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Wasamba P. ". “Magic or Mirage: The Efficacy of Nvivo7 in Oral Literature Research”." African Affairs Journal. 2007;Vol. 22(No. 8):141-182.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Indangasi H. Our Narratives our Landscapes: Relationship between Creativity and Environmental Conservation. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2006.
Wasamba P. "“Ethnicity and Chronic Poverty in Kenya: A Phenomenological Approach." African Affairs Journal. 2009;Vol. 25(No. 2):185-212.
Wasamba P, Mugambi H, Bwonya J. Tales from my Motherland. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2010.
Wasamba P. "“Politics, Ethnicity and Ethics: The Dilemmas of a Fieldworker.” ." International Journal of African Renaissance Studies.. 2009;Vol. 4(No. 2):193-204.
Wasamba P. "“Conservation for Sustainable Development: The Unexplored Potential of Kenyan Folklore.” .". In: Our Narratives our Landscapes: Relationship between Creativity and Environmental Conservation. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2006.
Wasamba P, Mutea Z. Curriculum for Trainers on Gender Equality and Women’s Participation in Local Governance. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2005.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives of Ubanization in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives on Urbanisation in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Timamy R. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 1999.
Wasamba P. "“Oral Poetry in East Africa: Perspectives and Insights." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2004;(No. 2):1-9.abstract_2.pdf
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Gender and Constitution: Academicians’ Perspectives. Nairobi: CCGD; 2002.
Wasamba P. Immortal.; 2009.immortal.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Quest for Ethnic Tolerance in Kenya: The Role of Oral History”." Journal of Africa Affairs. 2013;33:247-272.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "Marching Backwards into the Future: Oral Literature in the Cyberspace,." Chemchemi: The Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2007;Vol.4(No. 1):114-118.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "Dustbin." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):16.garbage.pdf
Wasamba P, Shenk E. "“The Need to Move On: Learning from Oral Narratives in Kenya.” ." Rapportage: Journal of Literary Essays, Interviews, and Profiles . 2008;Vol. xi:78-83.
Wasamba P. "Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1 .". 1999.Website
Wasamba P. Introduction to Oral Literature: Lecture Series. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2007.
Wasamba P. "Oral Literature Scholarship in Kenya: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects.". In: Preservation of Ethiopian Cultural and Literary heritage. Debre Markos, Ethiopia; 2014.oral_literature_scholaship_in_kenya_-wasamba-.pdf
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Economic Organisation of the Pre-colonial Pokot Society.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The Bukusu Peace Traditions and Sites.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike NM, Sakwa HN. "1. Nomadic and pastoralist education: Past interventions, challenges and implications for the post 2015 attainment of EFA in Kenya.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference on “EDUCATION IN AFRICA: REFLECTIONS BEYOND 2015 MDGs- COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES. Kenya Science Campus University of Nairobi; 2015.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Archaeological survey of the Athi-Kapiti Plains.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "A preliminary report on archaeological excavation: A case study of Pastoral Neolithic sites at Lukenya Hills, University of Nairobi, Department of History.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The traditional pottery: A case study of the Pokot pottery and people of West Pokot District.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Prehistoric Settlements of Nairobi Area.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike AAM, Ogana W. "Periodic solutions of a system of delay differential equations for a small delay." Science and Technology. 2002;7:pp. 295-302.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Europeans verses African: The land question. A case of Kikuyu people of Kenya. Catholic University of Eastern Africa.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The agony of AIDS in the rural areas: The case study of Kapenguria Division in West Pokot District.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "A summary Report on Lukenya Ware.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike C, Ndavi M, Kigondu CS, Wanjala SM, Qureshi ZP. "Motivation for Reacceptance of Intradermal Implants –Norplant on Removal after using for Five Years." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr. . 2005;18(1):31-45 .
Wasike JNM, Ogollah K. "ROLE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS COMPETENCE IN SUPPLY CHAIN AGILITY IN SERVICE INDUSTRY A CASE OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF KENYA ." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2014;Vol. II( Issue 11).wasike_and_ogollah_ijecm_2014.pdf
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "An ethno-archaeological study of mortuary practices among the Pokot people.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "African Indigenous Education: The case study of the Pokot circumcision ceremonies.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wasike C, Ndavi PM KCSWSHZQ:. "Motivation for Reacceptance of Intradermal –Norplant on removal after using for five years." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. . 2005;18(1):31-45.
Wasonga VO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing socioecological change dynamics using local knowledge in the semi-arid lowlands of Baringo district, Kenya." Environmental Research Journal. 2011;5:11-17. Abstract
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Wasonga DO, Ambuko JL, Chemining GN, Odeny DA, Crampton BG. "Morphological Characterization and Selection of Spider Plant (Cleome Gynandra) Accessions from Kenya and South Africa." Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2015;7:36-44. Abstract
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Wasonga OV, Musembi J, Rotich K, Jarso I, King-Okumu C. "Vegetation resources and their economic importance in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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Wasonga, V.O. KD, Ngece N. "Community-Based Natural Resource Management.". In: Managing Natural Resources for Development in Africa: A Resource Book. University of Nairobi Press; 2010. Abstract
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Wasonga, V.O. NNKRKDM, 2005 NTJ. "Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture in a southern Kenya rangeland." African Journal for Range and Forage Science. 2005;20:265-270. Abstract
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Wasonga C, Okoth S, Mukuria JC, Omwandho CA. "Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice." Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology. 2008;(7):147-152.
Wasonga VO;, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing Socio-Ecological Change Dynamics Using Local Knowledge in the Semi-Arid Lowlands of Baringo District, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A clear understanding of the social and ecological change dynamics in pastoral ecosystems is imperative for formulation of appropriate policies that ensure sustainable resource use and livelihood security of pastoral households. Spatial and temporal ecological knowledge expressed by those with long familiarity with the ecology has been shown to be more superior in quality and resolution than those gathered remotely and modelled digitally. This study adopted a local-perceptions approach in assessing the social and ecological change dynamics in the Njemps Flats of Baringo district over a period of four decades. The results reveal a changing vegetation structure, declining diversity and increasing soil erosion that are attributed to the rise in both human and livestock populations. The results also show a rising trend in diversification of asset portfolios in response to impoverishment as a result of the declining pasture and livestock productivity. These findings suggest that pastoralism in Baringo is a system in transition, attempting to maintain itself while at the same time trying to adapt progressively to a continuously shrinking resource base.

