institute College, The Kenya Polytechnic and the University of Nairobi itself". This is the first assembly of these various tertiary institutions in pursuit of one goal - to listen and share in the experience of a fellow designer. PJ, on his part, gave a broad overview of the design profession, touching on its importance as an economic activity and its difference and similarities with Fine art. Design engages art and other factors in conception, but is driven by market forces because design is primarily, a marketing function. Design must concern itself with production unlike Art, which is not driven by reproduction. As a function of marketing, designers need to be sensitive to consumers of their products.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Business in the Small Farms: the Challenge for Kenyan Smallholders. (Contributed paper, African Crop Science Society Conference, Nairobi, November 2003).". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2003. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Pattern of road traffic fatalities in Nairobi M.P Okemwa, E.A Rogena, F Rana, D.G Gatei.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Stamp series for Postal Corporation of Kenya: Design and illustration of .". In: Postal Corporation of Kenya. ISCTRC; 2006. Abstract
This article seeks to identify some of the factors underlying regional variation in child mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey are used for the purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of child mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two mortality groups: High (HLM) and Low (LMP). The results show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP were significantly high than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the differences in the variation in child mortality between the two regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to nature or structure of relations between mortality and explanatory variables.
ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Participation of Commercial Banks in the Development of Small Enterprise Sector in Kenya.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Artists in Development: Creativity Workshop Report and Exhibition.". In: Makerere University. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "New Product Development in the Micro Enterprise Sector, Report from fieldwork undertaken in Maputo, Mozambique.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract

Various stakeholders come together to conceptualise, analyse and commercialise new products. This was the case recently when designers, artisans, marketers and facilitating institutions came together to engage in new product development for the micro enterprise sector. Through the effort of Terra Nuova (the facilitating agency), Department of Design (providing designers), Aid to Artisans and Institute for the Development of Local Industry (IDIL), Undugu Kenya and artisans in both Kenya and Mozambique, a number of new products were developed. The artisan works in difficult circumstances in many parts of Africa such as Mozambique and Kenya. Most artisans provide technical and entrepreneurial inputs in the enterprises and are therefore invariably referred to as artisans and entrepreneurs in this report. They support their families from proceeds of the enterprise. Often they do not pay attention to detail and not enough attention to product quality. Inspite of this, the benefits of the artisan's products to many people far outweigh these shortcomings. Customers buy from micro enterprises because their prices are fair. The entrepreneurs understand the customer tastes in terms of colour and form, and the entrepreneurs provide easy payment terms and are available or easily accessible to them. The entrepreneurs often work near their ancestral homes so they understand the culture and traditions of the customers they serve. This can be deduced from observations, interviews and sales figures. Product development can take the form of an innovation, change of use, adaptation and bundling of features among other things. This report outlines the process of product development that was undertaken in Mozambique in the course of the project. Lueti is a set of coasters developed through a product design process that took into account the various stakeholders in the success of a product. These were the designer, marketer and artisan all working together. The process involved a critical examination of material, the ability of the artisan and the availability of a market. The availability of good quality and varied hard wood in Mozambique also influenced the identification of the product. The working environment at IDIL, where equipment and machinery for working wood was also complementary to the product development. In the case of lueti there was redefinition of use and adaptation. The idea was developed through consultation, sketching and specification. A prototype was developed and after further consultation and modification a series of three coasters were available for test marketing. Lueti coasters design was inspired by the afro-comb. Afro combs can be found in most parts of the world particularly where afro hair is predominant. The original combs were made from wood whereas the more conventional ones are made from plastic. The basic shape remains the same with the teeth on one side and a handle on the other side. Whereas the basic shape has remained the same, nowadays you can find combs whose main use is adornment on walls.

Adholla M-, Ruigu G. "The Development of Coffee Production in K enya."; 1978.
Admani AA, Gakuya EM. "ANTERIOR SUPERIOR DISLOCATION OF THE HIP JOINT: A REPORT OF 3 CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014. Abstract

Traumatic anterior dislocation of the hip forms approximately 11% of hip dislocations and is divided into
superior and inferior types. Anterior superior hip dislocation accounts for 10% of anterior hip dislocations.
The clinical appearance of anterior superior hip dislocation resembles that of a fracture of the femoral neck,
whereas the radiological appearance resembles that of posterior hip dislocation.The objective of this article is to use three cases to describe the management of this condition and highlight pitfalls in the same. The article also points out unusual mechanisms causing this injury. Key words: Anterior dislocation, Hip joint, Open reduction, Iliofemoral ligament

Admani B, F. E. "Successful resuscitation of a three month old child with intralipid infusion, presumed to have bupivacaine induced seizures and cardiovascular complications: case report." East Afr Med J. 2010 Aug;87(8):354-6.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Anaesthetic agents used locally can be toxic especially if given as an inappropriate dose or route. Lipid infusion has been demonstrated in several animal models to successfully resuscitate bupivacaine induced toxicity. We present a case of successful use of 26% lipid infusion to resuscitate a paediatric patient with a presumed subcutaneous injection of bupivacaine and lignocaine which led to neurological and cardiologic consequences.

