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Wambugu SN, Towett PK, Kiama SG, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii.". 2009. Abstract

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg⁄ kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg⁄ kg) and naloxone (5 mg⁄ kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 lL) were studied in the Speke’s hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 ± 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg⁄ kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg⁄ kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg⁄ kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals

Wambugu MN, Tole NM. "Radiation protection and the unborn child.". 1988. Abstract

The development of radiation protection guidelines as contained in the 'Ten Day Rule' are reviewed. Facts for and against the rule and the changing altitudes in radiation protection leading to the 'death' of the 'Ten Day Rule' (I) are discussed. The current recommendation by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) and the adaptation of the recommendation by the National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB) UK, and the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) UK, are given. Some policy statements by the American College of Radiology (ACR) are also discussed. A few recommendations are put forward for the professional bodies and teaching institutions, in order to make them aware of the new radiation protection measures.

Wambugu SN, Mathiu PM, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage hronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal medical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains.
CONCLUSIONS:
The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:
21782014
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WAMBUGU LN, KYALO DN. "Open and Distance Education as a Strategy for Improving Higher Education in the 21st Century in Kenya- a case of the University of Nairobi.". In: 3rd ACDE Conference and General Assembly . Dar es Salaam , Tanzania; 2011.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
WAMBUGU LYDIAH, WANJIRU ANN. Chemistry Practical Book. Nairobi: Pavement Publishers; 2007.
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Wambugu A, Ndirangu L, Onsomu E, Munga B. "Unemployment in Kenya: suggested interventions." National Economic and Social Council (NESC). 2013.
WAMBUGU LYDIAH, NYONJE RO. "Re-orienting the Kenyan education to address transformation – an Implication for educational planning and management." Journal of Education Management Society of Kenya. 2013;4(4):125-133.
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Wambugu SK, Karugia JT, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. 2018;978-0-19-879928-3(ISBN):978-0-19-879928-3.
WAMBUGU LYDIAH, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "Manpower Development in the 21st Century." DBA The Africa Management Review. 2014;4(1):47-61.
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Wambugu SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI. "Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa).".; 2008.
Wambugu SN, Mbaabu M, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya." Journal of Etnopharmacology. 2011;137:945-955. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

WAMBUGU LYDIAH. "A comparative analysis of the academic performance of Distance and on-campus learners at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI201) . Madrid, Spain; 2012.
WAMBUGU DRKIBUGIEDWIN. "KIBUGI E.W. Susceptability of Candida albicans isolates to Miconazole and ketoconazole.Afr.J. oralhealth 2002;3:154-158.". In: Afr.J. oralhealth 2002;3:154-158. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Wambugu A, Onsomu E, Munga B. "Unemployment in Kenya: A Situational Analysis." National Economic and Social Council (NESC) Paper No.1/2010 .. 2010.
WAMBUGU LYDIAH. Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Education. Germany: VDM Verlag; 2011.
Wambugu A. "Family background, education and adult earnings in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Education and Research. Vol. Vol.1.; 2013:.
Wambugu A, KABUBO-MARIARA JANE, Musau S. "Wambugu, Anthony.". 2010.Website
Wambugu A, Githuku SN. "Technical Efficiency in Kenya’s Sugar Production: a Stochastic Frontier Approach.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study measured technical efficiency overtime and explored sources of technical inefficiency of sugar mills in Kenya. A time varying translog stochastic production frontier was simultaneously estimated with inefficiency effects model based on panel data. The mean technical efficiency level of the five sugar factories was found to be 79.83%. This suggests that factories on average were 20.17% off the fully efficient frontier. The results also suggest that decreasing returns to scale (0.23) prevailed in the sugar processing industry. In addition, technical change was driving the sugar factories off the frontier at an annual rate of 1.25%. Finally, the results suggest that capital-labour ratio, market share, sucrose content in sugarcane delivered and factory age had significant impact on technical inefficiency of the sugar factories.

Wambugu SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI. "Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa).".; 2008.
Wambugu MG, Wausi AN. "Subjective Norms and Information Systems Implementation: A case of Higher Education Institutions in a developing Country." International Journal of Science and Research. 2013;2(3).
Wambugu CW. Factors Influencing Employees’ Job Satisfaction: A Case of University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services (UNES). EBS PDM, ed. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

he purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing employee’s job satisfaction at
University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services (UNES) which is the commercial arm of the
University of Nairobi created to facilitate efficient use of institutional resources, including those
represented by human capacity within the ranks of academia. To achieve this objective, the study
explored four independent variables of job satisfaction, namely, training, remuneration,
motivation and work environment while the dependent variable is job satisfaction among UNES
employees.
The rationale for the study was derived from the observation that some employees of UNES seem
better adjusted and happy at work and are able to cope well with the demands of the company
while others are not. Another observation was the management's new challenge at UNES to
maintain a workforce that performs concertedly to achieve the company goals. \ •
This study, is based on a qualitative methodology. Data was collected using a questionnaire
containing Likert scale type questions which were administered to staff members, where the
researcher dropped and picked them after three days to allow the respondents' time to fill them.
These questionnaires where then edited and the data collected analyzed using the SPSS computer
package.
The major findings of this investigation were that four factors, namely training, remuneration,
motivation and work environment directly contribute towards employee’s job satisfaction.
The study recommends that interventions should be carried out to increase levels of job
satisfaction among UNES employees this is important as job satisfaction has a strong correlation
with job performance. It also recommends on how management can eliminate low motivation and
job dissatisfaction amongst employees by reinforcing relevant human resources policies,
improving working conditions and compensation.

WAMBUGU LYDIAH, NDUNGE KYALODOROTHY. "Open and Distance Education as a Strategy for Improving Higher Education in the 21st Century in Kenya- a case of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;, Vol.4 (14 2013. ISSN 2222-1735 ).
Wambugu SN, Towett PK, Kiama SG, Abelson KS, Kanui TI. "Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii).". 2010. Abstract

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy'sspekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5,10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and
that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals.

PMID:
20646195
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
Wambugu A, Onsomu E, Munga B. "Growth, Poverty and Income Inequality in Kenya: Suggested Policy Options." National Economic and Soci al Council (NESC) Paper No. 2/2010. 2010.
WAMBUGU LYDIAH, MWIHAKI EDITH. Monitoring and Evaluation: A Guide to Program Evaluation. Germany: VDM Verlag; 2011.
Wambugu A. "The effects of educational attainment on employment outcomes in Kenya." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2011;3(7):94-102.
Wambui K. Report of the Second Meeting of the Gender Forum. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation; 2001.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. and Muthoka, S. Food Security of a Population Living in a fragile environment. International Conference on Nutrition, Tuskegee, Alabama, USA.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2000. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. (1989). Determination of nutritional status of households of a Kenyan Semi-arid Population.". In: Presented at the 14th International Congress of Nutrition, Seoul, Korea, 20-25th August. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1989. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "Human Resource Development." A Case Study of Kenya Railways Corporation; 1994. Abstract
n/a
Wambui P, Rodrigues A, Opiyo E. "Licence Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: ICCIR. Kampala Uganda; 2010.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Adere, J.W., Kogi-Makau, W and Karuri, E.G. The Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition as Actualized by Christian and Muslim Mothers in Kibera. A Case Study of Kibera Slums in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Upcoming projects in collaboration with private schools association of Kenya Factors that influences enrollment in private schools. A case study of Mweiga Division .". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Muroki, N.M. & Kielmann, A.A. (1991). The Role of Traditional birth attendants in influencing the behaviour of pregnant and lactating Samburu women in Kenya.". In: Presented at the Sixth European Nutrition Conference, Athens, 25-28 May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1991. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "Public Administration in Kenya -." Concept paper presented at a conference of FAWE ; 2005. Abstract
n/a
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Fertility and Child Schooling in Kenya, Evidence of a Quality/Quantity Trade off. A Ph.D. Proposal presented to Board of Postgraduate (U.O.N).". In: Ph.D. Proposal presented to Board of Postgraduate (U.O.N). Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Project Evaluation Report, Middle Juba PHC-Somalia.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "A critical Analysis of Examination performance in Business studies in Nairobi Province School relative to the better ones and factors contributing to this.". In: African Academy of Sciences (Kenya Office). Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1994.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Muroki N.M. and Kielmann A.A., "Role of Traditional Birth Attendants in Dissemination of Advice on Nutrition". World Health Forum Vol. 13, No.2/3: 197-99.". In: Presented at the Gessllschaft Fur Agrarprojekte (GFA) Planning Workshop for the Samburu District Development Project. Narumoro; 3-8th May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Wambui V, Kiptoo MK, Kinyua JG, Odera I, Muiruri P, Muge E, Kinyanjui P, Lihana RW, Songok EM. "Predicted HIV-1 coreceptor usage among Kenya patients shows a high tendency for subtype d to be cxcr4 tropic." AIDS Research and Therapy. 2012;9(22).
WAMBUI MSKIAI. "Women in journalism education: An overview of the Kenyan situation in women in journalism education: prospects, problems and priorities. The commonwealth association for education in journalism and communication (CAEJAC).". In: IDRC. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1995. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
WAMBUI JANE. "Achievements and constraints among rural Kenyan women." Project paper for Winrock International; 2012. Abstract
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WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Haidar, J., Abate, G., Kogi-Makau, W. and Sorensen, P. Risk factors for child undernutrition with a human rights edge in rural villages of North Wollo, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal. Vol 82 No. 12:625.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Muroki, N.M, Maritim, G.K., Karuri, E.G. Tolong H.K, Imungi, J.K., Kogi-Makau, W., Mamman, S., Carter, and Maretzik A.N., "Involving Rural Kenya Women in the Development of Nutritionally Improved Weaning Foods: A Nutribusiness Strategy. J. Nutrition Educa.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1996. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "Women and development in Kenya." Project paper for Achievers International; 2012. Abstract
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WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. Report on Review of Food and Nutrition Security Technical Papers. For Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2006. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Wambui K, Muiru N, Amatsimbi M. "The Kenya Media: A Brief History.". 2000.Website
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Tsegaye, D., Muroki, N.M. and Kogi-Makau, Wambui. Food taboos among pregnant women in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev.: 12(1):45-49.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1998. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "Women and Elections in Kenya." seminar paper presented at the Centre for African studies, Edinburgh University, Britain; 1993. Abstract
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WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Tibaijuka, G. Mtawali, G. and Mapunda, R. Study on the impact of an innovative training strategy on reproductive and child health service performance of health attendants in Tanzania. For Program for International Training in Health (INTRA.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "A Case Study of Capital Markets Authority." Project Paper for Winrock International; 1997. Abstract
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WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Macharia, C.W., Kogi-Makau, W. and Muroki, N.M. Dietary Intake and Care Practices of Children in Kathonzweni Division, Makueni District, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, Vol 81 No. 8: 402-407. (A comparison of beneficiaries of a World Vision Kenya Pro.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2004. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Education Achievement in the upcoming slum areas; Nairobi Province (Upcoming).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Ochola, S., Kielmann N.S. and Kogi-Makau, W. (1990). The use of oral rehydration therapy, in the management of diarrhoeal diseases in a peri-urban slum of Nairobi, Kenya. Presented at the Food and Nutrition.". In: Seminar, organised by Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and Applied Human Nutrition Programme, University of Nairobi on 25-27 June,1990, Nairobi. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1990. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "Factors Accounting for poor human resource development in Africa." Project Paper for Winrock International; 2003. Abstract
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Wambui A, ODHIAMBO A, Achieng L, Otieno CF, Bhatt SM. "Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Human 
Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Persons at District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):70-75.vitamin_d_deficiency_in_hiv.pdf
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Haidar, J., Umeta, M. and Kogi-Makau, W (2005). Effect of iron supplementation on serum zinc status of lactating women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The East African Medical Journal. Vol. 82 No.7:349-352.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., "Risk Indicators of Nutritional Status of Households of a Kenyan Semi-arid Population", East African Medical Journal, Vol 69, No 10: 560-62.". In: Presented at the Gessllschaft Fur Agrarprojekte (GFA) Planning Workshop for the Samburu District Development Project. Narumoro; 3-8th May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI MSKIAI. "Reporting for rural reporters. A training module with karuru N. and Mboroki G. interlink rural information service (IRIS).". In: IDRC. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1995. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
WAMBUI JANE. "Which way forward Kenya?". Paper presented at the Centre for African Studies, Edinburgh University. Britain; 2008. Abstract
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Wambui K. "Attaining Excellence in Media Training in East Africa .". In: the Challenges of Media Training and Practice in East Africa. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2009.
WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, Gathiga JM, Karanja FK. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY IN LAKE NAKURU, KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016. AbstractDepartment of Meteorology

