Publications

Found 43837 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
W
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Scratching where it itches: Developing Christian Literature in Africa, a paper presented at a Conference on the production of Christian Education materials in Africa, Limuru, Kenya.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Pastoral Counselling in the African Perspective, in D. W. Waruta, Ed., Caring and Sharing: Pastoral Counselling in the African Perspective, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Church as a Teaching Community in J.N.K. Mugambi, Ed. Christian Mission and Social Transformation, Nairobi, Initiatives & NCCK.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "A Gospel of Community, Compassion and Continuity in Daniel Carro and Richard E. Wilson, Contemporary Gospel Accents: Coing Theology in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Oriental Religions in J.N.K. Mugambi, Ed. Comparative Religion, Nairobi, University of Nairobi Press.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Who Is Jesus in Africa? Priest, Prophet and King in J.N.K.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Oriental Religions in J.N.K.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa, in D. W. Waruta and H.W. Kinoti, Eds., Pastoral Care in African Christianity: Challenging Essays in Pastoral Theology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Tribalism as a Moral Problem in Contemporary African Society, in J.N.K. Mugambi and A. Nasimiyu Wasike, Eds. Moral and Ethical Issues in African Christianity: Innovative Essays in Moral Theology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Meaning of Mission in Africa Today; Nairobi.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Religious Situation in Africa, A paper presented at International Missions Conference, Limuru, Kenya.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Wanjohi LM, Moturi CA. "Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. Oxfordshire: CAB International; 2018.
Wanjohi M, Gitao CG, Bebora L. "The Prevalence of Brucella spp. in camel milk marketed from North Eastern Province, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2012;2(7):425-434. Abstractcamel_milk_brucellosis.pdf

The camel is the dominant livestock in North Eastern province where it provides sustenance to many people especially during the frequent dry periods when other animals die or are unthrifty. Garissa and Wajir districts in the arid Northern Kenya hosts about 54% of the national camel herd estimated to number over 3 million. Camel milk from North Eastern Province in Kenya is widely marketed in those areas but is also currently being sold in distant markets in Nairobi and other places. An expanded camel milk market provides an opportunity for increased income that can lead to improved pastoral livelihoods. Most of the milk is collected from individual pastoralists, bulked and then taken by transporters to urban areas. While some milk is boiled before sale, some of the milk however is marketed as raw thus exposing the population to zoonotic diseases. In an investigation to find the prevalence of Brucellosis, the main zoonotic agent in milk, samples of milk for marketing were collected as well as serum samples from camels in North Eastern Province A total of three hundred and eighty four (384) camel milk samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were tested using the Milk Ring Test (MRT) and out of the total, fifty nine (59) samples (15.36%) tested positive while three hundred and twenty five (325) samples tested negative. From Garrissa District (n = 230), 35 samples (15.22%) were positive for MRT while 24 samples (15.58%) from Wajir District (n = 154) were positive. All the milk samples examined were negative for Brucella Modified Ziehl- Neelsen’s stain as well as primary isolation of Brucella on Tryptose Soy agar (TSA) under high carbon-dioxide (CO2) concentration. The results of the milk ring test on the samples tested indicated that 15.36% of the samples were positive for the presence of Brucella antibodies in milk. A total of two hundred (200) camel serum samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). Four (4) samples (2.0%) tested positive. From Garrissa District (n = 72), 2 samples (2.78%), were positive while 2 samples (1.56%) from Wajir District (n = 128) were positive. The two hundred (200) camel serum samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were also tested using the Serum Micro-agglutination Test (SAT). From Garrissa District (n = 72), 13 samples (18.06%) were positive while 8 samples (6.25%) from Wajir District (n = 128) were positive. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in camels is low in extensively kept pastoralist camels. Some of the recommendations to avoid the risk of zoonotic diseases include increased awareness on pasteurization of camel milk, proper milk handling and milk testing before pooling

