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Eley RM. The Hyrax.; 1992.Website
MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Hypoxaemia in young Kenyan children with acute lower respiratory infection. BMJ . 1993 Mar 6; 306 ( 6878 ): 612-5 . PMID: 8369033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Onyango FE, Steinhoff MC, Wafula EM, Wariua S, Musia J, Kitonyi J.". In: BMJ . 1993 Mar 6; 306 ( 6878 ): 612-5 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstracthypoxaemia_in_young_kenyan_children.pdf

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

OBJECTIVES–To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates, and outcome of hypoxaemia in acutely ill children with respiratory symptoms. DESIGN–Prospective observational study. SETTING–Paediatric casualty ward of a referral hospital at 1670 m altitude in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS–256 Infants and children under 3 years of age with symptoms of respiratory infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES–Prevalence of hypoxaemia, defined as arterial oxygen saturation < 90% determined by pulse oximetry, and condition of patient on the fifth day after admission. RESULTS–Over half (151) of the children were hypoxaemic, and short term mortality was 4.3 times greater in these children. In contrast, the relative risk of a fatal outcome in children with radiographic pneumonia was only 1.03 times that of children without radiographic pneumonia. A logistic regression model showed that in 3-11 month old infants a respiratory rate > or = 70/min, grunting, and retractions were the best independent clinical signs for the prediction of hypoxaemia. In the older children a respiratory rate of > or = 60/min was the single best clinical predictor of hypoxaemia. The presence of hypoxaemia predicted radiographic pneumonia with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 55%. CONCLUSIONS–Over half the children presenting to this referral hospital with respiratory symptoms were hypoxaemic. A group of specific clinical signs seem useful in predicting hypoxaemia. The clear association of hypoxaemia with mortality suggests that the detection and effective treatment of hypoxaemia are important aspects of the clinical management of acute infections of the lower respiratory tract in children in hospital in developing regions.

PIP: In 1989, pediatricians followed 256 children 7 days to 36 months old with symptoms of respiratory infection at Kenyatta National Hospital (1670 m altitude) in Nairobi, Kenya. The symptoms were serious enough to warrant hospital admission for 209 of these children. The most common clinical diagnoses were pneumonia (53%) and bronchiolitis (33%). 59% of the children admitted to the hospital were hypoxemic (arterial oxygen saturation or + to 90%). 10% of all admitted children died. 90.4% of them were hypoxemic with arterial oxygen saturations ranging from 40-88%. Children with hypoxemia were 4.3 times more apt to die within 5 days than those with no hypoxemia (p = .02). On the other hand, children with radiographic pneumonia had a relative risk of short-term mortality of only 1.03. Hypoxemia on admission predicted short-term mortality with 90% sensitivity and 34% specificity. It predicted pneumonia with 71% sensitivity and 55% specificity (p .0001). Children who lived for at least 5 days had arterial oxygen saturations ranging from 41-98. Even though all of the children with clinically evident cyanosis were less than a year old, 89% of the hypoxemic infants less than 1 year old did not exhibit cyanosis. Mothers' reports of blueness in newborns and infants less than 2 months was the best predictor of hypoxemia (62% accuracy; p .05). For children 3-11 months old, the best predictors of hypoxemia, with an accuracy of 70%, were a respiratory rate of at least 70/minute (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; p .001). For children at least 12 months old, the sole best predictor was a respiratory rate of at least 60/minute (70% accuracy; OR 5.1; p .01). This study should be followed by well-designed studies of the clinical effectiveness of proper treatment with oxygen in preventing mortality in hypoxemic infants and children.

PMID: 8369033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1676956

Onyango FE, Steinhoff MC, Wafula EM, Wariua S, Musia J, Kitonyi J. "Hypoxaemia in young Kenyan children with acute lower respiratory infection." BMJ. 1993;306(6878):612-5. Abstract

To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates, and outcome of hypoxaemia in acutely ill children with respiratory symptoms.

