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Book
Habwe J. Hidaya. Moran Publishers; Forthcoming.
Health Research Ethics Training Manual. Springer Publishers; 2019.
Gitao, C.G., Orono, S, Cook, A. How to Diagnose Malignant Catarrhal fever and views from Pastoralists. Saarbrucken: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2019.978-620-0-10122-8_coverpreview_2.pdf
Maina. How to write a Good Proposal. Nairobi: Frajopa Printers & Publishers Mall; 2019.
Hujaumbika. Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2018.
Bulinda DM. Human Resource Planning and organizational performance in Education. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Nyanchaga EN. History of Water Supply and Governance in Kenya (1895 – 2005). Lessons and Futures.. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.ISBN 978-952-03-0059-3; ISBN 978-952-03-0060-9(pdf)., https://verkkokauppa.juvenes.fi; 2016.
Habwe J. Hadaa ya Nafsi. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2014.
Saidi H, Gichangi P MAPK. Histology Module I: Basic Histology. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
M OM, F. M, J. AM. Human Resources Management. Mombasa, Kenya ; 2014.
Ogechi NO, Oduor JAN, IRIBEMWANGI PI. The Harmonization and Standardization of Kenyan Languages: Orthography and Other Aspects. Cape Town: CASAS; 2012.
Wamitila KW. Harufu ya Mapera, A Kiswahili Novel. Nairobi: Vide-Muwa Publishers; 2012.
ndeti ndati. HIV and AIDS Communication in Secondary Schools in Kenya. Eldoret: Zapf Chancery Publishers; 2012.
Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Harrison's {Principles} of {Internal} {Medicine} 18E {Vol} 2 {EB}. McGraw Hill Professional; 2012. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. Hellen Kariuki et. al. (editors). National Palliative Care Guidelines. ( Submitted to MoH for launching). MOH; 2011. AbstractWebsite

The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

Mwangi IPI, Muthee MW, Ndohvu JB. Human Rights, African Values and Traditions: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Nairobi: 2011; 2011.
history of Christianity in East Africa. Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distance Learning ; 2010.
Oketch Oboth JWB. Health Psychology . Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distant Learning, University of Nairobi; 2009.
Ombongi ENK&, Petri S. Juuti, Katko TS, Vuorinen HS, eds. History of water supply and sanitation in Kenya, 1895 – 2002(Environmental history of water). London: IWA; 2007.
Mwaniki JM. Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 1. 2006: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Mwaniki DJM. Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 2. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Kimani M, Kiragu K, Mannathoko C. HIV/AIDS and Teachers in Kenya. Nairobi: UNICEF; 2006.
Kameri-Mbote P, Ikdahl I, Hellum A, Kaarhhus R, Benjaminsen TA. Human Rights, Formalisation And Women's Land Rights In Southern And Eastern Africa.; 2005.Website
Mulei CM;, Nguhiu-Mwangi, Mbithi PMF;. Handbook of the Principles of General Veterinary Surgery.; 2004.Website
Nguhiu-Mwangi, Mbithi PMF;, Mulei CM;. Handbook of the Principles of General Veterinary Surgery.; 2004.Website
Okumbe JA. Human Resources Management: An Educational Perspective. Nairobi: Educational Development and Research Bureau; 2001.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Hedgerows for control of soil erosion in Kabale, southwest Uganda..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Runoff and soil loss was studied on steep terraced slopes containing various combinations of lines of Grevillea robusta, hedgerows of Calliandra calothyrsus and strips of Pennisetum purpureum in Kabale, southwest Uganda. A factorial design, replicated three times, included three levels of intra-row spacing (0, 3 and 5m) of Grevillea spp. and three understorey types (none, Pennisetum and Calliandra spp). The understorey and Grevillea were interplanted along a contour in the middle of the terrace parallel to the two adjacent risers. Results indicate that when contour lines of trees are on fallow ground there is little or possibly a negative effect in controlling soil and water loss. When contour lines are on steep cultivated terraces they have a significant effect in reducing losses. The understoreys appear to filter out much of the sediment from the runoff, holding it in or above the contour line of the vegetation. The potential for using contour lines of Pennisetum and Calliandra for controlling soil and water loss is discussed.

Mungai, DN; Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Gichuki FN;. Hedgerows for control of soil erosion in Kabale, southwest Uganda..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Runoff and soil loss was studied on steep terraced slopes containing various combinations of lines of Grevillea robusta, hedgerows of Calliandra calothyrsus and strips of Pennisetum purpureum in Kabale, southwest Uganda. A factorial design, replicated three times, included three levels of intra-row spacing (0, 3 and 5m) of Grevillea spp. and three understorey types (none, Pennisetum and Calliandra spp). The understorey and Grevillea were interplanted along a contour in the middle of the terrace parallel to the two adjacent risers. Results indicate that when contour lines of trees are on fallow ground there is little or possibly a negative effect in controlling soil and water loss. When contour lines are on steep cultivated terraces they have a significant effect in reducing losses. The understoreys appear to filter out much of the sediment from the runoff, holding it in or above the contour line of the vegetation. The potential for using contour lines of Pennisetum and Calliandra for controlling soil and water loss is discussed.