Hydrological systems are potentially very sensitive to changes in climate. Recently, attention has been mainly drawn to the rising global temperatures; however, over the past century, human livelihoods have substantially been directly affected by changes in the regional hydrological balance. Lake Nakuru is one example of a hydrological system which has seen its water levels increasing since September 2010 during the beginning of the short rains making it the first lake in the Rift Valley bursting its banks, leading to decreased electrical conductivity levels as a result of water dilution. All flamingos left the lake, initially settling in the Lake Oloidien a small alkaline lake south of Lake Naivasha and Lake Bogoria. The increased water levels led to change in aquatic life and biodiversity, including submersion of habitats adjoining the lake and have therefore had major ecological implications on the lake and its environs.
This study, therefore, assesses the impacts of the increased water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, owing to climate change and climate variability. The study focused on reviewing and analysing observed climatic records from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department, especially temperature, precipitation and evaporation of Lake Nakuru in order to assess how climate variability and climate change has contributed to the increased lake levels, monitoring and reviewing information on the state of past and present records of the lesser flamingo and phytoplankton communities of Lake Nakuru was undertaken, with the data sets obtained from the Kenya Wildlife Service and National Museums of Kenya database. Several methods were employed in order to determine the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation and evaporation), and also for the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, trend analysis and the Pearson's correlation analysis was used to correlate the changes in lake conductivity to changes in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model lntercomparison Project Phase 5 (CM1P5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, precipitation and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to assess the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance.
It was observed that there was an increase in the mean annual precipitation during the study period (2009 to 2014) which caused the increase in the lake's surface area from a low area of 31.8 km2 in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km2 in Sept 2013, indicating an increase of 22.9 km2 (71.92% surface area increase). Mean conductivity of the lake also decreased leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed causing them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was observed implying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently demonstrated th&t the phytoplankton density could be a significant predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation observed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake.
It is projected that there would be an increase in temperatures, precipitation and evaporation for the period 20 I 7 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increase in surface area and depth by the year 2 I 00 due to increased precipitation thereby affecting the populations of the lesser . flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will change as wel I during the projected period.
Recommendation.s that can be taken to contribute to the country's biodiversity resources, specifically in Lake Nakuru through climate change mitigation and appropriate adaptations have been provided. They include: In order to assess the variability in climate, continuous monitoring and analysing meteorological parameters in the lake basin is suggested; government policy on illegal water abstractions and massive afforestation of indigenous trees need to be enforced in order to enhance precipitation regularity so as to sustainably utilize and manage Lake Nakuru 's waters; Climate vulnerability assessments need to be carried out in order to come up with mitigations and adaptations measures unique to Lake Nakuru basin to inform the measures that need to be taken in order to minimize the negative impacts of climate vulnerability/change, and exploit the beneficial ones.

WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Mwangi A.M., Kogi-Makau, W and Ngala S. Report of the world vision.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Do Kenyan Households choose between child schooling and family size? Application of Becker.". In: Masters in Education, Thesis submitted to Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1995.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. (1994). Diets and Lifestyles. A comparison of traditional diets with modern ones.". In: Presented at a Seminar on diets and Lifestyles for Executives. Vee Nutrition and Health Associates, Nairobi. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI MSKIAI. "Understanding Environmental Communication (Co-edited with Margaret Karembu)(published by ACCE-Kenya).". In: ACCE-Kenya. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1999. Abstract
Evidence indicates that environmental concerns have not been given the critical attention they deserve in many developing countries. The reverse is the case in most countries in the North. In Journalists for example, tend to regard environmental stories as dry and less lively as opposed to political, business, and entertainment stories. Furthermore, there is also a general feeling among many journalists that environmental stories are too technical and therefore, only of interest to international organizations such as UNEP, environmental experts, professionals, academics and some international lobbyists. The media like the public for that matter, have so far, failed to set the environmental agenda consistently. Yet, environmental issues are issues of life and death. They are issues of sustainability of the earth and the future of human beings.   The urgent challenge therefore is for the journalists to take the lead in dealing with environmental questions. The starting point is for them to appreciate these concerns and take them to their readers. This book is an attempt to develop this appreciation in journalists, and it raises fundamental environmental concepts, questions and concerns, and provides an analysis of the functions of the journalist, suggesting what can be done to enhance environmental journalism in Kenya. It is a result of training workshops conducted among journalists in Kenya, and it has a content based approach, seeking to ground journalists in basic environmental concepts, while tackling technical and skills concerns.   The book has various contributions from experts in environmental concept and from environmental journalism specialists including: Environmental journalism; The philosophy and principles of communicating on the environment; Challenges of writing on the environment; Essential elements in communicating on the environment; Environmental issues of arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya; An overview of the media and the environment in Kenya; Chemicals and the environment; Environmental concerns in Kenya.
WAMBUI JANE. "Human resource utilization and Kenya." Paper presented at Kenya Education Staff Institute first National Conference on innovations in education management; 2012. Abstract
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Wambui K, Duncan O. Report of the Proceedings of the Second Joint Review Meeting of GJLOS. Nairobi: Governance, Justice, Law and Order Reform Programme; 2006.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Bayeh, Y.M., Kogi-Makau, W. and Mwikya, S.M.(2006). Microenvironment resource capacities, understanding of the right to food and nutritional security of under-five years old children in urban Bahirdar, Ethiopia (an intra-spatial perspective).". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2006. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Tsegaye, D., Muroki, N.M. & Kogi-Makau, W. Food Aversions and Cravings During Pregnancy: Prevalence and Significance for Maternal Nutrition in Ethiopia. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol 19 no 1 1998: 20-26.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1998. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Abate, A., Kogi-Makau, W. and Muroki, N.M. Hygiene and Health Seeking Behaviour of Households as Predictors of Nutritional Insecurity among Preschool Children in Urban Slums in Ethiopia- The Case of Addis-Ababa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "A Gender Analysis of the Effects of the Structural Adjustment Programme in Africa.". Seminar Paper presented at the Centre for Women and gender, Warwick University; 1997. Abstract
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WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. Women, Nutrition and Community Development. In: WOMEN Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Monograph of Papers Presented at a Strategic Planning Workshop, University of Nairobi/UNESCO: 57-60.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2002. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kielmann A.A., Kielmann, N.S., Kogi-Makau, W., et al., "Nutritional Impact of a Food for Work Project and its Participants (A Case Study from Kenya)". In Young, K.W., Cha, L.Y., Soon J.J., & He, K.S., (Editors), New Era: Global Harmony Through Nutrition, .". In: Seminar, organised by Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and Applied Human Nutrition Programme, University of Nairobi on 25-27 June,1990, Nairobi. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1989. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "The role played by Public Enterprises in the developing countries." Paper presented at Burminghum University, Britain; 1998. Abstract
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WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Maseta, E.,Kogi-Makau, W. and Omwega, A.M. Childcare Practices and Nutritional Status of Children Aged 6-36 Months Among Short and Long Term Beneficiaries of the Child Survival Protection and Development Programmes (The Case of Morogoro, Tanzania).". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Criteria for Human Capital Investment with reference to cost benefit analysis: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Muita J.W and Mboganie, A.M. (1992). Knowledge, attitude and needs assessment study of traditional birth attendants in Kibera, Nairobi.". In: Presented at the National Capacity Building for Child Survival and Development Project of University of Nairobi/UNICEF. Planning Workshop at Kabarnet, 23-27, November. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI MSKIAI. "Folk, interpersonal and mass media: The experience of women in Africa, with Adagala E. in women empowering communication (eds.) Gallagher Margaret & Quindoza-Santiago Lilia. A resource book published by the World Association for Christian communication (W.". In: IDRC. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1994. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
WAMBUI JANE. "Responsibility: The Youth as a leader in Modern Society." Paper presented at a Youth; 2006. Abstract
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WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Women Income generating activities in Burkina Faso as compared to the Kenyan Women.". In: Non . Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Adolescent Health: Programmatic Evaluation of the AoW Child and Adolescent Health in Tanzania. World Health Organization, Geneva.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Published the M.Ed. Thesis with African Academy of Sciences (Kenya Office).". In: African Academy of Sciences (Kenya Office). Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1994.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. (1993). Nutritional and health status among the Samburu".". In: Presented at the Gessllschaft Fur Agrarprojekte (GFA) Planning Workshop for the Samburu District Development Project. Narumoro; 3-8th May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI MSKIAI. "Communicating with Adolescents about AIDS: Experience from Eastern and Southern Africa (with Ruth Nduati)(published by IDRC).". In: IDRC. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1997. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
WAMBUI JANE. "The role played by the Kenya Tea Development Agency in Kenya." Project paper for stifftung international; 2010. Abstract
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WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. Adolescent Health in Programmatic Evaluation of the Area of Work- Child and Adolescent Health in Tanzania. World Health Organization, Geneva (WHO).". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (smujo.id)

