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Journal Article
Muthini DN, Nzuma JN, Nyikal AR. "Variety Awareness, Nutrition Knowledge and Adoption of Nutritionally Enhanced Crop Varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2019;14(4):225-237.
Muthini DN, Nzuma JM, Nyikal RA. "Variety awareness, nutrition knowledge and adoption of nutritionally enhanced crop varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics . 2019;14(4):225-237. AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates the impact of variety awareness and nutrition knowledge on the adoption of biofortified crop varieties using a sample of 661 households from Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. The study employs the average treatment effect (ATE) framework to control for information on the KK15 bean variety and knowledge of its nutritional attributes among small-scale farmers. The results show that farmers who had knowledge of the nutritional attributes of KK15 beans were more likely to adopt relative to those who were only aware of the variety. A nutrition attribute knowledge gap of 8% was estimated, which represents the potential adoption loss due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional benefits. Adoption of biofortified crops can therefore be improved by disseminating information on the varieties and their nutritional attributes. This can be achieved by entrenching nutrition information in extension packages disseminated to farmers.

Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
and H. Indangasi MOAM. "Value Creating Education in Kenya: Building a Humane Society." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
Rotich HK, Mbau JS, Onwonga R, Koech OK. "Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Grazing Management Practices in Semi-arid Grazing Lands of Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(3):227-239.
Rotich HK, Mbau JS, Onwonga R, Koech OK. "Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Grazing Management Practices in Semi-arid Grazing Lands of Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(3):227-238.
Ondicho TG. "Violence against women in Kenya: a public health problem." International Journal of Development and |Sustainability. 2018;7(6):2030-2047.ijds-v7n6-19.pdf
Mwangi HN, Onyango, Omosa LK, Mulaa F. "Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins." Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;2(2).
Musonye, MM, Muchiri J, Barasa VN. "Vitimbi as a Commentary of Kenya's Socio-political Experiences." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social sciences. 2018;2(5).
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/acetate buffer Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Wu C, Deng Z, Shang B, Ikkala O, Peng B, others. "A versatile colloidal Janus platform.". 2018. Abstract
n/a
Wu C, Deng Z, Shang B, Ikkala O, Peng B. "A versatile colloidal Janus platform: surface asymmetry control, functionalization, and applications." Chemical Communications. 2018;54:12726-12729. Abstract
n/a
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Mwangi J, Mjahid H, Oloo P. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):100-103.risk_scores-euroscore_validation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Busula AO, Takken W, de Boer JG, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst. "Variation in host preferences of malaria mosquitoes is mediated by skin bacterial volatiles." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2017;31(3):320-326.
Kabinga SK, Kayima J, MCLIGEYO SO, Wambugu B, NGIGI J, Chege R, Mutiso J. "Vascular thrombosis in patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis using indwelling venous catheters: Case reports and literature review." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2017;36(1):110-117. Abstract

Vascular access is key in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Thrombosis is a
significant contributor of access – associated morbidity. There are several documented risk factors that
predispose to thrombosis in patients with end stage renal disease. These include: inflammation, erythropoietin
therapy, hypotension, diabetes and old age among others. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients is
challenging. We present three cases of acute vascular thrombosis attended to in the Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi-Kenya, East Africa, renal department in one week and literature review.
Keywords: Vascular thrombosis; Haemodialysis catheter; endstage renal disease.

Wasonga OV, Musembi J, Rotich K, Jarso I, King-Okumu C. "Vegetation resources and their economic importance in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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Mutinda YA, Muthomi JW, Kimani JM, Cheminigw’wa GN, Olubayo FM. "Viability and Dormancy of Rice Seeds after Storage and Pre-treatment with Dry Heat and Chemical Agents." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(7):175-185.
Muthami J, Selvam SG, J W. "VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS - Providing Therapy for Gender Based Violence Survivors." Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5((10)):153-176.827-article_text-1788-1-10-20171109.pdf
Borna A. Nyaoke, Mutua G, sajabi R, delvin nyasani, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. "Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2017;https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183788(12).journal.pone_.pdf
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Mark A, Nikita M, Fred M, Jimmy M, Hassan M, Paul O. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14. Abstract
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Peng B, Li Q, Liang X, Song P, Li J, He K, Fu D, Li Y, Shen C, Wang H, others. "Valley polarization of trions and magnetoresistance in heterostructures of MoS2 and yttrium iron garnet." ACS nano. 2017;11:12257-12265. Abstract
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Richardson BA, John-Stewart G, Atkinson C, Ruth Nduati, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Boeckh M, Overbaugh J, Emery V, Slyker JA. "Vertical Cytomegalovirus Transmission From HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Formula-Feed or Breastfeed Their Infants." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(6):992-8. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers.

Oyagi MO, Onyatta JO, Kamau GN, Guto PM. "Validation of the Polyacrylic acid/Glassy Carbon Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Sensor for Simultaneous Analysis of Lead(II), Cadmium(II) and Cobalt(II) ions." International Journal of Electrochemical Science (IJES). 2016;11:3852-3861.
Liza L, mwaura F. "The Variability in the Generation, Disposal and Recycling of Mobile Phone E-waste According to Social Classes in Lang’ata Area, Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2016;Vol. 4(No. 2):42-51.
Omosa LK, Akala H, Kenanda EO, Ndunda B. "Variability of Surface Exudates of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f, Antioxidant and Antiplasmodial activities of the compounds." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2016;6(10):2224-3186.
FB A, PM M, PI M, J O’o. "Variant anatomy of the jugular Foramen: An osteological study." Academia Anatomica International. 2016;2(2):38-43. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_jugular_foramen_an_osteolog.pdf

Background:
Jugular foramen lesions are among the major complications
of skull base surgery. Morphological variations in the structure are pertinent
during interpretation of skull base radiographs and in surgical procedures
within the foramen. This study therefore aimed at describing the
morphology of the jugular foramen in a Kenyan population.
Methods:
One
hundred and five adult skulls from the Nairobi National Museums were
used. Jugular foramen septation, dome and dimen sions were studie d
extracranially. Statisti cal analysis was performed using SPSS (Version
21.1 IBM).
Results:
Septation was present in 202 (96.2%) jugular
foramina, type I partial septation being the most common (78.7%). A
dome was observed in 81 (38.6%) jugular foramina. Respectively, the
mean right and left anteroposterior dimensions were 11.17
±
2.05mm
vs.8.88
±
2.30mm (p <0.001), mediolateral dimensions 17.47
±
2.18mm vs.
15.30
±
2.53mm (p <0.001), jugular dome depth 12.38
±
2.64 mm vs.
11.25
±
2.15 mm (p=0.054), posterior wall thickness7.95
±
2.20mm vs.
9.68
±
1.98mm (p <0.001) and medial wall thickness 3.73
±
1.10 mm vs.
3.73
±
0.98mm (p = 0.992).
Conclusion:
Partial septation, asymmetry in
dimensions and a wide range in the dome depth of the jugular foramen
were frequent. Preoperative imaging of jugular foramen morphology is
therefore recommended to avoid inadvertent injury to its contents and
surrounding structures owing to variability.

Ogeng’o J. "VARIATIONS OF PULMONARY VEINS AND THEIR CLINICAL RELEVANCE." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2016;5(2):702-703. Abstract

Variations of pulmonary veins (PV) were previously considered rare, only documented as isolated case reports.
Recent cadaveric, autopsy, CT, MDCT and MRI studies have revealed substantial variations with respect to their
number and drainage pattern into the left atrium (Marom et al., 2004; Calkins et al., 2007; Wannasopha et al.,
2012; Harbi et al., 2014; Rajguru and Fulzele, 2016). The most commonly described variations include
supernumerary or less pulmonary veins and the corresponding arterial ostia. The article in this issue
(Kinfemichael and Dawit, 2016) presents a case of 5th pulmonary vein originating from the middle lobe of the
right lung. This is consistent with previous reports of supernumerary pulmonary veins and ostia (Marom et al.,
2004; Calkins et al., 2007; Prasanna et al., 2014). These vary from 2 – 7 (Wei et al., 2014; Yuan et al., 2015;
Rajguru and Fulzele, 2016; Kumzel – Piotrowska et al., 2016). The commonest cause of such variations is the
right middle pulmonary vein (Calkins et al., 2007; Klimek – Piotrowska et al., 2016). These variations have
informed various classifications based on number of pulmonary veins and ostia (Marom et al., 2004). One of the
most straight forward classifications was proposed by Shukla et al (2012). The principle of this classification in
the table below may be extended to include, say type VI or VII depending on the number of veins.