Kinyua AM, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya. inis.iaea.org; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended …

SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. How to nature our children properly.; 1996.
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Human needs and environmental over-exploitation.; 1994.Website
Eley RM. The Hyrax.; 1992.Website
Kinyua AM, Owera-Atepo JB, Juma FD, MANGALA MJ,... Heavy Metal Analysis of Industrial Effluents in Nairobi City. 41.204.161.209; 1990. AbstractWebsite
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Ogana W. Hand of Chance (2nd Edition, Novel). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1980.
Thairu K, Mugambi M. Human Biology Volume 1 . Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau ; 1976.
Book Chapter
and Wairire GG, Muiruri J. "Handbook of Social Work and Social Development Practice in Africa.". In: Afrocentric strengths-based community work practice: The case of vyamas in Kenya . Ashgate Publishing Ltd; Forthcoming.
Awuor OL, Edward MK. "Harnessing the Potential of Underutilized Aquatic Bioresource for Food and Nutritional Security in Kenya.". In: Food Security and Safety. Springer; 2021:. Abstract
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Ebrahim YH. "Hypnotic ecstacy.". In: The watering hole. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2019.
Olali T. "Hedonistic Overflow of Leisure and Pecuniary Sense: Performer as Labourers during the Lamu Festival.". In: African Languages and Literature in a Globalized World. Seoul: Dahae Publishing Co. Ltd; 2018.
Owakah F, Liyai H, Nyarwath O. "Henry Odera Oruka: A Bio-Bibliography.". In: Odera Oruka in the 21st Century. Washington: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy (CRVP); 2018.
Wanjala AN. "Historiography or Imagination? The Documentation of Traditional Luo Cultural Memory in Kenyan Fiction.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. London & New York: Routledge; 2016.
96. Musibi A, Saidi H NWAO-ANAOEIA. "Hepatocellular Carcinoma.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
MARY MWIANDI. "The history of Jeanes School, Kabete, 1925-1939.". In: Mzizi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.
Kyule MD, Onyango-Abuje JC. "History of Prehistory in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper outlines both the archaeological and later prehistoric research that has so far been undertaken on the Kenyan side of the Lake Victoria basin. We introduce the regions current demographic distribution and geophysical setting to provide a background for the various prominent paleoanthropological findings and discoveries in the region. Significant aspects that require further research have also been highlighted.

Khasakhala" "A. "HIV interventions in Education Systems.". In: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Responses to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.
Rayya. "Haki Yangu Naidai.". In: Takrima Nono na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Longman; 2012.
Oduor JAN. "Harmonisation of the Orthographies System and IPA System of Nilotic Languages in Kenya.". In: The Harmonisation and Standardisation of Kenyan Languages Orthography and Other Aspects. Cape Town: CASAS; 2012.
kinyua OH, Murray E, Greyling C. "hild protection.". In: child protection. South Africa: World Vision International; 2012.cp_1_guiding_principle_reflection_full_set_edit_n_send_2_oct.doc
Matula P.D & Kanori E. "Human resource Management in Education. Nairobi." University of Nairobi Press.; 2012.
Paul O; SRA. "Human Settlement Housing in Africa: Bibliographical Survey. ." Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Press; 2012.
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers . ANECCA; 2011.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. "Human Rights, African Values and Traditions (Ed. Iribe Mwangi).". In: The Status of Women in the Traditional Swahili Society. Danish Institute for human Rights; 2011.
In K. Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "HIV infection and AIDS in children.". In: , Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd . UNICEF; 2010.
Paul O, NJERU E, U. K, J. K. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa." Pretoria: IDASA; 2010.
Odundo P, NJERU E, Kioko U, Korir J. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa." Pretoria, South Africa: IDASA Publishing; 2010.
Majid A. "http://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/makida.". In: • Form 1 Arabic Course Book . Nairobi: KIE; 2009.
Mwabu G, Schultz PT, Strauss J. "Health Economics for Low-income Countries.". In: Handbook of Development Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2008.
Odundo P; EN; UKKHN & J. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: IDASA. Pretoria: IDASA; 2008. Abstract

Substantial financial and human resources from donors, governments, civil society organisations and the private sector have been committed to fighting HIV/AIDS since it was first discovered in Africa. As more resources are allocated, there is a growing need for countries to properly account for these funds. This book measures the financial response to the pandemic in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania Malawi and Zambia. This publication emerges out of an extensive multi-country resource tracking project conducted by Idasa’s Governance and AIDS Programme that analysed the national budgets of these countries from an HIV/AIDS perspective; investigated and evaluated how HIV/AIDS resources are disbursed, for what activities and for whose benefit; and made recommendations on effective and efficient HIV/AIDS financing and spending.

Nyanchaga EN, Ombongi KS. "History of Water and Sanitation in Kenya 1895-2002.". In: Environmental History of Water. Global views on Community Water Supply and Sanitation. International Water Association (IWA), ISBN: 1-84339-110-4. http://www.iwapublishing.com/template.cfm?name=isbn1843391104; 2007.
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) . ANECCA.; 2006.
Ngare D, Obondo A, Neema S, Oladimeji BY, editor Ndetei, D.M., Chikovore J. "Health and Illness Behaviours."; 2006.
Othieno C, Abdelrahman A, Sebit MB, Musisi S, editor Ndetei, D.M., Ovuga E. "HIV/AIDS and Mental Health."; 2006.
Obondo A, Ngare D, Ndetei DM, Mbewe E, Morakinyo O, Rono R, Addo AS. "Human Development and Life Cycle."; 2006.
Othieno C, Rono R, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Human Learning."; 2006.
Othieno C, Rono R, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Human Motivation and Emotions."; 2006.
Odada EO, Olago, D. O. "Holocene Climatic, Hydrological and Environmental Oscillation in the Tropics with Special Reference to Africa.". In: Climate Change and Africa. London: Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Odada E, Olago D. "Holocene climatic, hydrological and environmental oscillations in the tropics with special reference to Africa.". In: Climate Change in Africa. London: Cambridge University Press; 2005. Abstract