Admani B, Macharia WM WF. "Seroprevalence of varicella zoster antibodies among children with malnutrition, malignancies and HIV infection." East Afr Med J. 2008 Oct;85(10):480-6.. 2008. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the seroprevalence of varicella zoster in paediatric patients at a high risk of developing complications.
DESIGN:
A cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Paediatric general wards at Kenyatta National Hospital.
SUBJECTS:
Children with malignancies, severe malnutrition and were HIV positive.
INTERVENTIONS:
The sample size was calculated at 147 subjects. Venous samples were tested for varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies using enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) laboratories, The data were analysed using the SPSS software and presented in form of tables and graphs. The prevalence of VZV antibodies was determined and 95% confidence interval computed.
RESULTS:
The overall seroprevalence of VZV antibodies in the three groups of children studied was 23.6% (95% CI = 17.4, 29.8). The seroprevalence of VZV antibodies in those with malignancies and severe malnutrition was 24.1 and 25.0% respectively. About 22% of HIV positive children had protective levels of VZV antibodies. Though the seroprevalence increased with age, it was not significantly associated with area of residence, size of residence, family size or income.
CONCLUSIONS:
The low prevalence of protective VZV antibodies among children with severe malnutrition, malignancies and HIV infection children at Kenyatta National Hospital warrants routine immunisation of the high-risk population

Admire Mhlaba MM. An Integrated Internet of Things Based System for Tracking and Monitoring Assets – the case of the Central University of Technology . Lilongwe, Malawi: ist-africa.org; 2015. Abstract

Abstract: The asset security systems in place at the Central University of Technology, Free State are disjointed; they do not talk to each other, nor do they instantaneously and intelligently send real time security breach messages to security personnel. Technological advancements have resulted in the now famous Internet of Things paradigm; one of its applications is tracking and monitoring and it could therefore be used to solve asset insecurity problems. This is the focus of this paper; it presents a functioning laptop tracking and monitoring system that integrates four technologies: wireless sensors, RFID tags and readers, fingerprint readers and mobile phone. The system prototype was preceded by the design of a generic integration architecture that enables dynamic integration of any object/thing. A series of experiments conducted using the resulting system prototype proved the hypothesis that a real-life application built over a generic Internet of Things architecture is feasible. Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT); asset tracking and monitoring system; IoT integration architecture

Admire Mhlaba MM. "Implementation of middleware for internet of things in asset tracking applications: in-lining approach.". In: 2015 IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) . Cambridge, UK : IEEE; 2015. Abstract

Asset tracking systems developed around the Internet of Things paradigm are composed of a collection of various objects interconnected by different communication technologies. Each of these devices function through local and/or remote interaction with the real world or other devices and systems. The problem of ensuring a dependable and responsive middleware that is capable of handling and servicing such devices, process voluminous data without compromising responsiveness is still eminent. In this paper, we present a solution that was designed using in-lining approach to deliver a middleware that acts as an insulator for hiding the internal workings of the asset tracking system prototype by providing homogenous and abstract environment to the highest layers. In order to evaluate the middleware, a laptop tracking and monitoring system that integrates various internet of things components (at least 4 components: RFIDs, wireless sensors, mobile phones and biometric readers) was implemented and tested within a university environment

Adolf W, Dossaji SF, Seip EH, Hecker E. "Skin irritant deterpene orthoesters of the daphanane type fropm Peddiea africana and P. Volkensii,." Phytochemistry. 1985;24:2047-2049. AbstractWebsite

From roots of Peddiea volkensii (Thymelaeaceae) the irritant factors and and from roots of P. africana
the irritant factor Aj were isolated. Their structures are the 9,13,14-ort/io-(2,4,6-decatrienoates) of 5/8-
hydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Vi) and of 5^,12iS-dihydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Aj) and the 12-0-acetate of the latter (Vj). Factors V i and do not exhibit tumour-promoting activity in the standard initiation-promotion protocol on mouse skin, although is a moderate irritant.

Adolf W, Seip EH, Dossaji SF, Hecker E. "Irritant Principles of Mezereon Family (Thymeleaceae), New skin irritants and tumour promoters of the daphnane and 1, 2-alkyldaphnane type from Synaptolepis kirkii and S. Retusa." Journal of Natural Products. 1988;51(4):662-674. Abstract

—Seventeen mostly new, skin irtitant diterpene esters (DTE) of the daphnane
and la-alkyldaphnane types were isolated from roots of Synaptolepis kirkii and Synaptolepis retusa.
The parent alcohols of the daphnane types are shown to be 5(J-hydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7o:- oxide [ 1 ] and 5p\e [2]. Ten of the daphnane types are 9,13,14-otthoesters and three ate conventional esters involving tertiary or secondary hydroxyl groups at C-13 or C-14, respectively. The latter may be considered immediate precursors of corresponding orthoesters. The four la-alkyldaphnane types are intramolecular 9,13, l4-ortho-(2- hexadecenoic acid)-esters in which, formally, the second to last C atom of the orthoester moiety
is linked covalently to C-lct of the diterpene parent alcohols 1 or 2. Thus, in the new structure,
a macrocyclic ring bridges the ct side of the diterpene moiety in an "ansa" type manner.
The irritancies on the mouse ear of the DTE obtained cover a wide range ( I 2 4 = 0.05-670
nmole- ). Some of them are considerably more irritant than the daphnane type standard simplexin.
Structure/activity investigations reveal that an ester group instead of a free hydroxyl group
at C-20 ("cryptic types"), or presence of a hydroxy or an acetoxy group in position 12 diminishes
the irritancies of the daphnane types isolated, similar to what is known in corresponding tigliane
types. In the standardized initiation/promotion protocol on the back skin of mice, some of the
irritant DTE exhibit tumot-promoting activities higher than that of simplexin