Kariuki CN. "Hypothesis testing based on research carried out in the University of Nairobi Bookshop.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Dao CN, Peters PJ, Kiarie JN, Zulu I, Muiruri P, Ong'ech J, Mutsotso W, Potter D, Njobvu L, Stringer JSA, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Weidle PJ. "Hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypoalbuminemia predict an increased risk of mortality during the first year of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Zambian and Kenyan women." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2011;27(11):1149-55. Abstract

Early mortality rates after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) are high in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined whether serum chemistries at ART initiation predicted mortality among HIV-infected women. From May 2005 to January 2007, we enrolled women initiating ART in a prospective cohort study in Zambia and Kenya. We used Cox proportional hazards models to identify risk factors associated with mortality. Among 661 HIV-infected women, 53 (8%) died during the first year of ART, and tuberculosis was the most common cause of death (32%). Women were more likely to die if they were both hyponatremic (sodium <135 mmol/liter) and hypochloremic (chloride <95 mmol/liter) (37% vs. 6%) or hypoalbuminemic (albumin <34 g/liter, 13% vs. 4%) when initiating ART. A body mass index <18 kg/m(2) [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-10.6] and hyponatremia with hypochloremia (aHR 4.5, 95% CI 2.2-9.4) were associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for country, CD4 cell count, WHO clinical stage, hemoglobin, and albumin. Among women with a CD4 cell count >50 cells/μl, hypoalbuminemia was also a significant predictor of mortality (aHR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.8). Baseline hyponatremia with hypochloremia and hypoalbuminemia predicted mortality in the first year of initiating ART, and these abnormalities might reflect opportunistic infections (e.g., tuberculosis) or advanced HIV disease. Assessment of serum sodium, chloride, and albumin can identify HIV-infected patients at highest risk for mortality who may benefit from more intensive medical management during the first year of ART.

N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants. East Afr. Med. J. 79:120, 2002. D.N. Ndwiga, F.N. Were, R.N. Musoke.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):120-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
{ Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high incidence of hyponatraemia among such preterms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. DESIGN: Comparative cohort study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during their first week of life. Half of them were designated as cases in view of having various early neonatal illnesses. The remaining 28 being clinically stable were taken as controls. These two groups had comparable birthweights, sex distribution and gestational ages. Their sodium intakes were also similar during the first week of life. RESULTS: The sick infants (cases) had persistently low serum sodium (mean of 120 mmols/L) throughout the first week while among the healthy infants (controls) a sequential increase from 127 to 133 mmol/l, (mean values) was observed during the same period. The difference registered on day seven (133 versus 120) was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Using a cut off point of 130 mmol/L to define hyponatraemia the proportion of infants with hyponatraemia, which was similar at the beginning became higher among the cases for the rest of the week with the largest disparity observed on the seventh day (75% versus 23%
Ndwiga DN, Were FN, Musoke RN. "Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(3):120-3. Abstract

Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high incidence of hyponatraemia among such preterms.

KAGIMA JW, DAVID MJ, Otieno F, Chokwe TM. Hypomagnesaemia In Critically Ill Patients On Admission To The Critical Care Units At The Kenyatta National Hospital.. San Diego California: American Thoracic Society; 2014.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The Hypoglycoemic Effect of an Extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp", Submitted,.". In: East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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Njagi, L. W., Ngugi MP, Kibiti CM, Ngeranwa JNJ, Njagi, L. W., Njue, M. Wilson, Maina D, Gathumbi PK. "Hypoglycemic effects of caesalpinia volkensii on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the target cells. Most conventional therapies for the management of type II diabetes include oral hypoglycemic drugs, exercise, diet and physical intervention therapies such as Acupuncture. Insulin is used in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Through ages different communities have used medicinal herbs for diabetes mellitus management. Today herbal remedies are gaining popularity because the efficacy of conventional medicine is on the wane. This study was designed to bioscreen aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii for its hypoglycemic potential. Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. The three tested dose levels (50, 100, and 150mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose levels appreciably. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity. The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues. The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus.

J. M. Njagi, M. P. Ngugi, C. M. Kibiti, J. Ngeranwa, W. Njue, P. K. Gathumbi, Njagi. E. "Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice." Phytopharmacology. 2015;4(1):30-33.njagi_joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odoratissimum.pdf
Njagi JM, Ngugi MP, Kibiti CW, Njue W, Gathumbi P, Njagi E. "Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice." Phytopharmacology. 2015;4(1):30-33.joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odrt-_2015.pdf
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Hypoglycemic and Hyperglycemic effects of Momordica charantia Fruit extracts,.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Bandika VL, Were FN, Simiyu ED, Oyatsi DP. "Hypoglycaemia and hypocalcaemia as determinants of admission birth weight criteria for term stable low risk macrosomic neonates." African Health Sciences. 2014;14(3). Abstracthypoglycaemia_and_hypocalcaemia_as_determinants_of_admission_birth_weight_criteria_for_term_stable_low_risk_macrosomic_neonates.pdf