The tropics have experienced large and sometimes abrupt fluctuations in the water balance since the beginning of the Holocene period. Water levels were generally high in the equatorial region and northern hemisphere at the beginning of the Holocene, a trend that was asynchronous with many southern hemisphere records. Apart from a desiccation event in many African lakes between 8, 000 and 7, 500 yr BP (Before Present), water levels continued to be high until c.5, 000 yr BP. Southern hemisphere sites experienced intermediate to high lake levels at c.6, 000 yr BP. The tropical lakes experienced a drying phase between 5, 000 and 3, 000 yr BP, and these arid conditions have continued to the present day. Tropical glaciers have, on the other hand, been gradually receding during the Holocene period, but there have been several minor advances. After about 8, 000 yr BP, glacial events show much less spatial consistency. The environmental response has been less marked, but the major trend is from wet/moist vegetation in the early Holocene to drier vegetation from the middle Holocene to the present. The climatic, hydrological and environmental oscillations of the low-latitude regions during the Holocene are linked to changes in earth surface temperatures, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns, regional topography, land surface albedo, etc.

Keywords

Tropical Africa; Holocene climate; hydrological fluctuations; environmental oscillations

"How to Conduct Tracer Studies in Africa: Approaches and Experiences.". In: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.kimani_20.pdf
C N. "Human Resource Development in Makueni District, Kenya 1989 - 1999.". In: Policy Requirements for farmer investment in semi-arid Africa: Makueni District Profile. Crewkerne, UK: Drylands Research; 2000.
Ndugwa, C.M. N &BRWGJ. "HIV infection and AIDS in children.". In: Primary health care: A manual for medical students and other health workers (2nd ed.). UNICEF. ; 1995.
Ogana W. "High subsonic flow past a steady two-dimensional lifting airfoil, in M. Tanaka, C.A. Brebbia and T. Honma (eds.).". In: Boundary Elements XII - Vol. 2: Applications in Fluid Mechanics and Field Problems( pp. 15 - 23). Berlin: Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer-Verlag, Southampton; 1990.
Kitonyi. "Haemophilia and Allied disorders in Kenya in “Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide.". In: Status and Atlas of Haemophilia world Wide. A World Federation of Haemophilia Publication; 1984.
Conference Paper
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstracthiv.pdf

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Haemaccel as a Plasma Volume Expander. A Clinical Trial - Bulletin of the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research.". In: A Clinical Trial - Bulletin of the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Heinemann Things Fall Apart Achinua Achebe (1st edition 1976 and 2 edition.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; Submitted. Abstract

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P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "The Hindu view of God, Humanity and Mother Nature.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Human Resources Development for the Water Sector in the Next Decade.". In: Proceedings of 4th African Water Technology Conference,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement in South Nyanza.". In: Procedings of a Conference sponsored by the Swedish agency for Research co-operation with Development Countries (SAREC) and organised by the Centre for Archaelogy and Antiquties, University of Tananarive Madagascar, SAREC, Sweden.; Submitted. Abstract

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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The Hypoglycoemic Effect of an Extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp", Submitted,.". In: East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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Ralwala AO. "Honouring National Heroes through Architecture: a case of the Presidential Mausoleum. .". In: Modern Heritage (in the Anthropocene) in collaboration with University of Cape Town; UNESCO; UNESCO World Heritage Centre; African World Heritage Fund; UCL Bartlett School of Architecture; PAMOA; ICCROM; ICOMOS & IUCN. the Cape Town Conference on ‘Modern Heritages of Africa’ 22-24 September ; 2021.
MWANGI IK. "Historical Trilogy of the Kenya Institute of Planners.". In: Presentation at KIP Induction Training Workshop. Organized by Kenya Institute of Planners Held at Professional Centre, Nairobi; 2020.
Mbuge DO. "How can we generate money from lost and wasted food? .". In: Frontiers of Engineering for Development symposium: From Feeding People to Nourishing People. Antananarivo, Madagascar; 2019.
Kamweru K. "Housing as Process: An Approach Based of a Multiple Client Approach.". In: 8th Annual East Africa Workshop and Exhibition,. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Wasamba P. "The Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) in the Age of Disruptions: Boon or Bane?". In: Makerere Humanities and Social Sciences Symposium. Kampala, Uganda; 2018.
Mwadime JM, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Wanja DW, Maina JG, Maina SK, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Heavy Neascus species infestation of farmed Oreochromis niloticus in Kirinyaga county, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Wachira K, Mwangi E, Jeon G. "A Hexomino Multi-path Generation Gradient-Based Debayering Technique for Low Resolution Cameras.". In: AEC 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Bore M. "How to supervise a master’s dissertation.". In: College of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa Congress. Ethiopia; 2018.
Mitema A, Rafudeen S, Okoth S, Iyer R. "Heterokaryon incompatibility and phenotypic characterisation of Aspergillus flavus isolates in low and high risk zones in Kenya.". In: The 14th International Aspergillus Meeting Asperfest 14. Asilomar Conference Center, PG, CA, USA; 2017.
Mitema A, Rafudeen S, Okoth S, Revel I. "Heterokaryon incompatibility/compatibility and phenotypic characterisation of Aspergillus flavus isolates in low and high risk zones in Kenya.". In: 38th Mycotoxin Workshop, Berlin, Germany. Berlin, Germany; 2016.
Mitema A, Okoth S, Rafudeen SM. "Heterokaryon incompatibility/compatibility and phenotypic characterization of A. flavus isolates in low and high-risk zones in Kenya.". In: 13th International conference on molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics of infectious diseases. Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; 2016.
Ogot M, Nyangaya J. "How Many Vehicles are there on Kenya's Roads?". In: 1st Biennial Status of Higher Education Conference. Commission for University Education, Nairobi; 2016.
Ondieki DEO. "High-density housing policies and practices in large African Cities:.". In: Annual East Africa Regional Exhibition and Workshop 2016 - University of Nairobi . School of The Built Enviroment - University of Nairobi; 2016.abstract-_ea_workshop_2016.pdfhigh_density_housing_policies_.pdf
Olaka LA. "How Closed are Closed Lakes in Rifts? Significance of Hydraulic Gradients for the Budgets of Paleo-Lakes in East Africa.". In: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2015. San Fransisco; 2015. Abstract