Njaria PM, Abuga KO, Kamau FK, Chepkwony HK. "A versatile hplc method for the simultaneous determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups." Chromatographia . 2016;79(21):1507-1514. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic, and versatile liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous
determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and
chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups commonly marketed in Kenya. Separation was achieved using
a Gemini® NX C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40 °C and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.25 M sodium hexanesulphonate-0.2 M ammonium acetate, and pH 3.0-water (35:4:10:51, % v/v/v/v) delivered at 1.0 mL min−1. The eluents were monitored by means of UV detection at 254 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed liquid chromatographic method was applied in the analysis of nine commercial samples obtained from Nairobi City County, Kenya. Extraction procedures were not applied during the assay of the samples, thus significantly shortening the analysis time.

PP P, Leoncini L, EA R, L T. "Virus-encoded microRNA contributes to the molecular profile of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphomas." Oncotarget . 2016;7(1):224-240. AbstractWebsite

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive neoplasm characterized by consistent morphology and phenotype, typical clinical behavior and distinctive molecular profile. The latter is mostly driven by the MYC over-expression associated with the characteristic translocation (8;14) (q24; q32) or with variant lesions. Additional genetic events can contribute to Burkitt Lymphoma pathobiology and retain clinical significance. A pathogenetic role for Epstein-Barr virus infection in Burkitt lymphomagenesis has been suggested; however, the exact function of the virus is largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the molecular profiles (genes and microRNAs) of Epstein-Barr virus-positive and -negative BL, to identify specific patterns relying on the differential expression and role of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs.First, we found significant differences in the expression of viral microRNAs and in selected target genes. Among others, we identified LIN28B, CGNL1, GCET2, MRAS, PLCD4, SEL1L, SXX1, and the tyrosine kinases encoding STK10/STK33, all provided with potential pathogenetic significance. GCET2, also validated by immunohistochemistry, appeared to be a useful marker for distinguishing EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. Further, we provided solid evidences that the EBV-encoded microRNAs (e.g. BART6) significantly mold the transcriptional landscape of Burkitt Lymphoma clones.In conclusion, our data indicated significant differences in the transcriptional profiles of EBV-positive and EBV-negative BL and highlight the role of virus encoded miRNA.

Jeroen Spitzen, Koelewijn T, Mukabana RW, Takken W. "Visualization of house-entry behaviour of malaria mosquitoes." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):233.
Siriba DN. "Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) for Land Administration: Is it Feasible?" Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2016;8(1):10-13.
Lugusa KO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YA, Crane TA. "Value chain analysis of grass seeds in the drylands of Baringo County, Kenya: A producers." Pastoralism. 2016;6:6. Abstract
n/a
Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Maniania NK. "V. Tumuhaise, S. Ekesi*, SA Mohamed, PN Ndegwa 2." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015;35(1):34-47.
Oliwa JN, Marais BJ. "Vaccines to prevent pneumonia in children–a developing country perspective.". 2015. AbstractWebsite

Pneumonia accounted for 15% of the 6.3 million deaths among children younger than five years in 2013, a total of approximately 935,000 deaths worldwide. Routine vaccination against common childhood illnesses has been identified as one of the most cost-effective strategies to prevent death from pneumonia.

Vaccine-preventable or potentially preventable diseases commonly linked with respiratory tract infections include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib), pertussis, influenza, measles, and tuberculosis. Although here have been great strides in the development and administration of effective vaccines, the countries that carry the largest disease burdens still struggle to vaccinate their children and newer conjugated vaccines remain out of reach for many.
The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) has identified priority areas for innovation in research in all aspects of immunization development and delivery to ensure equitable access to vaccines for all.

Omondi LA, Kuria MW, Wanzala P. "Validating preoperative assessment tool for per operative nursing." International Journal of Research. 2015;2(9):86-93.
Tharao MK, Oroko P, Abdulkarim A, Saidi H. "Validation of the Ottawa ankle rules at a tertiary teaching hospital." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):77-80.
Olabu BO, Loyal PK, Matiko BW, Nderitu JM, Misiani MK, Ogeng’o JA. "Variant Anatomy of the External Jugular Vein." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2015;4(1):518-527.
Ogeng’o J, Misiani M, Waisiko B, Olabu BO, Maranga E. "Variant Branching of the Common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Trifurcation is Common." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2015;4(1):528-533. AbstractVariant Branching of the Common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Trifurcation is CommonWebsite

Branching pattern of common femoral artery is important during artery catheterization, orthopaedic,
plastic and general surgery in the proximal thigh. Frequency of variant branching shows ethnic
variation but there are no data for black African populations. Since atherosclerotic diseases are
increasing and femoral artery catheterization is rising, variation in branching of common femoral artery
was studied by dissection in a black Kenyan population. 208 femoral arteries in 104 limbs were studied.
Bifurcation occurred in only 72.1% of cases. Trifurcation into superficial femoral, profunda femoris and
lateral circumflex femoral arteries occurred in 27.9% of cases. Trifurcation of common femoral artery
is a common variation in the black Kenyan population. Pre – operative ultrasonic evaluation of the
femoral arterial system is recommended to minimize inadvertent arterial injury during catheterization or
surgery.

Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black Kenyan population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19(3):287-290. AbstractVariant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black Kenyan population

Knowledge of variant origin of the superior cerebellar
artery is important during neuroradiological
and neurosurgical procedures at the basilar termination
and clivus regions, and may influence the
occurrence of atherosclerosis and aneurysms.
These variations show ethnic differences, but there
are hardly any reports on the black African population.
This study therefore examined the various
origins of 394 superior cerebellar arteries from 173
brains of black adult Kenyans, obtained during autopsy
at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi, Kenya. The cranial cavity was
opened and the brain removed en bloc. Arachnoid
matter was gently removed to expose the arteries
at the base of the brain. The distal third of the basilar
artery was exposed and superior cerebellar
artery identified as that which supplied the superior
surface of the cerebellar hemispheres. It was
traced to its origin and the source recorded. Representative
patterns were photographed with a
high resolution digital camera. The data were analyzed
for frequency and are presented in macrographs
and a table. The conventional single artery
origin from the basilar artery was present in only
284 (72.1%) cases. In the remainder, it was duplicated
in 84 (21.3%), originated from posterior cerebral
artery in 16 (4.0%) and from common trunk
with posterior cerebral artery in 10 (2.5%) cases.
Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery occurred
in nearly 28% of cases studied. This influences
the pattern of termination of the basilar artery,
may complicate posterior cranial fossa surgery
and predispose to atherosclerosis and aneurysms.
Preoperative evaluation of the superior cerebellar
artery is recommended.

Okoth S. "Variation in Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (Pfhrp2) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 3 (Pfhrp3) gene deletions in Guyana and Suriname." PLOS One. 2015;10(5):e0126805. Abstractjournal.pone_.0126805.pdfWebsite

Guyana and Suriname have made important progress in reducing the burden of malaria. While both countries use microscopy as the primary tool for clinical diagnosis, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are useful in remote areas of the interior where laboratory support may be limited or unavailable. Recent reports indicate that histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based diagnostic tests specific for detection of P. falciparum may provide false negative results in some parts of South America due to the emergence of P. falciparum parasites that lack the pfhrp2 gene, and thus produce no PfHRP2 antigen. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified in parasite isolates collected from Guyana and Suriname to determine if there were circulating isolates with deletions in these genes. Pfhrp3 deletions were monitored because some monoclonal antibodies utilized in PfHRP2-based RDTs cross-react with the PfHRP3 protein. We found that all 97 isolates from Guyana that met the inclusion criteria were both pfhrp2- and pfhrp3-positive. In Suriname (N = 78), 14% of the samples tested were pfhrp2-negative while 4% were pfhrp3-negative. Furthermore, analysis of the genomic region proximal to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 revealed that genomic deletions extended to the flanking genes. We also investigated the population substructure of the isolates collected to determine if the parasites that had deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 belonged to any genetic subtypes. Cluster analysis revealed that there was no predominant P. falciparum population substructure among the isolates from either country, an indication of genetic admixture among the parasite populations. Furthermore, the pfhrp2-deleted parasites from Suriname did not appear to share a single, unique genetic background.