Wasonga, et al. "Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice." Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology.. 2008;7(2): 147-152.
Wasonga VO, Ngugi RK, Nyariki DM, Kironchi G, Njoka TJ. "Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture in a southern Kenyan rangeland." African Journal of Range and Forage Science. 2003;20:259-264. Abstract
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Wasonga O. Carolyne, Sang Rosemary MLOJ. "Characterization and Isolation of Chikungunya Viral antigen for development of ELISA diagnostics.". In:  Virology Africa Conference . Cape Town , South Africa; 2011.
and Wasserman JMMH. "The freedom to be silent? Market pressures on journalistic normative ideals at the Nation Media Group in Kenya, ." Review of African Political Economy. 2014;(10.1080/03056244.2014.928277 ):1-13.
Wässle H. "Parallel processing in the mammalian retina." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2004;5:747-757. AbstractWebsite

Our eyes send different 'images' of the outside world to the brain — an image of contours (line drawing), a colour image (watercolour painting) or an image of moving objects (movie). This is commonly referred to as parallel processing, and starts as early as the first synapse of the retina, the cone pedicle. Here, the molecular composition of the transmitter receptors of the postsynaptic neurons defines which images are transferred to the inner retina. Within the second synaptic layer — the inner plexiform layer — circuits that involve complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions represent filters that select 'what the eye tells the brain'.

Wässle H. "Parallel processing in the mammalian retina." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2004;5:747-757. AbstractWebsite

Our eyes send different 'images' of the outside world to the brain — an image of contours (line drawing), a colour image (watercolour painting) or an image of moving objects (movie). This is commonly referred to as parallel processing, and starts as early as the first synapse of the retina, the cone pedicle. Here, the molecular composition of the transmitter receptors of the postsynaptic neurons defines which images are transferred to the inner retina. Within the second synaptic layer — the inner plexiform layer — circuits that involve complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions represent filters that select 'what the eye tells the brain'.

Wässle H. "Parallel processing in the mammalian retina." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2004;5:747-757. AbstractWebsite
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Wasunna A, Mohammed K. "Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(10):543-6. Abstract

To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies.

Wasunna A. "Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities on protective head turning response in preterm infants." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(4):204-6. Abstract

To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants.

Wasunna E. "Surgical manpower in Africa.". 1987. Abstract

There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals

Wasunna A, Whitelaw AG. "Pulse oximetry in preterm infants." Arch. Dis. Child.. 1987;62(9):957-8. Abstract

One hundred and twenty five measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (Stcao2) obtained with a transcutaneous pulse oximeter were compared with direct arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) in 13 preterm infants with predominantly fetal haemoglobin. Stcao2 of 86-92% corresponded to Pao2 of 5-13 kPa. Stcao2 above 92%, however, was sometimes associated with Pao2 above 13 kPa.

Wasunna A, Mohammed K. "Morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(10):539-42. Abstract

To compare the morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies (birthweight < 2000 gm) of adolescent (age < 20 years) and older mothers.

Wasunna AE, Wyper DY. "Technology for health in the future.". 1998. Abstract

Developments in biogenetics, medical devices, information and communication technologies, and in environmental technologies will have a profound impact on health in the coming decades. However, there are major barriers to the appropriate and effective utilization of current and future technologies, particularly for developing countries. This paper intends to strike a balance between the exciting potential of technologies and the conditions that need to be fulfilled to ensure that technologies are utilized appropriately and effectively. It will emphasize the significance of knowledge associated with technologies, the importance of technology assessment and the need for a broad and comprehensive technology management policy.

Wasunna A. "Diarrhoeal diseases in preterm neonates." East Afr Med J. 1990;67(4):221-2.
Wasunna A. "The front line in the African AIDS crisis." Hastings Cent Rep. 2001;31(5):12.
Wasunna AE. "Carcinoma of the oesophagus: alcohol, tobacco and vitamins." East Afr Med J. 1986;63(9):569-70.
Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. "C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants." Eur. J. Pediatr.. 1990;149(6):424-7. Abstract

Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l, n = 468). Arterial catheterisation and endotracheal intubation, in the absence of infection, did not appear to elevate CRP, nor did cerebral germinal layer or intraventricular haemorrhage. Among nine infants with confirmed septicaemia eight had a serum CRP level raised at least once during the first 48 h and serum CRP in the other one increased 250-fold in 24 h before treatment was started. Using this assay, serum CRP is a useful and rapidly available adjunct to clinical assessment in diagnosis and exclusion of bacterial infection in the early neonatal period, has encouraged us to withhold or discontinue antibiotics and also has a role in monitoring response to treatment.

WASWA AARONK. GEOPHYSICAL MAPPING OF BURIED RIVER CHANNELS AND OTHER SHALLOW STRUCTURES RECHARGING MAJOR AQUIFERS IN THE LAKE NAKURU BASIN, KENYA RIFT: CASE STUDY FROM KABATINI AQUIFER.. J.O B, ed.; 2010. Abstractabstract.pdf

Abstract
Buried river channels are increasing becoming the target for groundwater exploration due to the unreliability of surface river channels that have been affected by climate changes. Areas located in urban centers like Nakuru town have high population that dictates the higher demand of water. This research covered the geophysical mapping of buried river channels and other shallow structures recharging major aquifers in the upper Nakuru basin of Kenya rift and in particular the Kabatini area. The project aimed at unveiling scientific knowledge of the subsurface geology using resistivity and magnetic geophysical methods. Solving of water shortages and improvement of livelihood for the people of Nakuru and its neighbor hood through proper and more precise geophysical ground water exploration methods was of great importance. The ultimate goal of the report is to provide guidance to policy makers in decision making especially for ground water extraction in Kabatini aquifer. Geology and hydro-geology of the area have been discussed in the report. The field methods used included vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography and magnetic survey. Data processing was done using Earth imager software, RES2DINV, and Euler. The findings of the research ascertain that Kabatini area has underground river channel that flows in the north – south direction. The research also shows that the area has some shallow structures which contain low resistivity materials in different locations. It has also been ascertained that the thickness of Kabatini aquifer is more than 150 m.

WASWA AARONKUTUKHULU. Petrology and iron ore mineralization in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt rocks of Mutomo-Ikutha area, in Kitui county, S.E. Kenya. Nyamai DCM, Mathu PE, ICHANG'I DD, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2015. Abstractabstract.docxabstract.pdf

PETROLOGY AND TECTONO - METAMORPHIC SETTING OF IRON DEPOSITS IN THE MOZAMBIQUE BELT SEGMENT IN MUTOMO - IKUTHA AREA, SOUTH- EASTERN KENYA

Abstract
The study area is bounded by longitudes 380 4’E to 38020’E and latitudes 1048’S to 208’S in South Kitui within the Kitui County occupying about 100 Km2. This area can be accessed from Nairobi-Thika - Kitui ,Nairobi – Machakos-Kitui roads, or from Mombasa –Kibwezi – Ikutha – Mutomo road. Mineral deposits in Kenya occur in different geological settings, such as those associated with Tertiary rocks (Turkana sapphire deposit). Most of the mineral deposits like iron ore located within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt have not been properly evaluated in geological and metallogenical context. This work intends to relate, evaluate and scientifically place the geological framework of iron deposits in Mutomo – Ikutha area of Kitui County, Kenya to the specific events within the litho and tectonothermal evolution of the Mozambique mobile Belt. A thorough investigation of the major and minor geological structures as well as metamorphism will be elucidated in the project area on their role in the formation of iron deposits. The establishment and economic and scientific investigation of iron deposits in the study area for purposes of mining and wealth creation in the region is of great importance in this research work. The application of the research to exploration and development of artisanal mining in Kenya will be successful in terms of prospecting at the regional and scale, by determining the lithological, geochemical and tectonic controls for the mineralization.
The Mozambique Belt has a long and complex history, marked by a succession of major tectonothermal events. This belt runs from Egypt through, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and ends in Mozambique. The methods to be used to achieve the aim of this research will include; geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations. Preliminary investigation will be carried out using remote sensed data. Laboratory analysis will include X-ray florescence, X-ray defractometry, and electron Microprobe. The data obtained will be analyzed using Oasis montaj software, Matlab and any other relevant software. The updated geological and structural maps will be compiled using Arc GIS software. This study is expected to provide comprehensive understanding of the tectonothermal scenario and its associated economic mineralization in the Mozambique belt.