Adolwa IS, Okoth PF, Mulwa RM, Esilaba AO, Mairura FS, Nambiro E. "Analysis of Communication and Dissemination Channels Influencing the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Western Kenya." The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 2012;18(1):71-86.
Adoyo FO, Mwea SK. "INVESTIGATION OF INTERIOR STRESS RELATIONSHIPS ON RIGID PAVEMENTS ALONG MBAGATHI ROAD, KENYA." Icastor Journal of Engineering. 2013;Vol. 6(No. 2):pp 53-63.
Adrogué HJ, Lederer ED, Suki WN, Eknoyan G. "Determinants of plasma potassium levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." Medicine. 1986;65:163-172. Abstract

The classic proposal of intracellular K+ for extracellular H+ exchange as responsible for the hyperkalemia of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been questioned because experimentally induced organic anion acidosis fails to produce hyperkalemia. It has been suggested, instead, that the elevated serum [K+] of DKA might be the result of the compromised renal function, secondary to volume depletion, that usually accompanies DKA. However, several metabolic derangements other than volume depletion and acidosis, which are known to alter potassium metabolism, also develop in DKA. This study of 142 admissions for DKA examines the possible role of alterations in plasma pH, bicarbonate, glucose (G), osmolality, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma anion gap (AG) on the levels of [K+]p on admission. Significant (p less than 0.01) correlations of [K+]p with each of these parameters were found that could individually account for 8 to 15 percent of the observed variance in the plasma potassium levels; however, the effects of some or all of these parameters on the [K+]p could be independent and therefore physiologically additive. Since the parameters under study are themselves interrelated, having statistically significant correlations with each other, their possible independent role on [K+]p was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Only plasma pH, glucose and AG emerged as having a definite independent effect on [K+]p, with no independent role found for bicarbonate, BUN and osmolality. The equation that best describes [K+]p on admission for DKA was: [K+]p = 25.4 - 3.02 pH + 0.001 G + 0.028 AG, (r = 0.515). These results indicate that the endogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia observed in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased [K+]p. Since exogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia in the otherwise normal experimental animal do not increase [K+]p, it is postulated that insulin deficit itself may be the major initiating cause of the hyperkalemia that develops in DKA. Renal dysfunction by enhancing hyperglycemia and reducing potassium excretion also contributes to hyperkalemia.

Aduda J, Chogii R, Murayi MT. "The Effect of Capital Market Deepening on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2014;4(1):141-159. Abstractthe_effect_of_capital_market_deepening_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

The capital market is important since it connects the financial sector with other non-financial sectors of the economy. This study examines the effect of Capital Market Deepening on economic growth in Kenya. Controversy exists among researchers on the role of deep capital markets in growth. The finance growth nexus forms the basis of the research with the capital markets assumed to have a supply leading effect on economic growth. This study aimed at addressing the issue by incorporating a measure of bond market turnover. The research objective was to determine the effect of capital market deepening on economic growth in Kenya. The study used data from the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 1992-2011 and GDP data from The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The study therefore concludes that Capital Market Deepening has a positive effect on GDP growth in Kenya and therefore lends support to the finance growth nexus. The Capital market plays an important role in economic growth and therefore the study recommends the government should take policy initiatives to foster growth of the capital market and especially so the bond market which is instrumental in providing finance for development of the Vision 2030 socio economic blue print.

Aduda BO, Jain PK, Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM. "Performance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer." International Journal of Materials Engineering. 2013;3(2):11-16. Abstractpublished_paper21.pdf

In this work, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis and thermally annealed at 400℃. The films were characterized as deposited (no annealing) as well as after annealing. Optical studies showed that the energy band gap of the films was lowered from 3.25 eV to 2.90 eV on Nitrogen (N2) doping. The reduction in energy band gap was attributed to the introduction of N2 impurity states on the bands (conduction band and or valence band). The effect of N2 doping of Titanium Dioxide window layer on the efficiency of the ETA TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy solar cell was investigated using a conventional current-voltage (I-V) technique. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) increased from 1.06% for the solar cell with undoped films to 1.32% for the solar cell with N2-doped films. The increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency on doping was attributed to increased light absorption due to the Nitrogen doping.

ADUDA JO. "The Distribution of Financial Ratios of Companies Quoted at the Nairobi Stock Exchange: An Empirical Evidence.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

ADUDA JO. "Test for Investor Rationality for Companies Listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, Vol 7, No. 8, 827-840. David Publishing Company; 2011.test_for_investor_rationality_for_companies_listed_at_the_nse.pdf
Aduda JA. "A Comparison of the Classical Black-Scholes Model and the GARCH Option Pricing Model for Currency Options." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(2):267-284. Abstract

This paper looks at the consequences of introducing heteroscedasticity in option pricing. The analysis shows that introducing heteroscedasticity results in a better fitting of the empirical distribution of foreign exchange rates than in the Brownian model. In the Black-Scholes world the assumption is that the variance is constant, which is definitely not the case when looking at financial time series data. In this study, we therefore price a European call option under a GARCH Model Framework using the Locally Risk Neutral Valuation Relationship. Option prices for different spot prices are calculated using simulations. We use the non-linear in mean GARCH model in analyzing the Kenyan foreign exchange market.