Sambai K, Ru BLP, Gathara M, Ong’amo G, Elijah Njuguna, Juma G, Mwalusepo S, Okuku G, Calatayud PA, Gatebe E, Johansson T. "Variation of soil nutrients in maize growing areas along the altitudinal gradient of Taita hills transect in Kenya.". 2015.
Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19:287-290. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ogeng’o J, Elbusaidy H, Sinkeet S, Olabu B, Mwachaka P, Martin Inyimili. "Variant origin of the superior cerebellar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." Eur. J. Anat. 2015;19:287-290. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Bo F, Özdemir ŞK, Peng B, Wang J, Zhang G, Xu J, Yang L. "Vertically coupled microresonators and oscillatory mode splitting in photonic molecules." Optics Express. 2015;23:30793-30800. Abstract
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Mwachaka P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J. "Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}." ISRN Anatomy. 2014;2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

Mwachaka P, El-busaidy H, Sinkeet S, Ogeng&\#x2019, O J. "Variations in the {Position} and {Length} of the {Vermiform} {Appendix} in a {Black} {Kenyan} {Population}." ISRN Anatomy. 2014;2014:e871048. AbstractWebsite

Background. Topography of the appendix influences its mobility, degree of mobilization of the cecum, and need for additional muscle splitting during appendectomy. Although appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, there is a paucity of data on its topography in black Africans. Methods. The position and length of the appendix and relation of the appendicular base with spinoumbilical line were determined in 48 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results. The commonest appendicular types in males were retrocecal 10 (27&\#x25;) while in females was subileal 4 (36.4&\#x25;). The average length of the appendix was 76.5 &\#xb1; 23.6&\#x2009;mm. The base of the appendix was located along, below, and above the spinoumbilical line in 25 (52.1&\#x25;), 9 (18.8&\#x25;), and 14 (29.2&\#x25;) cases, respectively. Conclusion. The topography of appendix in Kenyans shows variations from other populations. Knowledge of these variations is important during appendicectomy.

of the Broutet N, Fruth U DGSLRPSTIVTCCH 201. "Vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: the way forward." Vaccine. 2014;32(14):1630-7.
Kabira WM. "Validating Women’s Knowledge and Experiences." Pathways to African Feminism and Development ,Journal of the African Women’s Studies Centre, University of Nairobi.. 2014.
Kinyua K, Okunya OL. "Validity and reliability of teacher-made tests: Case study of year 11 physics in Nyahururu District of Kenya." African Educational Research Journal. 2014;2(2):61-71.
Ogeng’o JA, Misiani M, Malek A, Martin Inyimili, Murunga A, Ongeti K. "VARIANT TERMINATION OF THE COMMON CAROTID ARTERY: CASES OF QUADRIFURCATION AND PENTAFURCATION." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2014;3(3):386­‐392. Abstract

Knowledge of variant termination of common carotid artery is important to prevent inadvertent
vascular injury during surgical, interventional and diagnostic radiological neck procedures. The
variations show population differences but there are scanty data from the black African populations.
Further, though trifurcations have been reported, quadrifurcations and pentafurcations are hitherto
undocumented. This study therefore examined the pattern of termination of 208 left common carotid
arteries in the black Kenyan population by cadaveric dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy,
University of Nairobi. The conventional bifurcation into internal and external carotid arteries occurred in
only 128 (61.5%) of cases. Trifurcation occurred in 66 (31.7%), quadrifurcation in 11(5.4%) and
pentafurcation in 3 (1.4%). In all cases of trifurcation, superior thyroid artery was the third branch.
The common carotid artery quadrifurcated into external, internal carotid, superior thyroid and
ascending pharyngeal arteries. The pentafurcations comprised internal carotid, external carotid,
superior thyroid, occipital and posterior auricular arteries. These findings imply that the black Kenyan
population has over 38% frequency of variant termination of common carotid arteries comprising
trifurcation, quadrifurcation and pentafurcation which may complicate radical neck dissection, vascular
surgery, carotid catheterization and selective embolization. Surgeons and radiologists should approach
the common carotid bifurcation with extra caution.

Ogeng’o JA, Misiani MK, Olabu BO, M. B, Waisiko, Murunga A. "Variant termination of the left coronary artery: pentafurcation is not uncommon." Eur. J. Anat.. 2014;18(2):98-101. Abstract7.3.pdf

Variant termination of the left coronary artery is
important in interpreting effects of its occlusion,
a n d in guiding cardiac surgery and intervention
procedures. It also constitutes a geometric risk
factor for atherosclerosis. These features show
ethnic variations, but data from African populations
are scarce. This study therefore aimed at
describing the variant patterns of termination of
the left coronary artery in an indigenous Kenyan
population. Left coronary arteries of 208 formalinfixed
hearts were studied by dissection at the
Department of Human Anatomy, University of
Nairobi. The number of terminal branches was
recorded. Images of representative patterns were
taken using a high resolution camera. Frequencies
were calculated. Results are presented using
tables and macrographs. Single left coronary arteries
from the left aortic sinus were present in all the
208 hearts studied. The most frequent termination
pattern was bifurcation (54.8%), followed
by trifurcation (32.2%), quadrifurcation (9.6%)
and pentafurcation (3.4%). Over 45% of left coronary
arteries have variant patterns of termination.
Pentafurcation is not uncommon. This calls
for extra caution during interventional coronary
artery angiography, instrumentation and surgery.
Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

• Nderitu J, Butt f SH. "Variations in Emergence and course of the inferior Palpebral nerve." Craniomaxillofac Trauma and Reconstruction . 2014;In press(In Press):in Press.
Nderitu J, Butt F SH. "Variations in the emergence and course of the inferior palpebral nerve." Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr . 2014;7(3):233-6.
"Vector Bundles of Low rank on a Multiprojective Space." Le Matematiche. 2014;Vol 69(No 2):pp 31-41.Website
Ogeng’o J, Olabu B, Sinkeet R, Ogeng’o NM, Elbusaid H. "Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population." Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014;2014:5. AbstractVertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population

Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) refers to those arteries
with diameter of less than 2.0mm [1–3].This condition predisposes
to posterior circulation stroke [4–7] and vertebral
artery (VA) atherosclerosis [2, 8, 9] and can be confusedwith
pathological occlusion from, say, atherosclerosis or dissection
[10]. It is also associated deformities of other arterial components
of posterior circulation including basilar and posterior
communicating arteries [11, 12].Characteristics of this condition
are also important in selection andmoulding of catheters
during interventional neuroradiological procedures as well
as mitigating complications of endovascular treatment and
prognostication of cerebrovascular disease [11].
These characteristics of VAH show ethnic variation [13,
14]. As intracranial cerebral atherosclerosis becomes more
common in Sub-Saharan African countries [15], there is
need for data on African populations to informmanagement
of disorders in posterior circulation. There are, however,
currently few data from black African populations. This
study, therefore, investigated the pattern of vertebral artery
hypoplasia in an adult black population.

Kigen C, Abungu DNO. "Voltage Controller for Radial Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation." International Journal Of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(3).
Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Keter LK, Mwikwabe NM, Mbaabu MP, Sudheer HM, Festus M Tolo, Dhanani P, Orwa JA. "Validation of Safety and Efficacy of Antitussive Herbal Formulations. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics.". 2013;2(1):26-31.
Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng’o J, Samy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population." Anat J Afr. 2013;2(2):175-181. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng'o J, Sammy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

Munguti J, Odula P, Awori K, Ogeng'o J, Sammy M. "Variant anatomy of the right portal vein in a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstractkirsteen_awori.pdf

Surface mapping of the liver before invasive procedures depends on a proper understanding of its segmental vasculature. The right portal vein ramification and lengths show marked variations and these mostly involve its right posterior sectoral branch. Their incidence is variable among populations and altogether undocumented among Africans. One hundred livers obtained during autopsies and dissections at the Department of Human anatomy, University of Nairobi, were used in this study. Gross dissection was done to reveal and determine the branching pattern of the right portal vein and the origin of the right posterior sector branch. The lengths of the right portal vein were also measured and recorded. When present, the right portal vein terminated by bifurcation in 61% of the cases, trifurcated in 20.8% and quadrifircated in 18.2%. Its length was between 0.5cm and 4cm. The right posterior sector vein was given off the main portal vein in 34 cases, the common left portal vein trunk in 15 cases, and the right portal vein in 42 cases. In 9 cases, it was not observed at the porta hepatis. We report significant different incidences of the variant anatomy of the right portal vein compared to those found in previous studies and this should be borne in mind when doing surgical interventions

V. W. Wang’ondu, Kairo JG, Kinyamario JI, Mwaura FB, Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. "Vegetative and reproductive phenological traits of Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Sonneratia alba Sm." FLORA. 2013;208:522-531.
Kihiko D. "Venomous snake bite injuries at Kitui District Hospital." The Annals of African Surgery. 2013;10(1):15-20.
Mwaniki, Charles; Abungu N; WC. "Voltage Stability Improvement Using the 21st Century Power Transformer.". 2013. Abstract

The 21st Century Power Transformer is produced by combining modern high voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable technology with conventional transformer. The technique of solid insulation is adopted in the new dry transformer so that the pollution from leakage of insulating oil can be avoided, and so XLPE cable-winding transformer is very suitable in environment sensitive places such as populous cities, hydropower stations, and underground caver and so on. This paper is meant to show that the marriage of the well-proven high voltage power cable technology with transformer technology sets a new standard in improving power system voltage stability.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Hitti J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Ongecha-Owuor F, Roxby AC, Drake AL. "Valacyclovir Suppressive Therapy Reduces Plasma and Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Randomized Trial.". 2012. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown. Methods. Between April 2008 and August 2010, we conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of twice daily 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo beginning at 34 weeks gestation in 148 HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected pregnant Kenyan women ineligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy (CD4 > 250 cells/mm3). Women received zidovudine and single dose nevirapine for PMTCT and were followed until 12 months postpartum. Results. Mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 3.88 log10 copies/mL. Mean plasma HIV-1 was lower during pregnancy (−.56 log10 copies/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], −.77 to −.34) and after 6 weeks postpartum (−.51 log10 copies/mL; 95% CI, −.73 to −.30) in the valacyclovir arm than the placebo arm. Valacyclovir reduced breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection at 6 and 14 weeks postpartum compared with placebo (30% lower, P = .04; 46% lower, P = .01, respectively), but not after 14 weeks. Cervical HIV-1 RNA detection was similar between arms (P = .91). Conclusions. Valacyclovir significantly decreased early breast milk and plasma HIV-1 RNA among women receiving PMTCT.