Background: Large for gestational age (LGA) accounts for about 6.3% of admissions in kenyatta national hospital, newborn unit. As a policy all IGA’s, defined by birth weight of 4000g and above are admitted for 24hours to monitor blood glucose levels. The rational for this policy is questionable and contributes to unnecessary burden on resources needed for new born care.
Objective: To study birth weight related incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in stable low risk lgas in knh and use it to establish a new admission weight based criteria.
Patients and methods: prospective cohort study done in new born-unit, post natal and labour wards of knh. Term lga neonates (birth weight = 4000g) were recruited as subjects and controlled against term appropriate weight (aga) neonates.
Results: the incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in lgas was 21% and 9% respectively. Hypoglycemia was rarely encountered after 12 hours of life in lgas. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia showed a direct upward relationship with weight beyond 4250g. No significant difference in incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia between controls and 4000-4249g category to justify their routine admission to newborn unit.
Conclusion: the study identified 4275g as new admission birth weight criteria for stable term low risk IGA‘s admission.

Zipf WB, Bacon GE, Spencer ML, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, Hawker CD. "Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 1979;2:265-268. Abstract

The effects of intravenous administration of potassium phosphate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis were studied in nine children, ages 9 9/12 to 17 10/12 yr. During phosphate infusion (20–40 meq/L of fluid), all children maintained normal serum concentrations of phosphorus. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in six and transient hypomagnesemia in five patients. One child developed carpopedal spasms refractory to intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate but responsive to intramuscular injection of magnesium sulfate. In three patients, serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were low at the time of hypocalcemia, an observation that suggests transient hypoparathyroidism. This study indicates that the use of potassium phosphate as the sole source of potassium replacement might potentiate ketoacidosis-induced hypocalcemia through multiple mechanisms.

Kimutai D, Maleche-Obimbo E, Kamenwa R, F. M. "Hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor." East Afr Med J. 2009 Jul;86(7):330-6.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Severe malnutrition contributes up to 50% of childhood mortality in developing countries is frequently characterised by electrolyte depletion, including low total body phosphate. During therapeutic re-feeding, electrolyte shift from extracellular to intra-cellular compartments may induce hypo-phosphataemia (hypo-P) with resultant increased morbidity and mortality. This biochemical imbalance is under-recognised, and the frequency of this problem among African malnourished children is unclear.
OBJECTIVES:
To determine the magnitude of hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years of age presenting to Kenyatta National Hospital with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor and to evaluate the relationship between hypo-phosphataemia and nutritional intervention during the first five days of treatment.
DESIGN:
Short longitudinal survey.
SETTING:
The General Paediatric wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
Children under five years of age presenting with kwashiorkor or marasmic kwashiorkor at KNH were recruited into the study. Main outcome measures: Low serum phosphate level (< 1.20 mmol/l) and patient outcome (survival or death) during the first five days of treatment.
RESULTS:
One hundred and sixty five children were enrolled between June 2005 and February 2006 of which 107 (64%) had kwashiorkor and 58 (36%) had marasmic kwashiorkor. They were of mean age 20 months (range 3-60), and 95 (58%) were male. The prevalence of hypo-phosphataemia was 86% on admission, increased to 90% and 93% on day one and two respectively, and then declined to 90% by the fourth day. At admission 6% were hypo-phosphataemic, increasing to 18% and 22% on day one and two respectively, and declining to 11% by day four. On admission mean serum phosphate was below normal at 0.91 mmol/l, declined significantly to 0.67 mmol/l and to a nadir of 0.63 mmol/l after the first and second day of treatment respectively, then rose slightly to 0.75 mmol/l on the fourth day (p < 0.001 comparing each follow-up mean level with the admission level). There was a positive association between severity of nadir serum phosphate level and mortality (p = 0.028). There were no deaths among children with normal nadir serum phosphate levels. However, among children with mild, moderate and severe nadir hypo-phosphataemia, 8,14 and 21% died respectively. Children with dermatosis and hypomagnesaemia showed a trend for association with mortality (p = 0.082 and 0.099 respectively).
CONCLUSION:
Hypo-phosphataemia is frequent among children with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor presenting at KNH. Serum phosphate levels decline significantly during the first two days of nutritional

Ebrahim YH. "Hypnotic ecstacy.". In: The watering hole. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2019.
A K. "Hypnosis - a probable green dentistry application in pediatric dental practice." EC Dent Scie J. 2016;2016; 6(4): 1338-1339(2016; 6(4): 1338-1339):2016; 6(4): 1338-1339.
Bwangamoi O, Varma S. "Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy in a Gelding – A Case Report.". In: Presented at the Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. Nairobi,Kenya; 1992.
Bwangamoi O, Varma S. "Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy in a Gelding – A Case Report.". In: Presented at the Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. Nairobi,Kenya; 1992. Abstract
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Masika M, Wachihi C, Muriuki F, Kimani J, R K. "Hypertension and obesity among HIV patients in a care programme in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV patients enrolled in the Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP), Nairobi, Kenya.

