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Unpublished
Mutiga J. VALUE ADDITION AND ATTITUDE CHANGE IN LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION: THE CASE OF KITHARAKA. Nairobi; 2014. Abstractvalue_addition_and_attitude_change.pdf

Many studies, including Anchimbe (2007), Whiteley (1974) and UNESCO (1953) have sought to establish that language loyalty or the lack of it does relate to the presence or death of linguistic identity. Further, it has been claimed that it is within the context of language contact that people become aware of the status of their language against another’s language. People may also observe a greater degree of loyalty to the language of an ethnic group to which they do not belong, because of value they may attach to it compared to their own language and the benefits they may deem to accrue by this allegiance. If this state of affairs is left unchecked, the resultant language shift may lead to the death of the less prestigious of the languages in question. A purposeful value addition and attitude change according to Paulston (1994:16-17) will regenerate and reverse the loss and “give new life to a dead language” especially if there is increased use of the language, as a result of change of attitude and increased functions for general communication, literacy and education.
In this chapter I will highlight factors that led to the marginalization of Kitharaka. Further, I will give examples of other currently or formally marginalized languages of Kenya. I will then narrow down to specifically examine and illustrate the role played by literacy and on-going mother tongue education programme in the revitalization of Kitharaka.

JOAB OOKO. VALUE PREMIUM AND INDUSTRY TYPE: EVIDENCE FROM THE NAIROBI STOCK EXCHANGE. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstractvalue_premium_and_industry_type_2.pdf

Investors will always want to invest in projects than can guarantee higher returns than others, holding risk constant. They therefore tend to employ strategies that will contribute to the realization of higher returns. One of the most frequently used strategies is value investing where investors purchase value stocks rather than growth stocks in order to be benefit from potential long term performance of value stocks in the form of superior average returns. In finance, the word value premium refers to the excess return expected as a result of investing in value stocks as opposed to growth stocks. This study sought to find out whether there exists a value premium at the NSE when stocks are sorted on the basis of book to market value, and whether
industry type plays a role in value premium. It’s indicative from the study that value stocks outperformed growth stocks for the period under study. This is consistent with other studies done in Kenya. Muhoro (2004) tested a value premium of 0.64 for the period 1999-2002 at the NSE and Ngigi (2006) also tested the existence of value premium at the NSE. The result of the test in this study , conducted at 0.05 confidence level is that there exist value premium at the NSE. When stocks are grouped according to industries, there still exists value premium. Industrial and allied sector have the highest value premium of 4.125 while agricultural sector have the lowest value premium of -1.162. Therefore for a value strategist at the NSE, industrial and allied sector stocks are the best to invest in while agricultural sector stocks are the worst to invest in. The findings are also consistent with findings from similar studies in other markets in the world. Previous studies show that for 60 plus years value has outperformed growth. The conclusion of this study is that there exists a value premium at the N.S.E when stocks are sorted on the basis of B/M ratio . However there exists no significant difference in value premium across industries. This implies industry type is not a significant determinant of value premium.

Thesis
G.N. M. The value of pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999.
Swazuri MA. The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya .; 1996. Abstract

The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya Kenya is one of the coastal states that lie in the eastern part of Africa. For a long time now Kenyan valuation practice has been concentrated on land-based resources. Valuation of farms, houses, offices, industries etc. are now quite familiar in everyday life. However, a "new" era is now becoming important in world resources affairs, an area in which the valuation profession in Kenya can also participate. This area is the coastal or marine environment, where many sectors of the economy such as energy, transport and research are now increasingly turning to use. Whereas professional valuers in other countries have expanded their scope into these environments, the valuation profession in Kenya has been slow to realise its potential in the same. And because the full economic potential of the resources of the Kenyan coast is not known with certainty, it is logical to carry out studies of their estimation. Unlike land-based resources waterfront properties along the coastline Possess somewhat peculiar characteristics which imply that a free market or a purely price competitive mechanism will not allocate these resources properly. It is even worse for the methods of valuation which can be employed in such cases. Identification and exploitation of resources have to be enhanced by proper methods of the resources' estimation for them to be worthwhile. Two notable characteristics of the waterfront properties located along the Kenyan coastline are the extremitie in values of similar properties, sometimes even in the same localities, and the exclusive use of the market comparison method in such property valuations. This study contends that extremities in values have arisen from the use of improper methods for valuieing waterfront properties. And the method being used currently in the valuation disregards a number of important factors, most of which are difficult to quantify using the market comparison method. This study aims, therefore, to present better ways of valuing waterfront lands . .The valuation of waterfront lands 1.'3 influenced by both site- oriented, such as size and non-site-oriented variables like reasons for sale, date of transaction and so on. Evidence from the valuation pr ac t i.ce s in the study area suggests that only site-oriented characteristics of property are considered during valuations and this leads to either under valuation or overvaluation of these properties. Although some factors are not directly on the property being valued, they· are actually significant influences of value, and disregarding them altogether is not reasonable. The valuation method proposed in this study considers both site and non-site oriented factors. Using conventional multiple regression analysis (CMRA) it has been shown here that the choice of value- influencing variables is more scientific, more reasonable and less subjective than in the ordinary Comparison Method . Choice of influencing variables for valuation purposes is a necessary step if proper values have to be estimated. Many valuations have had faults because of inability to identify and measure these factors. Several regressiGn methods of valuation have been tried in this study, ranging from the simple mul tiple regression analysis to rank transformation regression. Each of- the methods has its merits and demerits, in most cases in terms of their usefulnes and accuracy involving waterfront lands. Conventional Multiple Regression Analysis (CMRA) and Rank Transformation Regression (RTR) were foun.d ·to be the best of the lot, accounting for 49% and 51% of the variation in property values in the area respectively. However, RTR seems to have the methodological problem of how to rank factors affecting value before using them in the procedure. While it is appealing and quite rational to rank factors, the criteria to be used for the ranking is contentious. CMRA was, therefore, found to be a 'better' method, because it produced better results in all the various tests the models underwent. For example, CMRA had a relatively high R2 of 49.1%, a relatively low MSE value of 13612 and the smallest Cp value of 277. CMRA's ability to rank the independent variables within itself during analysis can easily be understood by both the valuer and client, and is applicable in practice. Using the same methods, it was found that SIZE of property is the most important factor affecting value in the study area. The larger the size, the higher the value, although other factors such as width of the beach area (AREA), VIEW of the ocean waters, availability of water SPORTS on the beach etc, have also to be considered. Furthermore, no single factor alone can be used as the only basis for estimating values of waterfront lands. Despite the study advocating for the use of CMRA in waterfront valuations, _there are very few instances where the valuer will not use some form of comparison in the valuation process. Whether it is in the choice of independent variables or in the measurement of these variables, the principles of comparison have to be utilised to arrive at objective values. After all, valuation is all about the market, and if the valuer disregards the market trends then his valuation will be somewhat incomplete.

Research Paper
Ssozi, J; Akundabweni LSM; NA. Verifying the premium value of selected African indigenous vegetables in target sites of the Lake Victoria basin.; 2012. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to verify the premium value in terms of nutritional and economic potential of selected African indigenous vegetable plants (AIVPs) along the Lake Victoria basin. Partial findings of this study being reported are on the smallholder farmer indigenous knowledge of vegetable production and utilisation in Jinja (Uganda) and Vihiga (Kenya). A survey was conducted to establish the status and level of utilisation of indigenous vegetable plants. whereby total of 163 households in each site were interviewed. Vegetables selected by smallholder farmers for production trials and nutrient quality analysis were Cleome gyandra (Saga, Eiyobyo/Ejobyo), Amaranthus lividus (Booga, Doodo), Solanum scarbrum (nakati) as indigenous vegetables. Solanum melongena (egg plant), Daucus carota (carrot), Capsicum spp. (pepper) were selected as the exotic vegetables. Laboratory analysis of these vegetables for phyto-nutrient characterisation is ongoing. The survey revealed that most farmers (90%) engaged indigenous vegetable farming for both food consumption and income generation. Most farmers regarded exotic vegetable farming as an income generation venture rather than home consumption. Most farmers were knowledgeable of the health and medicinal benefits of the indigenous vegetables.

Mogotsi, K; Nyangito MM; NDM. Vulnerability of rural agro-pastoral households to drought in semi-arid Botswana.; 2012. Abstract

A survey was carried out during the 2009/10 season to examine the vulnerability of agro-pastoral communities to drought shocks in Bobonong and Kgalagadi North Sub-districts. The key drivers of vulnerability of households included: gender of the household head, livestock sales, advance preparations before drought, size of arable land under cultivation, the number of drought-tolerant crops planted, as well as, the overall yield of such crops. Although the main determinants of household vulnerability differed between the two study areas, Bobonong nonetheless had a higher percentage of highly vulnerable households. However, the two study areas still had a substantial number of vulnerable households – further underlining the seriousness of drought risk among agro-pastoralists in Botswana. Thus, timing and form of intervention, including from the government, is critical and a one-size-fits-all approach to alleviating adverse impacts of drought may not always be appropriate.