WASWA AARONK, MATHU ELIUDM, Nyamai CM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016.
Waswa AK, Nyamai CM. "THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF KENYA." Symposium on Capacity Building in Sustainable Resource Development in Africa. 2016.
Waswa AK, Nyamai CM. "THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF KENYA .". In: Symposium on Capacity Building in Sustainable Resource Development in Africa. NAIROBI; 2016.
WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mathu EM, Ichang'i D. "Integration of Geological Mapping and Remote Sensed Studies for the Discovery of Iron – Ore Mineralization in Mutomo – Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." Universal Journal of Geoscienc e. 2015;3(2):39-50.
Waswa F;, Gachene CKK;, Eggers H. "Assessment of erosion damage in Ndome and Ghazi, Taita Taveta, Kenya: Towards an integrated erosion management approach."; 2002. Abstract

Aerial photograph interpretation on erosion trends from 1961 to 1998 showed that by 1998, approximately 17 and 50% of agricultural land in Ndome and Ghazi respectively had been permanently lost due to the combined effect of rill, inter-rill, and gully erosion, and sand deposition. Although abnormally heavy rains received between 1996–98 caused much of the present land damage, the severity of the damage was enhanced by inappropriate and persistent human perturbations in the land-system notably through vegetative degradation and destruction of soil structure through inappropriate tillage practices. With soil organic matter contents of 1.6 and 1.9%, and clay ratios of 10.1 and 10.6 for Ndome and Ghazi, respectively, the areas inherent erodibility was considered as high thus pointing to the need for careful use and management of the soil resource. That farmers appreciated only land quality indicators that were visible to the naked eye and that directly affected their subsistence, revealed a knowledge gap that saw damages from intrinsic processes like rill and inter-rill erosion proceed unnoticed. This paper argues that the spread of erosion damage in rural agro-ecosystems is survival-driven. And as a remedy to this problem, there is need for the diversification of livelihood endeavours to alternative off-farm income sources to reduce pressure on the already fragile land resource. Further, being the ultimate implementers of conservation technologies and by virtue of the multiplicity and inter-relation of rural household needs, adoption of an integrated erosion management approach with food security as paramount presents the most practical entry point for sustainable land management in such rural agro-ecosystems

WASWA AARONK, Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa J. "Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7(11):1299. AbstractFull Text

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW. "Integration of Geological Mapping and Remote Sensed Studies for the Discovery of Iron–Ore Mineralization in Mutomo–Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." Universal Journal of Geoscience. 2015;3(2):39-50. AbstractWebsite

This research integrates geology with remote sensing techniques to establish characteristic features that can be used to discover iron ore mineralization within the Neoproterozoic rocks of Mutomo – Ikutha area in south eastern Kenya. The association of hornblende gneiss and shearing as well as alteration processes near the mineralized regions appear to play an important role in the distribution and localization of the iron mineralization The methods used in this research include Image processing techniques applied on the digital subset ETM+ data that cover Mutomo – Ikutha area and geological field mapping. These techniques generated several products of enhanced satellite imagery, such as colour composite images, ratio images and principal component images. These techniques have been successfully used in the lithological discrimination of iron ore bearing sheared hornblende gneisses. The capabilities of remote sensing data to characterize the iron ore bearing gneisses, in addition to characterization and mapping the hydrothermal alteration zones helped in identification of iron mineralization regions. Extensive field geologic and geochemical investigations to the pronounced zones delineated by the image processing technique, led to discovery of four locations of high iron anomalies with some iron mineralization, mainly connected to the studied Neoproterozoic hornblende gneisses. Chemical studies were carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and X-Ray florescence, for some selected mineralized samples. Petrographic analysis and physical properties of the iron minerals were carried out as well. These investigations confirm the present iron mineral to be magnetite ore enriched with phosphates. The magnetite is found in close association with apatite chalcopyrite, quartz, and chlorite. Relics of corroded magnetite grains are occur along the Tiva river bed as well as along the road sides.

WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016. Abstract

The research area occurs within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt (NMB) in the south-eastern part of Kenya. An enigmatic problem within the polyphase and highly deformed NMB, is the lack of better understanding of the geology and tectonic structures. In order to decipher the aforementioned problem, this study undertook a geological study with the aim of having a better understanding of the petrology and tectono-metamorphic setting, in the study area. The research was carried out using geological field mapping and remote sense investigation. Samples collected in the field were analysed using XRF (X- ray fluorescence) and AAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry). The petrological investigation was carried out using petrographic microscopy. An investigation using remotely sensed data established prevalent geological structures, lithology and mineral alteration zones. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the tectono-thermal scenario. One of the key findings of this study is the realization that Kitui – Taita gneisses and migmatites represent a thick sequence of meta-sedimentary rocks. The entire protolith sequence was marked by the alternation of thin pelitic, psammitic and limey layers, together with minor thin basic meta-volcanic rocks that were deposited under deep marine conditions. The entire paragneissic sequence was subsequently subjected to multiple phases of successive deformation and metamorphism, which was accompanied by shearing, faulting and folding. Petrochemistry has revealed that Kitui – Taita hills area has remnants of Island alkali tholeiite and calc – alkaline Metabasalts. It has also revealed that Ikutha (south of Kitui) has huge deposit of apatite – iron of Kiruna type. Petrological studies have shown that Mutomo–Ikutha area occurs in an ophiolitic suite and mimics similar lithological and geochemical signatures as those reported in other ophiolite suites occurring in Kenya like in Moyale, Sekerr in West Pokot and Voi, SE Kenya. The field occurrence of this suite has been documented by the lithological and stratigraphic sequence of serpentinite, sheeted dykes, gabbro, limestone, tectonic mélange and remnants of pillow lava found in the type area. The field occurrence of this suite is an indication of the remnants of the obducted oceanic crust during the closure of the paleo- Mozambique Ocean and collision of the East and West Gondwanaland

WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mathu E, Ichang'i D. "Application of Magnetic Survey in the Investigation of Iron Ore Deposits and Shear Zone Delineation: Case Study of Mutomo-Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." International Journal of Geosciences,. 2015;6(7):729-740.
WASWA AARONK, D.N M. "EVALUATION OF VOLCANIC ROCKS OF NAIROBI AREA FOR USE AS RAW MATERIALS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND CEMENT INDUSTRY.". In: Geological Society of Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya; 2009. Abstractabstract_evaluation_of_volcanic_rocks_of_nairobi_area_for_use_as_raw_materials_in_the_construction_and_cement_industry.pdf