Design: A retrospective a study.

Setting: SWOP managed by the University of Manitoba, Nairobi team.

Subjects: We selected clinic visit records from HIV patients seen between 2011 and 2014, which had valid blood pressure and age entries.

Interventions: We analysed data to determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension and obesity in the study population. Associations were tested using chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables.

Main outcome measures: Hypertension and obesity.

Results: Three thousand one hundred ninety seven subjects were included in the study. All were HIV-positive and most (97.8%) were on ART. The mean age was 39.7 years (standard deviation = 8.8) and 72.4% of the subjects were female. The prevalence of hypertension was 7.7% (246/3197) and 31% of the study cases (798/2590) were either overweight or obese. Males were more likely to have hypertension (p < 0.001) while females were more predisposed to obesity (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Hypertension and obesity are important co-morbidities among HIV patients. Preventive and management strategies should be adopted as part of the comprehensive packages on offer at all existing HIV care and ART centres targeting those enrolled for services as well as their relatives and the community at large.

"Hypertension.". 2014. AbstractWebsite

Hypertension. Hypertension affects approximately 75 million adults in the United States and is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease.

Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. "The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome." Diabetes Rev.. 1994;2:115. Abstract
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Daugirdas JT, Kronfol NO, Tzamaloukas AH, Ing TS. "Hyperosmolar coma: cellular dehydration and the serum sodium concentration." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989;110:855-857. Abstract
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KIPKEMOI TOWETTPHILEMON, IKUSYA KANUITITUS. "Hyperlgesia following administration of morphine and pethidine in the root rat (Tachoryctes splendens)." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and therapeutics 18 (1995) 68. 1995;18(1):68-71.Wiley online Library
Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN. "Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1335-1343. Abstract
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Oh MS, Carroll HJ, Goldstein DA, Fein IA. "Hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1978;89:925-927. Abstract

We have studied 35 patients to find the occurrence of hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. At admission the patients had typical normochloremic acidosis, with increased anion gap exactly balancing decreased serum bicarbonate. In contrast, in 18 patients with phenformin-induced lactic acidosis, the increase in anion gap at admission was much greater than the decrease in bicarbonate. The difference between lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis may be explained by a slower rate of excretion of lactate than of ketone anions. After the patients with ketoacidosis were treated, the acidosis became predominantly hyperchloremic with normal anion gap. Failure to normalize serum bicarbonate is attributed to excretion of ketone anions in the urine.

AJ H, AJ W, HF B, EB M, I L, R. G. "Hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia, hyperphosphataemia and hyperaluminaemia in CAPD: improvement in serum biochemistry by reduction in dialysate calcium and magnesium concentrations." Nephron. . 1996;72(1):52-8. Abstract

Phosphate binders are necessary to control hyperphosphataemia in the majority of dialysis patients. Whilst aluminium salts are efficient phosphate binders, their use is associated with toxic side effects. Calcium salts are a widely used alternative, but hypercalcaemia is a common side effect, limiting their use and raising concern about metastatic calcification. Reduction of the dialysis fluid calcium concentration has been shown to reduce hypercalcaemia in haemodialysis patients, with an associated decrease in serum PTH. We analysed the effect of reduced calcium/magnesium (1.25/0.25 mmol/l), 40 mmol/l lactate, PD fluid (PD4) on 11 CAPD patients with uncontrollable hypercalcaemia (> 2.65 mmol/l) and hyperphosphataemia (> 1.80 mmol/l). Only 1 patient remained hypercalcaemic, while phosphate fell in 6 patients (2.23 +/- 0.16 on no binder, to 1.68 +/- 0.08 mmol/l at 6 months (p < 0.05), but was unchanged in 5 (2.10 +/- 0.15 to 2.48 +/- 0.14 mmol/l [p = NS]). Overall mean calcium x phosphate product changed little. However, in a subgroup it fell significantly (p < 0.05). Geometric mean iPTH rose, but not significantly. The subgroup of patients whose calcium x phosphate product fell, exhibited a much smaller rise in iPTH than the others (57.3-73.2 vs. 52.8-167.1 pg/ml). 1.25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 was subnormal in all patients. Mean serum magnesium fell from 1.24 +/- 0.06 to 0.89 +/- 0.04 mmol/l (p < 0.001), whilst mean serum bicarbonate rose significantly (25.2 +/- 0.4 to 28.9 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; p < 0.01). Withdrawal of aluminium-containing phosphate binders resulted in mean serum aluminium falling significantly from 31.1 +/- 5.7 at start of PD4 to 15.4 +/- 2.7 mu g/l at 6 months (p < 0.05). In summary, in around 50% of CAPD patients with persistent hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia, reduction in PD fluid calcium can produce significant improvement in phosphate, reduction of calcium x phosphate product, and enable avoidance of aluminium-containing phosphate binders. Patients whose calcium and phosphate control remains poor, still benefit from the reduction, or cessation, of oral aluminium intake.