Aduda BO. "Status of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Kenya.". In: International Workshop on Nanotechnology: Present Status and Future Prospects in Developing Countries. Kashan, Iran; 2009. Abstract

Nanoscience and nanotechnology deal with the study, manipulation, and the design of materials and devices at the atomic scale. Whereas nanoscience focuses on the new properties, nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology is multidisciplinary and trans-disciplinary. We thus see that nanoscience and nanotechnology bridge the gap between molecular scale and the macroscale. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration.
Given the current and anticipated impacts of nanotechnology in work efficiency, ways of life and the environment, national (e.g. Kenya’s) efforts should be focused on how nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. This requires synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research and development processes.
A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals minimal understanding of what nanoscience and nanotechnology, and what their potential benefits are. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and disjointed. Moreover, there are almost nonexistent/weak specific regulatory tools and policies governing this important but emerging technology and discipline. Gaps presently exist in our scientific knowledge, and coupled with inadvertent outcomes witnessed in other technological advances there are reasons enough for nanotechnology industries and relevant government agencies to invest in understanding possible risks and neutralize them prior to putting the products into the market.

Aduda BO, Boccaccini AR. "Velocity of elastic waves in porous ceramic materials: influence of pore structure." British Ceramic Transactions. 2003;102(3):103-108. Abstract

A review of recently published ultrasonic velocity-porosity data on a variety of porous ceramic materials,
which included information on the pore structure, has been undertaken. These experimental data have been
compared with those calculated using a spheroidal pore model that incorporates information on pore volume
fraction, shape and orientation. Good agreement, especially when fractional porosity is less than ~ 0.25,
between the experimental and calculated values is obtained even when a single ‘effective’ pore shape is
employed in the calculation. The agreement improves if the pore shape at each particular porosity level (the
point-by-point analysis) is used. The predictive ability of the spheroidal pore model is therefore demonstrated.

ADUDA JO. "Corporate Governance Practices, and the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance among Broadcasting Stations in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Business and Management. Nairobi: AJBUMA publishing; 2012.
Aduda BO, Ravirajan P, Choy KL, Nelson J. "Effect of morphology on electron drift mobility in porous TiO2.". 2004.Website
Aduda J, Kiragu P, Ndwiga JM. "The Relationship between Agency Banking and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2014;2(4):97-117. Abstractthe_relationship_between_agency_banking_and_financial__performance_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Banking agents are usually equipped with a combination of point-of-sale (POS)card reader, mobile phone, barcode scanner to scan bills for bill payment transactions, Personal Identification Number(PIN) pads, and sometimes personal computers (PCs) that connect with the bank’s server using a personal dial-up or other data connection. This research used the descriptive design method using secondary data gathered from the commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking in Kenya. The population of the study was the 10 commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking by the end of 2012 namely Equity Bank, Co-operative Bank, KCB Bank, Post Bank, Family Bank, Chase Bank ,Consolidated Bank, Diamond Trust Bank, Citibank and NIC Bank. Annual reports on individual banks’ financial performance were used to extract financial performance indicators. CBK’s annual report and supervisory reports were also used to establish the number of agents registered and the total transactional value conducted through the agents. The variable of interests were the cash withdrawal and deposit transactions done through agents, number of active agents, return on assets, cost to income ratio and staff cost to revenue ratio. JEL classification numbers: G24
Keywords: Agency Banking, Financial Performance and Kenya.

ADUDA JO. "Foreign Exchange Reserves Risks and Management Strategies adopted by the Central Bank of Kenya.". In: African Journal of Business and Management. AJBUMA publishing; 2012.
Aduda J, Chogii R, Magutu PO. "AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF COMPETING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE THEORIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9(13). Abstractan_empirical_test_of_competing_corporate_governance_theories_on_the_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The focus of this study was on linking these variables to the contrasting and competing theories of Corporate Governance such as Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, and Resource Dependence Theory, among others. The role of the Board as a corporate governance tool is widely acknowledged in much of the literature on Corporate Governance. Scholars and practitioners have sought to understand the relationship between various board composition variables and some measure of performance as a means of establishing what the significant board composition variables are and the likely effect of adding or dropping some of these variables in the process of establishing effective boards. This study investigated significance of the board composition variables of size of the board, proportion of outside directors, proportion of inside directors, and the role of CEO duality on firm performance. This study found that the overall regression models for firm performance for both the Return on Assets and Tobin Q ratio are significant. This means that the board composition variables cited above are important predictors of firm performance. The study also found that the significance of the individual variables in the overall specification models have differing significant variables on the basis of the measure of performance selected for the firm. For example, when firm performance is measured by the Return on Assets, the significant variable in the model is the size of the board. Under the Tobin Q ratio firm performance measure, on the other hand, proportion of outside directors is the significant variable. These results imply that under the ROA, there seems to be a dominance of the Resource Dependence Theory while under the Tobin Q ratio, the Agency Theory dominates. The study also found that most surveyed firms tended to favour outside directorships over inside directorships. The prevalence of outside directorships was twice as much as for inside directorships and is in favour of the Agency Theory. The study also found that surveyed firms tended to favour having different persons occupying the two positions of CEO and that of the Chairman of the Board which is in line with the Agency Theory.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, Listed Firms, Nairobi Securities Exchange & Kenya

Aduda BO, Opiyo N(ed.). "African Journal of Science and Technology.". 2000.Website
Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Aduda BO. "REVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH AND POLICY MAKING IN KENYA.". In: Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development: Questions of Knowledge Brokerage and Risk Governance Workshop. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