Volcanic rocks play an important role in the building and construction industry. Most of the raw materials used by the building industry around Nairobi are the volcanic rocks. The main volcanic rocks considered include Lavas and Pyroclastic rocks. There has been no close monitoring of the proper application of the volcanic raw materials in the construction and cement industry. This might have been resulted due to lack of initiative to study the impacts that results from not applying the right raw materials to the right end use. This has been promoted by fraudulent contractors who could just use this type of rocks without any scientific or mineralogical study. In the world of property valuation, real estate managers have not been able to present objective valuation of such properties due to lack of data on the mineralogical and physical properties of the building materials. Insurance Agencies cannot place realistic premiums on buildings and structures due to lack of geological information of the materials used in the construction.
The aim of this of this research is to provide knowledge on properties of volcanic raw materials and develop their suitable application in construction industry. The method used involved carrying out end use tests which included aggregate test, pozzolanicity tests and building stone tests. Project area is bounded by latitudes 1000’ S and 1030’S and by longitudes 360 30’ and 37000’ E and has an area of approximately 1,200 square miles (31,108 km2). The geological history of Nairobi area is dominated by volcanic activity whereby a thick succession of alkaline lavas associated tuffs began accumulating in Mid-Miocene time and continued into Upper Pleistocene. The result shows that Kapiti phonolites contain zeolites which react with alkalis in concrete to course cracking. It is also noted that most trachytes and tuffs are weak and therefore unsuitable for aggregates. The best material found stronger to be used in aggregate making is the phonolites. It is noted that trachytes and phonolites cannot be used as pozzolana material in cement manufacturing. Most of the volcanic rocks around Nairobi can be used either as walling stones or building stones. The machine cut blocks can only be made from the tuffs because other rocks are harder to be cut.

Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
Wata DE, Osanjo G, Oluka M, Guantai A. "Predictors of Breast Cancer Treatment Outcomes in Kenyan Women." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):109-115.predictors_of_breast_cancer_treatment_outcomes_in_kenyan_women.pdf
Wata DE, Osanjo GO, Oluka M, Guantai AN. "Predictors of Breast Cancer Treatment Outcomes in Kenyan Women." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):109-115.
Wata DE, Osanjo GO, Oluka MN, Guantai AN. "Predictors of Breast Cancer Treatment Outcomes in Kenyan Women." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2013;2(4):109-115.
Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Watete PW, Makau WK, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Wasonga OV. "Moving in and out of poverty: a case of the Somali and Turkana of Northern Kenya." Nomadic Peoples. 2016;20:123-140. Abstract
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Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
WATHATA MSMUCHIRIPATRICIA. "A Study of Participatory Processes Used by Head Teachers to Enhance Student Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi Province (M.Ed Thesis 1998).". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract
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Watkins WM;, Winstanley PA;, Mberu EK;, Kokwaro GO;, Murphy SA;, Mwangi I;, Waruiru C;, Foster D;, Marsh K. "Halofantrine pharmacokinetics in Kenyan children with complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria.". 1995. Abstract

1. Kenyan children with uncomplicated malaria given oral halofantrine (HF; non-micronised suspension; 8 mg base kg-1 body weight 6 hourly for three doses) showed wide variation in the disposition of HF and desbutylhalofantrine (HFm). 2. Eight Kenyan children with severe (prostrate) falciparum malaria who were receiving intravenous quinine, were given the same HF regimen by nasogastric tube. One patient had undetectable HF and two had undetectable HFm at all times after drug administration. 3. The mean AUC(0,24 h) of HF in prostrate children was half (7.54 compared with 13.10 micrograms ml-1 h) (P = 0.06), and that for HFm one-third (0.84 compared with 2.51 micrograms ml-1 h) (P < 0.05) of the value in children with uncomplicated malaria. 4. Oral HF may be appropriate for some cases of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa, but in patients with severe malaria, the bioavailability of HF and HFm may be inadequate

Watkins B, Kokwaro G, Galinski M, Mutabingwa TK, Trape JF. "WHO, the Global Fund, and medical malpractice in malaria treatment.". 2004.
WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 'States' Compliance with their Obligations under International Law with Specific Reference to Prohibition of Torture: The Case of Kenya'.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "THE CONSTITUTIONAL MAKING PROCESS IN KENYA: A CRISIS OF LEADERSHIP AND ILLEGALITIES?", in Kichana P (eds), Judiciary Watch Reports.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "Freedom of Information Legislation in Kenya: Pertinent Issues to the Draft Bill". A paper presented at the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. ""Violence Against Women: Towards its Eradication", Issue No. 8, Sheria Magazine, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2003"CASE COMMENTARY: NICHOLAS BIWOTT VS. JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO TRIBAL CLASHES", The Advocate, November 2003, 14.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "The Right to Information about the Activities of the Government As an Indispensable Component of the Right to Development", a Policy Brief under the ICJ- Kenya Freedom of Information Project.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. ""EMAS & ISO 14001: A Comparison", Environmental Policy and Law, Volume 31, Number 4-5, August, 201, 237.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2004 "IS CKRC ACT ULTRA VIRES THE CONSTITUTION?",.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "The Draft Constitution of Kenya and the Freedom of Information Legislation", a paper presented at the Consultative Forum to Revise the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W. 2000. Indigenous Knowledge and Dryland Resource Management. In: Community Involvement in Sustainable Development in the Drylands of Kenya: Challenges and way forward ( Eds. D.M. Nyariki and N.K. Musimba) pp. 19-20.". In: Proceedings of a National Workshop of the Dryland Husbandry Programme ( DHP-Kenya) held at Mtito Andei, 11 November 1998. Elsevier; 2000.
Waweru JN. "University should equip freshers with life skills." Saturday Nation (2015):35.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "THE POTENTIAL USE OF PLANT ANTHELMINTICS FOR THE CONTROL OF LIVESTOCK HELMINTHOSES IN KENYA.The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26, 2004.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
D.W. Gakuya,1 P.M.F. Mbithi 1, T.E. Maitho2 and N.K.R. Musimba3 Department of Clinical Studies, 2. Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology 3 Department of Range Management, University of Nairobi. Kenya. Abstract Helminthoses is a major constraint to livestock production in Kenya. The control of these infections by the use of synthetic anthelmintics is constrained by a number of problems that include; lack of foreign exchange to import them, development of anthelmintic resistance, lack of finance to purchase them, unavailability and misuse due to lack of appropriate information. The use of plant anthelmintics would be a rational alternative to bridge these shortfalls. In some tropical countries, research work has been carried out to validate this possibility. In order to integrate plant anthelmintics in the overall helminth control in Kenya, there is a need to document research findings on indigenous knowledge, through carrying out experiments to determine efficacy, toxicity and optimum dosage rates. In addition, isolation and identification of active ingredients using current laboratory techniques will be a critical milestone
Waweru JN. "Leading versus managing libraries in Kenya ." Maktaba Journal of the Kenya Library Association . 2015;Vol.3 (No.1, ): 105-109.
Waweru J, Njenga H, Omosa L. "Standardization of Commiphora Abyssinica Engl. Gum Resin From Kajiado, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2016;5(9):67-74. Abstract