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Ecumenical Initiatives in Eastern Africa: The Current Situation.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Wanyande P, Odhiambo-Mbai C. Public Service Ethics in Kenya.; 2001.Website
Wanyande P. "Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Governance Perspective. In Regional Development Studies." A journal of the United Nations Centre for Regional Development. 2006:pp145-160.
Wanyande P, Njeru G, Mute L, Owiti MOD. Civic Education for Marginalised Communities.; 2001.
Wanyande, Peter; Omosa M; CL. "Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya .". 2007.Website
Wanyande P, and Asingo PO. "Beyond Election Campaign Rhetoric: Challenges Facing NARC Government in Kenya." African Review Journal . 2004;31 ( 1&2 ):38-56.
Wanyande P. "Reflections on Electoral Systeme and Practice in Kenya in Hekima ." A Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2003;Volume 11(May-JULY 2003-1):PP23-25.
Wanyande P. "Nationalism In Kenya: Weakening the Ties that Bind." Maseno University Journal. 2012;volume 1:pp207-219.
Wanyande P, Omosa M, Ludeki C. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
WanyanguSamuel, AngolioA, MachariaS, LitamoiJK, OdongoMahacla. "A preliminary serological survey for leptospiral agglutinins in sheep and goats in Kenya." The East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 1990;56 (1):15-19.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Amniotic fluid embolism: case report and review. Wanyoike J G Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH. "Incidence of wound infection after caesarean delivery in a district hospital in central Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):357-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):357-61. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of post-caesarean wound infection. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Maternity unit of Kiambu District Hospital in Central Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women undergoing caesarean delivery during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall incidence of post-caesarean wound infection, relationship between incidence and socio-demographic characteristics, pre-operative labour events, intrapartum events as well as HIV status. RESULTS: The caesarean delivery rate was 7.8%. The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate was 19%. The incidence was 32% among single women as compared to 16% among married women, but this difference is not statistically significant. Among the 35% of women who laboured for more than 12 hours, the incidence of wound infection was 33% compared to 15% among those who laboured for 12 hours or less (p < 0.01). Rupture of membranes (ROM) for more than 12 hours was associated with high incidence of wound infection than among women in whom ROM was 12 hours or less (38% and 14% respectively, p < 0.001). Also duration of operation exceeding 60 minutes was associated with much higher incidence of wound infection (71%) compared to when the operation lasted 60 minutes or less (16%, p < 0.001). The incidence of post-caesarean wound infection does not appear to be significantly affected by HIV status or whether caesarean delivery was emergency or elective. CONCLUSION: The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate is quite high. Prolonged pre-operative duration of labour, prolonged ROM and long duration of operation are associated with significantly higher incidence of wound infection. This should be seen against a background of a relatively low caesarean delivery rate and high incidence of prolonged labour. Strict labour management policies need to be inculcated in labour wards in District Hospitals in order to ensure timely caesarean delivery interventions, and hence, reduce post-caesarean wound infection rates.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Amniotic fluid embolism: case report and review. Wanyoike J G Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Vol 18 NO 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
Wanyoike MM;, Wahome RG. "Small-scale farming systems."; 2004.
Wanyoike MW. "Technology and Provision of Quality and Inclusive Education.". In: International Conference on “Uplifting the Poor”, Linkoping University and University of Nairobi February 15th -16th 2013. University of Nairobi; 2013.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Rukaria R M K Effects of calcium supplementation in patients at risk of pregnancy induced hypertension Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Ruk.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Rukaria R M K Effects of calcium supplementation in patients at risk of pregnancy induced hypertension Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Gachuno O W, Wanyoike Gichuhi J, Ruk.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wanyoike J G. A case of reproductive technology in Africa: Wanyoike J G. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of post-caesarean wound infection. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Maternity unit of Kiambu District Hospital in Central Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women undergoing caesarean delivery during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall incidence of post-caesarean wound infection, relationship between incidence and socio-demographic characteristics, pre-operative labour events, intrapartum events as well as HIV status. RESULTS: The caesarean delivery rate was 7.8%. The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate was 19%. The incidence was 32% among single women as compared to 16% among married women, but this difference is not statistically significant. Among the 35% of women who laboured for more than 12 hours, the incidence of wound infection was 33% compared to 15% among those who laboured for 12 hours or less (p < 0.01). Rupture of membranes (ROM) for more than 12 hours was associated with high incidence of wound infection than among women in whom ROM was 12 hours or less (38% and 14% respectively, p < 0.001). Also duration of operation exceeding 60 minutes was associated with much higher incidence of wound infection (71%) compared to when the operation lasted 60 minutes or less (16%, p < 0.001). The incidence of post-caesarean wound infection does not appear to be significantly affected by HIV status or whether caesarean delivery was emergency or elective. CONCLUSION: The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate is quite high. Prolonged pre-operative duration of labour, prolonged ROM and long duration of operation are associated with significantly higher incidence of wound infection. This should be seen against a background of a relatively low caesarean delivery rate and high incidence of prolonged labour. Strict labour management policies need to be inculcated in labour wards in District Hospitals in order to ensure timely caesarean delivery interventions, and hence, reduce post-caesarean wound infection rates.
Wanyoike M, Holmes W. "The effects of winter nutrition on the subsequent Jive-we ght performance and intake of herbage by beef cattle.". 1981. Abstract

Thirty-six Friesian and Friesian cross-bred cattle about 11 months old were fed to grow at the rates of 0·50 (low) and 1·08 (high) kg/day in a 12-week winter feeding period and then turned out on high quality pasture. For 12 weeks after turning out the ‘low’ and ‘high’ animals gained weight at 1·17 and 0·90 kg/day respectively. There was a negative correlation (– 0·57, P < 0·01) between winter and grazing live-weight gain. On two occasions herbage intake was estimated. Average intake of ‘low’ animals was 12% higher than of ‘high’ animals although herbage digestibility, estimated from faecal N, was similar for the two treatments. Differences in live-weight gain on pasture between treatments were largely accounted for by differences in intake. The low rate of winter growth did not have any significant effects on age at slaughter, carcass weights or grades attained by the restricted animals.