ADUDA JO. "MARKET REACTION TO STOCK SPLITS Empirical Evidence from the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010.market_reaction_to_stock_split.pdf
Aduda BO. Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Key words: Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Research, Policies, Kenya

ADUDA JO. "The Relationship between Credit Risk Management and Profitability among the Commercial Banks in Kenya.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing. David Publishing Company; 2011.
Aduda BO. "ENERGY DEMAND, USAGE AND CONSEQUENCES: THE KENYAN CASE.". In: Conclave of Afro Asia Young Scientists. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research; Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India; 2010. Abstract

Kenya is a developing country aspiring to gain the status of an industrialized country by the year 2030. In pursuit of this political goal various policies and targets are being proposed and pursued. It has thus become very apparent that the stated goal would not be achieved unless there is sufficient exploitable energy available to meet the anticipated demand. To this end various options such as nuclear energy, exploration of oil, exploitation of the geothermal energy reservoirs, building of windmills for energy generation, solar energy, and biofuels are proposed. We discuss Kenya’s present situation and preparedness with respect to the stated goal and how these present and proposed sources of energy have impacted/will impact on the environment and climate and development.

Aduda J, Chogii R, Magutu PO. "AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF COMPETING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE THEORIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9(14). Abstractan_empirical_test_of_competing_corporate_governance_theories_on_the_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The focus of this study was on linking these variables to the contrasting and competing theories of Corporate Governance such as Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, and Resource Dependence Theory, among others. The role of the Board as a corporate governance tool is widely acknowledged in much of the literature on Corporate Governance. Scholars and practitioners have sought to understand the relationship between various board composition variables and some measure of performance as a means of establishing what the significant board composition variables are and the likely effect of adding or dropping some of these variables in the process of establishing effective boards. This study investigated significance of the board composition variables of size of the board, proportion of outside directors, proportion of inside directors, and the role of CEO duality on firm performance. This study found that the overall regression models for firm performance for both the Return on Assets and Tobin Q ratio are significant. This means that the board composition variables cited above are important predictors of firm performance. The study also found that the significance of the individual variables in the overall specification models have differing significant variables on the basis of the measure of performance selected for the firm. For example, when firm performance is measured by the Return on Assets, the significant variable in the model is the size of the board. Under the Tobin Q ratio firm performance measure, on the other hand, proportion of outside directors is the significant variable. These results imply that under the ROA, there seems to be a dominance of the Resource Dependence Theory while under the Tobin Q ratio, the Agency Theory dominates. The study also found that most surveyed firms tended to favour outside directorships over inside directorships. The prevalence of outside directorships was twice as much as for inside directorships and is in favour of the Agency Theory. The study also found that surveyed firms tended to favour having different persons occupying the two positions of CEO and that of the Chairman of the Board which is in line with the Agency Theory.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, Listed Firms, Nairobi Securities Exchange & Kenya

Aduda BO, Opiyo N(ed.). "African Journal of Science and Technology.". 2000.Website
Aduda, J, Ndaita SB. "Management Accounting changes and Practices adopted by Large Manufacturing Companies in Nairobi, Kenya." The Operations Research Society of Eastern African Journal,. 2013;3(2).
Aduda J, Weke P, Ngare P, Mwaniki J. "Financial time series modeling of trends and patterns in the energy markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;7(2):64-68. AbstractWebsite

Precise recognition of a time series path is important to policymakers, statisticians, economists, traders, hedgers and speculators alike. The correct time series path is also a key ingredient in pricing models. This study uses daily futures prices of crude oil and other distillate fuels. This paper considers the statistical properties of energy futures and spot prices and investigates the trends that underlie the price dynamics in order to gain further insights into possible nuances of price discovery and energy market dynamics. The family of ARMA-GARCH models was explored.
The trends depict time-varying variability and persistence of oil price shocks. The return series conform to a constant mean model with GARCH variance.

ADUDA JO. "THE APPLICABILITY OF CONSTANT DIVIDEND MODEL An Empirical Test of Applicability of the Model by Companies Listed At the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010. Abstractthe_applicability_of_the_constant_dividend_model_for_companies_listed_at_the_nairobi_stock_exchange.pdf

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

Aduda BO. "Material Science." Promotion of Science and Technology . 2006;XII(1):19-22. Abstract

In this short article we discuss what Material Science is, its scope, relevance to technological development, its present status in Kenya, and finally propose a way forward. Materials science has been defined as that study that focuses on the material property-structure relationship. It is concerned with how the nano- or micro- or macrostructure determines the various functional properties of the materials desired or of interest. Materials science thus deals with, in an interactive manner, processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials, a relationship which has been summarized as the Materials Science Tetrahedron. It is a multi-and transdisciplinary subject as it is intimately related to basic science subjects like applied physics, chemistry, biology and to various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, or civil, engineering.