Abstract
Information on the physical and chemical characteristics of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin is
scanty. The aim of this work was to establish the composition and physicochemical properties of above
mentioned gum resin and on that basis propose its standard specifications for commercial use. Samples from
three sites in Kajiado in Kenya were characterized in terms of parameters commonly used in the evaluation of
the quality of crude oleogumresins and their products. There was no substantial variability with collection
location observed on most physical properties including pH, density, refractive index, viscosity and optical
rotation. Composition parameters such as moisture, ash, nitrogen, metals, extraneous impurities, essential oils,
ethanol and water soluble matter varied from location to location. The ethanol-soluble matter which is crucial
in the formulation of traditional gum resin products varied significantly and ranged between 26.37 and 47.79%.
The gum-resin was found to have 1.31 to 1.87% essential oils and the yield of water soluble matter was high at
82.25-84.50%. In general, the gum resin had relatively low content of extraneous impurities (2.27-3.17%) and
ash (2.24-3.04%) in comparison with gum resins from related Commiphora species. Saponification value, acid
value as well as free fatty acids also varied with location. Values of parameters obtained in this study were
found suitable for proposing standard specifications of local Commiphora abyssinica gum resin from the
location. From the results, standard specifications that can be used in commerce for identification and quality
specification of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin sourced in Kenya were suggested. Magnesium could be used
to identify the gum resin from the area due to its very low variability. It was also recommended that freshly
harvested material be stored for a few months before processing.
Keywords: Commiphora abyssinica; ethanol extract; essential oil; gum resin; myrrh; standard specifications.

WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 29,2005. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE STATUS OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN A MEDIUM SCALE DAIRY FARM IN KABETE AREA, KENYA.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to establish the mastitis status in the dairy herd of 110 cows (genetically heterogeneous Bos Taurus breeds). All the cows were examined by physical inspection of the udder and California Mastitis Test (CMT) carried out on milk from the quarters of the 89 cows in milk. A total of 37 milk samples were collected from affected quarters of 36 cows, which had visibly abnormal secretion or tested positive on CMT, and taken for bacteriological culture and sensitivity tests. The outcome was a prevalence of 40.4 % based on the cows in milk and 18.4% based on their quarters. From the 37 samples that were cultured, 36 had abundant bacterial growth. Of the bacteria isolated, 45 % were Corynebacteria, 30.0 % Staphylococci, 22.5% Streptococci and 2.65% Pseudomonas. Of the twelve antibacterial compounds used in the sensitivity tests, the bacteria were most sensitive to ampi-clox and cefaclor at 98% and lest sensitive to sulphamethoxazole and cotrimoxazole both at 2%. Pseudomonas was only sensitive to gentamycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline. From this investigation the prevalence of mastitis in the herd is fairly high and there is need for a comprehensive monitoring and control program for udder health in this herd
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya,D.W.,Mbithi,P.M.F.,Mugambi,J.M.,Maitho,T.E.and Musimba,N.K.R.2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Albizia anthelmintica and Maerua edulis against the nematode Heligsomoides polygyrus infections in mice. The Kenya Veterinarian 28:.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Waweru W. "Histology of endophalmitis.". 2005.
Waweru G, Ochieng’ DDE. "EFFECTS OF CAPITAL FLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KENYA ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):1-17. Abstracteffects_of_capital_flows_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose -This study investigated the immediate and lagged effects of the various forms of capital flows - FDI flows, portfolio flows and “Other investments capital flows” (which mainly represents corporate, financial institutions and general government borrowings as well as remittances from the diaspora) - on economic growth in Kenya over a 30 year period from 1984 to 2014.
Methodology – The study adopted a quantitative research design in the form of an econometric model known as Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDLM). Findings -FDI and portfolio investments flows have a negative impact on the GDP growth rate and that their impact is not statistically significant.However, other investments flows, which mainly represent corporate, financial institutions, general government borrowings and remittances from the diaspora, have a positive impact on GDP growth rate and the impact is statistically significant.Based on the study findings, it can be inferred that a significant slowdown or a reversal in capital flows in form of “Other investments capital flows” into Kenya result into significant slowdown in economic growth in the country. Implications -Policy makers may lay much emphasis on attracting portfolio investment flows and “Other investments capital flows”, while investors and firms should consider the upside opportunities that may be created by increase in other investments capital flows and the downside risks that could results from a significant slowdown or a reversal in these forms of capital flows into the country.

Keywords: Capital flows, Economic growth, FDI flows, portfolio investment flows, Private equity, Diaspora remittances, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model.

Waweru JN. "Infopreneurship ideas for Librarians in Kenya.". In: to Kenya Library Association International Conference. Nairobi safari club; 2014.
Waweru JN. Library orientation.; 2014.
Waweru MM;, Ojwang SB;, Kingondu CS;, Karanja JG;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W. A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories.; 2007. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

Waweru JN. "Infopreneurship ideas for Librarians in Kenya’ ." Maktaba Journal of the Kenya Library Association. 2014; Vol.3 (No.1):15-19.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbaria, J.M., Mbithi,P.M.F. and Munenge, R.W. 2004. Evaluation of the bioactivity of some traditional medicinal plants using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 8-11.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the bioactivity of extracts of Chrysanthemum cineraraefolium Vis., Albizia anthelmintica A Brgn, Maerua edulis (Gilg) De wolf and Myrsine Africana L. Which are using tratitioanll as anthelmintic as using brine shrimp lethanitly test serial dilutions of 1000 ug/ml and 10 ug / ml of the extracts were put in five test tubes. Ten (10) brine shrimp larvae were immersed into each of the test tubes and the number surviving after 24 hours counted and the percentage mortality and LC for each extract was determined. Cl cinerariaefolium extract (pyrethrins) was active (LC 1000 ug/ml) of 18ug/ml. The methanol extacts of Maerua edulis, Maera subcordata and Myysine Africana were not active (LC 1000 ug/ml) the results indicated that C. cenerareafolium and A. Anthelmintica extracts have bioactivity and is the basis for their use as anthelmintic by pastoral communities. Brine shrimp lethality test was found to be a simple and rapid test and is thus recommended for similar studies.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALBIZIA ANTHELMINTICA AND MAERUA EDULIS AGAINST THE NEMATODE HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS INFECTIONS IN MICE. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28,2005.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
Waweru SE, Meme JS, Kinuthia DM, Kitonyi GW. "Absence of HIV seropositivity in children with sickle cell anaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 1987. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To find out whether frequent blood transfusions increase the risk of transfusion-related HIV infection in children with Sickle cell anaemia. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-eight children with Sickle cell anaemia were transfused 1-13 times (mean 2,4) between 1982 and 1987. In Kenya routine screening of blood banks for HIV infection began in 1987. The HIV status of these children was compared with 231 non-transfused children: 106 with Sickle cell anaemia and 125 children with haemoglobin AA. In both transfused and non-transfused children age ranges were similar and were 1-12 years. All children were tested with Wellcozyme Elisa test in duplicate. All tests were performed at least 6 months after the last transfusion. Sixty five transfused sicklers were rechecked one year later. RESULTS: All 429 children were HIV negative. CONCLUSIONS: Out findings suggest that HIV seropositivity is low in Kenyan children. Furthermore, even though blood was unscreened in 1982 - 1987 transfusion did not increase the risk of HIV infection in our study children