Wanyoike, MM; Wahome RG; MSG, Wahome, RG; Mbogoh SG, Wahome, RG; Mbogoh SG. "Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Dairy and Other Livestock Products."; 2005.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wanyoike J G. A case of reproductive technology in Africa: Wanyoike J G. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Wanyoike MW. "Educational Reforms and Value-creating education in post-colonial Kenya: A Historical perspective.". In: International Conference on Value-Creating Education and Sustainable Development. University of Nairobi; 2016.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH. "Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. RESULTS: Normal biophysical profile scores were found in 93 (84.5%), and 17 (17.5%) cases had abnormal scores ranging from mild to severe foetal distress. Resistive index of umbilical artery (RI-UA) were normal in 72 (66.1%) and high resistive index accounted for 33.9%. Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was a prominent finding accounting for 30.5%. A positive relationship was shown to exist between IUGR and RI-UA and also with severity of hypertension with P-values < 0.05. Resistive index of umbilical artery was positively related to the duration of illness confirming its dependence on chronicity (P = 0.004). Resistive index of umbilical artery proved to be an earlier indicator of foetal compromise before any foetal distress becomes obvious. CONCLUSION: Regular obstetrical ultra sound foetal surveillance in pre-eclampsia patients is important for foetal wellbeing. Doppler evaluation of high risk patients is more sensitive test than the biophysical profile score.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Reproductive Health: Abortion, Pregnancy, Fertility, Contraception A chapter in: Forensic medicine, Medical Law and Ethics in East Africa (2005). Contribution from: J. Wanyoike Gichuhi, Peter Kimani, Editors: Mahomed A. Dada, Kirasi A. Olumbe, David J. Mc.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Wanyoike G, Rukaria RK, Gachuno OW. "Risk factors associated with tubal infertility.". 2009.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Reproductive Health: Abortion, Pregnancy, Fertility, Contraception A chapter in: Forensic medicine, Medical Law and Ethics in East Africa (2005). Contribution from: J. Wanyoike Gichuhi, Peter Kimani, Editors: Mahomed A. Dada, Kirasi A. Olumbe, David J. Mc.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East Africa. Vol. 18 No. 1:1-66 May 2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH. "Mugo NR, Kiehlbauch JA, Nguti R, Meier A, Gichuhi JW, Stamm WE, Cohen CR. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection on treatment outcome of acute salpingitis.Obs.". In: PMID: 16582116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on treatment outcome of laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis. METHODS: Women aged 18-40 years with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis received antibiotic therapy that included cefotetan 2 g intravenously and doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours and laparoscopically guided drainage of tuboovarian abscesses of 4 cm or more. Clinical investigators blinded to HIV-1 serostatus used predetermined clinical criteria, including calculation of a clinical severity score and a standard treatment protocol to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Of the 140 women with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis, 61 (44%) women had mild, 38 (27%) had moderate, and 41 (29%) had severe disease (ie, pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscesses, or both). Fifty-three (38%) were HIV-1-infected. Severe disease was more common in HIV-1-infected in comparison with HIV-1-uninfected women (20 [38%] compared with 21 [24%]
Wanyoike, MM; Wahome RG. "Small-scale farming systems."; 2004.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and detoxification of malachite green dye using novel enzymes from bacillus cereus strain KM201428: kinetic and metabolite analysis." Energy Procedia. 2017;119:38-51. AbstractScience Direct Journal

Description
Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic …

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia

Description

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic model was best applicable for describing MG dye decoloration. Michaelise-Menten kinetics, Lineweaver–Burk plot and Eadie-Hofstee plot models were used to establish the kinetic parameters for the dye decoloration. Lineweaver–Burk plot provided the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data with maximum rate (Vmax) of 17.70 mg l-1h-1 and Michaelis constant (Km) of 124 mgl-1. Results provide evidence that crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus strain KM201428 offers an effective, renewable, ecofriendly and affordable biotechnology for treatment of industrial effluents polluted with organic dye.