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Waihenya E.W., Kogi-Makau, W. and Muita, J.W. "Maternal Nutritional Knowledge and the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in a Nairobi Slum: The Case of Kibera" East African Medical Journal, Vol 73 No 7 July: 419-423.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1996. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Wambui K, Muiru N, Amatsimbi M. "The Kenya Media: A Brief History.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Meme, M.M., Kogi-Makau, W. and Muroki, N.M. (1998). Energy and protein intake and nutritional status of primary schoolchildren 5 to 10 years of age in schools with and without feeding programmes in Nyambene District, Kenya. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vo.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1998. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "The effects of Economic Liberalization measures on Women in Nairobi." Project paper for Winrock International; 1995. Abstract
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Wambwa EN, Ogara WO. "A Point Prevalence Study of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Burchell\'s Zebra (Equus Burchelli Antiquorum) at Lewa Downs Ranch, Isiolo District Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

Burchell's Zebra ( Equus Burchelli Antiquorum) were sampled for gastrointestinal parasites at the Lewa Downs Game Ranch in Isiolo District between 4/7/95 and 11/7/95. The stomach, small intestines and abdominal cavity were searched for parasites. The parasites were identified to genus level but in some cases to species level. Feacal egg counts, hematology and serum biochemistry screening were also performed. All animals were infested with at least three genera of gastrointestinal parasites including at least one nematode genus. A total of nine genera were recovered representing eight families. These included six nematode families, Strongylidae, Strongylinae, Atractidae, Oxyuridae, Spiruridae, and Setaridae one cestode family, Anoplocephalidae and one family of the larvae of Gasterophilus bot flies, Gastrophilidae. The most prevalent families were Atracidae (100%) and Strongylinae (80%). The mean total worm burden was 78,764. The average of individual genera varied from 0-77,890worms. The average worm burdens were higher in females than in males. In comparing the mean total egg counts, there were generally higher egg counts in animals with higher worm burdens. Hematology results were within baseline values for Burchell's zebra. Blood biochemistry showed high levels of Alkaline Phosphatase, Creatine Kinase, Lactase dehydrogenase and Aspartate transaminase was partly attributed to exertion before death

WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Unlocking Katama Mkangi's Walenisi. A case of Parabolic narrative? KISWAHILI. Vol. 61. Journal of the Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW. Zimwi la leo.; 2002.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Interfigural Phenomena: A tentative investigation into the interdependence of Literary characters in Kiswahili literature. IN KISWAHILI Vol 63, 2000. Institute of Kiswahili research, University of Dar es Salaam.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW. Tamthilia ya maisha.; 2005.Website
Wamitila KW. Kichocheo cha Fasihi: Simulizi na Andishi. . Nairobi: Focus Publications Ltd.; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Uhakiki wa Fasihi.; 2002.Website
Wamitila KW. Mwanakijiji na miwani.; 2006.Website
Wamitila KW. Staging Masculinity.; 2000.Website
Wamitila KW. Mwongozo wa Walenisi. A detailed study Guide on Katama Mkangi's novel Walenisi. . Nairobi: Sasasema Publications Ltd; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Nguvu ya Sala. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 1999.
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya ushairi.; 2006.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Reading Kenyan Swahili Prose works: A tera incognita in Swahili Literarture. SWAHILI FORUM IV, University of Cologne, Germany.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1997. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW. Bin-Adamu.; 2002.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Place and Placelessness: The role of setting in Kiswahili Literature, Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, SWAHILI FORUM, Vol VI, 1999.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya methali.; 2001.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Contextualisation of Politics and politics of Contextualisation: The case of Kiswahili novel. In: African Literatures in African Languages, Charles Badunde & Said A. M. Khamis(Eds.) Bayreuth African Studies- 2000.". In: African Languages Literature in the Political Context of the 1990s. Germany: Bayreuth African Studies 56; 2001. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

Wamitila KW. Yatima.; 2006.Website
Wamitila KW. Jumba la huzuni.; 2006.Website
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya Fasihi: Misingi na Vipengele Vyake. . Nairobi: Focus Publications Ltd; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Kuku na mwewe.; 2006.Website
Wamitila KW. Sumu ya bafe.; 2006.Website
Wamitila KW. Kesi ya kuchekesha.; 2006.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Nagona and Mzingile. Kezilahabi's Metaphysics. KISWAHILI VOL. 58. Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "A Philosophical labyrinth: Tracing two critical motifs in Kezilahabi's Prose works. SWAHILI FORUM V, University of Cologne, Germany.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW. Radical feminism.; 2001.Website
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya misemo na nahau.; 2003.Website
Wamitila KW. Wingu la kupita.; 1990.Website
Wamitila KW. Mwongozo wa Kiu.; 2001.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "A Rhetorical study of Kiswahili classical Poetry: The Nature and role of repeatition. RESEARCH IN AFRICAN LITERATURES, spring vol. 30/1, Indiana Press.-1999.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW. Pango.; 2003.Website
Wamitila KW. Uncle's Joke: A Play.; 2007.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Towards a Stylistic Study of Modern Kiswahili Poetry: A case of Kahigi and Mulokozi's poetry. In KISWAHILI Vol . 62 Institute of Kiswahili research , university of Dar es Salaam.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW. Kanzi ya Fasihi: Misingi ya Uchanganuzi wa Fasihi. . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa Publishers Ltd.; 2008.
Wamitila KW. Harufu ya Mapera, A Kiswahili Novel. Nairobi: Vide-Muwa Publishers; 2012.
Wamitila KW. Spectrum Media.; 1999.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "The Kiswahili Writer and the critic: A response to Mwenda Mbatia's polemics KISWAHILI Vol 60. Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1982. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamitila KW, Khamisi S. orodha ya waandishi.; 1991.Website
Wamitila KW. Chura na ndovu.; 2006.Website
Wamitila KW. Matatu.; 2005.Website
Wamitila KW. Musaleo!.; 2004.Website
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Contemptus Mundi and Carpe diem motifs in Kezilahabi's works. KISWAHILI VOL. 60. Institute of Kiswahili Research , University of Dar es Salaam. Tanzania.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1997. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wamocho L;, Yamashita K;, Ishii, T; Michieka RW, Ishii, T; Michieka RW. "Charcoal Application and VAM Inoculation Promote Vine Growth, Yield and Quality of Passion Fruits in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

A field experiment was conducted in 1996/1997 to investigate the effect of charcoal (CH) and vesicular-arbuscular mycorhiza (VAM) inoculation on vine growth, fruit development and quality of passion fruits grown in the field. Plants grown in soils that are low (< 30 ppm) in P content, benefited from root colonisation by VAM. Inoculation of passion fruit cuttings raised in sterilised media inoculated with VAM fungi significantly increased vine growth, yield and quality of fruit. Inoculation with VAM fungi resulted to 100% survival of passion fruit transplants