The hydrogeology of rift lakes is complex due to the potential influence of faults and porous volcanic and volcanoclastic media on groundwater flow. We conducted a comprehensive study that integrated geological and hydrogeological data as well as the application of a linear decay model to estimate the groundwater flow between the two of the best-studied lake systems in East Africa, the adjacent Lakes Naivasha and Nakuru- Elmenteita in the Central Kenya Rift. Whereas both lake basins host relatively shallow lakes today, paleo-shorelines and sediments suggest >100 m deep lakes during a wetter climate during the Early Holocene during the so-called African Humid Period. Stable isotope data show variations form highly depleted to more enriched d18O waters. The linear-reservoir depletion model simulates the decline of the Early Holocene lakes in both basins to the modern levels. The altitude difference of ca. 100 m of both paleo-lake levels enables us to estimate the duration of the groundwater decline and the connectivity of the two basins via the Eburru/Gilgil barrier. The results suggest a decline of the groundwater levels during ca. 5 kyrs if there is no recharge, and between 2-2.7 kyrs based on the modern recharge of 0.52 m/yr as the end members of the delay time introduced by subsurface water flow to the hydrology of the lake system. The latter value suggests that ca. 40.95 cubic kilometres of water flowed from Lake Naivasha to Nakuru- Elmenteita at maximum lake level in the Early Holocene following the hydraulic gradient concurrent to the topographic slope. The unexpectedly large volume, more than half of the volume of the paleo-Lake Naivasha during the Early Holocene, emphasizes the importance of groundwater in hydrological modelling of paleo-lakes in rifts. Moreover, the subsurface connectivity of rift lakes also causes a significant lag time to the system introducing a nonlinear component to the system that has to be considered while interpreting paleo-lake records.

Munjuri MG, Peter K’Obonyo, Ogutu M. "Human Capital and Performance of Commercial Banks and Insurance Firms in Kenya.". In: DBA-Africa Management Review. Lower Kabete Campus; 2015:.human_capital__firm_performancevol_5_no.22015.pdf
Masinde AMM;. "A hardware based model for an asset monitoring and tracking system: Case of laptops.". In: 2015 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC). Windhoek, Namibia ; 2015. Abstract

Corporate mobility initiatives and the anytime, anywhere information workers is on the rise. This is mostly fuelled by availability of affordable and more powerful mobile computing devices, especially laptops and tablets. One direct consequence of this is a sharp increase in laptop theft; this is partly driven by the fact that laptops are portable and easy to conceal and pocket away, they fetch a good second-hand price on the informal market and availability of easy online disposal platforms such as Gumtree, where they are sold cheaply and anonymously. Despite the fact that many solutions have been developed in an attempt to annihilate this growing calamity, their cost has left many small and medium organizations preferring to do without one. In an attempt to bridge this gap, the research reported in this paper aimed at designing a generic middleware architecture for use in a hardware-based (RFIDs, wireless sensor modes, fingerprint scanners and mobile phones) affordable laptop monitoring and tracking system. The resulting system prototype was evaluated using diverse experimental cases within a university in South Africa.