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM SPMMFJ. "Enzymatic Decolorization of Malachite Green Dye by a Newly Isolated Bacillus Cereus Strain wwcp1." IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2014;Vol 8(Issue 12 Ver. III (Dec. 2014)):58-64.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM SPM. "Adsorption of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Roots of Eichhornia crassipes: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." The International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES14, Energy Procedia. 2014;50:862-869.
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., and Wanjala, S., Recognizing the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Kenya's New Constitutional Order: The Case of the Ogiek (Forthcoming Publication.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., and Wanjala, S., Recognizing the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Kenya's New Constitutional Order: The Case of the Ogiek (Forthcoming Publication.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., and Wanjala, S., Recognizing the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Kenya's New Constitutional Order: The Case of the Ogiek (Forthcoming Publication.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses of naturally and artificially infected Kenyan cattle and its implication for routine meat inspection method. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2005;9:66-73.
Wanzala W, N.M. K, K.H. Z, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Evaluation of an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Parasitology Research . 2007;100:539-548. Abstract

A monoclonal antibody-based antigen - ELISA (Ag-ELISA) was studied in kenyan cattle with the objective of evaluating its reliability in diagnosing bovine cysticerconsis. A total of 55 cattle divided into artificially (n=30) and nuturally (n=25) infested animals, were utilized. total dissection was used as gold standard of validity at autopsy. in natural infestations, the essay identified 16 cases

Wanzala W, Hassanali A, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Takken W. "Repellent activities of essential oils of some plants used traditionally to control the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Journal of parasitology research. 2014;2014.
WANZALA ANYANGOMAUREEN, Ogallo LA, Opijah FJ, Mutemi JN. PERFOMANCE OF THE CMIP5 MODELS IN SIMULATION OF PRESENT AND FUTURE PRECIPITATION OVER THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN. Nairobi: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2015. Abstract

The usefulness and limitations in climate information are due to uncertainty inherent in the climate system. The reduction of errors increases the reliability of the information. Therefore, for any given region to have sustainable development there is need to apply climate information into its socio-economic strategic plans.
The overall objective of the study was to assess the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) over the Lake Victoria Basin. The data used in the study included the observed point station data, gridded rainfall data from Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia (CRU) and hindcast data from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for the period 1971 to 2005 for historical and 2006-2100 for model future projections. The methodology employed included trend analysis, spatial analysis, correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) regression analysis, and categorical statistical skill score.

Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "A comparison of meat inspection method and an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences . 2002;2:265-277.
Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA. ." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association . 2002;73:201-206.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Wanzala W, Takken W, WR M, Pala AO, Hassanali A. "Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, western Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacoly. 2012;140(2):298-324.
Ward CW. "Aminopeptidases in webbing clothes moth larvae. Properties and specificities of the enzymes of intermediate electrophoretic mobility." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(2):361-9. Abstract

The major group of aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11.-) of intermediate electrophoretic mobility, from Tineola bisselliella larvae, hav been fractionated into six bands by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the properties of these fractions investigated. They resemble each other in their pH optima of 8.2, their molecular weight of 240 000, their responses to various active site inhibitors and metal cations, and their specificities towards seventeen L-amino-acyl-beta-naphthylamide substrates. The derivatives of methionine, leucine, alanine, lysine, arginine and glutamic acid were those most rapidly hydrolysed. They appear to be true aminopeptidases hydrolysing amino acid amides, dipeptides and oligopeptides from the N-terminal end.

Warfa O, Njai D, Ahmed L, Admani B, Were F, Dalton Wamalwa, Mburugu P, Mohamed M. "Evaluating the level of adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines in the management of Severe Acute Malnutrition at Garissa Provincial General hospital, Garissa, Kenya.". 2014;10. Abstract

Introduction: Half of Kenya's high infant and under five mortality rates is due to malnutrition. Proper implementation of World Health Organization's (WHO) Evidence Based Guidelines (EBG) in management of severe acute malnutrition can reduce mortality rates to less than 5%. The objectives were to establish the level of adherence to WHO guideline and the proportion of children appropriately managed for severe acute malnutrition (steps 1-8) as per the WHO protocol in the management of severe acute malnutrition. This was a short longitudinal study of 96 children, aged 6-59 months admitted to the pediatric ward with diagnosis of severe acute malnutrition. Methods: Data was extracted from patients' medical files and recorded into an audit tool to compare care provided in this hospital with WHO guidelines. Results: Non-edematous malnutrition was the commonest presentation (93.8%). A higher proportion (63.5%) of patients was male. Most (85.4%) of patients were younger than 2 years. Patients with non-edematous malnutrition were younger (mean age for non-edematous malnutrition was 16 (± 10.6) months versus 25 (± 13.7) months in edematous malnutrition). The commonest co- morbid condition was diarrhea (52.1%). Overall, 13 children died giving an inpatient case fatality rate of 13.5%. Appropriate management was documented in only 14.6% for hypoglycemia (step1), 5.2% for hypothermia (step 2) and 31.3% for dehydration (step 3). Conclusion: The level of adherence to MOH guidelines was documented in 5 out of the 8 steps. Appropriate management of children with severe acute malnutrition was inadequate at Garissa hospital.