Okello, J.J; Gitonga MOARZ; J; R. Value chain analysis of the Kenyan poultry industry: The case of Kiambu, Kilifi, Vihiga, and Nakuru Districts.; 2010. Abstract

The Kenyan poultry industry is characterized by dualism, comprised of both smallholder and large-scale poultry producers. The industry is characterized by two main production systems namely (i) the commercial hybrid poultry production system and (ii) the indigenous poultry production system. This study examines the poultry industry in Kenya with the aim of identifying the actors, assessing poultry and poultry product flows, and highlighting some of the policies and regulations relevant to potential outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Kenya. Specific aims included: i) Characterizing the structure of the value chain; ii) Assessing the relative importance of specific flows of poultry and poultry products; iii) Identifying the various actors involved in the poultry trade and their linkages; iv) Providing insights on potential pathways of HPAI introduction in the value chain The study was conducted in Kikuyu and Ndeiya Divisions in Kiambu District, Vihiga and Sabatia Divisions in Vihiga District, Nakuru and Rongai Divisions of Nakuru District, and Kikambala and Ganze Divisions of Kilifi District. The study areas were selected based on their relative density of poultry populations. A value chain approach was employed that entailed the use of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with various stakeholders including hatcheries, farmers, input sellers, processors, retailers and other intermediaries in four different value chains: commercial broilers, commercial layers/eggs, indigenous chicken, and guinea fowl/ducks.

Report
Personal
Ogeng’o J, Misiani M, Adel M, Kevin O, Martin I, Acleus M. Variant Termination of the Common Carotid Artery in a Black Kenyan Population.; 2014.
Newspaper Article
Kanyinga K. "Vision forestalls war and keeps economy steady." Sunday Nation, March 25, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Voter rationality shaped poll outcome." Sunday Nation, August 13, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Violence won’t win radicalisation fight." Daily Nation, July 18, 2015.
Oduor AS. "VAT." Sunday Standard (2013):11. Abstract

Pals, hereunder is my poem on VAT, whose abridged version was published on page 11 of the Sunday Magazine, of the Sunday Standard on September 29, 2013.

VAT

VAT, what is that?
Vatable, invertable, convertable,
Inclusive, exclusive and compulsive.
If all be vatable, what then is left?.

VAT on BAT, CAT, DAT, FAT,............and ZAT
Spare the parts, for a raid on gas is pinching the purse.
Essential goods and non-essential commodities, so all are paying through the nose;
Infants, elephants, guilty and innocent, all are instantly feeling the heat.

Make ammends and mend the fence before it is late, and irredeemable damage is done.
Capital flight is calmnly winning the fight,
Manufucturers are mindfully moving away and across,
Unemployment and all other social ills, will surely grow.

Consumers are spoiling for a fight, ‘cause economic gains made, have rapidly gone down the drain.
Milk and malt, sugar and salt, flower and flour all alike,
Boots and books, gas and glass, all slapped with VAT.
Zero the VAT, free the sales, grow the base and lessen the burden, so that the common man may live.

Make them buy the little they buy, for by the way, multitudes are tiranny of numbers of sorts, and grow the little wider cake that is sought for, by all.
Otherwise, stiffle the sales by the common man and face the music of capital flight and fight for relevance, already thrown out of the window.

Taxable is not all, so exempt one or two,
If you so much care, as you claim you do.
Are we duped or dopped all the same, for a struggling folks eking life?
No matter the matter, Mater hospitals the mother, and all is sick and depressed in the depression.

Rich and paupers all alike, the common denominator, is the grave.
Hurt not the gas, the flour, the oil and all, for the sake of all.
When the present percentage is passed, ill-timed evil will lurk, to the chagrins and the detriment of all, and not just a few,
So then, VAT is that!.

ALFRED SAMSON ODUOR’S COLLECTION OF POEMS, HE is an ongoing MBA student at the Universtity of Nairobi, A graduate of B A honours in Economics and Mathematics degree of Egerton University, Administrator at the University of Nairobi and Pastor at World Mission Agency a k a Winners Chapel International, Nairobi. E-mail addresses: asoduor@gmail.com, samoduor@yahoo.com and samoduor@uonbi.ac.ke

and Thairu FAON. "Varsity develops jigger repellent." The Star Newspaper, Kenya, May 31, 2012:17.
Map
Kokwaro JO. Vegetation map of Mount Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Survey of Kenya; 1988.
Magazine Article
Shah PS. "Vanishing trees- The sad story of life." African Fund for Endangered Wildlife 2 (2003):11.vanishing_trees-_sad_story_of_life.pdf
Journal Article
Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Minga UM. "Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was valuated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Voltage Recovery from Pesticides Doped Tomatoes, Cabbages and Loam Soil Inoculated with Rumen Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET).. 2022;9(2):172-180.
"Valuation for Compensation Practices in Kenya: An Evaluation." Property Management. 2021;39(4):479-492.
Mwangi IK, Muketha SM. "Value Chain Framework for Ascertaining Planning Sectors and Competencies." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;15 (No. 1):2157-2173.
Mwangi IK, Muketha SM. "Value Chain Framework for ascertaining planning sectors: Africa HABITAT Review." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2021;15(1):1-17. Abstract

Studies that address the deeply rooted uncertainty in identifying planning sectors and profiling required
competencies in preparing plans, especially in the urbanization sector (US), are scanty. This is due in part to
the lack of concerns for the effectiveness of the plans and competencies of the planners. The value chain (VC)
model was appraised to provide a framework for ascertaining relevance and accuracy of planning sectors and
concurrence with required competencies. Data on planning sectors and required competencies was collected at
five stakeholder consultative fora, 23 key informant (KI) institutions and seven working sessions. The framework
of the model facilitated analyzing the data through disaggregation. The urbanization sector (US), which is the
main primary activity (MPA) in the model, was assigned the role of the main planning sector (MPS) and expressed
as “MPS:US” in the urbanization value chain. MPS:US was disaggregated into four planning sectors in the value
chain, and each sector ascertained through disaggregation from level 1 to 3. It was found that the structure of
the model and its function provide appropriate framework for ascertaining relevance and accuracy of planning
sectors, and also concur with competencies that are similarly ascertained. Second, the two expressions for
disaggregation to ascertain planning sectors and required competencies each respectively combine into one
expression for simultaneous disaggregation. The paper concludes that the structure and function of VC model and
the expression for simultaneous disaggregation provides a framework of methodology for systematic ascertaining
of planning sectors and competencies, and allows variation of number of planning sectors any one value chain
represents. The paper recommends adopting the structure and functions of the VC model, and the expression for
simultaneous disaggregation as a framework for ascertaining planning sectors and competencies, starting with
the conduct of planning studios in the training of planners

Omwando KJ, Moturi CA. "Virtual banking adoption by SACCOs in the face of Covid-19 pandemic - a case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 2021;8(4):1-13. AbstractWebsite

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic saw overwhelming effects on consumers’ buying behavior globally, with economic productive activities shifting from offline to online. As a result, many business leaders were left with no option other than adopt the use of Information Technology to ensure business operations continuity, enhance efficiency as well as sustainability. In Kenya, unlike most commercial banks, Saccos have largely been left behind in embracing new banking technologies such as agency banking, internet banking, or mobile banking. Therefore, the use of paperwork, physical and in-person meetings to conduct business has remained widespread amongst many Saccos in the country, before COVID 19 that forced Saccos to shift to virtual banking as an effective alternative, toward addressing their customers’ needs while ensuring safety. This study examined the adoption of Mobile Banking models and Virtual Banking technologies and innovations to establish the factors influencing their adoption by potential users. The study also explored the adoption of Virtual banking amongst Saccos in Kenya, investigating the electronic delivery channels used, and their suitability. The study objectives were accomplished through an exploratory and descriptive approach based on ways of improving access to credit through relationships between Sacco and their clientele in Kenya through the adoption of Virtual Banking. The data used was collected from SACCO-based respondents who included Sacco ICT officers, managers, and members using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that there was wide adoption of various Mobile Banking models and technologies to realize virtual banking adoption by Saccos. Most Saccos were found to favor the Joint venture model and the non-bank-driven model. The extent of adoption of virtual banking amongst bank clientele was found to be influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. The study recommended that Saccos should consider sharing information and technologies across various networks as this is likely to lead to much more gains in adopting technologies that would improve their sustainability as while fostering better customer experience.

Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
Mwamuye MM, Odongo D, Kazungu Y, Kindoro F, Gwakisa P, Bishop RP, Nijhof AM, Obara I. "Variant analysis of the sporozoite surface antigen gene reveals that asymptomatic cattle from wildlife-livestock interface areas in northern Tanzania harbour buffalo-derived T. parva." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(11):3817-3828. Abstract

Buffalo-derived Theileria parva can 'break through' the immunity induced by the infection and treatment vaccination method (ITM) in cattle. However, no such 'breakthroughs' have been reported in northern Tanzania where there has been long and widespread ITM use in pastoralist cattle, and the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also present. We studied the exposure of vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle in northern Tanzania to buffalo-derived T. parva using p67 gene polymorphisms and compared this to its distribution in vaccinated cattle exposed to buffalo-derived T. parva in central Kenya, where vaccine 'breakthroughs' have been reported. Additionally, we analysed the CD8+ T cell target antigen Tp2 for positive selection. Our results showed that 10% of the p67 sequences from Tanzanian cattle (n = 39) had a buffalo type p67 (allele 4), an allele that is rare among East African isolates studied so far. The percentage of buffalo-derived p67 alleles observed in Kenyan cattle comprised 19% of the parasites (n = 36), with two different p67 alleles (2 and 3) of presumptive buffalo origin. The Tp2 protein was generally conserved with only three Tp2 variants from Tanzania (n = 33) and five from Kenya (n = 40). Two Tanzanian Tp2 variants and two Kenyan Tp2 variants were identical to variants present in the trivalent Muguga vaccine. Tp2 evolutionary analysis did not show evidence for positive selection within previously mapped epitope coding sites. The p67 data indicates that some ITM-vaccinated cattle are protected against disease induced by a buffalo-derived T. parva challenge in northern Tanzania and suggests that the parasite genotype may represent one factor explaining this.

de Llano-Pérula C, Kihara E, Thevissen P, Nyamunga D, Fieuws S, Kanini M, Willems G. "Validating dental age estimation in Kenyan black children and adolescents using the Willems method. ." Medicine, Science and the Law. . 2020;(https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802420977379).
Kedogo JL, Eyase F, Bulimo W, Asudi G, Kimani F, Muhia DM, Aluvaala E. "Validation of a Biomeme Smartphone-Based DNA Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Human Malaria at the Point of Care ." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2020;33(3):31-44.202032-article_text-506081-1-10-20201207.pdf
Ogolla KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kirui JC, Kitala PM. "Validation of efficacy of rabbit anticoccidial drugs commonly used in Kenya." African Journal of Rural Development,. 2020;3(4):341-349.
Makokha S, Onono JO, Mukhwana EJ, Atsiaya H, Wambugu RN. "Value Chain Analysis of Delivery of Artificial Insemination Services in Kenya: A Case Study of the Western Kenya Region." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2020;38(3):39-50.
Ouko I, Obimbo MM, Kigera J, Ogeng’o JA. "Valve distribution of the popliteal vein: A structural basis for deep venous thrombosis?". 2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Objective

To describe the relationship between number and distribution of valves.
Methods

Sixty-six popliteal vein specimens were used for the study after routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The extents of the popliteal vein were identified at the adductor hiatus and soleal arch, cut at these points and then longitudinally sliced open. The number and distribution of valves were then recorded. Data were presented using photomacrographs and tables.
Results

The median number of valves was 1 (mean 0.8; range 0–2), with the lower part of the popliteal vein as the most consistent valve position. Most striking was the valve absence noted in 27 (41%) of the veins.
Conclusion

These findings suggest that a significant proportion of popliteal veins do not have valves thus providing a credible structural link that may predispose the popliteal vein to deep venous thrombosis in the study population.

Tembe K, Lagat S, Ambuko J, Chemining'wa G, Owino W. "Variation in Morphological and Agronomic Traits of Selected African Eggplant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants . 2020;9(2):34-46.abstract
A. W, S. W, C. O’, S. F, van S. D. "Variation in the carbon footprint of milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Central Kenya, Journal of Cleaner Production." Journal of Cleaner Production 265:121780. 2020.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z, Okonda JJ. "Variation of elemental concentration in leather during post-tanning operation using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: principal component analysis approach." International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020:1-13.
Okaru AO, Scharinger A, de Rezende TR, Teipel J, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Validation of a quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic screening method for coffee quality and authenticity (NMR coffee screener)." Foods. 2020;9:47. Abstract
n/a
Tembe K, Lagat S, Ambuko J, Chemining'wa G, Owino W. "Variation in Morphological and Agronomic Traits of Selected African Eggplant Accessions.". 2020. Abstract
n/a
Wamwea C, Ngare P, Bidima MLDM, Mwelu S. "Valuation of Quanto Caps and Floors in a Calibrated Multi-Curve Cross-Currency LIBOR Market Model." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(4):698-725. AbstractWebsite

Interest rate derivatives form part of the largest portion of traded financial instruments. Hence, it is important to have models that describe their dynamics accurately. This study aims at pricing Quanto caps and floors using the multi-curve cross-currency LIBOR market model (MCCCLMM) dynamics. A Black Scholes MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula is first derived. The MCCCLMM parameters are then calibrated to exactly match the USD and GBP cap market prices. The estimated model parameters are then used to price the Quanto options in the Black MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula. These prices are then compared to the Quanto cap and floor prices estimated via Monte Carlo simulations so as to ascertain its pricing accuracy

Ogeng’o JA, Mpekethu N, Gichangi P, Olabu B, Odula P, Munguti J, Misiani M. "VARIANT ANATOMY OF THE TESTICULAR ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2019;8(1):1358-1367. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_testicular_artery_among.pdf

Variant anatomy of the testicular artery is important for safe surgery in the retroperioneal area, and
accurate diagnosis of testicular and renal disease. The pattern of origin, number, course and branching
display ethnic and geographical variations. Data from black African populations and especially Eastern
Africa is scarce. The objective of this study was, therefore, to describe the topography of the intraabdominal
part of testicular artery in a sample of the Kenyan population. This was a descriptive crosssectional
study on one hundred (100) testicular arteries at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi. The samples were obtained from autopsy cases and cadaveric specimens. Standard midline
abdominal incisions were made, flaps of the anterior abdominal wall reflected and the intestines,
mesentery and pariental peritoneum retracted systematically to expose the testicular arteries. Their site
and level of origin, number, course and branching were examined. Macrographs of representative
variations were taken using a high resolution digital camera. The results were analysed using SPSS
version 21, and are presented using macrographs and frequency tables. Thirty three (33%) of the arteries
displayed a variant anatomy, with regard to their site of origin (8%), number (4%), course (14%) and
branching pattern (7%). Among the 14 cases of aberrant course, five (5%) arched over the left renal
vein, eight (8%) were retrocaval and one (1%) had a retroureteric course. Seven (7%) bifurcated within
the abdomen. The level of origin along the aorta varied from 1 centimetre above the renal arteries to 5.5
centimetres below them while the vertebral level of origin ranged from T12 to L4. This shows that the
testicular artery among Kenyans displays a high prevalence of variant anatomy characterized by origin
from the accessory renal artery, high level of aortic origin, duplication, retrocaval course and
intraabdominal; division. Preopertaive evaluation of renal and gonadal vasculature is recommended to
minimize misdiagnosis and inadvertent injury retroperitoneal surgery.

Muthini DN, Nzuma JN, Nyikal AR. "Variety Awareness, Nutrition Knowledge and Adoption of Nutritionally Enhanced Crop Varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2019;14(4):225-237.
Muthini DN, Nzuma JM, Nyikal RA. "Variety awareness, nutrition knowledge and adoption of nutritionally enhanced crop varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics . 2019;14(4):225-237. AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates the impact of variety awareness and nutrition knowledge on the adoption of biofortified crop varieties using a sample of 661 households from Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. The study employs the average treatment effect (ATE) framework to control for information on the KK15 bean variety and knowledge of its nutritional attributes among small-scale farmers. The results show that farmers who had knowledge of the nutritional attributes of KK15 beans were more likely to adopt relative to those who were only aware of the variety. A nutrition attribute knowledge gap of 8% was estimated, which represents the potential adoption loss due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional benefits. Adoption of biofortified crops can therefore be improved by disseminating information on the varieties and their nutritional attributes. This can be achieved by entrenching nutrition information in extension packages disseminated to farmers.

Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
and H. Indangasi MOAM. "Value Creating Education in Kenya: Building a Humane Society." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
Rotich HK, Mbau JS, Onwonga R, Koech OK. "Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Grazing Management Practices in Semi-arid Grazing Lands of Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(3):227-239.
Rotich HK, Mbau JS, Onwonga R, Koech OK. "Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Grazing Management Practices in Semi-arid Grazing Lands of Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(3):227-238.
Ondicho TG. "Violence against women in Kenya: a public health problem." International Journal of Development and |Sustainability. 2018;7(6):2030-2047.ijds-v7n6-19.pdf
Mwangi HN, Onyango, Omosa LK, Mulaa F. "Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins." Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;2(2).
Musonye, MM, Muchiri J, Barasa VN. "Vitimbi as a Commentary of Kenya's Socio-political Experiences." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social sciences. 2018;2(5).
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/acetate buffer Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Wu C, Deng Z, Shang B, Ikkala O, Peng B, others. "A versatile colloidal Janus platform.". 2018. Abstract
n/a
Wu C, Deng Z, Shang B, Ikkala O, Peng B. "A versatile colloidal Janus platform: surface asymmetry control, functionalization, and applications." Chemical Communications. 2018;54:12726-12729. Abstract
n/a
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Mwangi J, Mjahid H, Oloo P. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):100-103.risk_scores-euroscore_validation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Busula AO, Takken W, de Boer JG, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst. "Variation in host preferences of malaria mosquitoes is mediated by skin bacterial volatiles." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2017;31(3):320-326.
Kabinga SK, Kayima J, MCLIGEYO SO, Wambugu B, NGIGI J, Chege R, Mutiso J. "Vascular thrombosis in patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis using indwelling venous catheters: Case reports and literature review." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2017;36(1):110-117. Abstract

Vascular access is key in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Thrombosis is a
significant contributor of access – associated morbidity. There are several documented risk factors that
predispose to thrombosis in patients with end stage renal disease. These include: inflammation, erythropoietin
therapy, hypotension, diabetes and old age among others. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients is
challenging. We present three cases of acute vascular thrombosis attended to in the Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi-Kenya, East Africa, renal department in one week and literature review.
Keywords: Vascular thrombosis; Haemodialysis catheter; endstage renal disease.

Wasonga OV, Musembi J, Rotich K, Jarso I, King-Okumu C. "Vegetation resources and their economic importance in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

Mutinda YA, Muthomi JW, Kimani JM, Cheminigw’wa GN, Olubayo FM. "Viability and Dormancy of Rice Seeds after Storage and Pre-treatment with Dry Heat and Chemical Agents." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(7):175-185.
Muthami J, Selvam SG, J W. "VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS - Providing Therapy for Gender Based Violence Survivors." Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5((10)):153-176.827-article_text-1788-1-10-20171109.pdf
Borna A. Nyaoke, Mutua G, sajabi R, delvin nyasani, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. "Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2017;https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183788(12).journal.pone_.pdf
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Mark A, Nikita M, Fred M, Jimmy M, Hassan M, Paul O. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14. Abstract
n/a
Peng B, Li Q, Liang X, Song P, Li J, He K, Fu D, Li Y, Shen C, Wang H, others. "Valley polarization of trions and magnetoresistance in heterostructures of MoS2 and yttrium iron garnet." ACS nano. 2017;11:12257-12265. Abstract
n/a
Richardson BA, John-Stewart G, Atkinson C, Ruth Nduati, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Boeckh M, Overbaugh J, Emery V, Slyker JA. "Vertical Cytomegalovirus Transmission From HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Formula-Feed or Breastfeed Their Infants." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(6):992-8. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers.

Oyagi MO, Onyatta JO, Kamau GN, Guto PM. "Validation of the Polyacrylic acid/Glassy Carbon Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Sensor for Simultaneous Analysis of Lead(II), Cadmium(II) and Cobalt(II) ions." International Journal of Electrochemical Science (IJES). 2016;11:3852-3861.
Liza L, mwaura F. "The Variability in the Generation, Disposal and Recycling of Mobile Phone E-waste According to Social Classes in Lang’ata Area, Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2016;Vol. 4(No. 2):42-51.
Omosa LK, Akala H, Kenanda EO, Ndunda B. "Variability of Surface Exudates of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f, Antioxidant and Antiplasmodial activities of the compounds." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2016;6(10):2224-3186.
FB A, PM M, PI M, J O’o. "Variant anatomy of the jugular Foramen: An osteological study." Academia Anatomica International. 2016;2(2):38-43. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_jugular_foramen_an_osteolog.pdf

Background:
Jugular foramen lesions are among the major complications
of skull base surgery. Morphological variations in the structure are pertinent
during interpretation of skull base radiographs and in surgical procedures
within the foramen. This study therefore aimed at describing the
morphology of the jugular foramen in a Kenyan population.
Methods:
One
hundred and five adult skulls from the Nairobi National Museums were
used. Jugular foramen septation, dome and dimen sions were studie d
extracranially. Statisti cal analysis was performed using SPSS (Version
21.1 IBM).
Results:
Septation was present in 202 (96.2%) jugular
foramina, type I partial septation being the most common (78.7%). A
dome was observed in 81 (38.6%) jugular foramina. Respectively, the
mean right and left anteroposterior dimensions were 11.17
±
2.05mm
vs.8.88
±
2.30mm (p <0.001), mediolateral dimensions 17.47
±
2.18mm vs.
15.30
±
2.53mm (p <0.001), jugular dome depth 12.38
±
2.64 mm vs.
11.25
±
2.15 mm (p=0.054), posterior wall thickness7.95
±
2.20mm vs.
9.68
±
1.98mm (p <0.001) and medial wall thickness 3.73
±
1.10 mm vs.
3.73
±
0.98mm (p = 0.992).
Conclusion:
Partial septation, asymmetry in
dimensions and a wide range in the dome depth of the jugular foramen
were frequent. Preoperative imaging of jugular foramen morphology is
therefore recommended to avoid inadvertent injury to its contents and
surrounding structures owing to variability.

Ogeng’o J. "VARIATIONS OF PULMONARY VEINS AND THEIR CLINICAL RELEVANCE." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2016;5(2):702-703. Abstract

Variations of pulmonary veins (PV) were previously considered rare, only documented as isolated case reports.
Recent cadaveric, autopsy, CT, MDCT and MRI studies have revealed substantial variations with respect to their
number and drainage pattern into the left atrium (Marom et al., 2004; Calkins et al., 2007; Wannasopha et al.,
2012; Harbi et al., 2014; Rajguru and Fulzele, 2016). The most commonly described variations include
supernumerary or less pulmonary veins and the corresponding arterial ostia. The article in this issue
(Kinfemichael and Dawit, 2016) presents a case of 5th pulmonary vein originating from the middle lobe of the
right lung. This is consistent with previous reports of supernumerary pulmonary veins and ostia (Marom et al.,
2004; Calkins et al., 2007; Prasanna et al., 2014). These vary from 2 – 7 (Wei et al., 2014; Yuan et al., 2015;
Rajguru and Fulzele, 2016; Kumzel – Piotrowska et al., 2016). The commonest cause of such variations is the
right middle pulmonary vein (Calkins et al., 2007; Klimek – Piotrowska et al., 2016). These variations have
informed various classifications based on number of pulmonary veins and ostia (Marom et al., 2004). One of the
most straight forward classifications was proposed by Shukla et al (2012). The principle of this classification in
the table below may be extended to include, say type VI or VII depending on the number of veins.

Njaria PM, Abuga KO, Kamau FK, Chepkwony HK. "A versatile hplc method for the simultaneous determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups." Chromatographia . 2016;79(21):1507-1514. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic, and versatile liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous
determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and
chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups commonly marketed in Kenya. Separation was achieved using
a Gemini® NX C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40 °C and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.25 M sodium hexanesulphonate-0.2 M ammonium acetate, and pH 3.0-water (35:4:10:51, % v/v/v/v) delivered at 1.0 mL min−1. The eluents were monitored by means of UV detection at 254 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed liquid chromatographic method was applied in the analysis of nine commercial samples obtained from Nairobi City County, Kenya. Extraction procedures were not applied during the assay of the samples, thus significantly shortening the analysis time.

PP P, Leoncini L, EA R, L T. "Virus-encoded microRNA contributes to the molecular profile of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphomas." Oncotarget . 2016;7(1):224-240. AbstractWebsite

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive neoplasm characterized by consistent morphology and phenotype, typical clinical behavior and distinctive molecular profile. The latter is mostly driven by the MYC over-expression associated with the characteristic translocation (8;14) (q24; q32) or with variant lesions. Additional genetic events can contribute to Burkitt Lymphoma pathobiology and retain clinical significance. A pathogenetic role for Epstein-Barr virus infection in Burkitt lymphomagenesis has been suggested; however, the exact function of the virus is largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the molecular profiles (genes and microRNAs) of Epstein-Barr virus-positive and -negative BL, to identify specific patterns relying on the differential expression and role of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs.First, we found significant differences in the expression of viral microRNAs and in selected target genes. Among others, we identified LIN28B, CGNL1, GCET2, MRAS, PLCD4, SEL1L, SXX1, and the tyrosine kinases encoding STK10/STK33, all provided with potential pathogenetic significance. GCET2, also validated by immunohistochemistry, appeared to be a useful marker for distinguishing EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. Further, we provided solid evidences that the EBV-encoded microRNAs (e.g. BART6) significantly mold the transcriptional landscape of Burkitt Lymphoma clones.In conclusion, our data indicated significant differences in the transcriptional profiles of EBV-positive and EBV-negative BL and highlight the role of virus encoded miRNA.

