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Wandiga, S. OM, others. "For whom the Bell Tolls: Vulnerabilities in a Changing Climate,East Africa." Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Vulnerability, Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA, pp.1-30; 2008. Abstract
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Wandiga SO, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Githui F, Marshall M, Downs T, Opere A, Yanda PZ, Kangalawe R, Kabumbuli R, Kirumira E, Kathuri J, Apindi E, Olaka L, Ogallo L, Ouma G, Oludhe C, Mugambi P, Sigalla R, Nanyunja R, Baguma T. "Vulnerability to Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Lake Victoria Basin: The Role of Climate Change/Variability, Hydrology and Socio-economic Factors.". In: Grignon, F., and Marpeu, H., (eds), L. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2010. Abstract

Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Kiremire BT, Kishimba MA. "Lake Victoria: Will it support life tomorrow? A case for abatement of pollution and eutrophication of fresh waters.". In: Environment for Development: An Ecosystem Assessment of Lake Victoria Basin Environmental and Socio-Economic Status, Trends and Human Vulnerabilities. Nairobi: UNEP-PASS; 2006:.
Wandiga, S. OM, others. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region." Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Adaptation, Earthscan: London and Sterling,VA, pp.109-130; 2008. Abstract
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Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Handbook of Water purity and Quality. USA: 1st Ed. Satinder Ahuja. Academic Press Elsevier. Int. ISBN. 978-01-12-374192-9. Pg. 39-65; 2009. Abstract

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

Wandiga SO, Otieno JT. Management of solid waste in Nairobi city..; 1999.
Wandiga SO. Critical Water Issues in Africa. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 2015. Abstract

Water scarcity, purity and delivery have become major challenges of humanity especially in Africa. Globally 748 million and in Africa 325 million people lack access to safe water. Water diseases kill 842,000 people annually. The majority of those who lack water live in rural areas. Africa is second to Australia in dryness but is home to 15% of global human population and has only nine percent of global renewable water resources. Most of Africa’s surface water has become polluted by human activities and its wells are becoming dry. Impacts of climate change and climate variability are making water scarcity more stressful.

Technologies used for water harnessing are outmoded and inefficient. Africa needs to modernize its water purification technology; it requires adopting new methods like roof, pavement and urban water catchment to recharge its declining ground water level. Provision of safe drinking water policy need to change from piped water to every home to supply of point of use technologies at every home. There exist some potential new technologies that still require further research. The chapter highlights some recent development of nanoscience materials in water treatment that give promise to future trends. Similarly, small scale water harnessing technologies are outlined for ground water recharge and drinking water

Wang J-L, Ma S-Q, Li L, Liu G-Q, Hu W-C, Ma R. "Correlation of inflammatory cells in adventitia and formation and extending of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary artery of apolipoprotein {E} gene knockout mice." The Chinese journal of physiology. 2013;56:77-82. Abstract

Accumulating evidence shows that adventitial inflammation contributes to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between atherosclerotic lesions in coronary artery (CA) and accumulation of inflammatory cells at local adventitia in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Modified Movat's pentachrome staining, HE staining, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe and to identify serial paraffin sections of aortic foot and inflammatory cells in CA adventitia of apoE-/- mice of 60 weeks old. There was always accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitia of CA with extending lesions from aortic orifice to CA trunks. The CA samples were divided into type I: infiltration of inflammatory cells in CA adventitia without lesions extending in the intima, type II: infiltration of inflammatory cells in CA adventitia with the top of extending lesions in the intima and type III: infiltration of inflammatory cells at CA adventitia with lesions covering all the face of intima. The three types of CA sample represent the different developmental processes of atherosclerotic lesions, respectively. No extending lesions were found in the CA trunks without inflammatory cells in adventitia. In type I samples, 60% of infiltrated inflammatory cells were macrophages 57% of infiltrated cells were neutrophils in type II samples; 67% of infiltrated cells were lymphocytes in type III samples. Our studies revealed that adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Different cell types predominate in different stages of CA adventitia. The neutrophils are closely related to the extending of atherosclerotic lesions.

Wang'ombe JK. Capacity of Non.; 1998. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Elevated T cell counts and RANTES expression in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan commercial sex workers. Iqbal SM, Ball TB, Kimani J, Kiama P, Thottingal P, Embree JE, Fowke KR, Plummer FA.J Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1;192(5):728-38. Epub 2005 Jul .". In: J Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1;192(5):728-38. Epub 2005 Jul 27. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2005. Abstract
The initial site of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 during heterosexual transmission occurs in the genital tract. Although the majority of immunological studies have focused on the immune response to HIV-1 at the systemic level, our understanding of tissue-specific immunity is deficient. The goal of the present study was to characterize T cell populations found in the cervix of women shown to be resistant to infection by HIV-1. Levels of both systemic and cervical mucosal lymphocytes were compared between HIV-1-resistant, HIV-1-uninfected, and HIV-1-infected commercial sex workers (CSWs) as well as HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW control subjects at low risk for exposure. The HIV-1-resistant CSWs had increased cervical CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, compared with the HIV-1-uninfected CSWs; importantly, these increases were not reflected in the systemic lymphocyte compartment. There was a 2-fold increase in CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV-1-resistant CSWs, compared with both the HIV-1-infected and the HIV-1-uninfected CSWs. Expression of the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 was also determined, and cytokine and beta chemokine levels in the genital mucosa were assessed. The HIV-1-resistant CSWs had a 10-fold increase in RANTES expression, compared with the HIV-1-uninfected CSWs. This is the first study to show elevated levels of beta chemokines and CD4+ T cells in the genital tracts of women who are exposed to HIV-1 and yet are uninfected.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Cross-clade HIV-1-specific neutralizing IgA in mucosal and systemic compartments of HIV-1-exposed, persistently seronegative subjects. Devito C, Hinkula J, Kaul R, Kimani J, Kiama P, Lopalco L, Barass C, Piconi S, Trabattoni D, Bwayo JJ, Plummer F, Cleric.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Aug 1;30(4):413-20. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
There is an urgent need for a universally effective HIV-1 vaccine, but whether a vaccine will be able to protect against HIV-1 of different clades is a significant concern. IgA from HIV-1-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects has been shown to neutralize HIV-1 and to block epithelial HIV-1 transcytosis, and it may target novel HIV-1 epitopes. We have tested the ability of plasma and mucosal IgA purified from HEPS subjects to neutralize HIV-1 primary isolates of different viral clades and phenotypes. IgA from two groups of HEPS subjects was tested: sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya, where clades A and D predominate, and the heterosexual partners of individuals infected by clade B virus. HIV-1-infected and low-risk uninfected individuals were included as controls. IgA purified from the blood, genital tract, and saliva of most HEPS sex workers demonstrated significant cross-clade HIV-1 neutralization, whereas a more clade-restricted pattern of neutralization was found in partners of clade B-infected individuals. IgA purified from HIV-1-infected individuals also mediated cross-clade neutralization, whereas IgA from uninfected controls lacked neutralizing activity. In conclusion, mucosal and plasma IgA from HEPS subjects neutralizes HIV-1 of different clades. This ability to induce HIV-1-specific systemic and mucosal IgA may be an important feature of an effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Dong T, Yang HB, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA.J Clin Invest. 20.". In: J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb;107(3):341-9. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
Resistance to HIV infection in a small group of Kenyan sex workers is associated with CD8+-lymphocyte responses to HIV cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Eleven prostitutes meeting criteria for HIV resistance seroconverted between 1996 and 1999. The occurrence and specificity of preexisting HIV-1 epitope-specific responses were examined using the IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay, and any epitopes recognized were cloned and sequenced from the infecting viral isolate. Immunologic and behavioral variables were compared between late seroconverters and persistently uninfected sex worker controls. HIV-1 CTL epitope responses were present in four of six cases, 5-18 months before seroconversion, and their presence was confirmed by bulk CTL culture. A possible viral escape mutation was found in one of six epitopes. The key epidemiologic correlate of late seroconversion was a reduction in sex work over the preceding year. In persistently uninfected controls, a break from sex work was associated with a loss of HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Late seroconversion may occur in HIV-1-resistant sex workers despite preceding HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Seroconversion generally occurs in the absence of detectable CTL escape mutations and may relate to the waning of HIV-specific CD8+ responses due to reduced antigenic exposure.
Wangai AM, Amayo EO, Olunya.O, Waa.S. "Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis." Sultan Qaboos Univ Med Journal. 2011;11(3):407-411. Abstract

Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Functional HIV-1 specific IgA antibodies in HIV-1 exposed, persistently IgG seronegative female sex workers. Broliden K, Hinkula J, Devito C, Kiama P, Kimani J, Trabbatoni D, Bwayo JJ, Clerici M, Plummer F, Kaul R. Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):29-36.". In: Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):29-36. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
Although HIV-specific cellular immune responses are found in a number of HIV highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) cohorts, late seroconversion can occur despite pre-existing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), suggesting that a protective HIV vaccine may need to induce a broader range of HIV-specific immune responses. Low levels of HIV-specific IgA have been found in the genital tract and plasma of the majority of Nairobi HEPS sex workers and appeared to be independent of HIV-specific cellular responses. IgA purified from genital tract, saliva and plasma of most HEPS sex workers were able to neutralize infection of PBMC by a primary (NSI) clade B HIV isolate, as well as viral isolates from clades A and D, which predominate in Kenya. In addition, these IgA were able to inhibit transcytosis of infective HIV virions across a transwell model of the human mucosal epithelium in an HIV-specific manner. Preliminary work in other HEPS cohorts has suggested the recognition of different gp41 epitopes in HEPS and HIV-infected subjects. Although present at low levels, these IgA demonstrated cross-clade neutralizing activity and were able to inhibit HIV mucosal transcytosis, suggesting an important functional role in protection against HIV infection.
Wangai L, Mandela P, Butt F, Ongeti K. "Morphology Of The Mandibular Condyle In A Kenyan Population. Anatomy Journal of Africa 2." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):70-79. Abstract

Use of condylar prostheses in mandibular reconstructive surgery is increasing in Kenya. To retain functional capability, condylar prostheses have to preserve the form of the condyle. Although condylar shape and size have been shown to vary between populations, few studies of these have been done in Africans. This study aimed to describe the morphology of the mandibular condyle in a Kenyan population. Sixty three mandibles of African origin were used. Condylar shape was assessed from the anterior, superior and lateral aspects as per a scheme used by Wedel et al (1978). Data collected were analyzed using SPSS v.17 for frequencies and represented using tables, charts and photographs. The commonest shapes were: slightly convex anteriorly (71.43%); oblong superiorly (73.02%); and convex laterally (80.16%). Only the lateral shape displayed sexual dimorphism, with 100% of females but 88.33% of males having the C1 (convex) shape. Asymmetry was found in 12 (19.05%) of the mandibles. Right and left condyles are similar in shape in most cases but the frequency of the convex lateral shape displayed sexual variation. The mandibular condyles of Kenyans were different in frequency of convex lateral and anterior shapes from condyles of other populations recorded in literature. These differences in morphology imply that condylar measurements cannot be generalized in the manufacture of condylar prostheses and have to be customized for the local population as well as for male and female condyles.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Gillespie G, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Simonsen JN, Bwayo JJ, M.". In: J Infect Dis. 2002 May 15;185(10):1525-9. Epub 2002 Apr 30. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 frequently coinfect core transmitter populations, such as female sex workers. Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with increased viral shedding and plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected women and increased HIV-1 susceptibility in uninfected women. We studied the influence of gonococcal cervicitis on CD8(+) interferon (IFN)-gamma responses to HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) epitopes in HIV-1-infected and in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) female sex workers. In HIV-1-infected women, gonococcal cervicitis was associated with reduced IFN-gamma responses in bulk CD8(+) lymphocyte populations, and intracellular cytokine staining, combined with class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide tetramer studies, demonstrated reduced IFN-gamma production by HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes. In HEPS sex workers, cervicitis was associated with the transient loss of systemic HIV-1-specific CD8(+) responses and with reduced function of CMV-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes. Impaired function of virus-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes may partly explain the deleterious effects of gonococcal cervicitis on HIV-1 immune control and susceptibility.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Elevation of immune activation in kenyan women is associated with alterations in immune function: implications for vaccine development. Koesters SA, Matu L, Kiama P, Anzala O, Embree J, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Fowke KR.J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9.". In: J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2004. Abstract
The infectious burden leading to immune activation can vary between different populations and lead to various immune dysfunctions. We compared the effect of immune activation on apoptosis and T cell function in HIV uninfected individuals from Nairobi, Kenya (n=34), and Winnipeg, Canada (n=10). Women from Nairobi had a significantly greater number of CD8+ T cells expressing the activation markers CD38 and HLA DR. Kenyan women also had significantly higher levels of CTLA-4+ CD4 and CD8+ T cells, and reduced levels of CD28+ CD8+ cells. Levels of CD95+ CD4+ T cells were higher in Kenyan women and, correspondingly, showed higher levels of spontaneous apoptosis. Kenyan women also demonstrated hyper-responsiveness to T cell activation as assessed by interferon gamma production. This study demonstrates that in a population of Kenyan women with high levels of T cell activation, there were also elevated levels of T cell apoptotic death and hyper-responsiveness. These differences may influence the efficacy of immune responses to pathogens and must be considered when testing candidate vaccines.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Mucosal and plasma IgA from HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals inhibit HIV-1 transcytosis across human epithelial cells. Devito C, Broliden K, Kaul R, Svensson L, Johansen K, Kiama P, Kimani J, Lopalco L, Piconi S, Bwayo JJ, Plummer F, Clerici M, Hinkul.". In: J Immunol. 2000 Nov 1;165(9):5170-6. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2000. Abstract
HIV-1-specific IgA has been described in the genital tract and plasma of HIV-1 highly exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals, and IgA from these sites has been shown to neutralize HIV-1. This study examines the ability of IgA isolated from HEPS individuals to inhibit transcytosis across a tight epithelial cell layer. A Transwell system was established to model HIV-1 infection across the human mucosal epithelium. The apical-basolateral transcytosis of primary HIV-1 isolates across this mucosal model was examined in the presence and the absence of IgA isolated from the genital tract, saliva, and plasma of HEPS individuals enrolled in both a sex worker cohort in Nairobi, Kenya, and a discordant couple cohort in Italy. In the absence of IgA, HIV-1 primary isolates were actively transported across the epithelial membrane and were released on the opposite side of the barrier. These transcytosed HIV-1 particles retained their ability to infect human mononuclear cells. However, IgA purified from the mucosa and plasma of HEPS individuals was able to inhibit HIV-1 transcytosis. Inhibition was seen in three of six cervicovaginal fluid samples, five of 10 saliva samples, and three of six plasma samples against at least one of the two primary HIV-1 isolates tested. IgA from low risk, healthy control subjects had no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 transcytosis. The ability of mucosal and plasma IgA to inhibit HIV-1 transcytosis across the mucosal epithelium may represent an important mechanism for protection against the sexual acquisition of HIV-1 infection in HEPS individuals.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "New insights into HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Fowke K, Dong T, Kiama P, Rutherford J, Njagi E, Mwangi F, Rostron T, Onyango J, Oyugi J, MacDo.". In: Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):3-13. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract

A clearer understanding of HIV-1 specific immune responses in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects is important in developing models of HIV-1 protective immunity. HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) have been described in a cohort of HEPS Kenyan sex workers, and recent work has further elucidated these responses. CTL specific for HIV-1 Env were found in the blood of over half the sex workers meeting criteria for HIV resistance, and in some women recognized unmapped epitopes. The proportion of women with Env-specific CTL increased with the duration of uninfected HIV exposure, suggesting that these responses were acquired over time. CD8+ lymphocyte responses directed against predefined HIV-1 CTL epitopes from various HIV-1 genes were found in the blood and genital tract of >50% resistant sex workers, at a ten-fold lower frequency than in infected subjects. The epitope specificity of CD8+ responses differs between HEPS and HIV infected women, and in HEPS the maintenance of responses appears to be dependent on persistent HIV exposure. Several HIV-1 'resistant' sex workers have become HIV infected over the past 6 years, possibly related to waning of pre-existing HIV-specific CTL, and infection has often been associated with a switch in the epitope specificity of CD8+ responses. These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection.