Warfa O, Njai D, Ahmed L, Admani B, Were F, Osano B, Mburugu P, Mohamed M. "Evaluating the level of adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines in the management of Severe Acute Malnutrition at Garissa Provincial General hospital, Garissa, Kenya." Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;17(214). Abstractevaluating_the_level_of_adherence_to_ministry_of_health_guidelines_in_the_management_of_severe_acute_malnutrition_at_garissa_provincial_general_hospital_garissa_kenya.pdf

Introduction: Half of Kenya's high infant and under five mortality rates is due to malnutrition. Proper implementation of World Health Organization's (WHO) Evidence Based Guidelines (EBG) in management of severe acute malnutrition can reduce mortality rates to less than 5%. The objectives were to establish the level of adherence to WHO guideline and the proportion of children appropriately managed for severe acute malnutrition (steps 1-8) as per the WHO protocol in the management of severe acute malnutrition. This was a short longitudinal study of 96 children, aged 6-59 months admitted to the pediatric ward with diagnosis of severe acute malnutrition. Methods: Data was extracted from patients' medical files and recorded into an audit tool to compare care provided in this hospital with WHO guidelines. Results: Non-edematous malnutrition was the commonest presentation (93.8%). A higher proportion (63.5%) of patients was male. Most (85.4%) of patients were younger than 2 years. Patients with non-edematous malnutrition were younger (mean age for non-edematous malnutrition was 16 (± 10.6) months versus 25 (± 13.7) months in edematous malnutrition). The commonest co- morbid condition was diarrhea (52.1%). Overall, 13 children died giving an inpatient case fatality rate of 13.5%. Appropriate management was documented in only 14.6% for hypoglycemia (step1), 5.2% for hypothermia (step 2) and 31.3% for dehydration (step 3). Conclusion: The level of adherence to MOH guidelines was documented in 5 out of the 8 steps. Appropriate management of children with severe acute malnutrition was inadequate at Garissa hospital

Warfa O, Njai D, Laving A, Bashir A, Were F, Wamalwa D, Osano B, Mburugu P, Mohamed M. "Evaluating the level of adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines in the management of Severe Acute Malnutrition at Garissa Provincial General Hospital, Garissa, Kenya." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;17:214.
Warimwe GM, Fegan G, Musyoki JN, Newton CR, Opiyo M, Githinji G, Andisi C, Menza F, Kitsao B, Marsh K, Bull PC. "Prognostic indicators of life-threatening malaria are associated with distinct parasite variant antigen profiles.". 2012. Abstract

PfEMP1 is a family of cytoadhesive surface antigens expressed on erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. These surface antigens play a role in immune evasion and are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the malaria parasite. Previous studies have suggested a role for a specific subset of PfEMP1 called "group A" in severe malaria. To explore the role of group A PfEMP1 in disease, we measured the expression of the var genes that encode them in parasites from clinical isolates collected from children suffering from malaria. We also looked at the ability of these clinical isolates to induce rosetting of erythrocytes, which indicates a cytoadhesion phenotype that is thought to be important in pathogenesis. These two sets of data were correlated with the presence of two life-threatening manifestations of severe malaria in the children: impaired consciousness and respiratory distress. Using regression analysis, we show that marked rosetting was associated with respiratory distress, whereas elevated expression of group A-like var genes without elevated rosetting was associated with impaired consciousness. The results suggest that manifestations of malarial disease may reflect the distribution of cytoadhesion phenotypes expressed by the infecting parasite population.

Warinwa F, mwaura F, Kiringe JW, Ndubi AO. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Kirisia Forest Ecosystem, Samburu County, Kenya. ." Advances in Remote Sensing. 2016;5::168-182.
Waris A, Kohonen M, Christensen J. Pathways towards tax Justice.; 2011.Website
Waris A, Ndahinda F;. "Brill Online Books and Journals .". 2007.Website
Waris A, Leaman J. The International Political Economy of Taxation 1945-Present. Berlin: Bregnan; 2013.
Waris A, Murangwa H. "Utilising Tax Literacy and Societal Confidence in a State: The Rwandan Model." University of Nairobi Law Journal. 2012.
Waris A. "International Taxation and Global Solidarity .". In: Reader on Global Social Protection. Berlin: Medico International; 2013.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Towards an Understanding of the Informal Housing Markets: A Review of Literature in W.H.O. Olima andV. Kreibich (eds.) Urban Land Management in Africa, Dortmund: University of Dortmund (2002).". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2002. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Preliminary Suggestions on the implementation of the Land Section of Chapter five of the Constitution of Kenya through Research and Training.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
The New Constitution of Kenya, Chapter five states that land in Kenya will be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. The construction also sets out a number of principles, which will be implemented through a national land policy that developed and reviewed regularly by the government and through legislation. The National Land Policy for Kenya is Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, it presents the issues and policy recommendations that were identified, analyzed and agreed by stakeholders. The sessional paper forms the foundation upon which administrative and legislative framework will be built. This is the framework that will drive the critically required land reforms for Kenya. This paper gives a detailed outline of the training and capacity building and research requirements in land management and administration. Its main emphasis being the setting up of a Land Policy research Centre in the light of the new institutional framework suggested in chapter 5 of the Constitution of Kenya and the Sessional paper No.3 of 2009. A suitable land policy centre will undertake research and training for the National Land Commission, in the light of the suggested functions. The paper concludes by suggesting the training and research programmes fro governments and individuals in Kenya and within the continent on land.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Mr. Nicky Nzioki,Mrs.Catherine Kariuki: An Investigation into the process of Compulsory Acquisition and suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Warui CN. "Stereological analysis of the cerebellum of 24-day old rats with propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism.". 2000. Abstractabstract-stereological_analysis_of_the_cerebellum.pdfWebsite