Ongeti KW, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant Origin of the Superior Thyroid Artery in a Kenyan Population." Clinical Anatomy. 2012; 25:198-202.
Ogeng'o JA, Ongeti KW. "Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population.". 2012. Abstract

Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13%, and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended

Ogeng ’o JA, Olabu BO, Obimbo MM, Sinkeet SR, Inyimili MI. "Variant termination of basilar artery in a black Kenyan population." Journal of Morphological Sciences. 2012;29(2):91-93. Abstract

Variant termination of basilar artery influences occurrence of atherosclerosis and aneurysms, and is also important during cerebrovascular surgery and interventional neuroradiology at the basilar bifurcation, interpeduncular fossa and clivus. There are, however, hardly any reports on these patterns. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of termination of the basilar artery in a black Kenyan population. One hundred and seventy three (99 male; 74 female) adult cadaveric and autopsy brains of black Kenyans (age range 20-79) were examined. The basilar artery was exposed in its entire length, terminal branches identified and termination pattern recorded. Representative patterns of variations were photographed with a high resolution digital camera. Data were analyzed for frequency and are represented in a pie chart and macrographs. Bifurcation occurred in 142 (82.1%) of cases. In some of these cases, the superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries had a common trunk of origin. Variant terminations included trifurcation (18, 10.4%), quadrifurcation (10, 5.8%) and pentafircation (3, 1.7%). All the variants were related to duplication and/or point of origin of the superior cerebellar artery and occurrence of common trunk of origin for superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral artery. Variant termination of the basilar artery occurs in 17.9% of cases. These variations are related to the pattern of origin of superior cerebellar artery. Anticipation of these variations is important during neuroradiology, cerebrovascular surgery and interpretation of posterior circulatory stroke.

Ogengo JA, Olabu BO, Obimbo MM, Sinkeet SR, Inyimili MI. "Variant termination of basilar artery in a black kenyan population." J. Morphol. Sci.. 2012;29(2):91-93.variant_termination_of_basilar_artery_in_a.pdf
Imbahale SS, WR M, Orindi B, Githeko AK, Takken W. "Variation in malaria transmission dynamics in three different sites in Western kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;912408.
Wairimu JK, Sallet GWO. "A vector SIS model for malaria in a patchy environment with age structure." School of Biological Sciences. 2012;2012.Website
Blaschke, T.; Donert GKMQTK; F;. "Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society." Information. 2012;3(3):372-390.
Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2012;4(10):1260-1267.
Too, K V; Mutai MMMEBK; J. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts.". 2012. Abstract

The groundnut, Arachis hypogaea Linn, samples were collected from the majorly grown areas of western Kenya to investigate the viscoelastic properties pertinent to grain handling, storage and processing. In particular, the study conducted at the University of Nairobi, Department of Environmental and Biosystems laboratories in July 2010, aimed at investigating the stress-strain properties of bulk groundnuts in relation to Maxwell polymer viscoelastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was also applied to bulk groundnuts. Three samples were prepared for triaxial tests; each weighing 1062.4 g. The moisture content of the samples was 7.6%. The sample size for triaxial testing was 100 mm diameter and 199 mm height. Density of the samples during the tests was 678.6 kg/m3. Confining stresses of 200, 400 and 600 kPa were used and Axial Strain Rate (ASR) of 0.5 mm/min was used for the triaxial compression tests. For the senstar universal testing machine relaxation time was about 30 min for each of the samples. Relaxation data was recorded after every 30 sec for the duration of the test (30 min). These results showed that the Maxwell model for viscoelastic polymers can be applied to accurately describe the behaviour of bulk groundnuts.

K.V T, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology . 2012.
Mwaniki C, Abungu NO, Wekesa CW. "Voltage Stability Improvement Using the 21st Century Power Transformer." International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2012;3(4):21-28. Abstract1505.pdfClick here to read more...

The 21st Century Power Transformer is produced by combining modern high voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable technology with conventional transformer. The technique of solid insulation is adopted in the new dry transformer so that the pollution from leakage of insulating oil can be avoided, and so XLPE cable-winding transformer is very suitable in environment sensitive places such as populous cities, hydropower stations, and underground caver and so on. This paper is meant to show that the marriage of the well-proven high voltage power cable technology with transformer technology sets a new standard in improving power system voltage stability.

Ogengo JA, Olabu BO, Obimbo MM, Sinkeet SR, Inyimili MI. "Variant termination of basilar artery in a black {Kenyan} population." J. Morphol. Sci. 2012;29:91-93. Abstract
n/a
Ogeng'o JA, El-busaidy H, Mwika PM, Khanbhai MM, Munguti J. "Variant anatomy of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2011;70(3):175-9. Abstract

Knowledge of variant anatomy of the sciatic nerve is important in avoiding inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region and interpreting nondiscogenic sciatica. This variant anatomy may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of sciatic nerve block. The variations differ between populations but data from Africans is scarce. This study, therefore, investigated variations of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population. One hundred and sixty-four sciatic nerves from 82 cadavers of black Kenyans were exposed by dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The level of bifurcation, relationship to piriformis, and topographic relations between the branches were studied. The results were analysed by SPSS version 16.0 and are presented by macrographs. In 33 (20.1%) cases division occurred in the pelvis, while in 131 (79.9%) it occurred outside the pelvis. A single trunk sciatic nerve exited below the piriformis muscle in 131 (79.9%) cases. In cases of pelvic division, the tibial nerve was always infrapiriformic, while the common peroneal nerve passed below piriformis in 16 (9.8%) cases, pierced the piriformis in 13 (7.9%), and passed above it in 4 (2.4%). For those in which division was extrapelvic, 110 (67.1%) were in the popliteal fossa, 17 (10.4%) in the middle third of the thigh, and 4 (2.4%) in the gluteal region. Where the division was pelvic, in 19 (11.6%) cases they continued separately, in 8 (4.9%) the two nerves reunited, and in 6 (3.7%) they were connected by a communicating nerve. The sciatic nerve in the Kenyan population varies from the classical description in over 30% of cases, with many high divisions, low incidence of piriformic course of common peroneal nerve, reunion, and unusual connection between common peroneal and tibial nerves. These variations may complicate surgery and interpretation of sciatic neuropathy. Preoperative nerve imaging and extra operative diligence in the gluteal region and the back of the thigh are recommended.

Muthoka JM, Sinkeet SR, Shahbal SH, Matakwa LC, Ogeng'o JA. "Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population." J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj. 2011;6:1. Abstract

Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce.

Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

Mwika PM, Munguti J, Khanbhai MM, El-busaidy H, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant anatomy of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population.". 2011. Abstract

Knowledge of variant anatomy of the sciatic nerve is important in avoiding inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region and interpreting nondiscogenic sciatica. This variant anatomy may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of sciatic nerve block. The variations differ between populations but data from Africans is scarce. This study, therefore, investigated variations of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population. One hundred and sixty-four sciatic nerves from 82 cadavers of black Kenyans were exposed by dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The level of bifurcation, relationship to piriformis, and topographic relations between the branches were studied. The results were analysed by SPSS version 16.0 and are presented by macrographs. In 33 (20.1%) cases division occurred in the pelvis, while in 131 (79.9%) it occurred outside the pelvis. A single trunk sciatic nerve exited below the piriformis muscle in 131 (79.9%) cases. In cases of pelvic division, the tibial nerve was always infrapiriformic, while the common peroneal nerve passed below piriformis in 16 (9.8%) cases, pierced the piriformis in 13 (7.9%), and passed above it in 4 (2.4%). For those in which division was extrapelvic, 110 (67.1%) were in the popliteal fossa, 17 (10.4%) in the middle third of the thigh, and 4 (2.4%) in the gluteal region. Where the division was pelvic, in 19 (11.6%) cases they continued separately, in 8 (4.9%) the two nerves reunited, and in 6 (3.7%) they were connected by a communicating nerve. The sciatic nerve in the Kenyan population varies from the classical description in over 30% of cases, with many high divisions, low incidence of piriformic course of common peroneal nerve, reunion, and unusual connection between common peroneal and tibial nerves. These variations may complicate surgery and interpretation of sciatic neuropathy. Preoperative nerve imaging and extra operative diligence in the gluteal region and the back of the thigh are recommended

Ongeti KW, Saidi H, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population." Clinical Anatomy. 2011.Website
Ogeng’o JA, Mwachaka PM, Olabu BO. "Vasa Vasora in the Tunica Media of Goat Aorta." International Journal of Morphology. 2011;29(3):702-705. Abstract

This study aimed at describing the distribution of vasa vasora in the tunica media of various parts of goat aorta, since this influences the physico-mechanical properties and disease occurrence. Specimens were obtained from ascending, arch, each vertebral level of descending thoracic and various segments of abdominal aorta of sixteen healthy adult male domestic goats (Capra hircus). They were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, and routinely processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason’s Trichrome stain. Vasa vasora are present in the tunica media of all the aortic segments. In the proximal segments, they co-localize with muscle islands found in the adventitial half. Their density declines caudally, but they are still present in the tunica media even in the abdominal aorta where the thickness is less than 0.5mm and elastic lamellae less than 29. Vasa vasora in the goat aortic tunica
media penetrate into the luminal half and are present even in relatively thin segments. This extent, which may enhance vascular health, suggests that the goat aortic wall is very active, a feature probably related to auxillary pump function of the muscle islands in the aortic wall

Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM, Olabu BO. "Vasa Vasora in the Tunica Media of Goat Aorta." Int. J. Morphol.. 2011;29(3):702-705.
Kipchirchir IC. "The Versatility of the Negative Binomial Distribution in Describing Dispersion." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(1):65-78.
Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG. "Viral Nucleoprotein localilzation and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". 2011. Abstract

Abstract

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts.
Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from
each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis,
necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Keywords Ducks . Immunohistochemical . Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein

Waiboci LW, Katz MA, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, Olack B, Njuguna H, Kikwai GK, Mwiti W, Williamson JM, Lebo E. "Viral shedding in patients infected with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Kenya, 2009.". 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Understanding shedding patterns of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) can inform recommendations about infection control measures. We evaluated the duration of pH1N1 virus shedding in patients in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) specimens were collected from consenting laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 cases every 2 days during October 14-November 25, 2009, and tested at the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention-Kenya by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR-positive samples was cultured. RESULTS: Of 285 NP/OP specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness, 140 (49%) tested positive for pH1N1 by rRT-PCR; 106 (76%) patients consented and were enrolled. The median age was 6 years (Range: 4 months-41 years); only two patients, both asthmatic, received oseltamivir. The median duration of pH1N1 detection after illness onset was 8 days (95% CI: 7-10 days) for rRT-PCR and 3 days (Range: 0-13 days) for viral isolation. Viable pH1N1 virus was isolated from 132/162 (81%) of rRT-PCR-positive specimens, which included 118/125 (94%) rRT-PCR-positive specimens collected on day 0-7 after symptoms onset. Viral RNA was detectable in 18 (17%) and virus isolated in 7/18 (39%) of specimens collected from patients after all their symptoms had resolved. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, pH1N1 was detected by rRT-PCR for a median of 8 days. There was a strong correlation between rRT-PCR results and virus isolation in the first week of illness. In some patients, pH1N1 virus was detectable after all their symptoms had resolved.

Kabo M, Nyangito MM. "Vulnerability to drought, adaptation and coping strategies among agro-pastoral communities in Botswana.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

With the increased threat of climate change effects on the African continent, this study was carried out to document the coping mechanisms against the rampant droughts by the agropastoral communities in Botswana. The study was carried out in Kgalagadi North and Bobonong. Effects of drought in these areas included livestock death, reduced crop yields, low pasture production and increased distances to water livestock. Coping measures included enrolling into government’s labour intensive Public Works Programme, harvesting larvae of Imbrasia belina with food or turning to other sources of income, and storage of crops during good harvests. Other means were planting drought resistant crops, supplemental livestock feeding, transferring livestock to better areas, and selling off animals. These methods however did not ameliorate farmers’ problems. There is therefore need to have more holistic research efforts to tackle the effects of drought in Botswana and elsewhere in Africa.

Oluoko-Odingo A, Elias HOA. "Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Nyando District of Kenya." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;5(1):34-46.
Bykowski J, Jahan R, Pakbaz SR. "Variant carotid origin of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery mimicking infarct on angiography." Journal of neurointerventional surgery. 2011:jnis–2010. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Mulligan-Kehoe MJ. "The vasa vasorum in diseased and nondiseased arteries." American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2010;298:H295-H305. AbstractWebsite

The vasa vasorum form a network of microvasculature that originate primarily in the adventitial layer of large arteries. These vessels supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the arterial wall. The expansion of the vasa vasorum to the second order is associated with neovascularization related to progression of atherosclerosis. Immunohistological analysis of human plaques from autopsied aortas have defined plaque progression and show a significant correlation with vasa vasorum neovascularization. Recent technological advances in microcomputed tomography have enabled investigation of vasa vasorum structure and function in nondiseased large arteries from pigs and dogs. Smaller mammals, particularly mice with genetic modifications that enable disease development, have been used extensively to study the vasa vasorum in diseased vessels. Despite the fact that most mouse models that are used to study atherosclerosis are unable to develop plaque to the extent found in humans, studies in both humans and mice underscore the importance of angiogenic vasa vasorum in progression of atherosclerosis. Those who have examined the vasa vasorum in occluded vessels of nondiseased pigs and dogs find that inhibition of the vasa vasorum makes the animals atheroprone. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease. There is increasing evidence that factors, produced in response to changes in the arterial wall, collaborate with the vasa vasorum to enhance the disease process.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Obimbo MM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H. "Variant anatomy of the uterine artery in a Kenyan population." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;111(1):49-52. Abstract

To investigate the uterine artery's origin, branching patterns, and relation to the ureter in a Kenyan population.

Obimbo MM, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H. "Variant anatomy of the uterine artery in a Kenyan population." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;111(1):49-52. Abstract

To investigate the uterine artery's origin, branching patterns, and relation to the ureter in a Kenyan population. METHOD: The uterine arteries of the bodies of 53 girls and women were dissected at the University of Nairobi Department of Human Anatomy to study these patterns. Data were analyzed for frequency and the patterns are presented via digital macrographs. RESULTS: The uterine artery consistently originated as a branch of the internal iliac artery. It formed the second or third branch of the anterior trunk in 70.8% of cases; it ascended as a single branch, or from a bifurcation, or from a trifurcation in 76.4%, 17.1%, and 6.7% of cases; and lay posterior to the ureter in 3.8% of cases. In all, 46.2% of the uterine arteries studied varied from the classic description. CONCLUSION: About half of the uterine arteries had a nonclassic origin, branching pattern, or relation to the ureter-as a posterior relation to the ureter had not been previously described. Surgeons operating in the pelvis should be aware of this variant anatomy to avoid injury to the ureter and other organs

Ogeng'o JA, Masaki CO, Sinkeet SR, Muthoka JM, Murunga AK. "Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population." Ann. Transplant.. 2010;15(1):40-5. Abstract

Variant anatomy of renal arteries is important in renal transplant, vascular reconstruction, and uroradiological procedures. The variations show ethnic and population differences. Data from Africans are scarce and altogether absent for Kenyans. OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of origin, trajectories and branching of renal arteries in a Kenyan population. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. MATERIAL/METHODS: Three hundred and fifty six kidneys from 178 cadavers and postmortem specimens were used in the study. Aorta, renal arteries and kidneys were exposed by dissection. Number, trajectories, level of branching, number of branches and point of entry into the kidney were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0, and presented using macrographs, tables, and bar charts. RESULTS: Additional arteries occurred in 14.3% of the cases. In 82.4% of these, there was one additional artery. Fifty nine point five per cent of the double renal arteries were parallel and 7.1% crossed. Of the 305 single arteries, 76.4% showed hilar, 21.6% prehilar and 2% intraparenchymal branching. In the hilar branching, ladder type was present in 65% and fork type in 35%. Bifurcation and trifurcation were present in 59.6% and 33.1% respectively. Polar arteries were present in 16.9% cases. CONCLUSIONS: Over 14% of the Kenyan population may have additional renal arteries while more than 20% show early branching. Several trajectories and hilar branching patterns exist which renal transplant surgeons and radiologists should be aware of to avoid inadvertent vascular injury.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng'o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(3):160-3. Abstract

With the emerging utilisation of ansa cervicalis in nerve reconstructive surgery, it is important for surgeons to be conversant with the anatomy of these nerves. This descriptive cross sectional study aimed at describing the morphology and topographic anatomy of ansa cervicalis. We examined 38 adult human formalin-fixed cadavers. The superior root was present in 38 (100%) cases and 37 (97%) cases, on the right and left sides, respectively. More than half (56%) of these roots were located superior to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The inferior root, on the other hand, was present in 34 (89.5%) cases on the right side and 31 (81.6%) cases on the left side. Of all the inferior roots, 81.5% were located lateral to the internal jugular vein. The loop was seen in all the cases that had the inferior root, and was mostly (64.6%) located above the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle. Knowledge of the anatomy of ansa cervicalis is not only important for nerve reconstruction surgeries, but also for operations in the neck, so as to avoid injuring the great vessels that are closely related to it.