Jeroen Spitzen, Koelewijn T, Mukabana RW, Takken W. "Visualization of house-entry behaviour of malaria mosquitoes." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):233.
Siriba DN. "Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) for Land Administration: Is it Feasible?" Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2016;8(1):10-13.
Lugusa KO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YA, Crane TA. "Value chain analysis of grass seeds in the drylands of Baringo County, Kenya: A producers." Pastoralism. 2016;6:6. Abstract
n/a
Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Maniania NK. "V. Tumuhaise, S. Ekesi*, SA Mohamed, PN Ndegwa 2." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015;35(1):34-47.
Oliwa JN, Marais BJ. "Vaccines to prevent pneumonia in children–a developing country perspective.". 2015. AbstractWebsite

Pneumonia accounted for 15% of the 6.3 million deaths among children younger than five years in 2013, a total of approximately 935,000 deaths worldwide. Routine vaccination against common childhood illnesses has been identified as one of the most cost-effective strategies to prevent death from pneumonia.

Vaccine-preventable or potentially preventable diseases commonly linked with respiratory tract infections include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib), pertussis, influenza, measles, and tuberculosis. Although here have been great strides in the development and administration of effective vaccines, the countries that carry the largest disease burdens still struggle to vaccinate their children and newer conjugated vaccines remain out of reach for many.
The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) has identified priority areas for innovation in research in all aspects of immunization development and delivery to ensure equitable access to vaccines for all.

Omondi LA, Kuria MW, Wanzala P. "Validating preoperative assessment tool for per operative nursing." International Journal of Research. 2015;2(9):86-93.
Tharao MK, Oroko P, Abdulkarim A, Saidi H. "Validation of the Ottawa ankle rules at a tertiary teaching hospital." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):77-80.
Olabu BO, Loyal PK, Matiko BW, Nderitu JM, Misiani MK, Ogeng’o JA. "Variant Anatomy of the External Jugular Vein." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2015;4(1):518-527.
Ogeng’o J, Misiani M, Waisiko B, Olabu BO, Maranga E. "Variant Branching of the Common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Trifurcation is Common." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2015;4(1):528-533. AbstractVariant Branching of the Common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Trifurcation is CommonWebsite

Branching pattern of common femoral artery is important during artery catheterization, orthopaedic,
plastic and general surgery in the proximal thigh. Frequency of variant branching shows ethnic
variation but there are no data for black African populations. Since atherosclerotic diseases are
increasing and femoral artery catheterization is rising, variation in branching of common femoral artery
was studied by dissection in a black Kenyan population. 208 femoral arteries in 104 limbs were studied.
Bifurcation occurred in only 72.1% of cases. Trifurcation into superficial femoral, profunda femoris and
lateral circumflex femoral arteries occurred in 27.9% of cases. Trifurcation of common femoral artery
is a common variation in the black Kenyan population. Pre – operative ultrasonic evaluation of the
femoral arterial system is recommended to minimize inadvertent arterial injury during catheterization or
surgery.

Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black Kenyan population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19(3):287-290. AbstractVariant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black Kenyan population

Knowledge of variant origin of the superior cerebellar
artery is important during neuroradiological
and neurosurgical procedures at the basilar termination
and clivus regions, and may influence the
occurrence of atherosclerosis and aneurysms.
These variations show ethnic differences, but there
are hardly any reports on the black African population.
This study therefore examined the various
origins of 394 superior cerebellar arteries from 173
brains of black adult Kenyans, obtained during autopsy
at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi, Kenya. The cranial cavity was
opened and the brain removed en bloc. Arachnoid
matter was gently removed to expose the arteries
at the base of the brain. The distal third of the basilar
artery was exposed and superior cerebellar
artery identified as that which supplied the superior
surface of the cerebellar hemispheres. It was
traced to its origin and the source recorded. Representative
patterns were photographed with a
high resolution digital camera. The data were analyzed
for frequency and are presented in macrographs
and a table. The conventional single artery
origin from the basilar artery was present in only
284 (72.1%) cases. In the remainder, it was duplicated
in 84 (21.3%), originated from posterior cerebral
artery in 16 (4.0%) and from common trunk
with posterior cerebral artery in 10 (2.5%) cases.
Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery occurred
in nearly 28% of cases studied. This influences
the pattern of termination of the basilar artery,
may complicate posterior cranial fossa surgery
and predispose to atherosclerosis and aneurysms.
Preoperative evaluation of the superior cerebellar
artery is recommended.

Okoth S. "Variation in Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (Pfhrp2) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 3 (Pfhrp3) gene deletions in Guyana and Suriname." PLOS One. 2015;10(5):e0126805. Abstractjournal.pone_.0126805.pdfWebsite

Guyana and Suriname have made important progress in reducing the burden of malaria. While both countries use microscopy as the primary tool for clinical diagnosis, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are useful in remote areas of the interior where laboratory support may be limited or unavailable. Recent reports indicate that histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based diagnostic tests specific for detection of P. falciparum may provide false negative results in some parts of South America due to the emergence of P. falciparum parasites that lack the pfhrp2 gene, and thus produce no PfHRP2 antigen. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified in parasite isolates collected from Guyana and Suriname to determine if there were circulating isolates with deletions in these genes. Pfhrp3 deletions were monitored because some monoclonal antibodies utilized in PfHRP2-based RDTs cross-react with the PfHRP3 protein. We found that all 97 isolates from Guyana that met the inclusion criteria were both pfhrp2- and pfhrp3-positive. In Suriname (N = 78), 14% of the samples tested were pfhrp2-negative while 4% were pfhrp3-negative. Furthermore, analysis of the genomic region proximal to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 revealed that genomic deletions extended to the flanking genes. We also investigated the population substructure of the isolates collected to determine if the parasites that had deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 belonged to any genetic subtypes. Cluster analysis revealed that there was no predominant P. falciparum population substructure among the isolates from either country, an indication of genetic admixture among the parasite populations. Furthermore, the pfhrp2-deleted parasites from Suriname did not appear to share a single, unique genetic background.

Sambai K, Ru BLP, Gathara M, Ong’amo G, Elijah Njuguna, Juma G, Mwalusepo S, Okuku G, Calatayud PA, Gatebe E, Johansson T. "Variation of soil nutrients in maize growing areas along the altitudinal gradient of Taita hills transect in Kenya.". 2015.
Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19:287-290. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19:287-290. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Bo F, Özdemir ŞK, Peng B, Wang J, Zhang G, Xu J, Yang L. "Vertically coupled microresonators and oscillatory mode splitting in photonic molecules." Optics Express. 2015;23:30793-30800. Abstract
n/a
Mwachaka P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J. "Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}." ISRN Anatomy. 2014;2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

Mwachaka P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J. "Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}." ISRN Anatomy. 2014;2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

of the Broutet N, Fruth U DGSLRPSTIVTCCH 201. "Vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: the way forward." Vaccine. 2014;32(14):1630-7.
Kabira WM. "Validating Women’s Knowledge and Experiences." Pathways to African Feminism and Development ,Journal of the African Women’s Studies Centre, University of Nairobi.. 2014.
Kinyua K, Okunya OL. "Validity and reliability of teacher-made tests: Case study of year 11 physics in Nyahururu District of Kenya." African Educational Research Journal. 2014;2(2):61-71.
Ogeng’o JA, Misiani M, Malek A, Martin Inyimili, Murunga A, Ongeti K. "VARIANT TERMINATION OF THE COMMON CAROTID ARTERY: CASES OF QUADRIFURCATION AND PENTAFURCATION." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2014;3(3):386­‐392. Abstract

Knowledge of variant termination of common carotid artery is important to prevent inadvertent
vascular injury during surgical, interventional and diagnostic radiological neck procedures. The
variations show population differences but there are scanty data from the black African populations.
Further, though trifurcations have been reported, quadrifurcations and pentafurcations are hitherto
undocumented. This study therefore examined the pattern of termination of 208 left common carotid
arteries in the black Kenyan population by cadaveric dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy,
University of Nairobi. The conventional bifurcation into internal and external carotid arteries occurred in
only 128 (61.5%) of cases. Trifurcation occurred in 66 (31.7%), quadrifurcation in 11(5.4%) and
pentafurcation in 3 (1.4%). In all cases of trifurcation, superior thyroid artery was the third branch.
The common carotid artery quadrifurcated into external, internal carotid, superior thyroid and
ascending pharyngeal arteries. The pentafurcations comprised internal carotid, external carotid,
superior thyroid, occipital and posterior auricular arteries. These findings imply that the black Kenyan
population has over 38% frequency of variant termination of common carotid arteries comprising
trifurcation, quadrifurcation and pentafurcation which may complicate radical neck dissection, vascular
surgery, carotid catheterization and selective embolization. Surgeons and radiologists should approach
the common carotid bifurcation with extra caution.