Objective: To investigate the structural parameters of the developing cerebellum in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism during pre and postnatal stages in 24 day old rat pups. Method: Hypothyroidism was induced by feeding the breeding dams with PTU in water before and during copulation, pregnancy and lactation and the pups through the dams and ingestion in water. The number of control and treated dams and pups was five for each dam group and twelve and thirteen for pups respectively. The whole cerebellum was dissected out from the pups and processed routinely for histological examination and morphometric analysis. The total volumes of cerebellum, intracerebellar nuclei and cerebellar compartments were estimated by Cavalieri method. The mean numerical densities of neurones and neuroglia in the intracerebellar nuclei and Purkinje, granule and combined stellate and basket cells in cerebellar cortex were estimated using optical disector and the total numbers calculated as the product of the respective numerical densities and reference volumes. Results: The treated dams and pups had relatively lower mean body weights and etraiodothyronine (T4) serum concentrations. The serum Triiodothyronine (T3) was normal and lower in the treated dams and pups respectively. The differences in the respective body weights and dam T4 concentration in treated dams and pups were significant (p<0.05) compared to the control. Morphometric results showed that the mean volumes of cerebellum, intracerebellar nuclei, white matter, internal granular layer, molecular layer and the cerebellar cortex were lower and the differences between the values for each parameter were significant (p<0.05) in the treated pups compared to the control. The mean numerical densities of neurones and neuroglia in the intracerebellar nuclei (Nvne; Nvgl) and the combined stellate and basket cells (Nvsb) in the cerebellar cortex were relatively higher and the mean values for the respective numerical densitys of Purkinje and granule cells (Nvpu; Nvgr) were relatively lower in the treated pups compared to the control. On the other hand the treated pups had relatively lower values for the respective total numbers of neurons (Nne), neuroglia (Ngl), Purkinje (Npu), granule (Ngr) and the combined stellate and basket (Nsb) cells compared to the control. The differences between the respective values for Nvne, Nvsb, Npu, and Ngr, were significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results show that rat pups with PTU-induced hypothyroidism have relatively lower mean values for the structural parameters in the cerebellum when compared to control pups. This confirms that growth and maturation of the cerebellum is dependent on the maintenance of normal T4 and T3 levels, underscores the magnitude of the deviations from the normal and sheds light on possible structural limitations in the cerebellum in

Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Bogh HO, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Thamsborg SM, Nansen P. "Efficacy of morantel sustained release trilaminate bolus against gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy calves in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1997;29:129-140.
Waruiru, R.M., Maingi, N., Gichanga EJ. "Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in three districts of Kenya.". In: The Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Na1robi, Kenya; 1990.
Waruiru RM, Rurangirwa F, Jasmer D, T C MG, J M N, Thimbyu PM, Ruvuna F, T C C. "Resistance To H. Contortus Infection In Goats On Artificial Infection: Preliminary Findings.". 1987. Abstract

Natural infection with Haemonchus contortus was monitored in 300 kids using worm egg counts per gram (EPG) from the age of 2 months to one year. Some kids had low counts 201 ñ 118.2 while others had high count 601.9 ñ 199.9 EGP. Eleven goats from thelow counts group A and nineteen from the low count group B were cleared of worm infestation using Invermectin under complement. The two groups were then artificially infected with 500 larvae per kid from same (H. contortus) isolate. Individual goats within the groups had low EPG throughout the study indicating resistance to the challenge. Goats in group A had significantly lower EPG (725 ñ 212.5) than group B (1643.2 ñ 463.4) P(t=1.80.05) throughout the period. This could reflect a few group B goats with very high EPG rather than general difference between the groups. The indication by individual goats of greater resistance to (H. cortortus) than others provided an important direction for future research.

Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Munyua WK. "The efficacy of triclabendazole and oxyclozanide against F. gigantica in naturally infected dairy cattle in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1994;42:205-209.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Karanja DN, Ngotho JW, Weda EH. "Helminth parasite infections of sheep in Kangundo Division of machakos District, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1997;45:115-119.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM. The prevalence and intensity of infection with F. gigantica in cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya. Arusha, Tanzania; 1997.
Waruiru RM;, Maingi N;, Karanu F;, Gichanga EJ;, Ndegwa CK. "The Incidence Of Thiabendazole And Fenbendazole Resistance In Field Populations Of Haemonchus Contortus."; 1991.
Waruiru RM, Kogi JK, Weda EH, Ngotho JW. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Kenya.". 1988. Abstract

The anthelmintic efficacy of benzimidazoles, levamisole, rafoxanide and ivermectin was evaluated on an institutional farm in Kenya using faecal egg count reduction test, larval cultures and a controlled slaughter trial. The results of this study indicated simultaneous resistance of Haemonchus contortus against benzimidazoles, levamisole and rafoxanide and Trichostrongylus columbriformis and Oesophagostomum sp. against levamisole on the same farm. Injectable and orally administered ivermectin was effective against the benzimidazole and levamisole resistant H. contortus

Waruiru RM;, Ngotho JW;, Weda EH, Mbuthia PG, Kogi JK. "Effects Of Development Of Resistance To Levamisole And Benzimidazole Anthelmintics On The Pathogenicity And Survival Of H. Contortus." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1998;46:133-138.Website
Waruiru, R.M., Maingi N, Gichanga EJ. "The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in three districts of Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1991;39(4):423-428.1991._the_prevalence_of_anthelmintic_resistance_in_sheep_in_three_districts_of_kenya.pdf
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Njoro SM, Ngatia TA, Weda EH, Ngotho JW, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms in wild and domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Kenya. 1995;43:253-259.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Weda EH, Kimoro CO. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes in calves in Mathira Division of Nyeri District, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1993;41:291-296.
Waruiru RM, Ngotho JW, Weda EH, Otieno RO. "Resistance to Levamisole and benzimidazole anthelmintics by H. Contortus in sheep in central Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. 1997;45:181-185.
Waruiru RM;, Maingi N;, Karanu F;, Gichanga EJ;, Ndegwa CK. "The Incidence Of Thiabendazole And Fenbendazole Resistance In Field Populations Of Haemonchus Contortus."; 1991.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO, Nansen P. "The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasite and live weight gains dairy calves under field conditions in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. 1996;44:125-133.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW, Bogh HO. "Comparative efficacies of closantel, ivermectin, oxfendazole, thiophanate and levamisole against thiabendazole resistant H. Contrortus in sheep." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1996;28:216-220.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW. "Seasonal availability of gastrointestinal nematode larvae to cattle on pasture in the central highlands of Kenya." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2002;69(2):141-146.
Waruiru, R.M., Maingi, N., Karanu, F., Gichanga EJ, Ndegwa CK. The incidence of thiabendazole and fenbendazole resistance in field populations of Haemonchus contortus. Na1robi, Kenya; 1991.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Ayuya AM, Kimoro CO. "Fatal haemonchosis in heifers in Kiambu District, Kenya: A case study." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1993;41:263-265.
Waruiru RW, Mutune M, Kilelu ES. "Rift Valley fever virus antibody analysis in Machakos district.". 2003.
Waruiru RM, Kyvsgaard NC, Thamsborg SM, Nansen P, Bogh HO, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM. "The Prevalence and Intensity of Helminth and Coccidial Infections in Dairy Cattle in Central Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal parasite infections of young (<6 months old), immature (6–12 months old) and adult (>12 months old) dairy cattle on 16 farms in Kiambu District, Kenya was conducted during a dry season (September 1991 to January 1992) and during a wet season (March to July 1992). The survey was based on monthly coproparasitological examination of cohorts and worm counts in tracer calves. The effects of age, sex, farm and season on the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidial infections were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts revealed that the overall prevalences were: strongyles (including trichostrongyles) (85.5%), liver flukes (Fasciola gigantica) (34.0%), coccidia (30.9%) and tapeworms (9.6%). Eight species of the protozoan Eimeria were identified, the most prevalent species being E. bovis and E. zuernii. The most prevalent nematode genera were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus. Season, farm and age of the animals had a significant (p<0.05) influence on the intensity of infection with strongyles, liver flukes and coccidia, whereas the sex of the animals had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the prevalence or intensity of infections. A higher intensity of infection with strongyles and coccidia was found in the wet season than in the dry season (p<0.05). The age-specific intensity was in the following order: for strongyles, immature animals of 6–12 months of age had the highest egg counts, followed by young calves and adults. Calves had significantly (p<0.05) higher oocyst counts than immatures or adults. Liver fluke egg counts did not differ significant (p>0.05) between immatures and adult cattle.

Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW. "Multiple anthelmintic resistances on a goat farm in Kenya." Veterinary Parasitology. 1998;75:191-197.
Waruk JLM, Machuki Z, Mesa C, Juno JA, Anzala O, Sharma M, Ball BT, Julius Oyugi, Kiazyk S. "Cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation are altered in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis." Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015;95(5):555-61. Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects nearly 2 million people annually and is the most common cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics cater to HIV-uninfected individuals in non-endemic countries, are expensive, slow, and lack sensitivity for those most affected. Patterns of soluble immune markers from Mtb-stimulated immune cells are not well defined in HIV co-infection. We assessed immune differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with active TB utilizing IFNγ-based QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in Nairobi, Kenya. Excess QFT supernatants were used to measure cytokine and chemokine responses by a 17-plex bead array. Mtb/HIV co-infected participants were significantly less likely to be QFT+ (47.2% versus 84.2% in the HIV-uninfected group), and demonstrated lower expression of all cytokines except for IFNα2. Receiver operator characteristic analyses identified IL-1α as a potential marker of co-infection. Among HIV-infected individuals, CD4+ T cell count correlated weakly with the expression of several analytes. Co-expression analysis highlighted differences in immune profiles between the groups. These data suggest that there is a unique and detectable Mtb-specific immune response in co-infection. A better understanding of Mtb immunology can translate into much needed immunodiagnostics with enhanced sensitivity in HIV-infected individuals, facilitating their opportunity to obtain live-saving treatment.

Wasamba P. Storm. Nairobi; 2013.storm.pdf
Wasamba P, Sihanya B. "“What Do they get for their Sweat: Rethinking Compensation for Artists in Poor Cash-based Economies.” ." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2012;Vol. 24, (No. 2):171-183.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Tilda: A Collection of Poems on Girls and Women. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Wasamba P. Morning Star. Nairobi; 2010.morning_star.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Echoes of Dialogue in African and Korean Literatures”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. . 2013;Vol. 7:1-12.
Wasamba P. Angela the Hammer. London: World Englishes Press; Submitted.
Wasamba P. "The Train.". In: Echoes across the Valley. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2000.
Wasamba P. Pilgrim. Nairobi; 2010.a_pilgrim.pdf
Wasamba P. "Multimedia Research and Documentation of Oral Genres in Africa: Managing the Challenges of Digitalization.". In: Multimedia Research and Documentation of African Oral Genres: Connecting Diasporas and Local Audiences . Rabat, Morocco; 2013.managing_challenges_of_digitization_of_oral_genres_in_africa-1.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Conservation for Sustainable Development. The Unexplored Potential of Kenyan Folklore”." African Affairs Journal. 2006;Vol. 19(No. 12):189-200.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "Rest." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):24.rest.pdf
Wasamba P, Muchiri J, DH Muchugu Kiiru(eds.). The Essay as a Handshake: Impressions on the Kenyan-Korean Interface. Nairobi: Bridging the Divide: Networking African and Korean Researchers’ Project; 2012.
Wasamba P. ""The Pedagogical Value of Children's Oral Literature in Kenya." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2007;(No. 4):63-70.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. Notes on Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Coming to Birth. Nairobi: Marimba ; 2005.
Wasamba P. "“Centring the De-Voiced: Rethinking Personhood in Oral Literature Field Research.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2010;(No. 6):99-115.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Muchiri J, kiiru DH. Essay as a Handshake. Nairobi: CHSS; 2012.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Reclaiming Women's Space in Politics. Nairobi: CCGD; 1998.
Wasamba P. Tender Touch. Nairobi; 2013.tender_touch.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Going beyond Data Collection in Ethnography: Options for Bridging the Gap between Researchers and Archivists.”." International Journal of African Renaissance Studies. . 2013;Vol. 7 (No. 2):4-17.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "An Ethno-linguistic Analysis of Chronic Poverty in Kenya: A Background Paper”.". In: Chronic Poverty in Kenya. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies; 2009.
Wasamba P, Mwangi E. Notes on Margaret Ogolla’s The River and the Source.. Nairobi: Stantex; 1998.
Wasamba P. Gender Perspectives in the Creative Works of Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye.. Chesaina PC, Wendo DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P, Rayya T. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 2. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2001.
Wasamba P. Down Me. Nairobi; 2009.down_me-1.pdf
Wasamba P, Timammy R, Nyamasyo, G. "Historia za maisha binafsi kutoka kwale.". 1999.Website
Wasamba P. "“Preservation of Oral Literature through Research.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2006;(No. 3):1-6.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "The Summit." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):32-33.summit.pdf
Wasamba P. ". “Magic or Mirage: The Efficacy of Nvivo7 in Oral Literature Research”." African Affairs Journal. 2007;Vol. 22(No. 8):141-182.abstract.pdf

UoN Websites Search