Wangai FK, Masika MM, Lule GN, Karari EM, Maritim MC, Jaoko WG, Museve B, Kuria A. "Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem." PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0212131. Abstract

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a HIV-1 p24 epitope in slow progressors with B*57.Gillespie GM, Kaul R, Dong T, Yang HB, Rostron T, Bwayo JJ, Kiama P, Peto T, Plummer FA, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL.AIDS. 2002 May 3;16(7):961-72.". In: AIDS. 2002 May 3;16(7):961-72. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether CD8 T lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected patients expressing B*5701 and B*5703 show broad cross-reactivity against different variants of a conserved p24 epitope, which might account for the good prognosis of HIV-1-infected individuals with HLA-B*57. DESIGN: B*5701+ and B*5703+ were recruited from Nairobi, Kenya and from Oxford, UK. All patients had been HIV positive for at least 8 years and could be categorized as slow progressors. METHODS: CD8 cytotoxic T cell clones were generated from B*5701+ and B*5703+ donors and tested for their ability to recognize clade variants of an index p24 epitope in standard cytolytic assays. Cross-reactive responses in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were assessed by interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) production and tetramer binding. RESULTS: Broad cross-clade reactivity for both cytolysis and tetramer binding was observed in CD8 T cell clones from patients harbouring the index epitope sequence. Patterns of cross-reactivity were similar in freshly isolated PBMC but varied between individuals in terms of strength and breath of responses generated. One common variant induced an unusual response with tetramer binding but often failed to induce IFNgamma production, and another was a weak stimulator of both IFNgamma and cytolytic activity. CONCLUSION: B*5701+ and B5703+ donors demonstrate broad functional cross-reactivity to both common and rare variants of a dominant p24 epitope, which could be relevant to the association of B*57 alleles with slow progression to AIDS.
Wangai J;, Thairu K;, Bharaj BS;, Telang BV. "Identification and isolation of three acetylcholinesterase inactivating fractions in the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps.". 1982. Abstract

Three fractions were isolated from the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps by column chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25. All the three fractions were shown to possess acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity. The toxicity of the fractions as tested on mice were variable. Although the toxic signs were identical, fraction DaVI was highly lethal (LD50 1.9 microgram/g) whereas fractions DaIV and T39 were less lethal, the LD50 being 3.6 micrograms/g and 4.1 micrograms/g respectively. The three fractions significantly inhibited true acetylcholinesterase to the extent of 91-95%.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Identification of a novel HLA B*57 restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope within HIV-1 rev. Makadzange AT, Gillespie G, Kimani J, Kiama P, Easterbrook P, Bwayo JJ, Rowland-Jones SL. AIDS. 2006 Feb 14;20(3):462-4.". In: AIDS. 2006 Feb 14;20(3):462-4. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2006. Abstract
HLA-B5701 and its related allele B5703 have been shown to be strongly associated with slow HIV-1 disease progression. To elucidate the effect of these alleles fully on disease progression it is essential to identify key HIV-1 epitopes that are restricted by these alleles. Here we describe the identification of a novel HLA-B5701, B5703 restricted epitope within HIV-1 rev, which accounted for up to 25 and 40% of the total cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in two patients.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Quantitative ex vivo analysis of functional virus-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected women. Kaul R, Thottingal P, Kimani J, Kiama P, Waigwa CW, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones SL.AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44.". In: AIDS. 2003 May 23;17(8):1139-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: CD8 T lymphocytes are important in HIV-1 control and mediate virus-specific immunity in the blood and genital tract. The induction and monitoring of mucosal CD8 cell responses will be an important component of HIV-1 vaccine trials, but information regarding the frequency, phenotype and function of genital tract CD8 cell responses is lacking. METHODS: Simultaneous blood and cervical cytobrush samples were obtained from 16 HIV-1-infected Kenyan sex workers. Epitope-specific CD8 T lymphocyte frequencies in the blood and genital tract were analysed after short-term peptide incubation and intracellular cytokine staining for interferon-gamma (IFN gamma). RESULTS: Cervical sampling resulted in adequate cell numbers for analysis in 10/16 women. Background IFN gamma production was higher in CD3+/CD8+ lymphocytes from the genital tract than from blood (0.48% versus 0.1%; P < 0.01). Responses to staphylococcal enterotoxin B were detected in cervical CD8 lymphocytes from 10/10 women, at a similar frequency to blood (16.7% in cervix and 13.3% in blood; P = 0.4). HIV-1-specific responses were detected the cervix of 8/10 women, with a trend to higher response frequencies in the genital tract than blood (2.1% versus 0.8%; P = 0.09). Co-expression of integrin CD103 (alpha E beta 7), a mucosal marker, was used to confirm the mucosal origin of cervical responses. CONCLUSIONS: Cytobrush sampling and intracellular cytokine staining is well suited to the analysis of cervical CD8 cell responses. The frequency of functional virus-specific CD3+/CD8+ T cells is similar in the genital tract and blood of HIV-1-infected women. The role of genital tract CD8 cell responses in HIV-1 control warrants further investigation.
Wangai A-M, Waa S, Wangai M, Amayo E, Olunya O. "Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis." Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2011;11(3):407-11. Abstract

Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi.Kaul R, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(3.". In: J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(3):1602-11. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2000. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "CD8(+) lymphocytes respond to different HIV epitopes in seronegative and infected subjects. Kaul R, Dong T, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Rostron T, Kiama P, Njagi E, Irungu E, Farah B, Oyugi J, Chakraborty R, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, McMichael A, Rowland-Jones SL.". In: J Clin Invest. 2001 May;107(10):1303-10. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses have been detected at a low frequency in many HIV-1-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects. However, it is unclear how CTLs could protect against HIV acquisition in HEPS subjects, when high levels of circulating CTL fail to prevent disease progression in most seropositive subjects. To address this issue we studied CD8(+) lymphocyte responses to a panel of HIV-1 CTL epitopes in 91 HEPS and 87 HIV-1-infected Nairobi sex workers. HIV-specific responses in seropositive women focused strongly on epitopes rarely or never recognized in HEPS subjects, who targeted epitopes that were subdominant or unrecognized in infected women. These differences in epitope specificity were restricted by only those HLA class I alleles that are associated with a reduced risk of HIV-1 infection in this cohort. Late seroconversion in HEPS donors was associated with a switch in epitope specificity and/or immunodominance to those epitopes preferentially recognized by HIV-1-infected women. The likelihood of detecting HIV-1-specific responses in HEPS women increased with the duration of viral exposure, suggesting that HIV-1-specific CD8(+) responses are acquired over time. The association between differential recognition of distinct CTL epitopes and protection from HIV-1 infection may have significant implications for vaccine design.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Human leucocyte antigen supertypes and immune susceptibility to HIV-1, implications for vaccine design. MacDonald KS, Matukas L, Embree JE, Fowke K, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Oyugi J, Kiama P, Kaul R, Luscher MA, Rowland-Jones S, Ndinya-Achola J, Ngugi E, .". In: Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):151-7. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
{ T cell responses against HIV-1 have been identified in a number of exposed uninfected populations. We hypothesized that the ability to mount an effective T cell response is partly determined by the human leucocyte antigens (HLA) phenotype of the individual. We examined whether certain HLA supertypes were associated with differential HIV-1 susceptibility in sexually exposed adults and in the setting of mother to child HIV-1 transmission. By multivariate analysis, decreased HIV-1 infection risk was strongly associated with possession of a cluster of closely related class I HLA alleles (A2/6802 supertype) in sexually exposed adults (Hazard ratio=0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22-0.81
Wangai JK, Gathoni RN, Mustapha AO, Kaduki KA. "Development of a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer for NO2 measurements.". In: The Seventh International Workshop on Physics and Modern Applications of Lasers. Douala, Cameroon; 2004.
WANGARE MSGATUNEJANE. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practice: An ethnographic assessment of cervical cancer in women in Kiambu District, Kenya. Thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology, University of Nairobi, 2004.". In: Thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology, University of Nairobi, 2004. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2004. Abstract

Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. This article assesses knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer among rural women of Kenya. One hundred and sixty women (mean age 37.9 years) who sought various health care services at Tigoni subdistrict hospital, Limuru, Kenya, were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. In addition, three focus group discussions (25 participants) were held, five case narratives recorded, and a free list of cervical cancer risk factors obtained from a group of 41 women respondents. All women were aged between 20 and 50 years. About 40% knew cervical cancer, although many still lack factual information. A history of sexually transmitted diseases (61.5%), multiple sexual partners (51.2%), and contraceptive use (33%) were identified as risk factors. Other factors mentioned include smoking, abortion, and poor hygiene standards. High parity, early sexual debut, and pregnancy were not readily mentioned as risk factors. We propose a folk causal model to explain the link between these factors and cervical cancer. Lack of knowledge constrains utilization of screening services offered at the clinics. Consequently, respondents support educating women as a way to tackling issues on cervical cancer. It is recommended that an integrated reproductive health program that addresses comprehensively women's health concerns be put in place.