Wamola IA, Mirza NB, Ombette JJ, Onyango FE. "Recent epidemic meningococcal meningitis in Nairobi.". 1993. Abstract

This is a prospective study of the recent explosive epidemic of group A meningococcal meningitis that occurred in Nairobi from April 1989 to January 1990. It was compared with previous less explosive outbreaks that occurred from 1975 to 1981. The recent epidemic was correlated to its Neisseria meningiriais carrier status among case-control samples with carrier rate in nasopharyngeal respiratory pathogens of children born of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) positive and negative mothers at about the same time of the outbreak. The effect of mass vaccination on the course of the outbreak is presented on selected affected areas of Nairobi city residents who were offered the bivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine against serotype A and C

Wamola IA, Mirza NB, Ngugi JM, Bwibo NO. "Campylobacter gastroenteritis in Nairobi.". 1983.Website
Wamola IA, Mirza NB, Ombette JJ, Onyango FE. "Recent epidemic meningococcal meningitis in Nairobi.". 1993. Abstract

This is a prospective study of the recent explosive epidemic of group A meningococcal meningitis that occurred in Nairobi from April 1989 to January 1990. It was compared with previous less explosive outbreaks that occurred from 1975 to 1981. The recent epidemic was correlated to its Neisseria meningiriais carrier status among case-control samples with carrier rate in nasopharyngeal respiratory pathogens of children born of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) positive and negative mothers at about the same time of the outbreak. The effect of mass vaccination on the course of the outbreak is presented on selected affected areas of Nairobi city residents who were offered the bivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine against serotype A and C

Wamukowa N. Report of the training of African women in Entrepreneurial skills course, Financed by SIDA, executed by UNECA. College of Adult and Distance Education (CEDA), University of Nairobi; 1985.
Wamukowa N. "Human needs and the environment in rural Africa.". In: Environment and Development Session of the World Conference of Philosophy. Nairobi; 1991.
Wamukowa N. A general survey of map projections, . Nairobi: Basic Books (K) LTD; 2006.
Wamukowa N. "Leaning and Teaching in Professional Faculties af the University of Nairobi.". In: #6th Technical Communication Conference. Chicago; 1989.
Wamukowa N. "An Assesment of the Impact of Remote Sensing on Geography Teaching ." UN/SIDA International Training Course in Remote Sensing Proceedings. 1998.
Wamutiso P. "Sira ya majagina wa kifasihi, kidini na kimapisi.". In: Back to the Basics International conference . Chumba cha Mikutano, Swahili Cultural Centre, Mombasa, KENYA ; 2014.
WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN, K. DRDALIZUEGAMBIF. "A booklet of Public Speaking: Using Communication Strategies and Good Human Relations. Synergy Services International (1992).". In: Synergy Services International (1992). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN. "Information and Communication: the case of Women and Health in Kenya. A chapter in a book published by AAWORD and the African Centre of Technology (ACTS) under the title "Women and Democracy in Kenya".". In: A chapter in a book published by AAWORD and the African Centre of Technology (ACTS) under the title "Women and Democracy in Kenya". Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN. "Communication Processes and Strategies: The Case of the School Broadcasting Division in Kenya. A chapter in an IDRC monogram, on "Communication Processes: alternative channels and strategies for development.". In: A chapter in an IDRC monogram, on "Communication Processes: alternative channels and strategies for development. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1991. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN. "Participatory information programmes for rural peoples. A chapter in "Creating Global Village" by the PVO/NGO Initiatives Project. The Research Paper series, Datex(1992).". In: A chapter in "Creating Global Village" by the PVO/NGO Initiatives Project. The Research Paper series, Datex(1992). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN. ""Gender Sensitive Communication Research among rural male and female farmers", a chapter in Boafo and George "Communication Research in Africa" (1992).". In: A chapter in Boafo and George "Communication Research in Africa" (1992). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN. "Understanding research process and methods (2002) for CYP students.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2006;83(12):659-65. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK).

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "uality of record keeping in the intrapartum period at the Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr. Med J. . 2007;84(7).
Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, the referral hospital for Western Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred patients admitted at the gynaecological wards during the period 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2002. RESULTS: In this study 80% of gynaecological patients admitted at PGH Kakamega were of an emergency nature with 45% being teenagers. The mean age was 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD). The majority had primary level of education or below (69%), unemployed (87%) and were rural residents (71%). Patients with abortion formed about 43% of the study group while those with inflammatory disease, pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy formed about 24%, 10% and 8% respectively. CONCLUSION: Most gynaecological admissions in PGH Kakamega are of acute nature, with abortion being the most common diagnosis. Hence, trained staff, equipment, supplies and drugs for management of acute gynaecological conditions should be available in hospitals in Western Kenya.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Quality of record keeping in the intrapartum period at the Provincial General Hospital, Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(1):16-23. Abstract

To assess the quality of recording critical events in the intrapartum period in Kakamega Provincial General Hospital (PGHK).