Waweru JN. "Leading versus managing libraries in Kenya.". In: Kenya Library Association international conference. Nairobi safari club; 2016.
Waweru B, Ndeti N. "Decision Making in Community Driven Development: Whose Opinions Count in What?" International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 1):246-254.
Waweru JN, Odenyo F. "Innovative content Delivery for library patron 2.0.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Waweru JN. "Improving the image of library profession in Kenya: reasons for librarians concern.". In: Kenya Library Association international conference. Nairobi; 2015.
WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL. "Gakuya, D.W., Mbithi, P.M.F., Maitho, T.E. and Musimba, N.K.R. 2004. The potential use of plant anthelmintic for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 14-26.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Helminthoses is a major constraint to livestock production in Kenya. The control of these infections by the use of synthetic anthelmintics is constrained by a number of problems that include; lack of foreign exchange to import them, development of anthelmintic resistance, lack of finance to purchase them, unavailability and misuse due to lack of appropriate information. The use of plant anthelmintics would be a rational alternative to bridge these shortfalls. In some tropical countries, research work has been carried out to validate this possibility. In order to integrate plant anthelmintics in the overall helminth control in Kenya, there is a need to document research findings on indigenous knowledge, through carrying out experiments to determine efficacy, toxicity and optimum dosage rates. In addition, isolation and identification of active ingredients using current laboratory techniques will be a critical milestone.
Waweru JN. "‘Impact of performance contracting on University of Nairobi library services’.". In: Knowledge Management..... Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2017.
Waweru KM, Pokhariyal GP, Mwaura MF. "The Signaling Hypothesis: Evidence From The Nairobi Securities Exchange.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This study investigates the signaling hypothesis by testing the displacement property of dividends. The study uses Ohlson (1995; 2001) model and follows Hand and Landsman (2005) approach. The study however varies the methodology by using pooled Time Series Cross Section data and Panel Corrected Standard Error estimation and also control for size to take care of scale effects. The study’s findings provide further empirical evidence that dividends are used as signals about future earnings prospects of the firm. After following Thakor (2003) approach in testing for the free cashflow hypothesis, the study’s results do not provide evidence in favour of the cashflow hypothesis it is therefore ruled out. The study’s results shed further insights on the controversy regarding the information content of dividend changes about future profitability.

Wawire NW, Bett C, Ruttoh RC, Wambua J, Omari FG, Kisilu R, Kavoi J, Omari J, NasirembW Wanyonyi, Ketiem P. "THE STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION IN KENYA.". 2016.
Wawire MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional Study Of Luminescence In Polypyridine Ruthenium Complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2′;6′,2″-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photophysical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geometries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT → 3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ΔE , the difference between the View the MathML sourceeg* and lowest energy π* PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d × π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ΔE and high values of d × π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ΔE and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Wawire* MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional study of luminescence in polypyridineruthenium complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013;276 : 8-15. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2’;6’,2”-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photo-physical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geome-tries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT →3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ∆E, the difference between the e∗g and lowest energy π *PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d ×π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1 π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ∆E and high values of d ×π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ∆E and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Proceedings of East African Weeds of East Africa.". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Co-edited some common weeds of East Africa (Magugu ya Afrika ya Mashariki FAO Publication ISBN 92-5 002426-6).". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Published several papers in local and international journals.". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
Wayua FO, Okoth MW, Wangoh J. "Thermal Performance of Four Types of Water Heating Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Providing Process Heat for Milk Pasteurisation.". 2012. Abstract

Thermal performance tests were carried out on four water heating flat plate solar collectors with the aim to select a suitable one to be used to provide process heat for milk pasteurisation. The collectors included three commercial solar collectors purchased from local shops in Nairobi, Kenya and one prototype collector designed and fabricated by the author. The three commercial solar collectors had effective areas of 1.67, 1.87 and 1.83 m2 while the self-made collector had an effective area of 1.60 m2. Thermal performance of the collectors was determined in terms of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation, with FR(α)e and FRUL indicating how energy is absorbed and lost from the collector, respectively. The FR(α)e values were 0.76, 0.75, 0.73, and 0.82, respectively, for the commercial collectors and the self-made collector. The FRUL values were 8.33, 12.01, 9.80 and 13.77 W.m–2.C–1, respectively. The instantaneous efficiencies for the four solar collectors ranged from 12 to 87%. The solar collector with the lowest FRUL value had a special (black chrome) selective absorber surface and was also the most cost effective collector for delivering temperatures of about 80°C. This collector is the most suitable for medium temperature applications such as provision of hot water for milk pasteurisation.

Wayua FO. Evaporative Cooling and Solar Pasteurization technologies for value addition of Camel (Camelus dromedaries) Milk in Marsabit and Isiolo Counties of Northern Kenya. Okoth MW, Wangoh J, eds. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