Wangari VW, Matu NK, Mutave RJ. "Oral Health practices and gingival status of postpartum women in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2(2):16-20.
Wangaria WS, Okunya LO. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FORMAL CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG CLINICAL OFFICERS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2019;2(2):43-67.
Wangaruro S;, Karanja NK;, Makatiani BT;, Odee DW;, Woomer PL. "Physico-chemical properties, initial microbial population and survival of rhizobia in peat, vermi¬culite and filtermud."; 2000. Abstract

Carrier materials are an important compo¬nent of legume inoculants, both in protect¬ing and applying the rhizobia. We have measured selected physico-chemical prop¬erties, initial microbial populations (bacte¬ria, actinomycetes and fungi) and survival of rhizobia introduced to peat, vermiculite and Muhoroni filtermud. Peat and vermi¬culite were collected from Ondiri and Kajiado respectively. Both sources are readily accessible from Nairobi, the loca¬tion of the MIRCEN legume inoculant pro¬duction facility. Peat was acidic while filtermud and vermi¬culite were close to pH 7.0. Filtermud and peat recorded high carbon while vermi¬culite contained low level of nitrogen as compared to the other two carriers. The original microbial populations in peat and filtermud were approximately lOa-fold greater than in vermiculite. Peat and filter¬mud supported the rhizobial densities of upto 108g-1 for six months which was the duration of the experiment. The results indicate that Ondiri peat would be a suit¬able substitute for rhizobia inoculant pro¬duction, having properties which compare favourably to the filtermud.

WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage L.W., Kiarie G.E., Gitau G.K., Wakhungu J.W., and Mutero C.M, (2003). Crop-livestock interactions and nutrient cycling in the Mwea agroecosystem.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W. (1994). Poultry nutrition and management. Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mutero, C.M., Kabutha, C., Kimani,V., Kabuage, L.W. et al (2004). Transdisciplinary perspective on the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Acta Tropica. Special Issue on Malaria and Agriculture, Vol. 89, Issue 2, Jan 2004.". In: Ufanisi Journal No.47. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2004. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1998). Utilisation of minerals in grain amaranth diets by broiler chickens. Paper presented at the BSAS/ KARI/APSK/ILRI conference held at KARI conference centre on 27th- 30th January 1998.". In: Paper presented at the BSAS/ KARI/APSK/ILRI conference held at KARI conference centre on 27th- 30th January 1998. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mbugua, P.N. and Kabuage, L.W. (1998). Sustainable use of grasslands, forests, grains and crop residues. Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Seoul, Korea; June 28 - July 4, 1998.". In: Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Seoul, Korea; June 28 - July 4, 1998. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
Wangechi SW;, Chemining’wa GN;, Nderitu JH;, Gachene CKK. "Response of snapbean to inorganic N-fertilizer and farm and Manure in Mwea."; 2007.
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mutero, C., Githure, J., Kabutha, C., Kimani, V., Kabuage L., Gitau, G., Ssennyonga, J. and Muthami, L. (2001). Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control. Paper presented at .". In: Paper presented at . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2001. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Muthee,A.M., Kabuage, L.W.,Gathuma, J.M.and Mwambia, M.W.(2002).The status of the dairy industry in Kenya. Review of production and health issues.". In: Papers presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference held at the University of Nairobi in August, 2002. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N.and Mitaru, B.N. (1990). Effect of energy and protein levels in the diet on performance of broiler chickens.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium at Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1990. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N., Ngatia, T.A. and Schafer, K. (2002). Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ethylene diamine tetraacetate on broiler performance, amino acid availability and mineral utilisation. South A.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1994). Production, health and economic data in a broiler chicken research project. The Kenya Veterinarian, Special issue, Vol. 18, No.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kuria, J.N., Ommeh, H., Kabuage, L., Mbogo, S. and Mutero, C.M. (2003). Technical efficiency of rice producers in Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Paper 9 presented at the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society at Hilton hotel Nairobi, Kenya on 16th Oc.". In: Paper 9 presented at the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society at Hilton hotel Nairobi, Kenya on 16th October 2003. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1988). Effect of dietary treatments on body fat level and performance in broiler chickens. Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairo.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-25th Nov., 1988. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Okong.". In: In: Proceedings of Rural Poultry Workshop held in July 1998 at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kakamega, Kenya. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DRMURIITHIANNE. "Current concepts in the recognition and classification of pain with special emphasis on orofacial pain: a review.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):709-12. Review.PMID: 8033773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]." East Afr Med J. 1996 May;73(5):281-2. No abstract available. PMID: 8756026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. 1993. AbstractWebsite

Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Despite extensive investigation, pain cannot always be adequately diagnosed or cured. Subsequently, the management of pain can be daunting. The diagnosis of pain, however, is crucial to its effective management because of the grave influence that pain has on the quality of life. The biggest drawback in the management of pain is the lack of understanding, on the part of the practitioner, of the peripheral and central modulation of pain. The objective of this paper is to briefly review the current concepts in the recognition of and classification of pain, with emphasis on orofacial pain. PMID: 8033773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Okong.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium held on 11-12 March 1999, at KARI-Naivasha. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L. W ,(2002). .The role of poultry production in poverty alleviation: Current trends in peri-urban and rural areas of Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd Kenya Livestock Technologists Association (KELITA) Scientific Conference, held at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in July 2002. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (2002). Effect of steam pelleting and inclusion of molasses in amaranth diets on broiler chicken performance, carcass composition and histopathology of some internal organs. Published by FAO-AGRIP.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1993). The effect of feeding raw and extruded grain amaranth diets on performance in broiler chickens. Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Edmonton, Canada; 28th June - 2nd July, 19.". In: Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Edmonton, Canada; 28th June - 2nd July, 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mutero, C.M., Kabutha, C., Kimani,V., Kabuage, L.W. et al (2003). A transdisciplinary perspective of the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Paper presented at the .". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1996). Effect of amino acid supplementation of raw and thermal processed amaranth diets on broiler.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-25th Nov., 1988. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kiarie, E.G., Kabuage, L.W., Gitau, G.K., Wakhungu, J.W. and Mutero, C.M. (2006). Livestock and their role in Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 54, 110-117.". In: Ufanisi Journal No.47. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2006. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Ndegwa, J.M., Tchombe, T., Kabuage, L.W., Mukkibi-Muka, G. and Kosgey, I.S. (1998). Improvement of indigenous poultry production in Sub-Saharan Africa. A paper presented at the International Course on Intensive Poultry Production held at the Centre for In.". In: A paper presented at the International Course on Intensive Poultry Production held at the Centre for International Agricultural Development Cooperation (CINADCO), Kibbutz Shefayim, 4th March . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1998). Effect of pelleting and inclusion of molasses in grain amaranth diets on broiler performance and carcass composition. Paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scienti.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium held on 11-12 March 1999, at KARI-Naivasha. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kiarie, E,G., Kabuage, L.W., Wakhungu, J.W., Gitau, G.K., Githure, J. and Mutero, C.M. (2002). A description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme.". In: Paper presented at The Kenya Veterinary Association Conference held on 24-26 April 2002 in Kakamega, Kenya. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Muthee,A.M., Kabuage, L.W.,Gathuma, J.M.and Mwambia, M.W.(2002). The status of dairy industry in Kenya. Review of policy, institutional and market environment;.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1992). Nutritional value of grain amaranth in broiler diets.". In: Paper presented at the 1st All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-27th November, 1992 - 1992. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1992. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
Wangia C;, Wangia S;, Groote H. "Review of maize marketing in Kenya: implementation and impact of liberalisation, 1989-1999.".; 2002. Abstract

Maize is the key food crop in Kenya, with estimated production (1998) of 3 million tons of which about 40% are marketed. The Government strictly controlled all aspects of maize marketing until 1986 when gradual liberalisation started and this was completed in 1995. The objective of this study is to assess the degree of policy implementation and the impact of liberalisation of maize marketing on stakeholders between 1989 and 1999. The method of the study included review of available literature, conduct of interviews with stakeholders and the authors’ personal observations of maize marketing activities. Results indicate that liberalisation was implemented without the formation of alternative marketing institutions. Also, maize prices fluctuated substantially according to competitive market forces with limited moderating effects from the Government through open market interventions and import tariffs. But soon the rules of regional and worldwide trading organisations will render this impossible. Private sector participation at all levels in the marketing system increased substantially. There is easy maize flow and supplies to all parts of Kenya. One recommended intervention is to form maize farmer-based institutions for the marketing of maize, provision of maize market information and credit. Further studies should assess the impact of liberalisation and continued regulation of maize imports on producers and consumers.

Wangila J, Rasambainarivo J, Randrianarisoa JC, Place F, Oluoch-Kosura, Murithi F, Minten B, Mcpeak J, Marenya PP, Barretta CB. "Welfare dynamics in rural Kenya and Madagascar.". 2006.
Wangila J, Rasambainarivo J, Randrianarisoa JC, Place F, Murithi F, Minten B, Mcpeak J, Marenya PP, Barretta CB. "Welfare dynamics in rural Kenya and Madagascar.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents comparative qualitative and quantitative evidence from rural Kenya and Madagascar in an attempt to untangle the causality behind persistent poverty. We find striking differences in welfare dynamics depending on whether one uses total income, including stochastic terms and inevitable measurement error, or the predictable, structural component of income based on a household's asset holdings. Our results suggest the existence of multiple dynamic asset and structural income equilibria, consistent with the poverty traps hypothesis. Furthermore, we find supporting evidence of locally increasing returns to assets and of risk management behaviour consistent with poor households' defence of a critical asset threshold through asset smoothing.