Ogeng’o JA, Misiani MK, Olabu BO, M. B, Waisiko, Murunga A. "Variant termination of the left coronary artery: pentafurcation is not uncommon." Eur. J. Anat.. 2014;18(2):98-101. Abstract7.3.pdf

Variant termination of the left coronary artery is
important in interpreting effects of its occlusion,
a n d in guiding cardiac surgery and intervention
procedures. It also constitutes a geometric risk
factor for atherosclerosis. These features show
ethnic variations, but data from African populations
are scarce. This study therefore aimed at
describing the variant patterns of termination of
the left coronary artery in an indigenous Kenyan
population. Left coronary arteries of 208 formalinfixed
hearts were studied by dissection at the
Department of Human Anatomy, University of
Nairobi. The number of terminal branches was
recorded. Images of representative patterns were
taken using a high resolution camera. Frequencies
were calculated. Results are presented using
tables and macrographs. Single left coronary arteries
from the left aortic sinus were present in all the
208 hearts studied. The most frequent termination
pattern was bifurcation (54.8%), followed
by trifurcation (32.2%), quadrifurcation (9.6%)
and pentafurcation (3.4%). Over 45% of left coronary
arteries have variant patterns of termination.
Pentafurcation is not uncommon. This calls
for extra caution during interventional coronary
artery angiography, instrumentation and surgery.
Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

• Nderitu J, Butt f SH. "Variations in Emergence and course of the inferior Palpebral nerve." Craniomaxillofac Trauma and Reconstruction . 2014;In press(In Press):in Press.
Nderitu J, Butt F SH. "Variations in the emergence and course of the inferior palpebral nerve." Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr . 2014;7(3):233-6.
"Vector Bundles of Low rank on a Multiprojective Space." Le Matematiche. 2014;Vol 69(No 2):pp 31-41.Website
Ogeng’o J, Olabu B, Sinkeet R, Ogeng’o NM, Elbusaid H. "Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population." Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014;2014:5. AbstractVertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population

Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) refers to those arteries
with diameter of less than 2.0mm [1–3].This condition predisposes
to posterior circulation stroke [4–7] and vertebral
artery (VA) atherosclerosis [2, 8, 9] and can be confusedwith
pathological occlusion from, say, atherosclerosis or dissection
[10]. It is also associated deformities of other arterial components
of posterior circulation including basilar and posterior
communicating arteries [11, 12].Characteristics of this condition
are also important in selection andmoulding of catheters
during interventional neuroradiological procedures as well
as mitigating complications of endovascular treatment and
prognostication of cerebrovascular disease [11].
These characteristics of VAH show ethnic variation [13,
14]. As intracranial cerebral atherosclerosis becomes more
common in Sub-Saharan African countries [15], there is
need for data on African populations to informmanagement
of disorders in posterior circulation. There are, however,
currently few data from black African populations. This
study, therefore, investigated the pattern of vertebral artery
hypoplasia in an adult black population.

Kigen C, Abungu DNO. "Voltage Controller for Radial Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation." International Journal Of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(3).
Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Keter LK, Mwikwabe NM, Mbaabu MP, Sudheer HM, Festus M Tolo, Dhanani P, Orwa JA. "Validation of Safety and Efficacy of Antitussive Herbal Formulations. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics.". 2013;2(1):26-31.
Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng’o J, Samy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population." Anat J Afr. 2013;2(2):175-181. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng'o J, Sammy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng'o J, Sammy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

V. W. Wang’ondu, Kairo JG, Kinyamario JI, Mwaura FB, Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. "Vegetative and reproductive phenological traits of Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Sonneratia alba Sm." FLORA. 2013;208:522-531.
Kihiko D. "Venomous snake bite injuries at Kitui District Hospital." The Annals of African Surgery. 2013;10(1):15-20.
Mwaniki, Charles; Abungu N; WC. "Voltage Stability Improvement Using the 21st Century Power Transformer.". 2013. Abstract

The 21st Century Power Transformer is produced by combining modern high voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable technology with conventional transformer. The technique of solid insulation is adopted in the new dry transformer so that the pollution from leakage of insulating oil can be avoided, and so XLPE cable-winding transformer is very suitable in environment sensitive places such as populous cities, hydropower stations, and underground caver and so on. This paper is meant to show that the marriage of the well-proven high voltage power cable technology with transformer technology sets a new standard in improving power system voltage stability.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Hitti J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Ongecha-Owuor F, Roxby AC, Drake AL. "Valacyclovir Suppressive Therapy Reduces Plasma and Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Randomized Trial.". 2012. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown. Methods. Between April 2008 and August 2010, we conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of twice daily 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo beginning at 34 weeks gestation in 148 HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected pregnant Kenyan women ineligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy (CD4 > 250 cells/mm3). Women received zidovudine and single dose nevirapine for PMTCT and were followed until 12 months postpartum. Results. Mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 3.88 log10 copies/mL. Mean plasma HIV-1 was lower during pregnancy (−.56 log10 copies/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], −.77 to −.34) and after 6 weeks postpartum (−.51 log10 copies/mL; 95% CI, −.73 to −.30) in the valacyclovir arm than the placebo arm. Valacyclovir reduced breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection at 6 and 14 weeks postpartum compared with placebo (30% lower, P = .04; 46% lower, P = .01, respectively), but not after 14 weeks. Cervical HIV-1 RNA detection was similar between arms (P = .91). Conclusions. Valacyclovir significantly decreased early breast milk and plasma HIV-1 RNA among women receiving PMTCT.

Ongeti KW, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant Origin of the Superior Thyroid Artery in a Kenyan Population." Clinical Anatomy. 2012; 25:198-202.
Ogeng'o JA, Ongeti KW. "Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population.". 2012. Abstract

Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13%, and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended

Ogeng ’o JA, Olabu BO, Obimbo MM, Sinkeet SR, Inyimili MI. "Variant termination of basilar artery in a black Kenyan population." Journal of Morphological Sciences. 2012;29(2):91-93. Abstract

Variant termination of basilar artery influences occurrence of atherosclerosis and aneurysms, and is also important during cerebrovascular surgery and interventional neuroradiology at the basilar bifurcation, interpeduncular fossa and clivus. There are, however, hardly any reports on these patterns. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of termination of the basilar artery in a black Kenyan population. One hundred and seventy three (99 male; 74 female) adult cadaveric and autopsy brains of black Kenyans (age range 20-79) were examined. The basilar artery was exposed in its entire length, terminal branches identified and termination pattern recorded. Representative patterns of variations were photographed with a high resolution digital camera. Data were analyzed for frequency and are represented in a pie chart and macrographs. Bifurcation occurred in 142 (82.1%) of cases. In some of these cases, the superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries had a common trunk of origin. Variant terminations included trifurcation (18, 10.4%), quadrifurcation (10, 5.8%) and pentafircation (3, 1.7%). All the variants were related to duplication and/or point of origin of the superior cerebellar artery and occurrence of common trunk of origin for superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral artery. Variant termination of the basilar artery occurs in 17.9% of cases. These variations are related to the pattern of origin of superior cerebellar artery. Anticipation of these variations is important during neuroradiology, cerebrovascular surgery and interpretation of posterior circulatory stroke.

Ogengo JA, Olabu BO, Obimbo MM, Sinkeet SR, Inyimili MI. "Variant termination of basilar artery in a black kenyan population." J. Morphol. Sci.. 2012;29(2):91-93.variant_termination_of_basilar_artery_in_a.pdf
Imbahale SS, WR M, Orindi B, Githeko AK, Takken W. "Variation in malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites in Western kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;912408.
Wairimu JK, Sallet GWO. "A vector SIS model for malaria in a patchy environment with age structure." School of Biological Sciences. 2012;2012.Website
Blaschke, T.; Donert GKMQTK; F;. "Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society." Information. 2012;3(3):372-390.
Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2012;4(10):1260-1267.
Too, K V; Mutai MMMEBK; J. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts.". 2012. Abstract

The groundnut, Arachis hypogaea Linn, samples were collected from the majorly grown areas of western Kenya to investigate the viscoelastic properties pertinent to grain handling, storage and processing. In particular, the study conducted at the University of Nairobi, Department of Environmental and Biosystems laboratories in July 2010, aimed at investigating the stress-strain properties of bulk groundnuts in relation to Maxwell polymer viscoelastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was also applied to bulk groundnuts. Three samples were prepared for triaxial tests; each weighing 1062.4 g. The moisture content of the samples was 7.6%. The sample size for triaxial testing was 100 mm diameter and 199 mm height. Density of the samples during the tests was 678.6 kg/m3. Confining stresses of 200, 400 and 600 kPa were used and Axial Strain Rate (ASR) of 0.5 mm/min was used for the triaxial compression tests. For the senstar universal testing machine relaxation time was about 30 min for each of the samples. Relaxation data was recorded after every 30 sec for the duration of the test (30 min). These results showed that the Maxwell model for viscoelastic polymers can be applied to accurately describe the behaviour of bulk groundnuts.