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Njoroge EM, Muthama NJ, Ouma GO, Lukorito CB. "Validation of Satellite Derived Rainfall Estimates over Kenya." Second RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference on" Building capacity for food security in Africa", Entebbe, Uganda, 20-24 September 2010. 2010:1445-1449. Abstractvalidation_of_satellite_derived_rainfall_estimates_over_kenya.pdfCAB Direct

Precipitation is one of the major components of the earth’s climate system. Many countries in the tropics depend on rainfall for the agricultural and hydrological activities which are dominant in their economies. Rainfall information is a crucial aspect not only for sustainable social-economic development of many countries but also for study of atmospheric circulations, climate analysis and global energy balance. Hence it is important to use reliable and accurate rainfall data in any planning. This study aims at validating satellite-derived rainfall estimates
retrieved from TRMM’s monthly rainfall retrieval algorithm, (3B-43 algorithm), over Kenya. The study analyzes eleven years of monthly rainfall estimates (1998-2008) produced by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)’s 3B-43 algorithm and compares them with gridded monthly rainfall totals from 26 synoptic and Agrometeorological stations in Kenya for the same period. Preliminary results suggest that satellite rainfall estimates can be modeled to represent areal rainfall in areas with inadequate ground based rainfall observations, especially over Northwestern, Northern, Northeastern and Southern Kenya.

Key words: Agrometeorology, rainfall data, remote sensing

Julius A. Ogeng’o, Charles O. Masaki SSJMAMRMK. "Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population." Annal of Transplantation. 2010;15(1)(15(1)):1-6.
Kimani SM, Alexander OJ, Hassan S, Bernard MN. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population." Intenational Journal of Morphology 2010. 2010;28(1):199-204 .
Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital.". 2010. Abstract

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts

45. Spentzou A, Bergin P GCAKC-CASHPDHAH, Piechocka-Trocha A, Wong J ANZALAKDGWGHPJOELF. "Viral Inhibition Assay: A CD8 T-cell neutralization assay for use in clinical trials of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 vaccine candidates." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010;201(5):720-9.
M.W N, A.O M, J.K M. "Vitamin A supplementation awareness among mothers of children under five years old at Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, ." Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health. 2010;7(3):238-246.
Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

{BACKGROUND/AIMS} Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex epidural haematoma manifesting with bilateral upper limb decerebrate posture: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(6):300-4. Abstract

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Mwachaka P, Odula PO, Awori K. "Variations in the pattern of formation of the abdominis rectus muscle sheath among Kenyans.". 2009. Abstractodula_p.o._rectus_sheath.pdf

The pattern of formation of the human rectus sheath exhibits variations, it is not clear if these variations are population specific. This study aimed at describing the pattern of formation of the rectus sheath in a select Kenyan population. Formation of the rectus sheath was analyzed in eighty subjects (47 male, 33 female) during autopsies and cadaveric dissection. The anterior wall of the rectus sheath in all cases was aponeurotic and firmly attached to rectus abdominis muscle. The posterior wall of the rectus sheath was aponeurotic in 71 (88.5%) cases, the rest were musculoaponeurotic and only seen in males. In all cases the aponeurosis of internal oblique abdominis split into two lamina; a deep lamina that fused with the aponeurosis of transverses abdominis at the lateral border of rectus abdominis and a superficial lamina that fused with aponeurosis of external oblique abdominis mid-way between the medial and lateral borders of rectus abdominis muscle. The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath among Kenyans shows some variations which have not been reported by previous workers. Knowledge of these variations is important in surgery as this sheath is always incised when making most aabdominal incisions.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex Epidural Hematoma Manifesting with Bilateral Upper Limb Decerebrate Posture: Case Report." EAMJ. 2009;86(6):300-304. AbstractWebsite

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Mwachaka P, Odula P, Awori K, Kaisha W. "Variations in the Pattern of Formation of the Abdominis Rectus Muscle Sheath among Kenyans." Int. j. morphol. 2009;27:1025-1029. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Odula P, Awori K, Kaisha W. "Variations in the {Pattern} of {Formation} of the {Abdominis} {Rectus} {Muscle} {Sheath} among {Kenyans}." Int. j. morphol. 2009;27:1025-1029. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Odula P, Awori K, Kaisha W. "Variations in the {Pattern} of {Formation} of the {Abdominis} {Rectus} {Muscle} {Sheath} among {Kenyans}." Int. j. morphol. 2009;27:1025-1029. AbstractWebsite
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Hegde D, Hegde SD. "Variables in right iliac fossa anatomy and their relevance to appendicectomy: improving knowledge and practices." Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2008;21:165-170. Abstract

The anatomy of the right iliac fossa was reappraised with the intention of improving, open appendicectomy. The surface anatomy was studied on volunteers and the internal topography was examined during the operation of appendicectomy. Our findings vary slightly from prevailing knowledge which is mostly based on cadaver anatomy. Our findings suggest that McBurney's point is very close to the rectus sheath in some individuals and in most subjects it does not overly base of appendix. Surgical teaching through most of the 20th century stressed safety and recommended large incisions with generous exposure, allowing surgeons to operate yet not appreciate these variables. An attempt is made to provide a precise account of the variables in right iliac fossa anatomy to help surgeons operate using smaller, minimally invasive incisions with the inevitable reduced exposure of local anatomy. The proximity of the base of the appendix to the ileocaecal junction raises concern that burial of the appendicular stump might distort local anatomy.

Graven SN, Browne JV. "Visual {Development} in the {Human} {Fetus}, {Infant}, and {Young} {Child}." Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2008;8:194-201. AbstractWebsite

The development of the visual system is the most studied of the sensory systems. The advances in technology have made it possible to study the neuroprocesses at the cellular and circuit level. The physical structure of the eye develops early in fetal life, whereas the neurocomponents and connections develop in later fetal and early neonatal life. The development of the visual system involves genetic coding, endogenous brain activity, exogenous visual stimulation after birth at term, and protected sleep cycles, particularly rapid eye movement sleep. Before birth at term, the fetus requires no outside visual stimulation or light. The critical element in development of the visual system before birth at term is protection of rapid eye movement sleep and sleep cycles. Sleep deprivation or disruption in utero and early months of neonatal life causes significant interference with visual development resulting in loss of the topographic relationships between the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, and the primary visual cortex in the infant.

Oboko RO, Wagacha PW, Masinde EM, Omwenga E, Libotton A. "Value difference metric for student knowledge level initialization in a learner model-based adaptive e-learning system." Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. 2008:411. Abstract

Web-based learning systems give students the freedom to determine what to study based on
each individual learner's learning goals. These systems support learners in constructing
their own knowledge for solving problems at hand. However, in the absence of instructors,
learners often need to be supported as they learn in ways that are tailored to suit a specific
learner. Adaptive web-based learning systems fit in such situations. In order for an adaptive
learning system to be able to provide learning support, it needs to build a model of each

Ogengo JA, Kitunguu P, Saidi H. "Variant anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Adult Kenyans.". 2008.
Saidi H, Kitunguu P, Ogengo JA. "Variant anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Adult Kenyans.". 2008.
Olabu BO, Ogeng’o JA, Awori KO, Saidi H. "Variations in the formation of supraclavicular brachial plexus among Kenyans." Ann Afr Surg . 2008;2:9-14.
Olabu BO, Ogeng’o JA, Awori KO, Saidi H. "Variations in the formation of supraclavicular brachial plexus among Kenyans.". 2008. Abstract

To describe the pattern and prevalence of variations that occur in the supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus in a Kenyan population The presence of four trunks and an accessory phrenic nerve passing through the subclavian vein are probably described and reported for the first time. However, most of the variations of the BP among Kenyans are similar to those reported in the other populations

Olabu B, Ogeng’o JA, Kirsteen A, Saidi H. "Variations in the Formation of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus in Kenyans." Annals of African Surgery. 2008;2:9-14. Abstract

Objective: To describe the pattern and prevalence of variations that occur in the supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus in a
Kenyan population.
Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Materials and methods: Ninety-four brachial plexuses from forty-seven formalin fixed cadavers were displayed by gross
dissection.
Results: The presence of at least one variation from the classical anatomy was observed in 73 (77.7%) of the 94 plexuses. The roots and trunks were involved in 32 (34%) of the plexuses . Preand postfixed roots were present in 23 (24.7%) and 3 (3.2%), respectively. The presence of four
trunks, and trunks passing between the scalene medius and posterior were also noted. The long thoracic nerve was variant in 51 (54.3%) of the plexuses. Unusual relations of the phrenic nerve to scalene muscles and the subclavian vein were
encountered.
Conclusion: The presence of four trunks and an accessory phrenic nerve passing through the subclavian vein are probably described and reported for the first time. However, most of the
variations of the BP among Kenyans are similar to those reported in the other populations.