Wangiri ME. Christ and Culture in Africa : An African Christian’s Perspective . New York: State University of New York; 1991.
Wangoh J. Possibilities and Limitations in Flavouring of the Cultured Milk product Mala by means of Preparations from Fruits available in Kenya. Schulthess W, Struebi P, eds. University of Nairobi; 1987. Abstract

ABSTRACT
This research was conducted to asses the possibilities
and limitations in flavouring of the cultured
milk product "mala" by preparations from fruits
available in Kenya. Experiments were therefore
carried out to:
- determine the sucrose and fruit pulp or juice
levels in mala most acceptable to Kenyans and
the comparative acceptability of different fruit
based flavours;
- optimise the viscosity of mala flavoured with
fruit juices;
devise simple means for preparation and preservation
of fruit-sugar mixes for aromatising and
sweetening mala;
- assess the storage quality of mala flavoured
with selected fruit-suga~ mixes.
Samples of the cultured milk product mala
flavoured with different fruits at varying fruit
and sugar levels were tested for acceptability by
adult Kenyans. Pulps of mango, banana and strawberry,
passion fruit juice and pineapple juice
together with its pieces were used to flavour
mala. For the various fruit-sugar preparations the
optimum flavouring effect was obtained with the
following combinations:-
(xii)
Mango: 18% pulp and 12% sucrose
Passion fruit: 12% juice and 10% sucrose
Banana: 18% pulp and 10% sucrose
Strawberry: 20% pulp and 12% sucrose
Pineapple: 16% pieces and juice and 10%
sucrose.
When various quality characteristics of mala
flavoured with different fruit-sugar combinations at
their optimum were compared, mala with mango pulp and
with passion fruit juice respectively, had the best
appearance; those flavoured with mango and strawberry
pulp respectively were the most preferred for
taste; mala flavoured with mango pulp had the best
consistency. Seeds in strawberry mala were found
objectionable. The same applied to specks and high
t viscosity of mala flavoured with banana pulp. The
viscosity of mala flavoured with passion fruit juice
was considered low. Odour hedonics for all the malas
did not differ.
When 0.164% pectin and 0.9% gelatine respectively,
were added the viscosity of the mala flavoured
with optimum passion fruit juice-sugar mlX
was improved to that of the control/original mala.
Sodium caseinate (17.9% dry matter) added at the rate
of 0.6% on dry matter basis to the milk prior to
acidification had the same balancing effect.
Raising the temperature of fruit-sugar mixes
(xiii)
to 75°C, hot filling immediately after removal of
bottles from boiling water and cooling to ambient
proved adequate to preserve the mixes without refrigeration
for one month. Banana pulp without heat
treatment however had to be preserved by freezing.
The possible levels of 330-500 ppm sorbic acid on
fruit part, considering that the flavoured mala
should not exceed 50 ppm, can protect the product from
infections if not used immediately after opening.
Unflavoured mala and mala flavoured with
different preparations became unacceptable when yeast
and mould counts were of the order of 107/ml. At
the same storage temperature unflavoured mala or
mala flavoured with different fruit preparations
attained these counts after varying storage periods
although the initial yeast and mould counts were
approximately the same. Unflavoured mala, mala
flavoured with pineapple preparation and mala
flavoured with banana pulp attained the counts after
more than 6 days, 6 days and 4 days storage at 25°C,
respectively. The type of fruit preparation added
determined the yeast and mould growth and thereby the
keeping quality of the product at a given temperatuLe.
Sorbic acid at 200 ppm of the final product
prolonged the storage period of mala flavoured with
passion fruit juice sugar mix from 6 to 8 days at
15°C by slowing down the initial proliferation of
(xiv)
yeasts and moulds. Mala flavoured with fruit preparations
other than passion fruit juice showed a
decrease of pH and viscosity and an increase of
titrable acidity over the storage period. On the
other hand mala flavoured with passion fruit juice
showed an increase in pH, a decrease in titrable
acidity and a constant viscosity over the storage
period. The latter may be due to the hydrocolloids
added to improve the viscosity of the product.

Wangoh J, Farah Z, Puhan Z. "Iso-electric Focusing of Camel Milk Proteins." Int. J. Dairy Sci.. 2000;42:135-138.
Wangoh J. "What steps towards camel milk technology?" Review Int. J. Anim. Sci.. 1993;8:9-17.
Wangoh J, Farah Z, Puhan Z. "Composition of Milk from Three Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Breeds in Kenya." Milchwissenschaft. 1998;53:136-139.
Wangoh J. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk Nr. 12295. Farah Z, Puhan Z, eds. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 1997.
Wangolo EE, Onyango CM, Gachene CKK, Mong’are PN. "Effects of Shoot Tip and Flower Removal on Growth and Yield of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) in Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2015;8(6):367-376.
Wangombe JK, Mwanili D, Mitula P, Mugo M, Nzoya D, Muasya I, Muchunga E. "Capacity of Non-Governmental (NGoK) Providers in Delivery of Health Care in Kenya." Informing and reforming. 1998;7:2-6. Abstract
n/a
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Risk factors for subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia. Kasonka L, Makasa M, Marshall T, Chisenga M, Sinkala M, Chintu C, Kaseba C, Kasolo F, Gitau R, Tomkins A, Murray S, Filteau S. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 200.". In: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006 Sep;20(5):379-91. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract

Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio, is associated with poor infant growth and, among HIV-infected women, with increased milk HIV viral load. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, in order to investigate the relative importance of several potential causes of subclinical mastitis: maternal infection, micronutrient deficiencies and poor lactation practice. Women (198 HIV-infected, 189 HIV-uninfected) were recruited at 34 weeks' gestation and followed up to 16 weeks postpartum for collection of information on their health, their infant's health, infant growth and infant feeding practices. Milk samples were collected from each breast at 11 postpartum visits and blood at recruitment and 6 weeks postpartum. The geometric mean milk Na/K ratio and the proportion of women with Na/K ratio > 1.0 in one or both breasts were significantly higher among HIV-infected than among uninfected women. Other factors associated with the higher mean Na/K ratio in univariable analyses were primiparity, high maternal alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) at 6 weeks, maternal overall morbidity and specific breast symptoms, preterm delivery, low infant weight or length, infant thrush and non-exclusive breast feeding. In multivariable analyses, primiparity, preterm delivery, breast symptoms, HIV status and raised AGP were associated with the raised Na/K ratio. Thus the main factors associated with subclinical mastitis that are amenable to intervention are poor maternal overall health and breast health. The impact of improved postpartum health care, especially management of maternal infections and especially in primiparous women, on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its consequences requires investigation.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Nutrigenetics and CVD: what does the future hold?Lovegrove JA, Gitau R. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 May;67(2):206-13.". In: Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 May;67(2):206-13. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract

CVD is a common killer in both the Western world and the developing world. It is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by many environmental and genetic factors. Although public health advice to date has been principally in the form of prescribed population-based recommendations, this approach has been surprisingly unsuccessful in reducing CVD risk. This outcome may be explained, in part, by the extreme variability in response to dietary manipulations between individuals and interactions between diet and an individual's genetic background, which are defined by the term 'nutrigenetics'. The shift towards personalised nutritional advice is a very attractive proposition. In principle an individual could be genotyped and given dietary advice specifically tailored to their genetic make-up. Evidence-based research into interactions between fixed genetic variants, nutrient intake and biomarkers of CVD risk is increasing, but still limited. The present paper will review the evidence for interactions between dietary fat and three common polymorphisms in the apoE, apoAI and PPARgamma genes. Increased knowledge of how these and other genes influence dietary response should increase the understanding of personalised nutrition. While targeted dietary advice may have considerable potential for reducing CVD risk, the ethical issues associated with its routine use need careful consideration.