Ilovi CS, Mecha JO, Wambui M, Njagi LN, Kamau NG. "HIV in the Elderly: Are Outcomes Comparable to Younger Patients? Perspectives from a Kenyan Tertiary HIV Clini.". In: Oral Abstract 1st Annual HIV Clinician’s Conference, .; 2015.
Mwabu G, G.Mutegi R, K.Muriithi M. "Human Capital Development in Kenya: Health, Education and Labor Income Profiles, 1994 and 2005.". In: NTA . University of Peking Beijing China.; 2014.
Ngau PM, Mwenda JN, Mattigly MM. "Human capacity requirements for the Land reform at Country Level: Some reflections from Kenya.". In: Global Land Tools Network (GLTN) Joint Learning Programme on “Innovative Concepts, Tools and Practices in Land Administration”. RCMRD, Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
.orago N. "Housing rights in comparative perspective.". In: Public Interest Litigation on the Right to Housing. Serena-Amboseli, Amboseli National Park. ; 2014.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN. "HPLC Analysis of Azithromycin Suspensions and Tablets.". In: Optimizing medicine use to improve patient outcomes. College of Health Sciences, UoN, Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Mulaa F. "HARNESSING CARBOHYDRATE ACTIVE ENZYMES AS DRUG TARGETS AND TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING GLYCOTHERAPEUTICS.". In: BASIC & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY. Vol. 115. WILEY-BLACKWELL 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA; 2014:. Abstract
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Ngugi M. "Health Communication Models.". In: UNITID Training Workshop. Kisumu; 2013.
Melakebehan H, Z.T. Z M, Yildiz S, Schmidt T, Teal T, Qi J, Gronseth J. "Hidden biological secrets that could revolutionize ecosystem based food security and adaptation to climate change in degraded sub-Saharan Africa soils.". In: UNEP Conference on Harnessing Ecosystem Services. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
Dessie, T; Gebreyesus G;, Mekuria G;, Jembere T;, Woldu T;, Agaba M;, Mwai OA. "Harnessing genetic diversity to improve goat productivity in Africa: Ethiopia component."; 2013.
Gebreyesus G;, Wamalwa M;, Dessie T;, Agaba M;, Benor S;, Mwai OA. "Harnessing “ODK collect” on smartphones for on-farm data collection in Africa: The ILRI-BecA goat project."; 2013.
Kiama TN, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Ochungo P, Waithanji EM, Lindahl J, EK K'ethe, D. G. "How qualitative studies and gender analysis can add value to the assessment of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya.".; 2013.
McLigeyo AA, Lule G, FREDRICK OTIENOCF, Kayima JK;, Omonge E;. "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated lipodystrophy: The prevalence, severity and phenotypes in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Kenya.". In: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. Vol. 5.; 2013:. Abstract

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is widely accessible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Kenya. Their long term use is associated with chronic complications such as lipodystrophy which may lead to stigmatization, reduced self esteem and poor adherence to HAART. This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of lipodystrophy, the phenotypes and severity among adult HIV infected patients on chronic HAART at a HIV clinic in Kenya. Data were collected using an investigator administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements done using a protocol based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 51.3% (confidence interval (CI) 45.6 to 57.6). Lipoatrophy occurred in 44%, lipohypertrophy in 15% and mixed syndrome in 41% of patients with lipodystrophy. Facial atrophy occurred in 75.7% of patients with lipodystrophy, upper limb atrophy in 48.5%, and lower limb atrophy in 36.8%. Abdominal obesity occurred in 40.4% of patients with lipodystrophy, breast enlargement in 30.9% and dorsocervical fat accumulation in 5.1%. Most patients had severe lipoatrophy, whereas lipohypertrophy was described as mild to moderate using the HIV out-patient study (HOPS) scale. HIV associated lipodystrophy was common in HIV-infected patients on chronic HAART. The main phenotype was lipoatrophy which majority of the patients described as severe.

Penninah Ogada A. "Hate Speech and Overt Polarization of Citizens Towards Elections in 2013." Presented at Kenya2013 Election Watch Forum, Sarova Stanley; 2013. Abstract
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Lenga F, J.M.Bahemuka. "Higher Education in Africa and knowledge Economy.". In: Going Global Forum. London; 2012.
L.C. B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G. "Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ; 2012.2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
Mugo MG. "Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa." Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania; 2012.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Heat of Hydration and Chemical Shrinkage Characteristics of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash Blended Cement.". In: 2nd AMSEN Workshop. Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Njogu PM, Hendricks DT, Chibale K. "Hybrids of (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine and anticancer pharmacophores: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.". In: 12th Frank Warren Conference 2012. Bloemfontein, South Africa; 2012.
Nguta JM. "Heavy Metal Residues In Camel Milk From Kenya: Health Implications."; 2012. Abstract

Arsenic and Lead are naturally occurring elements whose toxicity in humans has been documented throughout history. These metals are widely present in our environment due to their natural occurrence and human activities that have introduced them into the general environment such as the use of borehole water and leaded gasoline. Because arsenic and lead may be present in environments where food crops are grown and animals used for food are raised, various foods such as milk may contain unavoidable but small amounts of arsenic and lead that do not pose a significant risk to human health. However, in certain circumstances they may contain high levels that may lead to contamination of milk with levels that may pose a risk to human health. Camel milk samples (n=15) were collected from Nanyuki, Kenya for arsenic and lead analysis. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry following protein precipitation by use of trichloroacetic acid. All the samples analyzed had arsenic levels that ranged from 0.007 ppm to 0.099 ppm. These levels were found to be lower than the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended maximum level of 0.1 parts per million (0.1 ppm), while 14 out of 15 samples (93%) had lead levels ranging from 0.072 ppm to 0.449 ppm and were observed to be above the codex standard (193- 1995) recommended maximum level of 0.02 ppm. The above results indicate that the sampled camel milk may not be safe for human consumption.

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive Activities of the Root Extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 2(2) 1-6. Inforesights Publishing Ltd.; 2012. Abstractantinocieptive_activity_of_the_root_extracts_of_rhus_natalensis_kraus.pdf

Rhus natalensis and Senna singuaenae are traditional African plants commonlyused as medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain. The plants areused for management of rheumatism among others. This study investigated theantinociceptive activities of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in Swiss albino miceusing the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Extract solvent (vehicle), morphine andaspirin were employed as controls. Root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg /kg) and 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the hot plate while the 200mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05). In the tail flick tests, root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg / kg) showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.01) while 200mg / kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick. This study lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in the management of painful conditions..Keywords: Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; analgesic,;

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 3(1) 122-129. Inforesights publishing; 2012. Abstractkariuki_et_al_2012.pdf

Toddalia asiatica within the context of traditional African medicine is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. It is used by the Masai in both Kenya and Tanzania for management of rheumatism among others. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick and hot plate pain tests. The extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. The acetic acid -induced writhing test was used as the screening test and as the root bark extract was found to be more potent than the leaf extract, the former was investigated using the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The root bark extract (200 mg / kg) showed highly significant (p < 0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) activity in the tail flick test but not significant in the hot plate test. The present study, therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful condition.