Frenea, J.; Bonneaua MD; S. "Velocity Measurements Grease – Lubricating Film of a Sliding Contact.". 2008. Abstract

Experimental results of the velocity distribution in a grease-lubricated cylindrical sliding contact are obtained. A comparison is made with the theoretical results of a parabolic velocity distribution similar to that of a Newtonian fluid, derived from a Bingham plastic flow model. This equation compares very well with the experimental results.

Songur A, Gonul Y, Ozen OA, Kucuker H, Uzun I, Bas O, Toktas M. "Variations in the intracranial vertebrobasilar system." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2008;30:257-264. AbstractWebsite
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Saidi H, Karanja TM, Ogengo JA. "Variant anatomy of the cystic artery in adult Kenyans." Clin Anat. 2007;20(8):943-5. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy.

Odongo D, Kamau L, Skilton R, Mwaura S, Nitsch C, Musoke A, Taracha E, Daubenberger C, Bishop R. "Vaccination of cattle with TickGARD induces cross-reactive antibodies binding to conserved linear peptides of Bm86 homologues in Boophilus decoloratus." Vaccine. 2007;25(7):1287-96. Abstract

Vaccines based on recombinant Bm86 gut antigen from Boophilus microplus are a useful component of integrated control strategies against B. microplus infestations of cattle. The capacity of such vaccines to control heterologous infestations by two African tick species was investigated. The mean weight of engorged female ticks and mean egg mass per tick were significantly reduced in B. decoloratus infestations, but there was no effect of the vaccine against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. We cloned, sequenced and expressed two Bm86 homologues (Bd86) from B. decoloratus. Amino acid sequence identity between Bd86 homologues (Bd86-1 and Bd86-2) and Bm86 was 86% and 85%, respectively, compared to 93% identity between the variants. Native Bd86 protein in B. decoloratus tick mid-gut sections and recombinant Bd86-1 reacted strongly with sera from TickGARD vaccinated cattle. TickGARD can therefore protect against a heterologous tick species with multiple antigen sequences. Epitope mapping using sera from TickGARD-vaccinated cattle identified two linear peptides conserved between the Bd86 homologues and Bm86. These epitopes represent candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for control of Boophilus spp. and the pathogens transmitted by these tick vectors.

Oluoch-Kosura W, Staal SJ, Karugia JT, Makokha SN. "Valuation of cow attributes by conjoint analysis: A case study of Western Kenya.". 2007.
Oluoch-Kosura W, Staal SJ, Karugia JT. "Valuation of cow attributes by conjoint analysis: A case study of Western Kenya.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Better dairy production could reduce poverty and improve nutrition in western Kenya, but the requisite technologies have not been widely adopted. This study collected dairy cow attributes from 630 households to evaluate what factors influence smallholder farmers to adopt technologies. Conjoint analysis was used to compute the marginal rate of substitution between attributes, marginal willingness to pay, and marginal willingness to accept. Two ethnic groups had the highest willingness to pay for cattle with a high milk yield and low feed requirement. The highest marginal rate of substitution for cattle with a high disease resistance and a low feed requirement was from households with off-farm income, from areas with a good agro-climate, and from areas where cattle had cultural functions. The results suggest that farmers are more likely to choose cross-bred than high grade cows, and that extension services have little effect on their adoption of dairy technology. Kenya’s breed policy and infrastructure may need to be revised to reflect farmersâ€

JA O, P K, H S, Tharao MK. "Variant Anatomy of the Hepatic Artery in Adult Kenyans.". 2007.
JA O, P K, H S, Tharao MK. "Variant Anatomy of the Hepatic Artery in Adult Kenyans.". 2007.
Marco S, Karimurio J, Kariuki M, Lubanga P. "Visual loss and ocular involvement in adult patients with intracranial neoplasms in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:15-20. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular manifestations in adults
with intracranial neoplasms.
Design: Cross sectional hospital based study
Settings: Neurosurgical Clinic and Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) from November 2005 to January 2006.
Subjects: 60 adult with intracranial neoplasm (32 females and 28 males)
Results: 31(52%) of the studied patients had not had any previous eye examination. Ocular symptoms were reported in 44 (73%) patients. 38 (63%) had colour vision defects, 20 (33%) papilloedema, 16 (27%) bilateral optic disc atrophy, 16 (27%) defective extra-ocular motility, 11(18%) bilaterally blind, 10 (17%) nystagmus, 6 (10%) proptosis and 4 (7%) diplopia. Only 11 (18%) of the patients had normal visual field. 40 (67%) were booked for routine follow-up at the Kenyatta Eye Clinic while 9 (15%) were referred for Low Vision Assessment. All the 11 (18%) blind patients were referred for rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Majority (73%) of patients attending the KNH Neurosurgical Clinic and those admitted in Neurosurgical ward have ocular involvement and visual loss. Colour vision defects were the commonest manifestations while total blindness was the most serious complication.
Recommendation: Neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists should work together as a team to ensure timely and comprehensive assessment and management of all patients with intracranial tumours both pre-operative and post-operatively. Stable patients with irreversibly visual impairment and blindness should be referred for Low vision therapy and rehabilitation.

Thornton PK, Herrero M, Freeman HA, Mwai AO, Rege E, Jones PG, McDermott J. "Vulnerability, climate change and livestock–opportunities and challenges for the poor.". 2007.
R.M K, MUNENE J. "Valuing the Environmental Quality of Open Space: An Application of the Hedonic Pricing Method(HPM)." Kenya Surveyor Journal; The official Journal of the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya.. 2006;11(7).
Yenesew A. "Vangueria, infausta, root bark: in vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activity." British Journal of Biomedical Science . 2006; 63,:129-133. Abstractpaper_42_abosi_et_al-2006.pdf

Vangueria infausta burch subsp. infausta (Rubiaceae) produces fruits eaten by humans and animals. The leaf, fruit, stem bark and root bark are used as a remedy for many ailments and the roots are used to treat malaria. In this study, concentrations of fractions of the V. infausta root bark extract that produce 50% inhibition (IC50) are determined using the ability of the extract to inhibit the uptake of [G3H]-hypoxanthine by P. falciparum cultured in vitro. The root bark extract showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice. It gave a parasite suppression of 73.5% in early infection and a repository effect of 88.7%. One fraction obtained from a chloroform extract gave an IC50 value of 3.8±1.5 μg/mL and 4.5±2.3 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively, and another from the butanol extract gave an IC50 value of 3.9±0.3 μg/mL against the D6 strain. Chloroquine had an IC50 value of 0.016 μg/mL and 0.029 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains, respectively. The plant showed the presence of flavonoids, coumarins,
tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones and saponins.

"Ventricular encephalitis associated with leukaemic lymphosarcoma in a bovine calf." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,. 2006;54(2):100-109.
Ochieng W. "Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Kenya; implication for immunodeficiency and AIDS progression.". 2006. Abstract

ere are limited reports on HIV-1 RNA load, CD4+ T-lymphocytes and antibody responses in relation to disease progression in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Africa. METHODS: To describe the relationships between these parameters, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study involving 51 perinatally HIV-1 infected children aged between 1 and 13 years. HIV status was determined by ELISA and confirmed by western blot and PCR. Antibodies were quantified by limiting dilution ELISA, plasma HIV-1 RNA load by RT-PCR and CD4+ T-lymphocytes by FACSCount. RESULTS: Asymptomatic and symptomatic disease had, respectively, a rise in median HIV-1 RNA load from 1,195 to 132,543 and from 42,962 to 1,109,281 copies/ml in children below 6 years. The increase in viral load was 10-fold higher for asymptomatic compared to other categories and 2-fold faster for children less than 6 years than those above. Similarly, symptomatic children below 6 years had initial median CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of 647 (22%) cells/muL, declining to 378 (20%) while those above 6 years had initial values of below 335 (15%) but which increased to 428 (17%). Median viral load correlated significantly with median CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage in children above 6 years (p=0.026) but not below. CONCLUSIONS: Viral load is lower in older than younger children and correlates significantly with percentage CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Survival by HIV-1 infected children requires a competent immune response early in infection to counter the rapidly replicating virus. Interventions aimed at boosting the naïve immune system may prolong survival in these children.