Wangui J, Nokes DJ, Nyaigoti CA, Achilla R, Onyango C, Wurapa E, Bulimo W. "Prevalence of acute respiratory infections caused by RSV and Adeno viruses in Kenya in 2007-2009." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E118-E119. AbstractWebsite
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Wangui MS, ADUDA JO. "The Relationship between Capital Structure and Corporate taxes for Companies listed at The Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Finance and Accounting. 2016;1(2):18-37.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Fetal exposure to maternal cortisol.Gitau R, Cameron A, Fisk NM, Glover V. Lancet. 1998 Aug 29;352(9129):707-8.". In: Lancet. 1998 Aug 29;352(9129):707-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
Invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are increasingly applied to the fetus. It is not known if the fetus feels pain during such procedures, but the fetus does mount significant stress hormonal and circulatory changes in response to these from 18-20 weeks. Perinatal stress may have long-term neurodevelopmental implications. During open fetal surgery, maternal general anaesthesia provides fetal anaesthesia. However, in closed procedures, fetal analgesia presents difficulties. The optimal drug, dose, and route of administration remain to be determined.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Umbilical cortisol levels as an indicator of the fetal stress response to assisted vaginal delivery. Gitau R, Menson E, Pickles V, Fisk NM, Glover V, MacLachlan N.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Sep;98(1):14-7.". In: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Sep;98(1):14-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: While it is well established that delivery by elective caesarean section is less stressful for the fetus than normal vaginal delivery, little attention has been paid to the effect on the baby of an assisted delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We examined cortisol levels in venous cord blood from seven babies born by forceps, 10 by ventouse extraction, 28 by unassisted normal vaginal delivery, and 12 born by elective caesarean. Paired maternal bloods were taken immediately after delivery. RESULTS: Cord blood cortisol values were significantly different in the different groups (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.0001). The forceps group had the highest values and the caesarean group the lowest; both were different from the normal vaginal delivery group (P=0.019 and P=0.046, respectively). There was no effect of length of labour, or method of pain relief on cortisol levels. Maternal values were similar in the different groups, confirming that the differences observed derived from the fetus. CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing evidence that the stress experienced by the fetus or neonate can have long-term effects on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in later life. We speculate that the stress caused by some assisted deliveries may contribute to this.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Fetal plasma testosterone correlates positively with cortisol. Gitau R, Adams D, Fisk NM, Glover V.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 Mar;90(2):F166-9.". In: Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 Mar;90(2):F166-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to testosterone has been implicated in programming childhood behaviour, but little is known about the determinants of fetal testosterone concentrations. AIMS: To investigate the relation between fetal testosterone and maternal and fetal cortisol. METHODS: Clinically indicated blood samples taken from 44 human fetuses (mean gestational age 27 weeks, range 15-38), together with paired maternal samples, were analysed for testosterone and cortisol concentrations. RESULTS: Male fetuses had significantly higher concentrations of testosterone than females. Female but not male fetal concentrations rose significantly with gestational age. Fetal testosterone correlated positively with both fetal cortisol and maternal testosterone concentrations. Multiple regression showed that maternal testosterone and fetal cortisol were independently correlated with fetal plasma testosterone in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Unlike the norm in the adult, where testosterone production is often inhibited by cortisol, in the fetus there is a positive link between the two.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on inflammatory markers in Nepalese women. Hindle LJ, Gitau R, Filteau SM, Newens KJ, Osrin D, Costello AM, Tomkins AM, Vaidya A, Mahato RK, Yadav B, Manandhar DS. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;.". In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1086-92. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrient supplementation of Nepalese women during pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in birth weight. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that improved birth weight in infants of mothers supplemented with micronutrients is associated with a decrease in inflammatory responses and an increase in the production of T helper 1 cells and T helper 2 cells. DESIGN: The study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of 15 micronutrients, compared with iron-folate supplementation (control), given during pregnancy with the aim of increasing birth weight. Blood samples were collected at 32 wk of gestation, 12-20 wk after supplementation began, for the measurement of inflammatory markers. Breast-milk samples were collected 1 mo after delivery for the measurement of the ratio of milk sodium to potassium (milk Na:K). In an opportunistically selected subgroup of 70 women, mitogen-stimulated cytokine production was measured ex vivo in whole blood. RESULTS: Blood eosinophils; plasma concentrations of the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neopterin, and ferritin; milk Na:K; and the production of interleukin (IL) 10, IL-4, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in whole blood did not differ significantly between the supplemented and control groups. Plasma C-reactive protein and AGP were higher in women who had a preterm delivery, and AGP was higher in women who delivered a low-birth-weight term infant than in women who delivered a normal-birth-weight term infant. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate an association between systemic inflammation in late pregnancy and compromised delivery outcome in Nepalese women but do not support the hypothesis that multiple micronutrient supplementation changes cytokine production or inflammatory markers.
Wangui J, Bulimo W, Nokes J, Wurapa E, Nyaigoti C, Otieno J, Opot B, Achilla R, Coldren R. Genotypic Diversity of HRSV-A in out-patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Kenya 2007-2010. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Introduction: Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus is the leading viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children and infants. Amongst adults, the elderly and the immuno-compromised are also at risk of severe RSV. RSV is classified into two genetically distinct groups: RSV A and RSV B. In the case of RSV A, 11 genotypes have been reported to date. Amongst these are three new variants (NA1, NA2 and ON1). Appearance of new genotypes has been accompanied by rapid spread and near replacement of existing variants. There is need to constantly re-examine the nature of genotypic changes amongst circulating viruses. Objective: To assess the geographic distribution and genotypic diversity of RSV A in outpatients presenting with Influenza-Like-Illness from 2007 and 2010 across Kenya.Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were obtained from subjects ≥2 months of age presenting with fever ≥38ºC and cough or sore throat at district hospitals under surveillance across 5 regions of Kenya. RNA was extracted from the NP samples and screened using multiplex real-time RT-PCR. A 490bp fragment of the RSVA G-gene was amplified by nested RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing carried out using the Sanger dideoxy termination method. The sequences were analyzed using a suite of bioinformatics software. Results: 159 NP samples were positive for RSV A, of which, 130 were genotyped; 21 (16%) were GA5, 39 (30%) GA2, 66 (50%) NA1, 1 GA1 and 3 (2%) GA2 variants closely related to NA2. GA2 and NA1 genotypes were identified in the highlands from 2007 – 2010. In 2009, NA1 was highest in Nairobi and Coast regions (11; 17%). GA2 genotype was highest in Northeastern (8; 21%) and was most prevalent in 2009 (44%). The Western region had the highest prevalence of GA5 in 2008 (6; 29%). Conclusion: Five genotypes were in circulation across the country in 2007 and of these NA1 genotype increased dominance year by year and spread to all the regions by 2009. These data provide insight into the dynamics of persistence of RSV strains within a national geographical area.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress responses to invasive procedures are independent of maternal responses. Gitau R, Fisk NM, Teixeira JM, Cameron A, Glover V.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan;86(1):104-9.". In: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan;86(1):104-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
{ Paired fetal and maternal samples were obtained, at fetal blood sampling and intrauterine transfusion, to study hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress responses. This confirmed that the fetus mounts an hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response to transfusion via the intrahepatic vein, which involves piercing the fetal trunk, but not to transfusion via the placental cord insertion [mean cortisol response via intrahepatic vein delta = 52.6 nmol/L, 95% CI (25.3-79.9)
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Maternal micronutrient status and decreased growth of Zambian infants born during and after the maize price increases resulting from the southern African drought of 2001-2002. Gitau R, Makasa M, Kasonka L, Sinkala M, Chintu C, Tomkins A, Filteau S.Public .". In: Public Health Nutr. 2005 Oct;8(7):837-43. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects on maternal micronutrient status and infant growth of the increased maize prices that resulted from the southern African drought of 2001-2002. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: A maternal and child health clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. SUBJECTS: Maternal and infant health and nutrition data and maternal plasma were being collected for a study of breast-feeding and postpartum health. Samples and data were analysed according to whether they were collected before (June to December 2001), during (January 2002 to April 2003) or after (May 2003 to January 2004) the period of increased maize price. Season and maternal HIV status were controlled for in analyses. RESULTS: Maize price increases were associated with decreased maternal plasma vitamin A during pregnancy (P = 0.028) and vitamin E postpartum (P = 0.042), with the lowest values among samples collected after May 2003 (vitamin A: 0.96 micromol l(-1), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.09
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "The gut microbiota and lipid metabolism: implications for human health and coronary heart disease. Fava F, Lovegrove JA, Gitau R, Jackson KG, Tuohy KM.Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(25):3005-21.". In: Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(25):3005-21. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality in Western societies, affecting about one third of the population before their seventieth year. Over the past decades modifiable risk factors of CHD have been identified, including smoking and diet. These factors when altered can have a significant impact on an individuals' risk of developing CHD, their overall health and quality of life. There is strong evidence suggesting that dietary intake of plant foods rich in fibre and polyphenolic compounds, effectively lowers the risk of developing CHD. However, the efficacy of these foods often appears to be greater than the sum of their recognised biologically active parts. Here we discuss the hypothesis that beneficial metabolic and vascular effects of dietary fibre and plant polyphenols are due to an up regulation of the colon-systemic metabolic axis by these compounds. Fibres and many polyphenols are converted into biologically active compounds by the colonic microbiota. This microbiota imparts great metabolic versatility and dynamism, with many of their reductive or hydrolytic activities appearing complementary to oxidative or conjugative human metabolism. Understanding these microbial activities is central to determining the role of different dietary components in preventing or beneficially impacting on the impaired lipid metabolism and vascular dysfunction that typifies CHD and type II diabetes. This approach lays the foundation for rational selection of health promoting foods, rational target driven design of functional foods, and provides an essential thus-far, overlooked, dynamic to our understanding of how foods recognised as "healthy" impact on the human metabonome.