Abstract
The potential for evaporative cooling and solar pasteurisation technologies for value addition
of camel milk in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of northern Kenya was investigated. To find
out existing postharvest handling and preservation practices, a survey was conducted using a
semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 167 came l milk producers, 50
primary and 50 secondary milk traders. Results showed that the camel milk chain was
characterised by poor milk handling infrastructure, including poor roads and lack of cooling
facilities. Camel milk was marketed raw under unhygienic conditions with minimal value
addition, and spoilage was a major problem. Milk traders occasionally boiled milk using
firewood as a means of temporary preservation during times when transport was unavailable.
Provision of appropriate cooling facilities and utilisation of renewable energy technologies
such as solar energy for milk processing were identified as possible intervention strategies to
enhance marketing.
Therefore, a low-cost charcoal evaporative cooler was developed and tested for the storage
of camel milk. The cooler, 0.75 m3 in capacity, was made of galvanised angle iron (25 mm x
25 mm x 4 mm) frame with 10 cm wide charcoal walls which were moistened through a drip
system. Temperature of camel milk inside the cooler did not significantly (p>0.05) change
after storage for 10 hours. However, temperature of control milk at ambient conditions
significantly increased (p=0.05) over the same period, from 22.6 ± 0.08°C to 28.1 ± 0.08°C.
Milk inside the cooler was also significantly cooler (p=0.05) than control milk in the
evening, with a net temperature reduction of 27.0%. Total bacterial count changed from
31.4±2.1 x 104 colony forming units per ml (cfu.ml–1) to 43.1±1.9 x 104 and 1638±81 x 104
cfu.ml–1 for milk inside the cooler and that at ambient conditions, respectively, after storage
for 10 hours. The cooler’s performance was modelled using artificial neural networks
(ANN), with inputs being ambient dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, wind speed
xvi
and temperature of drip water. The outputs were cooled milk temperature and cooling
efficiency. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values with mean squared
error (MSE) of 10.2, mean relative error (MRE) of 4.02% and correlation coefficients (R2) in
the range of 0.86-0.93.
The development of the solar milk pasteuriser started with thermal performance testing of
four water heating flat plate solar collectors available in Kenya with the objective of
selecting a suitable one to be used to provide process heat for batch pasteurisation. The
collectors included three commercial solar collectors purchased from local shops in Nairobi,
Kenya and one prototype collector designed and fabricated by the author. The three
commercial solar collectors had effective areas of 1.67, 1.87 and 1.83 m2 while the self-made
collector had an effective area of 1.60 m2. Thermal performance of the collectors was
determined in terms of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation. The FR(ta )e values, obtained
using the effective collector areas and the inlet water temperature, were 0.76, 0.75, 0.73, and
0.82, respectively, for the commercial collectors and the self -made collector. The FRUL
values were 8.33, 12.01, 9.80 and 13.77 W.m–2.°C–1, respectively. The solar collector with
the lowest FRUL value had a black chrome selective absorber surface and was the most cost
effective for delivering temperatures of about 80°C at an efficiency of 15%. It was used to
develop a low -cost batch solar milk pasteuriser consisting of the collector and a cylindrical
milk vat. The milk vat had a 50 mm-wide hot water jacket and an outer layer of 38 mm thick
fibre glass insulation. The water jacket held approximately 30 litres of water, whereas the
milk tank had a capacity of 80 litres. The hot water produced by the collector was used for
pasteurising milk. The optimum quantity of milk which could be pasteurised by this device
under the study conditions was 40 litres, which was pasteurised in approximately 1.3±0. 5
hours at an average insolation and ambient temperature of 22.5±0.9 MJ.m–2.day–1 and
29.8±0.1°C, respectively. The average temperature difference between hot water and milk
xvii
being pasteurised was 8.1±0.6°C. Total bacterial counts in pasteurised milk were less than 10
cfu.ml–1 while coliform counts were negative.
The solar milk pasteuriser was modelled using ANN as described for the cooler. The inputs
of the model were ambient air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature of hot
water, and water flow rate through the collector, whereas the output was temperature of milk
being pasteurised. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values , with MSE,
MRE and R2 of 5.22°C, 3.71% and 0.89, respectively.
It has thus been established that there is both the need and potential for evaporative cooling
and solar pasteurisation along the camel milk value chain in Kenya. The two technologies
augment each other in increasing the quantity and quality of marketed camel milk from
scattered pastoral production sites in Kenya. The devices are of low cost and can be locally
fabricated by village artisans using locally available materials , and their performance can be
successfully modelled using ANNs, which helps to design an appropriate system for any
application.

Wayua FO;, Wangoh J. "Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district,Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices for camel milk by pastoralists in Isiolo, Kenya were assessed through crosssectional survey and focus group discussions. A total of 167 camel milk producer households, 50 primary and 50 secondary milk traders were interviewed. Survey findings showed that milking was predominantly handled by herds-boys (45.0%) or male household heads (23.8%) and occasionally by spouses (16.6%), sons (13.9%) and daughters (0.7%). The main types of containers used by both producers and traders to handle milk were plastic jerricans (recycled cooking oil containers), because they were cheap, light and better suited for transport in vehicles. Milk processing was the preserve of women, with fresh camel milk and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusa) being the main products. Fresh milk was preserved by smoking of milk containers and boiling. Smoking was the predominant practice, and was for extending the shelf life and also imparting a distinct smoky flavour to milk. The milk containers were fumigated with smoke from burned wood of specific tree species such as Olea africana, Acacia nilotica, Balanities aegyptica and Combretum spp. Boiling was practised by primary milk traders at collection points to preserve milk during times when transport to the market was unavailable. Milk spoilage at the primary collection point in Kulamawe was aggravated by lack of cooling facilities. At the secondary collection point in Isiolo town, milk was refrigerated overnight before onward transmission to Nairobi. The mean quantity of traded milk was 83.2±3.8 litres. The main problems experienced by milk traders in Isiolo included milk spoilage (43.0% of respondents), delayed payments—after one or two days (19.9%), loss of money due to informal courier (12.2%), low prices of fermented milk (10.9%), milk rejection by customers in Nairobi (7.1%), inadequate supply during dry season (3.5%), loss of milk due to bursting of containers (2.1%) and milk not being supplied by producers due to insecurity (1.3%). In-depth understanding of the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices would help to devise appropriate strategies that would increase the quantity and improve the quality of marketed camel milk. Such strategies should include the improvement of infrastructure such as milk transport, collection, cooling and processing facilities of suitable capacity.

Wayua FO, Okoth MW, Wangoh J. "Modelling of a locally fabricated flat-plate solar milk pasteuriser using artificial neural network.". 2013. Abstract

The objective of this work was to develop an artificial neural network model to predict milk temperature of a locally fabricated solar milk pasteuriser, based on measures of error deviation from experimental data. A three-layer feed-forward neural network model based on back propagation algorithm was developed using the Neural Network Toolbox for MATLAB®. The inputs of the model were ambient air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature of hot water, and water flow rate through the collector, whereas the output was temperature of milk being pasteurised. The optimal neural network model had a 4-4-1 structure with sigmoid transfer function. The neural network predictions agreed well with experimental values with mean squared error, mean relative error and correlation coefficient of determination (R2) of 5.22°C, 3.71% and 0.89, respectively. These results indicate that artificial neural network can successfully be used for the prediction of the performance of a locally fabricated solar milk pasteuriser.

Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
Webala, P. ON, Afrework B. "The diversity and distribution of bats in Meru National Park, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology 42 (3): 171-178; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Webb T, Maina EN, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "In search of the psychosis gene in people with Prader-Willi syndrome." Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 2008;146(7):843-53. Abstract

The two main causes of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are a paternally derived deletion in the maternally imprinted 15q11-q13 region or UPD(15)mat. Both mechanisms result in a loss of the active paternal contribution to the region. The affective psychosis associated with PWS has been found to be mainly confined to the propositi with UPD(15)mat rather than to those with a deletion. This suggests that the psychosis may be related to the presence of two copies rather than a single copy of a gene or genes located in the distal half of the region which is paternally imprinted, but maternally active, and whose loss results in Angelman syndrome (AS). A large population-based study of PWS allowed the identification of 12 people with a 15q11-q13 deletion who had suffered psychotic episodes and four adults with UPD(15)mat who so far had not. When these people were investigated using microsatellite markers, the 12 with a deletion were found to have two maternally derived copies of a narrow region between D15S975 and D15S661 making them effectively disomic for these loci. Thus all of the people with psychosis had two active copies of any imprinted genes in the region while all non-psychotic people (including controls) had only one. Quantitative RT-PCR studies suggest that a lack of expression of FLJ33332, either as a result of or resulting in gene dysregulation, may be associated with psychosis in PWS.