Mwangi C, Karimurio J, Ilako D. "Vision of Public Service Vehicle (PSV) drivers and road traffic accidents in Nairobi city." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2006;12:36-38. Abstract

Objectives: To assess the vision of PSV drivers operating in Nairobi city and to establish whether poor sight is associated with the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents.
Design: Cross-sectional study
Setting: Nairobi city bus and matatu (small vans and minibuses) terminuses.
Subjects: 539 randomly selected PSV drivers.
Results: Sixty eight percent of the drivers did not have their sight checked during driving test. Drivers with inadequate vision were more frequently involved in accidents than those with adequate vision but difference was not statistically significant (p=0.76). Drivers with cataracts were 3 times more likely to be involved in accidents than those without (p=0.007).
Conclusions: Majority of PSV drivers do not undergo visual acuity testing before acquiring driving licenses.
Recommendation: Visual acuity testing should be made mandatory when applying for and renewing driving licenses.

Ilako D, Mwangi C, Karimurio J. "Vision of Public Service Vehicle (PSV) drivers and road traffic accidents in Nairobi city.". 2006. Abstract

Objectives: To assess the vision of PSV drivers operating in Nairobi city and to establish whether poor sight is associated with the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Nairobi city bus and matatu (small vans and minibuses) terminuses. Subjects: 539 randomly selected PSV drivers. Results: Sixty eight percent of the drivers did not have their sight checked during driving test. Drivers with inadequate vision were more frequently involved in accidents than those with adequate vision but difference was not statistically significant (p=0.76). Drivers with cataracts were 3 times more likely to be involved in accidents than those without (p=0.007). Conclusions: Majority of PSV drivers do not undergo visual acuity testing before acquiring driving licenses. Recommendation: Visual acuity testing should be made mandatory when applying for and renewing driving licenses.

Tian N. "Visual experience and maturation of retinal synaptic pathways." Vision research. 2004;44:3307-3316. Abstract

The retinal synaptic network continues its maturational refinement after eye opening in mammals. This synaptic refinement is reflected in changes of retinal neuron synaptic activity and connectivity. In mature retina, the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of retina are separated into ON or OFF sublamina. At early developmental stage, however, the dendrites of most RGCs are ramified throughout the IPL. Recently we found that the postnatal maturational processes converting bistratified ON-OFF responsive RGCs to monostratified ON and OFF responsive RGCs depend upon visual stimulation after eye opening.

Tian N. "Visual experience and maturation of retinal synaptic pathways." Vision Research. 2004;44:3307-3316. AbstractWebsite

The retinal synaptic network continues its maturational refinement after eye opening in mammals. This synaptic refinement is reflected in changes of retinal neuron synaptic activity and connectivity. In mature retina, the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of retina are separated into ON or OFF sublamina. At early developmental stage, however, the dendrites of most RGCs are ramified throughout the IPL. Recently we found that the postnatal maturational processes converting bistratified ON–OFF responsive RGCs to monostratified ON and OFF responsive RGCs depend upon visual stimulation after eye opening.

Feller MB. "Visual system plasticity begins in the retina." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. Abstract

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Tian N, Copenhagen DR. "Visual {Stimulation} {Is} {Required} for {Refinement} of {ON} and {OFF} {Pathways} in {Postnatal} {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:85-96. AbstractWebsite

ON and OFF pathways separately relay increment and decrement luminance signals from retinal bipolar cells to cortex. ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are activated via synaptic inputs onto bistratified dendrites localized in the ON and OFF regions of the inner plexiform layer. Postnatal maturational processes convert bistratifying ON-OFF RGCs to monostratifying ON and OFF RGCs. Although visual deprivation influences refinement of higher visual centers, no previous studies suggest that light regulates either the development of the visual-evoked signaling in retinal ON and OFF pathways, nor pruning of bistratified RGC dendrites. We find that dark rearing blocks both the maturational loss of ON-OFF responsive RGCs and the pruning of dendrites. Thus, in retina, there is a previously unrecognized, pathway-specific maturation that is profoundly affected by visual deprivation.

Feller MB. "Visual {System} {Plasticity} {Begins} in the {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. AbstractWebsite

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Uchino A, Sawada A, Takase Y, Kudo S. "Variations of the superior cerebellar artery: {MR} angiographic demonstration." Radiation Medicine. 2003;21:235-238. Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe variations of the proximal segments of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) detected by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 145 consecutive MR angiograms. All patients were studied with a 1.5-Tesla imager using the three-dimensional time-of-flight technique. RESULTS: There were 16 duplicated SCAs in 13 patients, seven SCAs originating from the posterior cerebral arteries in six patients, four early bifurcations of the SCAs in four patients, and one SCA arising from the internal carotid artery. Because the SCA is small in caliber, the bilateral SCAs in nine patients could not be identified on MR angiograms owing to patient movement. In two patients with duplicated SCA, one of the duplicated trunks compressed the trigeminal nerve at the root entry zone, resulting in trigeminal neuralgia. CONCLUSION: Although most of these SCA variations have no clinical significance, preoperative identification of SCA variations is important for avoiding complications during surgery and/or for interventional procedures of the distal basilar artery.

Aduda BO, Boccaccini AR. "Velocity of elastic waves in porous ceramic materials: influence of pore structure." British Ceramic Transactions. 2003;102(3):103-108. Abstract

A review of recently published ultrasonic velocity-porosity data on a variety of porous ceramic materials,
which included information on the pore structure, has been undertaken. These experimental data have been
compared with those calculated using a spheroidal pore model that incorporates information on pore volume
fraction, shape and orientation. Good agreement, especially when fractional porosity is less than ~ 0.25,
between the experimental and calculated values is obtained even when a single ‘effective’ pore shape is
employed in the calculation. The agreement improves if the pore shape at each particular porosity level (the
point-by-point analysis) is used. The predictive ability of the spheroidal pore model is therefore demonstrated.

Mande JO, Mbugua SW, Buoro IBJ, Gathumbi PK. "Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs.". 2003. Abstract

Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesia. The hip joints were evaluated according to the severity of osteoarthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. The dogs were euthanased, the hip joints opened and the lignlllelltulll capitis fellloris dissected out ill toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r = -0.75) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing severity of osteoarthritis as assessed by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

Kariuki M, Otieno CF, Ng'anga M. "Validity of random blood glucose as a predictor of the quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic patients at kenyatta national hospita.". 2002. Abstract

Patients with diab etes mellitus in Kenya come to the hospital for followup visits very infrequently. For most of these patients their blood glucose monitoring is done only on the day of visit to the doctor. Objective: To determine how well the physician - based morning random blood level determines or reflects the quality of glycaemic control. Design: Cross - sectional study (morning, random blood glucose taken between 8.00 a.m. and 12.00 noon). Setting: Out - patient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Patien ts with diabetes mellitus either type 1 or type 2 attending the out - patient clinic. Main outcome measures: Random blood glucose (morning) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The morning random glucose level had a linear relationship with glycated ha emoglobin levels taken simultaneously. A blood glucose level of 7 mmol/l had 92.7% sensitivity for good control (HbA1c£7.8%) on a blood sample which was taken simultaneously and 59.8% specific for the same. When blood glucose cut - off level was raised to 10 mmol/l sensitivity fell to 66.3% for HbAlc£7.8%, and 83.2% specificity for poor glycaemic control (HbAlc>7.8%). There was marked fall in sensitivity of rising random blood glucose level in predicting good glycaemic control in our study, with concomitant r ise in specificity of those high cut - off levels of blood glucose in predicting poor glycaemic control. Conclusion: Morning random blood glucose in the ambulatory diabetic patients related well to simultaneously assayed HbAlc. Blood glucose within usual the rapeutic targets of 4 - 8mmo1/1 predicted good glycaemic control (HbAlc£7.8%) with high sensitivity at the range of 86.3 - 98.4%. In resource - poor settings, the morning random blood glucose assay, which is done in patients who may attend the diabetic clinic in the morning hours, may be used to predict the quality of their diabetic control. However caution should be exercised in its widespread use because its overall applicability may be clinic - specific depending largely on the average metabolic control of the d iabetic population using that clinic. Further studies need to be done to relate HbAlc to blood glucose levels obtained at different times of the day in this population to determine the best predictor of good glycaemic control

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