ADUDA JO. "Investment Practices among Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies (SACCOs) in Nairobi.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing. David Publishing Company; 2011.
ADUDA JO. "The Applicability of the Constant Dividend Model for Companies Listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Financial Studies & Research. IBIMA Publishing; 2011.
Aduda B, Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Aduda BO. "Solar Energy.". In: National Symposium on “Science, Technology, Innovation and Society: The African Perspectives and Experiences. Lenana House Nairobi; 2006. Abstract

Energy is important to life, and the amount of energy consumed per capita by a country is indicative of the level of development of that nation. There exist different sources of energy with solar energy as the primary source on our planet. The sun’s energy is inexhaustible, unlimited (by geographical boundaries), and non-polluting. Tapping and utilizing this energy efficiently- even with 10 to 20% efficiency- can solve the threat of climate change caused by the global warming, and also contribute towards the easing of the demand for fossil-fuel. In the developing countries a large proportion of the population is poor and not connected to the national electricity grid. This group of people is weighed down with the high cost, high risks and low benefits of the traditional fuels, candles, paraffin, and dry battery cells. Addressing their energy needs, particularly with clean energy from the renewable sources, will not only result in tangible developmental benefits but also social and environmental benefits. In this article we consider only the direct energy from the sun, and its conversion to heat or electrical forms- the energy carriers of choice.

Aduda BO. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology, Series. 2006;7(2):125-139.waita_et_al_ajst_-_2006.pdf
Aduda B. O., S.M W, Ogacho A. A., J.M. M, R.J. M, Simiyu J. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: Paper presented at the US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science. Abuja, Nigeria; 2007. Abstract

Excitonic solar cells which include organic, hybrid organic–inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSSCs) promise inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion devices. We report on the charge transport (electron drift mobility) sputter deposited TiO2 and surface photovoltage and photocurrent transients of alumina-passivated TiO2, and on the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized cells whose photoelectrodes are sputtered.

Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Adungo NI, Mahadevan S, Situbi AP, Khamala CPM, Mwangi RW, Oloo AJ. The importance of anopheles funestus in the transmission of malaria in Western Kenya.; 1992.
Adwok J;, Wolskee P. "Health psychology and health care interventions in sub-Saharan African countries.". 2012. Abstract

This paper examines the specialty of health psychology which is concerned with individual behaviours and lifestyles affecting physical health. The beneficial role of health psychology interventions in ameliorating the impact of emerging health care issues, in particular, the increasing prevalence of 'Western' diseases in Africans, is presented. The effect of behaviour and lifestyle on chronic illnesses such as cancer and hypertension, and the benefits of health psychology interventions on these illnesses, are discussed.

Adwok JA. Stricture Of The Urethra. The Disease As Seen At The Kenyatta National Hospital Over A One Year Period, 1982 - 1983.; 1984. Abstract

A prospective study of seventy seven patients with urethral
strictures treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period
of twelve months (1982-1983) was done. The age, tribal, and
aetiological incidencies were investigated. Various aspects of the
clinical presentation, investigation and treatment were also looked
at;
Post-inflammatory strictures were significantly more than
post-traumatic and iatrogenic strictures. However, post-prostatectomy
strictures were not included with the later.
The lapse period following post-inflammatory strictures was,
about 5years on the avereqe , Orno-Dore quotes 18 years for a
Nigerian study done two decades ago for post-gonococcal strictures.
It was not possible to determine the initial cause of urethritis in this
study due to the fact that most patients had no cultures for the
organisms done at the time of infection. Some were treated at
dispensaries and previous medical records were unobtainable.
Data on tribal incidence could not be critically analysed
without bias due to the uneven distribution of the tribes around the
Nairobi area. Others live a few kilometers away and others hundreds

of kilometers.
Half of the urine cultures done were negative. The rest grew
gram negative organisms, mainly E. coli. No gonococci were isolated.
B.U.N. was elevated above normal in about one third of the patients;
Intravenous pyelograms were normal in four-fifths of the patients
investigated. Micturatingure throqrcmcdone in eleven patients showed
the majority of strictures to be in the posterior urethra.
Seventy-three percent of the patients were managed with
intermittent dilatations with good results. Urethroplasty was done in
23% and urethrotomy in 4% of the patients - urethroplasty was offered
more to the younger age group.
The need for proper health education to the public about this
'disease and its causes is emphasized. Suggestions for better management
of these patients are forwarded. Special stress on the benefits of
urethrotomy under vision for suitable patients is made. A critical review
of the various types of urethroplasty is also presented.

Adwok J, Gichangi P, Otieno H. "Appendectomy at the Nairobi Hospital." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 1998;2:135-147.
Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Adwok JA. "Treatment of thyroid cancer.". 1994. Abstract

The management of differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. A consecutive series of 234 thyroidectomies done by one surgeon in various Nairobi Hospitals from July 1990 to June 1993 were studied. 18 patients were operated on for thyroid cancer. The procedures ranged from lobectomy to total thyroidectomy. Young adults from 20-40 years of age were mainly affected, with a male/female sex ratio of 8:1. The immediate and subsequent morbidity of the operation of total thyroidectomy, in our opinion, overweighs its advantages of improved disease control. This is particularly so when low socio-economic standards lead to lack of compliance with replacement therapy.