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki, Titus I. Kanui, Paul G. Kioy. Antinociceptive Potentiation of Pethidine (Demerol) by Clomipramine in the Late Phase of Formalin Test in Mice.". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. EFENET; 2012. Abstract
Background: Pethidine, an opioid analgesic is used for pain management. Clomipramine a tricyclic antidepressant primarily used for mood management is also used to treat pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the potentiation of the analgesic effects of sub-threshold dose of pethidine by a tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine. Methods : The antinociceptive activities of clomipramine and pethidine alone and in combination were investigated in Swiss albino mice using the formalin test. Normal saline was employed as the control. Ten animals were used in each experiment. Results: Pethidine 5mg / kg failed to cause any significant effect while the 6.25, 7.5, 8.75 and 10.0mg /kg showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.01) compared to the controls in the late phase of formalin test. Clomipramine 0.5 mg / kg did not show any significant effect while 0.75 mg / kg caused a significant effect (p< 0.05) while 1.00 and 1.25mg /kg caused a very highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.001) in the late phase of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The combination of pethidine 5mg / kg and clomipramine 0.75mg / kg caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) in the late phase of formalin test.  Conclusion: This study demonstrates a marked reduction in the time spent in pain behaviour produced by the combination of low dose pethidine and clomipramine in the late phase of formalin test. The findings demonstrate the potentiation of a narcotic analgesic by a tricyclic antidepressant.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITIES OF TODDALIA ASIATICA ROOT EXTRACT USING THE FORMALIN TEST ON MICE.". In: 14th World Congress on Pain -Milan 2012. International Association for the Study of Pain; 2012. Abstract
Aim of Investigation: Approximately 80% of the world population relies on traditional healers who use herbal remedies. Seventy percent of sub Saharan Africa is reported to be using herbal medicine for management of various medical conditions. Based on anecdotal evidence, herbal remedies used in most communities are claimed to be effective and there is need to evaluate their effectiveness for the benefits to the general population. Natural products still hold the promise for the future of drug discovery in the management pain. Analgesic substances have been purified from plants resulting in the identification of novel structures with known mechanism of actions. The roots and bark of Toddalia asiatica have been traditionally used in the treatment of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica root extract using the formalin test in mice. Methods: Roots of Toddalia asiatica were sourced, air-dried, powdered and extraction done using dichloromethane and methanol in the ratio of 1:1. The extracts were then concentrated and reconstituted in 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 95% normal saline to achieve working concentrations of 50,100 and 200 mg / kg body weight. The experimental and control animals were injected intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to the experiment. 8 mice were used in each group and each animal was used once. Sensorimotor test was performed on each animal prior to the formalin test. Results: None of the animals showed sensorimotor defect. The 50mg /kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive effect in either the early or the late phase of formalin test.The 100mg / kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.001) in the late phase (15-30 mins) of formalin test while the 200mg / kg dose showed a significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.01) in the early phase (0-5mins) of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The 200 mg / kg dose showed no significant effect in the late phase of formalin test. Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract of Toddalia asiatica has significant antinociceptive effects in the formalin test using mice.
MANDELA DRIDENYAPAMELA, BUTT DRFAWZIAMOHAMEDA. "Horizontal angle of inclination of the mandibular condyle in a Kenyan population.". In: Anatomy Journal of Africa 1(1): 46-49. Anatomy Journal of Africa 1(1): 46-49; 2012. Abstract
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WAMBUI JANE. "Human resource utilization and Kenya." Paper presented at Kenya Education Staff Institute first National Conference on innovations in education management; 2012. Abstract
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Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Zhu J, Yang L. "Hybrid photonic molecules.". In: CLEO: Science and Innovations. Optical Society of America; 2012:. Abstract
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M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Housing Development and Management in Kenya.". In: Training Programme for Mhasibu Estate Companies on Governance in the Context of Property Development and Management . Gracia Hotel,Nairobi.; 2011.
Magadi M, Agwanda A. "HIV and Fertility Link in Kenya.". In: The 6th African Population Conference. Ougadougou , Burkina Faso; 2011.
Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "The High Return to Private Schooling in a Low Income Country.". In: Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C., Working Paper No. 279.; 2011.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki and Teresa N. Kinyari (Editors). National Palliative Care Training Manual. (Manual submitted to the MoH for launch).". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. Ministry of Health; 2011. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "A horseshoe kidney with partial duplex systems.". In: Heart Mirror Journal. IJAV; 2011. Abstract
During routine dissection, we identified a horseshoe kidney arrested inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery in a middle-aged male cadaver. On further dissection, the kidneys were fused inferiorly, both hila were wide and the kidneys had bilateral duplicated renal arteries and ureters. Horseshoe kidneys could be associated with bilateral duplex systems.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Housing-design as a predisposing factor for injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi and E M Mogoa.". In: Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011. Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
K. MJ, O. KDB, A. OH. "A Hybrid MOM/FDTD Formulation for EMC/EMI Problems Of Metallic Enclosures with Apertures.". In: KSEEE-JSAEM 2010 International Conference. MMUCK, Nairobi: International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE); 2010. Abstract