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "A prospective study of risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-seronegative African women. McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Graham SM, Masese LN, Gitau R, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Baeten JM, Ndinya-Achola JO.Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-2.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common and has been associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for BV in African women at high risk for acquiring HIV-1. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 151 HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers. Nonpregnant women were eligible if they did not have symptoms of abnormal vaginal itching or discharge at the time of enrollment. At monthly follow-up, a vaginal examination and laboratory testing for genital tract infections were performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards analysis was used to identify correlates of BV. RESULTS: Participants completed a median of 378 (interquartile range 350-412) days of follow-up. Compared with women reporting no vaginal washing, those who reported vaginal washing 1 to 14 [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.89], 15 to 28 (aHR 1.60, 95% CI 0.98-2.61), and >28 times/wk (aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.35-4.23) were at increased risk of BV. Higher BV incidence was also associated with the use of cloth for intravaginal cleansing (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.08) and with recent unprotected intercourse (aHR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47-2.08). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception were at lower risk for BV (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal washing and unprotected intercourse were associated with increased risk of BV. These findings could help to inform the development of novel vaginal health approaches for HIV-1 risk reduction in women.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Pain and stress in the human fetus.Smith RP, Gitau R, Glover V, Fisk NM.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Sep;92(1):161-5.". In: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Sep;92(1):161-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
Invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are increasingly applied to the fetus. It is not known if the fetus feels pain during such procedures, but the fetus does mount significant stress hormonal and circulatory changes in response to these from 18-20 weeks. Perinatal stress may have long-term neurodevelopmental implications. During open fetal surgery, maternal general anaesthesia provides fetal anaesthesia. However, in closed procedures, fetal analgesia presents difficulties. The optimal drug, dose, and route of administration remain to be determined.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Human fetal and maternal corticotrophin releasing hormone responses to acute stress. Gitau R, Fisk NM, Glover V.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 Jan;89(1):F29-32.". In: Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 Jan;89(1):F29-32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of acute stress, caused by intrauterine needling at the intrahepatic vein (IHV), on fetal plasma concentrations of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), and to compare paired fetal and maternal samples for CRH concentration to determine the extent of their joint control. DESIGN: Venous blood samples were obtained from fetuses (gestational age 17-38 weeks) undergoing fetal blood sampling (n = 29) or intrauterine transfusion (n = 17) through either the IHV or the placental cord insertion (PCI). SETTING: The Centre for Fetal Care, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, London, UK. PATIENTS: Pregnant women undergoing clinically indicated fetal blood sampling or intrauterine blood/platelet transfusion. RESULTS: Fetal plasma cortisol increased with intrahepatic vein transfusion (mean (SD) cortisol response Delta64.7 (54.5) nmol/l; p < 0.0001

WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Effect of direct fetal opioid analgesia on fetal hormonal and hemodynamic stress response to intrauterine needling. Fisk NM, Gitau R, Teixeira JM, Giannakoulopoulos X, Cameron AD, Glover VA.Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct;95(4):828-35.". In: Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct;95(4):828-35. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Whether the fetus can experience pain remains controversial. During the last half of pregnancy, the neuroanatomic connections for nociception are in place, and the human fetus mounts sizable stress responses to physical insults. Analgesia has been recommended for intrauterine procedures or late termination, but without evidence that it works. The authors investigated whether fentanyl ablates the fetal stress response to needling using the model of delayed interval sampling during intrahepatic vein blood sampling and transfusion in alloimmunized fetuses undergoing intravascular transfusion between 20 and 35 weeks. METHODS: Intravenous fentanyl (10 microg/kg estimated fetal weight x 1.25 placental correction) was given once at intrahepatic vein transfusion in 16 fetuses, and changes (posttransfusion - pretransfusion) in beta endorphin, cortisol, and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index were compared with intrahepatic vein transfusions without fentanyl and with control transfusions at the placental cord insertion. RESULTS: Fentanyl reduced the beta endorphin (mean difference in changes, -70.3 pg/ml; 95% confidence interval, -121 to -19.2; P = 0.02) and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index response (mean difference, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-1.04; P = 0.03), but not the cortisol response (mean difference, -10.9 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval, -24.7 to 2.9; P = 0.11) in fetuses who had paired intrahepatic vein transfusions with and without fentanyl. Comparison with control fetuses transfused without fentanyl indicated that the beta endorphin and cerebral Doppler response to intrahepatic vein transfusion with fentanyl approached that of nonstressful placental cord transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that intravenous fentanyl attenuates the fetal stress response to intrahepatic vein needling.
Wangui. J, Bulimo. W, Nokes. J, Nyaigoti. C, Onyango. C, Achilla. R, Wadegu. M, Wurapa. E. Prevalence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Out-Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Kenya in 2007 - 2009. . Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Wangui. J, Bulimo. W, Nokes. J, Nyaigoti. C, Onyango. C, Achilla. R, Wurapa. E. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections Caused by RSV and Adenoviruses, Kenya in 2007 –2009.. Bangkok Thailand.; 2012. Abstract
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Wang’ombe JK, Mugo MG, Ajakaiye O, Mwabu G. "Provision and Organisation of Reproductive Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Reproductive Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa: Frameworks of Analysis. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2010.
Wang’ombe JK, Muriithi DP, Partet A, Njeru G, Kinyua M, Mwiti C, Njeru E, Waweru M. POSITIONING RESEARCH TO SUPPORT COMMUNITY EFFORT TO REVERSE HIV/AIDS AMONG YOUTH IN MARAGWA AND KIRINYAGA DISTRICTS – KENYA.; 2004.
Wang’ombe JK, Ng’ang’a P, WANZALA. "EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV AT TWO COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTRES IN KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9):111-116.abstract.pdf
Wang’ondu VW, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2017;16(2):41-51.
Wang’ondu VW, Bosire JO, Kairo JG, Kinyamario JI, Mwaura FB, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. "Litter Fall Dynamics of Restored Mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Sonneratia alba Sm.) in Kenya. ." Restoration Ecology. 2014;22(6):824-831.
Wani I. "K-sign in retrocaecal appendicitis: a case series." Cases journal. 2009;2:157. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Variations in position of the vermiform appendix considerably changes clinical findings. Retrocaecal appendicitis presents with slightly different clinical features from those of classical appendicitis associated with a normally sited appendix. K-sign looks for the presence of tenderness on posterior abdominal wall in the retrocaecal and paracolic appendicitis. This is the first case report of this kind in the literature. The K-sign has been named, as a mark of respect, after the region of origin of this sign, Kashmir, so called as "Kashmir Sign". The sign being present in view of inflamed appendix crossing above its non palpable position above iliac crest on the posterior abdominal wall and the tenderness is by irritation of posterior peritoneum. CASE PRESENTATION: The author is reporting a case series of four patients in whom a K-sign, a clinical sign, was elicited and found positive on the posterior abdominal wall for presence of tenderness in a specific area bound by the 12th rib superiorly, spine medially, lateral margin of posterior abdominal wall laterally and iliac crest inferiorly and was found to be present in three retrocaecal and one paracolic appendicitis. Each case had tenderness in this specific area on posterior abdominal wall. All had appendectomy and having histopathological evidence of appendicitis. CONCLUSION: K-sign can be useful in diagnosis of retrocaecal and paracolic appendicitis. Significance of K-sign being in view of difficulty in diagnosis of retrocaecal appendicitis and its subsequent complications.