AE Kurth, I Inwani WNONACOKCKARMF. "The Gender Context of HIV Risk and Pregnancy Goals in Western Kenya.". 2015.
AEO Otedo, GO Oyoo JOOCFOEOO. "Pyomyositis in HIV: A Series of 12 Cases." East African Medical Journal Vol.. 2013;90(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the large skeletal muscles presenting with muscle pain and swelling. It is commonly seen in the tropics but is being recognised more in end-stage HIV/AIDS. In HIV-associated pyomyositis, leukocytosis and bacteraemia is rare due to deranged immune response. Surgical drainage, antibiotic treatment and HAART are the mainstay of treatment.
Objective: To describe pyomyositis in HIV positive patients, their CD4+ cell counts, clinical stages of pyomyositis and anatomical sites affected.
Design: Cross sectional, prospective, descriptive, consecutive entry study.
Setting: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 to December 2007.
Subjects: Twelve patients with HIV infection and pyomyositis.
Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ cell counts, clinical stage and site of pyomyositis.
Results: Twelve patients (six males and six females) were enrolled with mean age of 39.3 years (24-52). Pyomyositis was localised in the following regions:two each in gluteal and calf, six in the thigh and one each in the right arm and abdominal wall. CD4+ cell counts were low with a mean of 166.8 cells/µl (1.0-433) (normal range is 355-1600 cells/µl), indicating severe immunosuppression. They also had leucocytopaenia with a mean white blood cell count of 3.67 ~ 103/µl (1.5-7.1 ~ 103/µl) with a mean neutrophil count of 62.7% (43-78). Random blood sugar and creatine kinase levels were all normal. The co-morbidities comprised one case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and five of oral candidiasis. Pus swab grew Staphylococcous aureus in eight instances and Streptococcous pyogenes in four.
Conclusion: Pyomyositis in HIV positive patients tends to occur at low CD4+ cell counts. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism.

Affokpon A, Coosemans J, Kimenju JW. "Suppression of root-knot nematodes in tomato and cucumber using biological control agents.". 2010. Abstract

Antagonistic fungi are continuously attracting a lot of attention as alternatives to chemical control of root-knot nematodes. The egg-pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, particularly strain 251 has shown promising potential as a biological control agent against various plant-parasitic nematodes. Strain 251 of P. lilacinus (PL251) and Arthrobotrys conoides (Melodogone) were tested for their efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. in tomato and cucumber under greenhouse conditions. The study aimed at determining the application rates and timing of application of the fungi. Both pre-planting and at planting application of PL251 were found to reduce nematode populations and root galling in both tomato and cucumber. Pre-planting soil treatment (0.4g/10 L of soil) reduced final nematode populations by 69% and 73% in the roots and soil, respectively, compared to the non-inoculated control in tomato. However, soil treatment at planting recorded reduction level of 54% and 74% in the roots and soil, respectively. Use of A. conoides showed lower nematode control in cucumber. Only 28% and 21% reduction levels were recorded in the roots and soil when the fungus was applied at planting, respectively. This study has demonstrated that PL251 has a promising potential that could be exploited in the management of Meloidogyne spp. in vegetable production systems.

Afran L, Garcia Knight M, Nduati E, Urban BC, Heyderman RS, Rowland-Jones SL. "HIV-exposed uninfected children: a growing population with a vulnerable immune system?" Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2014;176(1):11-22. Abstract

Through the successful implementation of policies to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 infection, children born to HIV-1-infected mothers are now much less likely to acquire HIV-1 infection than previously. Nevertheless, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have substantially increased morbidity and mortality compared with children born to uninfected mothers (unexposed uninfected, UU), predominantly from infectious causes. Moreover, a range of phenotypical and functional immunological differences between HEU and UU children has been reported. As the number of HEU children continues to increase worldwide, two questions with clear public health importance need to be addressed: first, does exposure to HIV-1 and/or ART in utero or during infancy have direct immunological consequences, or are these poor outcomes simply attributable to the obvious disadvantages of being born into an HIV-affected household? Secondly, can we expect improved maternal care and ART regimens during and after pregnancy, together with optimized infant immunization schedules, to reduce the excess morbidity and mortality of HEU children?

Aftab Z, Wladis A. "Skandalakis' {Surgical} {Anatomy}." Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2008;8:97-98. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Aganda AA. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot combustion gases .; 2001. Abstract

Axial and radial temperature profiles are presented for the initial sensible heating stage of wood carbonisation process in a packed bed. These profiles are important in promoting greater understanding of the heat transfer processes during the sensible heating stage and the mechanics of the gas flow through the bed. These data are also useful as an aid to the design of wood carbonisation retorts. Gas temperatures were measured in a cylindrical retort within which a randomly packed bed of green wood was heated by hot inert combustion gases. The bed dimensions were 0.62m in diameter and 1.28m in height. The temperatures were measured by thermocouples mounted at 0.46m, 0.8Sm and 1.28m heights and transversed across the bed diameter. The bed was heated by combustion gases fed from a charcoal combustion chamber. It was discovered that gas temperature drops through the bed were as much as 86% of the inlet temperature, and that the most significant temperature gradients occurred in the first one third of the bed; this has significant implications in the retort design. Other interesting features observed were that there was a strong local variation in temperature throughout a given horizontal section of the bed and a symmetrical radial temperature profiles across the bed. Furthermore, gas temperatures were significantly lower close to the retort wall than the centre. These phenomena were explained in terms of gas channelling and a wall effect which increased the resistance to flow there. A two-phase mathematical model was used to predict axial temperature variation, while an empirical equation was fitted to the radial temperatures. This same model although a one-dimensional axial one, was used with a number of simplifying assumptions, to estimate the radial temperature profiles. In general there was good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results. The maximum deviation was -20% but 90% of the predictions were within t7.SX. This good agreement implies that the mathematical nodel is physically sound, a significant finding since there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a two-phase model exists that can predict both axial and radial temperature profiles simultaneously in a packed bed.