Ojwang PJ;, Onyango FE;, Aluoch JA. "Hypercalcaemia in pulmonary tuberculosis.". 1983. Abstract

uberculosis can affect calcium metabolism, mainly through an enhanced production of active vitamin D. The incidence of hypercalcemia among unselected patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated, retrospectively, during a ten-year period. Among 67 patients, the mean serum calcium concentration on admission was significantly raised compared to healthy controls (2.51 ± 0.16 (SD) vs 2.43 ± 0.07 mmol/l; p<0.001) and 25% of the patients had hypercalcemia. After one year of successful tuberculostatic treatment the serum calcium values had normalized Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03009739009178584

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "HYGIENE STATUS OF BOVINE CARCASES FROM THE THREE SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
A survey of hygienic quality of bovine carcases from three slaugherhouses with different throughput and management was assessed using total viable counts and coliform counts from 5 sites (hindquarter, flank, brisk, forequarter and neck) on each carcass. The total viable counts showed that all three slaughterhouses were equally contaminated with bacteria exceeding 105 per cm2; the coliform counts revealed that contamination of the flank and brisket sites differed between slaughterhouses. Factors attributed to this level of contamination and their controls were discussed.
Abate, Gugsa; Kogi-Makau W; MNM. Hygiene and health-seeking behaviours of households as predictors of nutritional insecurity among preschool children in urban slums in Ethiopia: the case of Addis Ababa.; 2001. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish hygiene and health-seeking practices most likely to be predictors of nutritional insecurity among children living in slums. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 1997 comparing 192 households with and 192 without malnourished children. All the households with children in the 3 - 36-month age group were identified. Using underweight (weight-for-age) as an indicator of nutritional insecurity, the households were classified into two groups, namely nutritionally secure and insecure households Subsequently, sampling frames for each set of households were established and used to select the study households randomly. Four slums in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, constituted the study sites. The results indicated that there was not a significant difference between secure and insecure households with regard to prevalence of immunisation and dietary (food withholding) habits during episodes of diarrhoea. After adjusting (by means of logistical regression) for covariates, six household behaviours were established as having the power to predict exposure to childhood natritional insecurity in urban slums of Ethiopia. The presence of children's faeces inside the house, failure to have diarrhoea treated at a health facility, prolonged storage of cooked foods (beyond 24 hours), feeding children with unwashed hands, and poor handling of drinking water and foods are risk factors that can predict nutritional insecurity. Advice with a view to achieving sustainable behaviour change in households, namely good personal and household hygiene practices and increased utilisation of health facilities is recommended as being essential in addressing challenges to nutritional insecurity and in optimising the success of public health programmes.

Ichimaru, M; Nakatani MNKMJCMN; M;. "Hydroxyespintanol and schefflerichalcone: two new compounds from Uvaria scheffleri.". 2010. Abstract

A chemical investigation of the petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of the root of Uvaria scheffleri Diels (Annonaceae) led to the isolation of two new compounds, named hydroxyespintanol (1) and schefflerichalcone (2), together with eight known compounds (3-10). The structural elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 by spectroscopic studies is described. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was studied. Among these, 2'-hydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (5) exhibited cytotoxicity (IC(50) 12 microM), and espintanol (3), which was the main ingredient, also showed some cytotoxicity (IC(50) 44 microM)

Ichimaru, M. MPBC, et al. "Hydroxyespintanol and Schefflericha cone:Two new compounds from Uvaria scheffleri." Nat. Med . 2010;64:75-79 .
Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
CT O. HydroMe: R codes for estimating water retention and infiltration model parameters using experimental data.; 2013. Abstract

This package is version 2 of HydroMe v.1 package. It estimates the parameters in infiltration and water retention models by curve-fitting method. The models considered are those that are commonly used in soil science. It has new models for water retention characteristic curve and debugging of errors in HydroMe v.1

B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Hydromagnetic Unsteady Flow of Dusty Viscous Liquid Through a Channel with Variable Pressure Gradient.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics, Vol. 13, No. 1. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Olago D, Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. AbstractFull Text