K.V T, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology . 2012.
Mwaniki C, Abungu NO, Wekesa CW. "Voltage Stability Improvement Using the 21st Century Power Transformer." International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2012;3(4):21-28. Abstract1505.pdfClick here to read more...

The 21st Century Power Transformer is produced by combining modern high voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable technology with conventional transformer. The technique of solid insulation is adopted in the new dry transformer so that the pollution from leakage of insulating oil can be avoided, and so XLPE cable-winding transformer is very suitable in environment sensitive places such as populous cities, hydropower stations, and underground caver and so on. This paper is meant to show that the marriage of the well-proven high voltage power cable technology with transformer technology sets a new standard in improving power system voltage stability.

Ogengo JA, Olabu BO, Obimbo MM, Sinkeet SR, Inyimili MI. "Variant termination of basilar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." J. Morphol. Sci. 2012;29:91-93. Abstract
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Ogeng'o JA, El-busaidy H, Mwika PM, Khanbhai MM, Munguti J. "Variant anatomy of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2011;70(3):175-9. Abstract

Knowledge of variant anatomy of the sciatic nerve is important in avoiding inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region and interpreting nondiscogenic sciatica. This variant anatomy may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of sciatic nerve block. The variations differ between populations but data from Africans is scarce. This study, therefore, investigated variations of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population. One hundred and sixty-four sciatic nerves from 82 cadavers of black Kenyans were exposed by dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The level of bifurcation, relationship to piriformis, and topographic relations between the branches were studied. The results were analysed by SPSS version 16.0 and are presented by macrographs. In 33 (20.1%) cases division occurred in the pelvis, while in 131 (79.9%) it occurred outside the pelvis. A single trunk sciatic nerve exited below the piriformis muscle in 131 (79.9%) cases. In cases of pelvic division, the tibial nerve was always infrapiriformic, while the common peroneal nerve passed below piriformis in 16 (9.8%) cases, pierced the piriformis in 13 (7.9%), and passed above it in 4 (2.4%). For those in which division was extrapelvic, 110 (67.1%) were in the popliteal fossa, 17 (10.4%) in the middle third of the thigh, and 4 (2.4%) in the gluteal region. Where the division was pelvic, in 19 (11.6%) cases they continued separately, in 8 (4.9%) the two nerves reunited, and in 6 (3.7%) they were connected by a communicating nerve. The sciatic nerve in the Kenyan population varies from the classical description in over 30% of cases, with many high divisions, low incidence of piriformic course of common peroneal nerve, reunion, and unusual connection between common peroneal and tibial nerves. These variations may complicate surgery and interpretation of sciatic neuropathy. Preoperative nerve imaging and extra operative diligence in the gluteal region and the back of the thigh are recommended.

Muthoka JM, Sinkeet SR, Shahbal SH, Matakwa LC, Ogeng'o JA. "Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population." J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj. 2011;6:1. Abstract

Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce.

Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

Mwika PM, Munguti J, Khanbhai MM, El-busaidy H, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant anatomy of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population.". 2011. Abstract

Knowledge of variant anatomy of the sciatic nerve is important in avoiding inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region and interpreting nondiscogenic sciatica. This variant anatomy may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of sciatic nerve block. The variations differ between populations but data from Africans is scarce. This study, therefore, investigated variations of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population. One hundred and sixty-four sciatic nerves from 82 cadavers of black Kenyans were exposed by dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The level of bifurcation, relationship to piriformis, and topographic relations between the branches were studied. The results were analysed by SPSS version 16.0 and are presented by macrographs. In 33 (20.1%) cases division occurred in the pelvis, while in 131 (79.9%) it occurred outside the pelvis. A single trunk sciatic nerve exited below the piriformis muscle in 131 (79.9%) cases. In cases of pelvic division, the tibial nerve was always infrapiriformic, while the common peroneal nerve passed below piriformis in 16 (9.8%) cases, pierced the piriformis in 13 (7.9%), and passed above it in 4 (2.4%). For those in which division was extrapelvic, 110 (67.1%) were in the popliteal fossa, 17 (10.4%) in the middle third of the thigh, and 4 (2.4%) in the gluteal region. Where the division was pelvic, in 19 (11.6%) cases they continued separately, in 8 (4.9%) the two nerves reunited, and in 6 (3.7%) they were connected by a communicating nerve. The sciatic nerve in the Kenyan population varies from the classical description in over 30% of cases, with many high divisions, low incidence of piriformic course of common peroneal nerve, reunion, and unusual connection between common peroneal and tibial nerves. These variations may complicate surgery and interpretation of sciatic neuropathy. Preoperative nerve imaging and extra operative diligence in the gluteal region and the back of the thigh are recommended

Ongeti KW, Saidi H, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population." Clinical Anatomy. 2011.Website
Ogeng’o JA, Mwachaka PM, Olabu BO. "Vasa Vasora in the Tunica Media of Goat Aorta." International Journal of Morphology. 2011;29(3):702-705. Abstract

This study aimed at describing the distribution of vasa vasora in the tunica media of various parts of goat aorta, since this influences the physico-mechanical properties and disease occurrence. Specimens were obtained from ascending, arch, each vertebral level of descending thoracic and various segments of abdominal aorta of sixteen healthy adult male domestic goats (Capra hircus). They were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, and routinely processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason’s Trichrome stain. Vasa vasora are present in the tunica media of all the aortic segments. In the proximal segments, they co-localize with muscle islands found in the adventitial half. Their density declines caudally, but they are still present in the tunica media even in the abdominal aorta where the thickness is less than 0.5mm and elastic lamellae less than 29. Vasa vasora in the goat aortic tunica
media penetrate into the luminal half and are present even in relatively thin segments. This extent, which may enhance vascular health, suggests that the goat aortic wall is very active, a feature probably related to auxillary pump function of the muscle islands in the aortic wall

Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM, Olabu BO. "Vasa Vasora in the Tunica Media of Goat Aorta." Int. J. Morphol.. 2011;29(3):702-705.
Kipchirchir IC. "The Versatility of the Negative Binomial Distribution in Describing Dispersion." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(1):65-78.
Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG. "Viral Nucleoprotein localilzation and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". 2011. Abstract

Abstract

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts.
Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from
each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis,
necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Keywords Ducks . Immunohistochemical . Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein

Waiboci LW, Katz MA, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, Olack B, Njuguna H, Kikwai GK, Mwiti W, Williamson JM, Lebo E. "Viral shedding in patients infected with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Kenya, 2009.". 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Understanding shedding patterns of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) can inform recommendations about infection control measures. We evaluated the duration of pH1N1 virus shedding in patients in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) specimens were collected from consenting laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 cases every 2 days during October 14-November 25, 2009, and tested at the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention-Kenya by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR-positive samples was cultured. RESULTS: Of 285 NP/OP specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness, 140 (49%) tested positive for pH1N1 by rRT-PCR; 106 (76%) patients consented and were enrolled. The median age was 6 years (Range: 4 months-41 years); only two patients, both asthmatic, received oseltamivir. The median duration of pH1N1 detection after illness onset was 8 days (95% CI: 7-10 days) for rRT-PCR and 3 days (Range: 0-13 days) for viral isolation. Viable pH1N1 virus was isolated from 132/162 (81%) of rRT-PCR-positive specimens, which included 118/125 (94%) rRT-PCR-positive specimens collected on day 0-7 after symptoms onset. Viral RNA was detectable in 18 (17%) and virus isolated in 7/18 (39%) of specimens collected from patients after all their symptoms had resolved. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, pH1N1 was detected by rRT-PCR for a median of 8 days. There was a strong correlation between rRT-PCR results and virus isolation in the first week of illness. In some patients, pH1N1 virus was detectable after all their symptoms had resolved.

Kabo M, Nyangito MM. "Vulnerability to drought, adaptation and coping strategies among agro-pastoral communities in Botswana.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

With the increased threat of climate change effects on the African continent, this study was carried out to document the coping mechanisms against the rampant droughts by the agropastoral communities in Botswana. The study was carried out in Kgalagadi North and Bobonong. Effects of drought in these areas included livestock death, reduced crop yields, low pasture production and increased distances to water livestock. Coping measures included enrolling into government’s labour intensive Public Works Programme, harvesting larvae of Imbrasia belina with food or turning to other sources of income, and storage of crops during good harvests. Other means were planting drought resistant crops, supplemental livestock feeding, transferring livestock to better areas, and selling off animals. These methods however did not ameliorate farmers’ problems. There is therefore need to have more holistic research efforts to tackle the effects of drought in Botswana and elsewhere in Africa.