Wanjala C. Drums of Death. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 2005.
Wanjala N, Khainga S. "An Outreach Experience With Cleft Lip/Palate Surgery in selected Hospitals in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery . 2011;7. Abstract

Objective
To describe the presentation and surgical care of patients managed for cleft lips and palates during a surgical outreach program..
Study design
A five year retrospective chart study of the patients operated on between January 2005 to the 31st December 2009 in selected hospitals in Kenya.
Setting
Smile train-facilitated surgical outreach programs at the following hospitals: St Elizabeth Mission Hospital Mukumu, St Francis Mission Hospital, Mwiki, Embu Provincial General hospital , Isiolo District Hospital.and Alupe Subdistrict Hospital.
Subjects
One hundred and sixty three patients with cleft lips and palates.
Results
The male female ratio was 1.3 to 1. Left unilateral cleft lip was the most common malformation (34.6% of the patients) with modified Millards repair the most frequent surgical procedure. More than 30% of the patients operated on had attained their fifth birthday. There were eight complications for every 100 procedures. Palatal fistulae were the most common complications.
Conclusion
The overall pattern of deformity encountered and the morbidity profile correlate with other studies. There is need to intensify more outreach programs to capture younger patients and address the backlog of cleft cases in the community.

Wanjala G. "An Assessment of the contribution of Education to Entrepreneural Development in Kenya : The case of the Kenya Institute of Management." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2010;4(2):10-35. Abstract

This paper discusses the research that was carried out to assess the usefulness of the educational solutions that were adopted to respond to government policy of enhancing entrepreneurial development. The main arguement of the thesis is that entrepreneurs are not always born , they can be made and developed through appropriate education and training. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is a causal relationship between entrepreneurial development and education using the Entrepreneural Development Unit (EDU) of the Kenya Institute of Management (KIM) as an illustrative case. Taking the conceptual perspective that human capital formation is an essential process to the socio-economic development of nations , the study had five objectives and three research questions. It was a qualitative study looking at a single institution as an illustrative case of a policy intervention to enhance entrepreneurship. The study used the poisson process of the stochastic family of models to assess the contribution of education to entrepreneural development. The sample size for the study included 50 EDU graduates sampled using cluster sampling techniques such as area sampling and systematic list sampling ; 10 government officials , 15 trainers and other staff from KIM and 2 officials from the sponsoring body - all of whom were purposively sampled because they were viewed as information-rich cases. Questionnaires , interviews , observation checklists and document study were the instruments that were used to collect data.

Wanjala G. "An analysis of How Post-colonial Educational Policy Implementation in Higher Education has contributed to Socio-economic Transformation of Kenya." The Fountain , Journal of the Faculty of Education.. 2002;1(1):46-52. Abstract

Planners attempting to influence the course of a country's educational development can expect to confront a wide variety of problems which are sometimes difficult to formalize. Many of these challenges involve the most significant decisions in determining an effective sectoral growth strategy. Examples that come readily to mind for higher education include an assessment of the optimal level of resources to be devoted to research and extension activities , estimated rates of return , demand-adapted education policies , employment promotion of programmes as well as fostering marketable occupational capacities particularly of young people.
This paper tries to describe and analyze educational policy formation , planning and implementation in higher education showing its contribution to the socio-economic transformation of Kenya. The central proposition in this paper is that educational endeavour - whether conceived as an activity of colonizing powers or as the unfolding of the aspirations of the African peoples - has shown itself as an important vehicle for the transformation of society. Thus , the process of educational policy formation is necessarily an exercise in social learning whereby technical expertise is required to establish information requirements and the parameters of reasonable choice. Nevertheless , this analysis must be embedded in a process of social dialogue , negotiation and learning.

Wanjala A. "“After the Kenyan Harvest” .". In: Fearful Symmetries: Essays and Testimonies around Excision and Circumcision. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi; 2008.
Wanjala C. Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Wanjala CL;, Wanjala AN. "A Personal Overview−Central and East Africa.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Ever since Professor G.D. Killam of the University of Guelph edited The
Writings of East and Central Africa (1984),and the conferences that lead
to the changes in the English syllabi of Secondary Schools, nothing has
brought the writers,booksellers,librarians,literary critics,journalists,and
intellectual property lawyers of the region together more than book fairs
which take place annually in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Nairobi, Kenya.
Names like Ali A. Mazrui, Njabulo Ndebele, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, David
Rubadiri, Charles Mungoshi, Chenjerai Hove, Micere Githae Mugo,
which one sees on book covers suddenly stick into one’s mind as one
meets their owners at either the Zimbabwe or Nairobi International
Book Fairs.
During the years under review (2000–4), Jared Angira, the internationally
known Kenyan poet and chairman of the Kenya Organization
of Writers Association (KOWA) could be seen with Dr. Jack Mapanje,
the famous Malawian linguist and poet, at the international book fair
almost every day. At the meetings of the National Book Development
Council of Kenya,one met the stakeholders in the book production and
book marketing industry meeting under the aegis of the East African
Book Development Association (EABDA),a consortium comprising of
the National Book Development Councils of Kenya, Uganda, and
Tanzania. As constituent bodies,these councils and the organizers of the
book fairs in Nairobi and Harare argue that the challenges facing all the
stakeholders of the books is the fight against the monster of illiteracy. A
nation that has to operate satisfactorily in the twenty-first century has to
be a reading nation. It must celebrate the book.

Wanjala C. "Theatre and Politics." African Perspectives. 1977;1(1):30-38.
Wanjala C. "The Tabanic Genre.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Wanjala G. "“The Meaning of Quality in Teacher Education : Some Policy Implications for Educational Planning .”." The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research . 2011;5 (1): 1-10 . Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges , the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies , objectives , strategies , programmes and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance , the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However , the quality of education cannot be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently , many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities.This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teachers who enrolled in the B.Ed.(Arts) programme of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased quality in education at the primary school level?

Wanjala C. "Discovering New East African Poets." Busara. 1969;2(2):43-45.
Wanjala C. "Literature and Society: A View in Approach." Busara. 1973;5(2):70-76.
Wanjala G. "what extent do teachers' perception of quality affect their practices?" ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
Wanjala G, Otieno DO. "Factors influencing Demand for Bachelor of Education degree by Distance Learning at the University of Nairobi." Journal of Continuing , Open and Distance Education. 2010;1(1):1-24. Abstract

The development of the distance mode of teacher training can be characterized as an attempt to resolve the conflict between aspiration for more education by an ever increasing number of Kenyans and the need to broaden the base of high level human resources for national development and that of resource constraint - both human and financial. This paper discusses a research study that was carried out to establish the factors influencing the demand for the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) Arts Degree Programme by Distance Learning mode at the University of Nairobi. It was a descriptive survey and had seven objectives and seven hypotheses to test. The target population for the research study comprised all the students enrolled in the B.Ed. (Arts) programme of the University of Nairobi who were studying through the distance learning mode. Through stratified random sampling , the study focused on the 2002 cohort that was undergoing part six semester in the School of Continuing and Distance Education. Chi square tests were used to analyze the relationship between demand for distance learning considered as a dependent variable and the independent variables of gender , age , income level , admission criteria , employment status and source of finance. A 0.1 level of significance was used to determine the acceptance level in all the hypotheses.

Wanjala C. "East African Biographies and Autobiographies.". In: The Companion to African Literatures. Oxford: James Currey; 2000.
Wanjala C. "Poetry in East Africa." Joliso. 1974;2(2):1-6.
and Wanjala OGLP. "Teacher Perception of Performance Appraisal and Development Tool in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya." East African Scholars Journal of Education, Humanities and Literature . 2019;4(6):69-78.
Wanjala G, Luchu SB. "Factors influencing implementation of the Integrated English curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kanduyi Division , Bungoma South District , Kenya." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2010;iv(1):66-77. Abstract

The teaching of English using the Integrated Approach at secondary school has been an issue of concern to both Linguists and Literary Scholars as well as Educators for quite some time now due to poor performance of students in KCSE , coupled with their inability to communicate effectively in English. This research study investigated factors that influence the implementation of the Integrated English Curriculum in public secondary schools in Kanduyi Division of Bungoma District. Using a descriptive survey research design , the study had two objectives and two corresponding research questions. This paper discusses the said research study and its findings , key of which was that the training that English teachers received at pre-service level does not much the requirements of teaching Integrated English in public secondary schools. Thus , the need for the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) to liaise with teacher training colleges and Schools of Education in the universities to ensure there is harmony between pre-service teacher training programmes for teachers of Integrated English and the implementation of the curriculum in secondary schools. This will empower them to be better placed in implementing the curriculum with competence and confidence.

WANJALA NYONGESAFRANCIS, ADUDA BERNARD O. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Society of Experimental Mechanics; 2010. Abstract

This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.

Wanjala C. "Cesaire's Responsibilities as a Poet." Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. 1974;1(1):59-72.
Wanjala C. "The Kenya National Theatre Revival." Weekly Review 8 November 1973 (1973):32.
Wanjala BG; IM. "Staffing Practices of the Teachers’ Service Commission and Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Merti Sub-County, Kenya." East African Scholars Journal of Education, Humanities and Literature . 2019;2(11):683-691.

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