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

C. Siderius, K. E. Gannon, M. Ndiyoi, A. Opere, N. Batisani, D.Olago, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological Response and Complex Impact Pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." International Journal of Earth’s Future. 2018; RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2017EF000680.
Ngigi SN, Savenije HHG, Gichuki FN. "Hydrological impacts of flood storage and management on irrigation water abstraction in Upper Ewaso Ng'iro river basin, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

The upper Ewaso Ng’iro basin, which starts from the central highlands of Kenya and stretches northwards transcending different climatic zones, has experienced decreasing river flows for the last two decades. The Naro Moru sub-basin is used to demonstrate the looming water crisis in this water scarce river basin. The objective of the study was to show the extent of dry seasons’ irrigation water abstractions on river flows, and to assess the hydrological impact of flood storage on temporal water distribution and irrigation water management. Decreasing river flows are attributed to over-abstraction mainly for irrigating horticultural crops. The number of abstractors has increased four times over a period of 10 years. The amount of water abstracted has also increased by 64% over the last 5 years. Moreover, the proportion of unauthorized abstractions has been increasing over the years, currently at about 80% and 95% during high and low flows respectively. This has resulted in alarming conflicts among various water users. The situation is aggravated by low irrigation efficiency (25–40%) and inadequate flood storage facilities. The paper analyzes over 40 years’ observed river flow data and 5-year interval water abstraction monitoring records for 15 years. It assesses whether flood storage and management, can reduce dry seasons’ irrigation water abstractions without significantly reducing river flows to affect the sustenance of natural ecosystems downstream. The results demonstrate that flood storage and management can reduce water abstraction and increase river flows during the dry seasons, without significantly reducing high flows to affect the downstream water users. However, socio-economic, hydrological and environmental implications should be considered if a sustainable river basin water resources management strategy is to be developed and implemented. The case study of Naro Moru sub-basin is representative of the situation in the other sub-basins, and hence can be taken as a pilot basin for developing an integrated water resources management strategy that will foster socio-economic development with minimal negative hydrological impacts in the water scarce upper Ewaso Ng’iro river basin.

Ngaina JN, Opere AO. "Hydrological Characteristics of Lower Nzoia Sub-basin in Kenya." Hydrol Current Res . 2017;8:4; DOI: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000285.
Obiero JPO, Marenya MO, Nkuna TR. "Hydrologic response modelling in Lutanandwa river catchment, Limpopo, South Africa, using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment (JEAE). 2019;Volume 5.(No1. 2019):1-13.
Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM. "Hydrologic properties of grazed perennial swards in semiarid southeastern Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science & Technology . 2009;3 (2):26-33. Abstract

Identification of plant resources that persist under grazing pressure, support desirable levels of production and at the same time protect the grazing environment is central to sustainable livestock production. This study assessed the infiltration capacity and soil loss associated with perennial swards subjected to different levels of utilization using simulated rainfall. The hypothesis was tested that grazed perennial swards have similar hydrologic properties and threshold removal levels below which runoff increases markedly. Infiltration capacity for the perennial swards increased with increasing stubble height before leveling off towards the highest stubble height. A 50% removal of current growth was the upper limit above which runoffs from the swards increased rapidly. Aggregate stability, organic carbon and percent ground plant cover were the most significant attributes that influenced infiltration capacity. Panicum maximum and Enteropogon macrostachyus were the most suitable perennial swards with favourable soil physical properties and infiltration capacities in the study area. The results support the existence of a threshold level of sward stubble height for minimizing runoff.

Key words: Perennial swards, water infiltration capacity, runoff thresholds.

Opere AO. "Hydrologic analysis for river Nyando using SWAT." Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.. 2011;8:1765-1797.opere_hess-abstract.pdf
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the groundwater resources of the floor of the Rift Valley, Nakuru North, Kenya. In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor):.". In: Proccedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 92-100. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS).". 2020;11:100451. AbstractWebsite

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Mulwa JK, Mwega BW, Kiura MK. "Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of water quality in Lake Chala catchment area, Kenya." Global Advanced Research Journal of Physical and Applied Sciences. 2013;2(1):001-007. AbstractHydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of water quality in Lake Chala catchment area, Kenya

Lake Chala is a transboundary fresh water resource with no surface water inflow or outflow and is located in the southwestern part of Kenya on the Kenya-Tanzania border. The lake catchment area is bound by longitudes 370 41’ E and 370 43’ E and latitudes 30 18’ S and 30 20’ S. The Lake has a surface area of 4.2 km2 and lies within a surface catchment area of about 16.23 km2, which falls within a semiarid region frequently facing severe water scarcity especially during periods of prolonged drought. The major economic activities in this area are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry which account for about 75-80% of household income. Due reliance on rain fed agriculture, water scarcity has often had negative impact on the people and there is need to tap the lake water for irrigation purposes. As such, water samples were collected on the Kenya and Tanzania sides from eleven (11) sites in March 2011 and subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. Ten of the water samples show that the type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, while one water sample from a shallow well is a Ca-Mg-chloride type based on hydro-chemical facies. The suitability of water for irrigation has been evaluated based on sodium percent, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio and salinity hazard and is therefore suitable for irrigation purposes.