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, the referral hospital for Western Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred patients admitted at the gynaecological wards during the period 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2002. RESULTS: In this study 80% of gynaecological patients admitted at PGH Kakamega were of an emergency nature with 45% being teenagers. The mean age was 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD). The majority had primary level of education or below (69%), unemployed (87%) and were rural residents (71%). Patients with abortion formed about 43% of the study group while those with inflammatory disease, pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy formed about 24%, 10% and 8% respectively. CONCLUSION: Most gynaecological admissions in PGH Kakamega are of acute nature, with abortion being the most common diagnosis. Hence, trained staff, equipment, supplies and drugs for management of acute gynaecological conditions should be available in hospitals in Western Kenya.

Wamwea C, Ngare P, Bidima MLDM, Mwelu S. "Valuation of Quanto Caps and Floors in a Calibrated Multi-Curve Cross-Currency LIBOR Market Model." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(4):698-725. AbstractWebsite

Interest rate derivatives form part of the largest portion of traded financial instruments. Hence, it is important to have models that describe their dynamics accurately. This study aims at pricing Quanto caps and floors using the multi-curve cross-currency LIBOR market model (MCCCLMM) dynamics. A Black Scholes MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula is first derived. The MCCCLMM parameters are then calibrated to exactly match the USD and GBP cap market prices. The estimated model parameters are then used to price the Quanto options in the Black MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula. These prices are then compared to the Quanto cap and floor prices estimated via Monte Carlo simulations so as to ascertain its pricing accuracy

Wan H, Horvath C. "Behavior of soluble and immobilized acid phosphatase in hydro-organic media." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):135-44. Abstract

The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate by wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) has been investigated in mixtures of aqueous buffers with acetone, dioxane and acetonitrile. The enzyme was either in free solution or immobilized on a pellicular support which consisted of a porous carbonaceous layer on solid glass beads. The highest enzyme activity was obtained in acetone and acetonitrile mixed with citrate buffer over a wide range of organic solvent concentration. In 50% (v/v) acetone both V and Km of the immobilized enzyme were about half of the values in the neat aqueous buffer, but the Ki for inorganic phosphate was unchanged. In 50% (v/v) mixtures of various solvents and citrate buffers of different pH, the enzymic activity was found to depend on the pH of the aqueous buffer component rather than the pH of the hydro-organic mixture as measured with the glass-calomel electrode. The relatively high rates of p-nitrophenol liberation in the presence of glucose even at high organic solvent concentrations suggest that transphosphorylation is facilitated at low water activity.

WANAMBISI MRWAFULAATHURW. "Invariance of numerical range under isometric transformation.". In: African Journal Of Mathematics and Computer Science Research. Academic Journals; 2010. Abstract
In this paper,we look at some properties of isometries and conditionsfor a quasi-affinity to be unitary.Among other results it is proved that if Ais a partial isometry such that if zero belongs to the numerical range of A or its positve integral powers then A is unitary
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Margaret Muthwii, MONICA MWESELI, Juliana Nzomo, Agnes M.W. Gathumbi, Joshua Okumbe, Manuel J.K. Marangu_ Elizabeth Opit, William G. Wagamba, Okot Benge and Titus Ogavu, Research Case Studies on Language, Published as a Consolidated report entitled: LANGU.". In: A poem published in WAJIBU: A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS ISSUES Ed. By Dr. Wanjohi. REFEREED BY DR. WANJOHI AND DR.JUSTUS MBAE.; 2002. Abstract

Okot p'Bitek, a novelist, sociologist, philosopher, theologian, footballer, dancer, and above all human being, is internationally recognised as one of Africa's finest poets. He is the author of original poetry, translations of traditional literature, anthropological studies, and other essays. Edward Blishen writes: The biographical facts are themselves remarkable. He was born in 1931 at Gulu in Northern Uganda, and was educated first at Gulu High School and later at one of the most high-flying of Ugandan schools, King's College, Budo. He went on to read education at Bristol, law at Aberystwyth and social anthropology at Oxford: returning to Uganda, he lectured at the University College at Makerere. This academic versatility was matched by considerable athletic skill: among other achievements, he played football for Uganda. A drummer and a dancer, he founded an annual festival of African arts at Gulu. For a while he was Director of the National Cultural Centre in Kampala. From 1952 to 1954, Okot attended a teacher training course at the government training college, Mbarara. While at college, he wrote and produced a student opera. When he completed the training, he taught English and Religious Studies for three years at Sir Samuel Backer's School near Gulu. He liked singing, and was choirmaster at the school.

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