A HYBRID MOM/FDTD FORMULATION FOR EMC/EMI PROBLEMS OF METALLIC ENCLOSURES WITH APERTURES

Josiah K. Makiche1 Dominic B. O. Konditi2, Heywood A. Ouma3
jkmakiche@yahoo.co.uk konditi_dom@yahoo.co.uk houma@ieee.org

1Department of Telecommunication and Information Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. 2Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University College of Kenya. 3Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Nairobi

Abstract—In this work a hybrid Method-of-Moments/Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (MoM/FDTD) formulation for the analysis of a metallic enclosure with an aperture is developed. The equivalence principle is used to divide the problem into two regions, region 1 and region 2, each of which is treated separately. The induced aperture magnetic currents are obtained via a moments method solution of the mixed potential integral equation using the generalized network formulation and triangular patch modeling. The computed magnetic current is directly incorporated into FDTD formulations as a source to determine the fields in the interior of the enclosure (region 2). The formulations are implemented in a computer code and used to analyze a typical problem of a rectangular enclosure with an aperture. The results are validated using data available in literature.
Keywords: Shielding effectiveness, metallic enclosures, method of moments, finite difference time domain, EMI/EMC.

M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Harmonisation of Masters and PhD Research Proposals and Thesis Writing." Kenya School of Monetary Studies; 2010.
Kimuyu PK. "Harmony Rather than a Mastery Value Type.". In: Sychar Draft Discussion Paper .; 2010.
Mwabu G. "Health Systems Strengthening.". In: African Medical and Research Foundation, Nairobi, January, 2010, Manuscript.; 2010.
Ojango JM;, Panandam JM;, Bhuiyan AKFH;, Khan MS;, Kahi AK;, Imbayarwo-Chikosi VE;, Mwai OA. "Higher education in animal breeding in developing countries–challenges and opportunities."; 2010.
Mwabu G, Fosu A. "Human Development in Africa.". In: UNDP Working Paper No. 8, New York.; 2010.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Hardships for Rural Schools: Whose View Counts?". In: Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) annual conference, Concordia University, Montreal, May 29 - June 1 2010. Frontiers, 2011; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Hesbon Z. Amenya, Peter K.Gathumbi and James M. Mbaria ACUTE TOXICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF AQUEOUS AND CHLOROFORMIC EXTRACTS OF RAPANEA MELANOPHLOEOS.". In: 7TH BIENNIAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE 2010, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY AUDITORIUM, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND VETERINARY SCIENCES. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010.
OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "The histomorphological organization of the hepato-caval interface in the human.". In: J. Morphol.Sci, 27(3-4): 148-351. Karau P.B, Ogeng; 2010.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometric evidence of early onset coronary artery disease among Kenyans. Ogeng’o JA, Kilonzi J, Saidi H, Hassanali J. Afr. J. Hosp. Med. 2010; 19-24: 11-14.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
JOHN DRYABS. "How to Get Good Grades in Universities and Colleges.". In: An Article in the Underwriter Journal. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2010. Abstract
The book is written for graduates and undergraduates. It contains advices on how to improve grades in Universities and Colleges.It advises on how to prepare, effectively learn and retain im memory all required materials, and how to gain examination skills.
JOHN DRYABS. "How to Write MBA Projects.". In: An Article in the Underwriter Journal. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2010. Abstract
Gives guidelines on how to prepare and conduct research and write MBA project in time for graduation. It gives sugestions on how to sucessfuly present oral defense and how to answer question during such sessions.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Hruschka, JA, Tomedi AJ, Broudy BW, Frederickson J, Stromberg DG, Schmitt, C L and Mwanthi, MA. Effectiveness of Community Health Care Workers in the Prevention of Diarrhea in Rural Kenya. Journal of Investigative Medicine, Vol.58. NO.1, Jan 2010.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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Ndirangu, Kabubi, Dulo. "Hydro-climatic Disasters in Water Resources Management. Training Manual, UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.". In: Trainning Manual, UNDP Cap-Net. UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.; 2009.
Mr. KAHONGE ANDREWMWAURA, ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS. "Harnessing Information Technology for Drug Supply Reporting and Management.". In: Research for Sustainable Development and Institutional Capacity Building. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009.
Mr. KAHONGE ANDREWMWAURA, ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS. "Harnessing Information Technology for Drug Supply Reporting and Management.". In: Research for Sustainable Development and Institutional Capacity Building.; 2009. Abstract
       