Wegener J;, Gathuma JM. "The role of the marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Lesson)) in Kenya in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.".; 1975. Abstract

In experiments, adult marabou storks were fed with hydatid fluid of viable Echinococcus cysts obtained from sheep and goats. On microscopic examination of the birds' faeces no scolices were found, the only remaining undigested parts of the parasites fed being the chitinous hooks of the rostellum. The feeding trials have shown that the marabou does not play a role in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.

Weinberg GA, Spitzer ED, Murray PR, Ghafoor A, Montgomery J, Tupasi TE, Granoff DM, EM W. "Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Haemophilus isolates from children in eleven developing nations. BOSTID Haemophilus Susceptibility Study Group." Bull. World Health Organ.. 1990;68(2):179-84. Abstract

The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 426 isolates of Haemophilus species, which were collected as part of a worldwide study of the etiology of acute respiratory disease in children in selected developing countries, were determined. Eleven antibiotics were tested using the recently described Haemophilus Test Medium. There was a low prevalence of antibiotic resistance; 6% of strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 1.6% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Strains resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol were recovered only from Thailand. Susceptibility to penicillin G was also determined; the minimum inhibitory concentrations for penicillin and ampicillin were concordant within one 2-fold dilution in 97% of the isolates. Thus, Haemophilus isolates were as susceptible to penicillin G as they were to ampicillin, and penicillin resistance was infrequent overall. These data provide support for the current protocols for the management of acute respiratory infections in children in developing countries, in which penicillin G is a first-line agent.

Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Weis JF, McClelland SR, Jaoko W, Mandaliya KN, Overbaugh J, Graham SM. "Short communication: Fc gamma receptors IIa and IIIa genetic polymorphisms do not predict HIV-1 disease progression in Kenyan women." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2015;31(3):288-92. Abstract

Genetic polymorphisms of the Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) IIa and IIIa have been implicated in the rate of HIV-1 disease progression, but results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine the association between these polymorphisms and disease progression in a cohort of HIV-1 seroconverters from Mombasa, Kenya. Neither FcγRIIa nor FcγRIIIa genotypes were predictive of set point viral load, viral load increase, CD4 decline, or HIV-1 disease progression (time to CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3), death, or treatment initiation). Our results suggest that FcγR polymorphisms might not be an important indicator of viral control and disease progression in this population.

Weis JF, McClelland RS JMKNOGSMWJ &. "Fc Gamma Receptors IIa and IIIa Genetic polymorphisms do not predict HIV-1 disease progression in Kenyan women. ." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses (in print). 2014.
Weiss JM, Glazer HI, Pohorecky LA, Brick J, Miller NE. "Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine." Psychosom Med. 1975;37(6):522-34. Abstract

A single exposure to a severe stressor (either cold swim or inescapable shock) impairs subsequent performance in a shuttle avoidance-escape task (1), a deficit attributed to reduction in brain noradrenergic activity produced by these stressors. In the present paper, two experiments are described which examine how repeated exposure to such stressors affects (a) shuttle avoidance-escape performance (Experiment 1), and (b) aspects of brain norepinephrine metabolism (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that, whereas subjects receiving the single exposure to cold swim or shock showed a large avoidance-escape deficit, subjects that received repeated exposure to these stressors for 14 days performed similarly to the control group that received no stressor. Experiment 2 showed that, whereas subjects that received one session of the inescapable shock stressor showed a lower level of norepinephrine in hypothalamus and cortex than did subjects that received no shock, subjects that received repeated exposure to inescapable shock or cold swim showed neurochemical "habituation." Subjects that received repeated shock showed elevated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and no depletion of norepinephrine level, and both repeated shock and cold swim caused a decrease in uptake of 3H-norepinephrine by slices of cortex in vitro. Thus, it is concluded that the behavioral and neurochemical changes that were observed after the stressful conditions studied are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in avoidance-escape responding following exposure to these stressful events are due to changes in brain noradrenergic activity.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB, Manene M, Mwaniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology (IARJSET). 2016;3(2):111-114. Abstract

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real valued matrix which is discounted with singular value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation; and trust is similar to distrust negation.

Weke P, Aduda J, Ngare P, Mwaniki IJ. "Financial Time Series Modelling of Trends and Patterns in the Energy Markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;6:324-337. Abstract

Energy use is behind virtually everything a person comes into contact with. The energy industry has rapidly expanded and become increasingly interdependent. In developed economies, the increase in energy consumption indicates a reliance on energy and its related products for continued and sustainable economic growth and development. Developing economies also rely on the development of energy resources to drive their growth. Energy was once viewed just as a utility, and an enabler with limited consumer interest, but now, it is key in the struggle for sustainable future economic growth [1] [2].
Energy prices, which are largely linked to oil prices, are a major concern for most economies. The recent financial crises and their ripple effects and after shocks have been largely unprecedented in terms of timing, speed and magnitude of impact on the world economies. Forecasting of crude oil prices is important for better investment and risk management and policy development, and econometric models are the most commonly used.

Weke, Patrick; Davis Bundi Ntwiga and Kirumbu MK. "Trust Model for Social Network Using Singular Value Decomposition." Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems. 2016;14(3):296-302. Abstract

For effective interactions to take place in a social network, trust is important. We model trust of agents using the peer to peer reputation ratings in the network that forms a real valued matrix.
Singular value decomposition discounts the reputation ratings to estimate the trust levels as trust is the subjective probability of future expectations based on current reputation ratings.
Reputation and trust are closely related and singular value decomposition can estimate trust using the real valued matrix of the reputation ratings of the agents in the network.
Singular value decomposition is an ideal technique in error elimination when estimating trust from reputation ratings. Reputation estimation of trust is optimal at the discounting of 20 %.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Credit Scoring for M-Shwari Using Hidden Markov Model." European Scientific Journal12. 2016;12(15):176-188. Abstract

The introduction of mobile based Micro-credit facility, M-Shwari, has heightened the need to develop a proper decision support system to classify the customers based on their credit scores. This arises due to lack of proper information on the poor and unbanked as they are locked out of the formal banking sector. A classification technique, the hidden Markov model, is used. The poor customers’ scanty deposits and withdrawal dynamics in the M-Shwari account estimate the credit risk factors that are used in training and learning the hidden Markov model. The data is generated through simulation and customers categorized in terms of their credit scores and credit quality levels. The model classifies over 80 percent of the customers as having average and good credit quality level. This approach offers a simple and novice method to cater for the unbanked and poor with minimal or no financial history thus increasing financial inclusion in Kenya.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Consumer Lending Using Social Media Data." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2016;3(2):1-8. Abstract

Consumer credit has been around for a long period of time but the dynamics observable from the consumers makes it hard to credit score and lend to the consumers. This difficulty results in the poor being excluded from receiving credit as they lack financial history. We analyze the limitations of the traditional consumer lending models due to use of historical data, and look at the benefits that could arise by incorporating social media data in credit scoring process for consumer lending. A review of the research progress made in using social media data for consumer scoring and lending process is presented. We found that social media data offers rich, vast and attractive information on changing trends and shifting demographics in credit underwriting of existing consumers and new consumers with minimal or no financial history. This data advances the lending process by widening the data set available and capture of new markets that are excluded from financial services.

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