Oluoko-Odingo A, Elias HOA. "Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Nyando District of Kenya." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;5(1):34-46.
Bykowski J, Jahan R, Pakbaz SR. "Variant carotid origin of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery mimicking infarct on angiography." Journal of neurointerventional surgery. 2011:jnis–2010. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Mulligan-Kehoe MJ. "The vasa vasorum in diseased and nondiseased arteries." American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2010;298:H295-H305. AbstractWebsite

The vasa vasorum form a network of microvasculature that originate primarily in the adventitial layer of large arteries. These vessels supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the arterial wall. The expansion of the vasa vasorum to the second order is associated with neovascularization related to progression of atherosclerosis. Immunohistological analysis of human plaques from autopsied aortas have defined plaque progression and show a significant correlation with vasa vasorum neovascularization. Recent technological advances in microcomputed tomography have enabled investigation of vasa vasorum structure and function in nondiseased large arteries from pigs and dogs. Smaller mammals, particularly mice with genetic modifications that enable disease development, have been used extensively to study the vasa vasorum in diseased vessels. Despite the fact that most mouse models that are used to study atherosclerosis are unable to develop plaque to the extent found in humans, studies in both humans and mice underscore the importance of angiogenic vasa vasorum in progression of atherosclerosis. Those who have examined the vasa vasorum in occluded vessels of nondiseased pigs and dogs find that inhibition of the vasa vasorum makes the animals atheroprone. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease. There is increasing evidence that factors, produced in response to changes in the arterial wall, collaborate with the vasa vasorum to enhance the disease process.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Obimbo MM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H. "Variant anatomy of the uterine artery in a Kenyan population." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;111(1):49-52. Abstract

To investigate the uterine artery's origin, branching patterns, and relation to the ureter in a Kenyan population.

Obimbo MM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H. "Variant anatomy of the uterine artery in a Kenyan population." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;111(1):49-52. Abstract

To investigate the uterine artery's origin, branching patterns, and relation to the ureter in a Kenyan population. METHOD: The uterine arteries of the bodies of 53 girls and women were dissected at the University of Nairobi Department of Human Anatomy to study these patterns. Data were analyzed for frequency and the patterns are presented via digital macrographs. RESULTS: The uterine artery consistently originated as a branch of the internal iliac artery. It formed the second or third branch of the anterior trunk in 70.8% of cases; it ascended as a single branch, or from a bifurcation, or from a trifurcation in 76.4%, 17.1%, and 6.7% of cases; and lay posterior to the ureter in 3.8% of cases. In all, 46.2% of the uterine arteries studied varied from the classic description. CONCLUSION: About half of the uterine arteries had a nonclassic origin, branching pattern, or relation to the ureter-as a posterior relation to the ureter had not been previously described. Surgeons operating in the pelvis should be aware of this variant anatomy to avoid injury to the ureter and other organs

Ogeng'o JA, Masaki CO, Sinkeet SR, Muthoka JM, Murunga AK. "Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population." Ann. Transplant.. 2010;15(1):40-5. Abstract

Variant anatomy of renal arteries is important in renal transplant, vascular reconstruction, and uroradiological procedures. The variations show ethnic and population differences. Data from Africans are scarce and altogether absent for Kenyans. OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of origin, trajectories and branching of renal arteries in a Kenyan population. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. MATERIAL/METHODS: Three hundred and fifty six kidneys from 178 cadavers and postmortem specimens were used in the study. Aorta, renal arteries and kidneys were exposed by dissection. Number, trajectories, level of branching, number of branches and point of entry into the kidney were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0, and presented using macrographs, tables, and bar charts. RESULTS: Additional arteries occurred in 14.3% of the cases. In 82.4% of these, there was one additional artery. Fifty nine point five per cent of the double renal arteries were parallel and 7.1% crossed. Of the 305 single arteries, 76.4% showed hilar, 21.6% prehilar and 2% intraparenchymal branching. In the hilar branching, ladder type was present in 65% and fork type in 35%. Bifurcation and trifurcation were present in 59.6% and 33.1% respectively. Polar arteries were present in 16.9% cases. CONCLUSIONS: Over 14% of the Kenyan population may have additional renal arteries while more than 20% show early branching. Several trajectories and hilar branching patterns exist which renal transplant surgeons and radiologists should be aware of to avoid inadvertent vascular injury.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng'o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(3):160-3. Abstract

With the emerging utilisation of ansa cervicalis in nerve reconstructive surgery, it is important for surgeons to be conversant with the anatomy of these nerves. This descriptive cross sectional study aimed at describing the morphology and topographic anatomy of ansa cervicalis. We examined 38 adult human formalin-fixed cadavers. The superior root was present in 38 (100%) cases and 37 (97%) cases, on the right and left sides, respectively. More than half (56%) of these roots were located superior to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The inferior root, on the other hand, was present in 34 (89.5%) cases on the right side and 31 (81.6%) cases on the left side. Of all the inferior roots, 81.5% were located lateral to the internal jugular vein. The loop was seen in all the cases that had the inferior root, and was mostly (64.6%) located above the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle. Knowledge of the anatomy of ansa cervicalis is not only important for nerve reconstruction surgeries, but also for operations in the neck, so as to avoid injuring the great vessels that are closely related to it.

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Njoroge EM, Muthama NJ, Ouma GO, Lukorito CB. "Validation of Satellite Derived Rainfall Estimates over Kenya." Second RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference on" Building capacity for food security in Africa", Entebbe, Uganda, 20-24 September 2010. 2010:1445-1449. Abstractvalidation_of_satellite_derived_rainfall_estimates_over_kenya.pdfCAB Direct

Precipitation is one of the major components of the earth’s climate system. Many countries in the tropics depend on rainfall for the agricultural and hydrological activities which are dominant in their economies. Rainfall information is a crucial aspect not only for sustainable social-economic development of many countries but also for study of atmospheric circulations, climate analysis and global energy balance. Hence it is important to use reliable and accurate rainfall data in any planning. This study aims at validating satellite-derived rainfall estimates
retrieved from TRMM’s monthly rainfall retrieval algorithm, (3B-43 algorithm), over Kenya. The study analyzes eleven years of monthly rainfall estimates (1998-2008) produced by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)’s 3B-43 algorithm and compares them with gridded monthly rainfall totals from 26 synoptic and Agrometeorological stations in Kenya for the same period. Preliminary results suggest that satellite rainfall estimates can be modeled to represent areal rainfall in areas with inadequate ground based rainfall observations, especially over Northwestern, Northern, Northeastern and Southern Kenya.

Key words: Agrometeorology, rainfall data, remote sensing

Julius A. Ogeng’o, Charles O. Masaki SSJMAMRMK. "Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population." Annal of Transplantation. 2010;15(1)(15(1)):1-6.
Kimani SM, Alexander OJ, Hassan S, Bernard MN. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population." Intenational Journal of Morphology 2010. 2010;28(1):199-204 .
Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital.". 2010. Abstract

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts

45. Spentzou A, Bergin P GCAKC-CASHPDHAH, Piechocka-Trocha A, Wong J ANZALAKDGWGHPJOELF. "Viral Inhibition Assay: A CD8 T-cell neutralization assay for use in clinical trials of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 vaccine candidates." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010;201(5):720-9.
M.W N, A.O M, J.K M. "Vitamin A supplementation awareness among mothers of children under five years old at Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, ." Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health. 2010;7(3):238-246.
Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

{BACKGROUND/AIMS} Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex epidural haematoma manifesting with bilateral upper limb decerebrate posture: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(6):300-4. Abstract

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Mwachaka P, Odula PO, Awori K. "Variations in the pattern of formation of the abdominis rectus muscle sheath among Kenyans.". 2009. Abstractodula_p.o._rectus_sheath.pdf

The pattern of formation of the human rectus sheath exhibits variations, it is not clear if these variations are population specific. This study aimed at describing the pattern of formation of the rectus sheath in a select Kenyan population. Formation of the rectus sheath was analyzed in eighty subjects (47 male, 33 female) during autopsies and cadaveric dissection. The anterior wall of the rectus sheath in all cases was aponeurotic and firmly attached to rectus abdominis muscle. The posterior wall of the rectus sheath was aponeurotic in 71 (88.5%) cases, the rest were musculoaponeurotic and only seen in males. In all cases the aponeurosis of internal oblique abdominis split into two lamina; a deep lamina that fused with the aponeurosis of transverses abdominis at the lateral border of rectus abdominis and a superficial lamina that fused with aponeurosis of external oblique abdominis mid-way between the medial and lateral borders of rectus abdominis muscle. The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath among Kenyans shows some variations which have not been reported by previous workers. Knowledge of these variations is important in surgery as this sheath is always incised when making most aabdominal incisions.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex Epidural Hematoma Manifesting with Bilateral Upper Limb Decerebrate Posture: Case Report." EAMJ. 2009;86(6):300-304. AbstractWebsite

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

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