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Horton RE, Ball TB, Wachichi C, Jaoko W, Rutherford WJ, McKinnon L, Kaul R, Rebbapragada A, Kimani J & Plummer FA (2009) Cervical HIV-Specific IgA in a population of commercial sex workers correlates with repeated exposure but not resistance to HIV. AIDS .". In: UoN research meeting. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 25(1): 83-92; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Horton RE, Ball TB, Wachichi C, Jaoko W, Rutherford WJ, McKinnon L, Kaul R, Rebbapragada A, Kimani J & Plummer FA (2009) Cervical HIV-Specific IgA in a population of commercial sex workers correlates with repeated exposure but not resistance to HIV. AIDS .". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 25(1): 83-92; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Lucy Muchiri, Gathari Ndirangu CKPGJMBEMT. "HIV infection and cervical neoplasia in a Kenyan semi-urban population.". In: 9th APECSA Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
Mbuthia P G, C BL, G M, Njagi L W. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (Hardware disease) in peacocks: Case Reports .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-histomoniasis_and_hardware_disease_in_peacockc.pdf
Bebora L.C, P. M, G. GM, L.W N. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (hardware disease) in peacocks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference , . Nairobi; 2008.2008_-_hostomoniasis_and_traumatic_gastritis_in_peacocks.pdf
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients with and without the metabolic syndrome.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Apr;85(4):178-186. East African Med J; 2008. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients, and relate it to cardiovascular disease risk. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety seven type 2 diabetic outpatients and fifty age- and sex-matched non-diabetic hypertensive outpatients. RESULTS: The distribution of hsCRP in the diabetic population was skewed, with a mean of 4.33 mg/L and a median of 2.53 mg/L. The majority (42%) of diabetics had hsCRP levels in the high-risk category (hsCRP > 3 mg/L). The median hsCRP was non-significantly higher in the diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without (2.68 vs 2.30 mg/L
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometry of the left anterior descending coronary artery among Kenyans. Kilonzi PJ, Saidi HS, Hassanali J, Ogeng’o JA. Eur. J. Med. Res., 2008; 13(suppl 1): 2.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

N. DRIRAKIW. "Humantarian relief logistics at the Kenya Red Cross, a paper presented at Operations Research Society 50th anniversary in , UK.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
Nyabuga G. "Hip Hop Music, and its Causation of Moral Panic in Kenya.". In: Popular Cultures in Africa. University of Texas at Austin; 2007.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland RS.Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infectio.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jun;34(6):384-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractassociations_between_intravaginal_practices_and_bacterial_vaginosis.docassociations_between_intravaginal_practices_and_bacterial_vaginosis.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1. GOAL: The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship among intravaginal practices, bathing, and BV. STUDY DESIGN: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections. RESULTS: Of 237 women enrolled, 206 (87%) reported vaginal washing using either a finger or cloth. Increasing frequency of vaginal washing was associated with a higher likelihood of BV (chi(2) test for trend

Samanta P. "he Mining Sector: Its linkages to industrialization in Kenya.". In: Realizing African Development etc. vol.II.; 2007.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Drake AL, J.". In: Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was associated with risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and to define correlates of HSV-2 infection among HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study within a perinatal cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus and the presence of genital ulcers were ascertained at 32 weeks of gestation. Maternal cervical and plasma HIV-1 RNA and cervical HSV DNA were measured at delivery. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two (87%) of 175 HIV-1-infected mothers were HSV-2-seropositive. Among the 152 HSV-2-seropositive women, nine (6%) had genital ulcers at 32 weeks of gestation, and 13 (9%) were shedding HSV in cervical secretions. Genital ulcers were associated with increased plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.02) and an increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (16% of transmitters versus 3% of nontransmitters had ulcers; P = .003), an association which was maintained in multivariable analysis adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.04). We found a borderline association for higher plasma HIV-1 RNA among women shedding HSV (P=.07) and no association between cervical HSV shedding and either cervical HIV-1 RNA levels or intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (P=.4 and P=.5, [corrected] respectively). CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 is the leading cause of genital ulcers among women in sub-Saharan Africa and was highly prevalent in this cohort of pregnant women receiving prophylactic zidovudine. After adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, genital ulcers were associated with increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission. These data suggest that management of HSV-2 during pregnancy may enhance mother-to-child HIV-1 prevention efforts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II

C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstracthigh_uptake_of_postpartum_hormonal_contraception.pdf

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women.
PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstract

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "H.K. Chepkwony, N. Mwaura, E. Guantai, E. Gathoni, F.N. Kamau, E. Mbae, G. Wang.". In: Paper presented to The 6th Annual Conference of the International society for African Philosophy and Studies (ISAPS) 10-12 March 2000, Nairobi. Kenya. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract
An Instructional Manual for teaching African Philosophy to second year students in the department of philosophy, University of Nairobi
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Hassanali J.Deciduous canine tooth bud removal in infants in East Africa.East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):500-1. International Journal of Morphology 26: 931-933 (2008); 2007. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "The helath equity dimensions of urban food systems. A manuscript in preparation for submission to the Journal of Urban Health.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2007. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Drake AL, J.". In: Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. adrake2@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To determine whether herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was associated with risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and to define correlates of HSV-2 infection among HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study within a perinatal cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus and the presence of genital ulcers were ascertained at 32 weeks of gestation. Maternal cervical and plasma HIV-1 RNA and cervical HSV DNA were measured at delivery. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two (87%) of 175 HIV-1-infected mothers were HSV-2-seropositive. Among the 152 HSV-2-seropositive women, nine (6%) had genital ulcers at 32 weeks of gestation, and 13 (9%) were shedding HSV in cervical secretions. Genital ulcers were associated with increased plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.02) and an increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (16% of transmitters versus 3% of nontransmitters had ulcers; P = .003), an association which was maintained in multivariable analysis adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.04). We found a borderline association for higher plasma HIV-1 RNA among women shedding HSV (P=.07) and no association between cervical HSV shedding and either cervical HIV-1 RNA levels or intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (P=.4 and P=.5, [corrected] respectively). CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 is the leading cause of genital ulcers among women in sub-Saharan Africa and was highly prevalent in this cohort of pregnant women receiving prophylactic zidovudine. After adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, genital ulcers were associated with increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission. These data suggest that management of HSV-2 during pregnancy may enhance mother-to-child HIV-1 prevention efforts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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