Agandaa AA, Coneyb JER, Sheppard CGW. "Airflow maldistribution and the performance of a packaged air conditioning unit evaporator.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The performance of an evaporator for a packaged air conditioning unit has been investigated. A heat transfer program ACOL5 validated in an earlier study, was used to predict the performance. Non-uniform velocity distribution measurements taken in a typical air conditioning unit were employed in the prediction of the evaporator performance. It was found that this maldistribution reduced the performance of an evaporator circuit, as compared to uniform flow. Circuits at the edges of the evaporator, where the velocity was low, did not perform well. With the refrigerants controlled by one thermostatic valve, the worst performing circuit affected the performance of the whole evaporator, the evaporator performance being reduced by as much as 35%. The performance of the evaporator, where the circuits had different numbers of passes, depended on the position of the circuit in the evaporator.

Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From {Progenitors} to {Differentiated} {Cells} in the {Vertebrate} {Retina}." Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2009;25:45-69. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

Aggarwal NK, Lam P, Castillo EG, Weiss MG, Diaz E, Alarcón RD, van Dijk R, Rohlof H, Ndetei DM, Scalco M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bassiri K, Deshpande S, Groen S, Jadhav S, Kirmayer LJ, Paralikar V, Westermeyer J, Santos F, Vega-Dienstmaier J, Anez L, Boiler M, Nicasio AV, Lewis-Fernández R. "How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial." Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40(4):584-91. Abstract

This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences.

Aghov T, Sumbera R, Pialek Lır, Mikula Orej, McDonough MM, Lavrenchenko LA, Meheretu Y, Mbau JS, Bryja J. "Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna." Journal of Biogeography. 2017:1-13.aghov-_et_al-2017-journal_of_biogeography.pdf
Agot KE, Kiarie JN, Nguyen HQ, Odhiambo JO, Onyango TM, Weiss NS. "Male circumcision in Siaya and Bondo Districts, Kenya: prospective cohort study to assess behavioral disinhibition following circumcision." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;44(1):66-70. Abstract

Evidence for efficacy of male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is increasing, but there is serious concern that men who are circumcised may subsequently adopt more risky sexual behaviors.

Agoya-Wotsuna C. "The Role of Indigenous Languages in Kenya. A Case for Using them as Languages of Instruction throughout Primary School”. ." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2012;Vol. 2: 89-105.
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Resistance to airflow of bulk clean parchment Arabica coffee.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (KSAE), Annual International Conference. Nairobi; 2000.
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Airflow resistance of parchment Arabica coffee." Biosystems Engineering. 2005;91(2):149-156.
Agutu PO. THE IMPACT OF ISO 9000 CERTIFICATION ON INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

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THE IMPACT OF ISO 9000 CERTIFICATION ON INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI BY PATRICK OBONYO AGUTU A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SCHOOL OF BUSINESS UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SEPTEMBER 2011
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ii DECLARATION This research project is my original work and has not been presented for examination in any other University Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. PATRICK OBONYO AGUTU D61/75210/2009 This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor. Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. DR. JOHN YABS DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SCHOOL OF BUSINESS UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
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iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Research Project has been made possible through the collective efforts of all my Lecturers at the University of Nairobi and my classmates with whom we have travelled in the continuing search for knowledge. I hereby acknowledge all their contributions. Special acknowledgement goes to my Supervisor Dr. John Yabs for his guidance and commitment for the completion of this project. I also acknowledge the Moderator Mr. E. Mududa and all the project Evaluators. I also acknowledge members of the University staff who provided valuable input to make the study possible. Special mention goes to Professor A. Mitema, Director, Centre for International Programs and Links, University of Nairobi.
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iv DEDICATION To my entire family for support and encouragement even when their social time had to be invested in this study.
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v ABSTRACT This study looks at the contribution of ISO 9000 in the Internalization process of the University of Nairobi. A case study approach was employed to gather data and provide the required information. ISO 9000 Certification continues to gain worldwide acceptance with over one million certifications to date. It has been described as representing a world consensus on standards with international participation of member bodies from countries all over the world. Implementation requires the commitment of resources in terms of personnel, finances and materials required to implement and sustain the quality management system. As resources are scarce with competing demands it is important to establish the accruing gains from implementing the system. The University of Nairobi obtained ISO Certification in the year 2008 and was subsequently recertified in July 2011 on completion of the initial three year certification period. As an institution that continues to undergo internationalization process as is the case with higher education institutions internationally, the contribution of quality standards to this process is important. In this study it was found that ISO 9000 is important especially with respect to Quality control, Corporate branding and image, International Grants funding, International programs and linkages and international student enrolment.

Agwanda A. Research Methodology and Communication: Participants Course book and Trainers Manual. Kenya Institute for Research and Policy Analysis; 2004.
Agwanda A, Owino W, Obunga C, Okundi B. "Access to Family Planning among the poor: What are the policy options?". In: Third EQUINET Regional Conference on equity in health in East and Central Africa. Speke Conference Center, Munyonyo, Kampala Uganda; 2009.
Agwanda A. : Kenya Country Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Needs Assessment Report on Child health, Maternal health and Health Systems. . Ministry of Planning and National Development, Government of Kenya and UNDP; 2004.
Agwanda A. Household Dynamics of Kenya 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Agwanda AO. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women.". In: Document De Travail DT/2004/04 Development et insertion Internationale (DIAL) http://www.dial.prd.fr/dial . E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A, Bocquier. "To What Extent did Economic Downturn in Kenya influence Entry into Parenthood in Nairobi City? .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference . Tunis, Tunisia; 2003.

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