Wandiga SO. "Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for exchange reactions in the antimony(III)–cysteine system and synthesis of antimony(III) compounds of 3,3-dimethylcysteine, toluene-3,4-dithiolate, dicyano-ethylene-1,2-dithiolate, and 2,3-bis(thiosemicarba." Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1984:1-5. Abstractpubs.rsc.org

AbstractExchange reactions in antimony(III)–cysteine and –3,3-dimethyl-D-cysteine (dmc) systems have been investigated. Exchange is rapid and independent of pH with antimony(III)–cysteine systems at pH 1–3 but is slow with potassium bis(tartrato)diantimonate(III)–cysteine. Antimony(III) compounds of dmc, toluene-3,4-dithiolate, Dicyano-ethylene-1,2-dithiolate, and 2,3-Bis(thiosemicarbazono)butane have been synthesized and characterized.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Hydrogen peroxide degradation by immobilized cells of alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans.". In: Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, 24. 3,. 215-222. Springerlink; 2006.
OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND, WELANDER ULRIKA, ANDERSSON MARIAMARGARETA, MULAA FRANCISJAKIM, MATTIASSON BO, HATTI-KAUL RAJNI. "Hydrogen peroxide degradation by immobilized cells of alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans.". 2006.
Hydrogen as an alternative fuel: An ab-initio study of Lithium Hydride and Magnesium Hydride. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

Limited energy resources and growing pollution associated with conventional energy production have stimulated the search for cleaner, cheaper and more efficient energy technologies. Hydrogen as a fuel is seen as one of the promising energy technologies alternative to fossil fuel. Metal hydrides have been suggested as potential candidates for the bulk storage of hydrogen. In this study, ab-initio calculations of metal hydrides that are promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, that is, magnesium hydride (MgH2) and lithium hydride (LiH) was carried out using the Quantum Espresso computer code. The calculated quantities were the equilibrium structural parameters namely, the electronic properties as well as the thermodynamic properties. The calculated lattice parameters for MgH2 were a = 4.54 Å and c = 3.019 Å. Both values of a and c are in good agreement with experimental values of a = 4.501 Å and c = 3.01 Å. The calculated lattice parameter for LiH was a = b = c = 3.93 Å. The lattice parameter of LiH shows a correlation of approximately -3.79% with the experimental value of 4.083 Å. Thermodynamic properties of LiH were investigated by performing density functional theory within the quasi harmonic approximation. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at constant volume CV, the Helmholtz free energy ∆F, the internal energy ∆E and the entropy ∆S was obtained. The thermodynamic properties and formation enthalpies are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Magero D, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Mwabora JM, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Gateru R. Hydrogen as an alternative fuel: An ab-initio study of Lithium Hydride and Magnesium Hydride. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

Limited energy resources and growing pollution associated with conventional energy production have stimulated the search for cleaner, cheaper and more efficient energy technologies. Hydrogen as a fuel is seen as one of the promising energy technologies alternative to fossil fuel. Metal hydrides have been suggested as potential candidates for the bulk storage of hydrogen. In this study, ab-initio calculations of metal hydrides that are promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, that is, magnesium hydride (MgH2) and lithium hydride (LiH) was carried out using the Quantum Espresso computer code. The calculated quantities were the equilibrium structural parameters namely, the electronic properties as well as the thermodynamic properties. The calculated lattice parameters for MgH2 were a = 4.54 Å and c = 3.019 Å. Both values of a and c are in good agreement with experimental values of a = 4.501 Å and c = 3.01 Å. The calculated lattice parameter for LiH was a = b = c = 3.93 Å. The lattice parameter of LiH shows a correlation of approximately -3.79% with the experimental value of 4.083 Å. Thermodynamic properties of LiH were investigated by performing density functional theory within the quasi harmonic approximation. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at constant volume CV, the Helmholtz free energy ∆F, the internal energy ∆E and the entropy ∆S was obtained. The thermodynamic properties and formation enthalpies are in good agreement with the experimental data.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Hydroeconomic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Farmers.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Ndirangu, Kabubi, Dulo. "Hydro-climatic Disasters in Water Resources Management. Training Manual, UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.". In: Trainning Manual, UNDP Cap-Net. UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.; 2009.
Mbeche OO. "Hydraulic ram pump in Kenya."; 1984.
Macpherson CNL, Wachira TM, Zeyhle E, Romig T, Machpherson C. "Hydatid disease-research and control in Turkana." Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1996;80:196-200.
Magambo JK, T.M. W, et al. "Hydatid disease in Toposland, southern Sudan." . African Journal of Health Sciences. 1998;5:129-132.
Zeyhle E, T. W, et al. "Hydatid disease in the East African countries." Parasitology International . 1998;47:410.
Njogu PM, Hendricks DT, Chibale K. "Hybrids of (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine and anticancer pharmacophores: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.". In: 12th Frank Warren Conference 2012. Bloemfontein, South Africa; 2012.
Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry . 2018;153:198-207. Abstract

Direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissues is important because it has an immense potential for biomedical applications. Unfortunately this is challenging because soft body tissues are characterized by dark matrix problems, weak analyte fluorescence, scattering, poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the analyte and spectral overlaps due to the properties of the detector and detection process. We report on hybridized utility of robust chemometrics approach for spectral preprocessing towards improving the quality of spectra towards quantitative analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissue. The study was based on (5–20 µm thick) paraffin wax model ‘standards’ spiked with biometals Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Na and Mg. Wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used conjointly for de-noising and mathematical enhancement of resolution. There was improved SNR of spectra by a factor of 3 compared to use of WT alone. The preprocessed spectra were used as input to artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) models for developing multivariate calibration strategies for quantitative analysis. Both models predicted the concentrations of the biometals better than when raw spectra were utilized (R2 ~ 0.892–0.954 before, and ~ 0.990–0.998 after preprocessing for ANNs; and R2 ~ 0.876–0.931 before, and ~ 0.977–0.992 after preprocessing for PLS). There was also improvement in prediction of Na and Mg in model tissue when both fluorescence and scatter were utilized conjointly (EDXRFS) i.e. R2 = 0.970 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.998 for both fluorescence and scatter for Na; and R2 = 0.934 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.993 for both fluorescence and scatter for Mg for ANN model. The accuracy of the calibration model was tested using Oyster tissue (NIST 1566b). The results of all analyzed elements were in agreement with certified values to ≤ 6%. This shows proof-of-concept for use of hybridized robust chemometrics approaches for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in soft tissue utilizing EDXRFS spectrometry; an approach that has potential for biomedical applications of EDXRF.

KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2018;153:198-207.
Kanya JI, Kinyamario JI, Amugune ON, Hauser PT. "Hybridization Potential Between Cultivated Rice Oryza sativa and African Wild Rice Oryza longistaminata." International Journal of agricultural research. 2012;7(6):291-302.
Kanya JI, Hauser TP, Kinyamario JI, Amugune NO. "Hybridization potential between cultivated rice Oryza sativa and African wild rice Oryza longistaminata." International Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(6):291-302.
Nijman IJ, Otsen M, Verkaar ELC, de Ruijter C, Hanekamp E, Ochieng JW, Shamshad S, Rege JEO, Hanotte O, Barwegen MW, Sulawati T, Lenstra JA. "Hybridization of banteng (Bos javanicus) and zebu (Bos indicus) revealed by mitochondrial DNA, satellite DNA, AFLP and microsatellites." Heredity (Edinb). 2003;90(1):10-6. Abstract

Hybridization between wild and domestic bovine species occurs worldwide either spontaneously or by organized crossing. We have analysed hybridization of banteng (Bos javanicus) and zebu (Bos indicus) in south-east Asian cattle using mitochondrial DNA (PCR-RFLP and sequencing), AFLP, satellite fragment length polymorphisms (SFLP or PCR-RFLP of satellite DNA) and microsatellite genotyping. The Indonesian Madura zebu breed is reputed to be of hybrid zebu-banteng origin, but this has never been documented and Bali cattle are considered to be a domesticated form of banteng. The banteng mitochondrial type was found in all animals sampled on the isle of Bali, Indonesia, but only in 35% of the animals from a Malaysian Bali-cattle population. The Madura animals also carried mitochondrial DNA of either zebu and banteng origin. In both populations, zebu introgression was confirmed by AFLP and SFLP. Microsatellite analysis of the Malaysian Bali population revealed for 12 out of 15 loci screened, Bali-cattle-specific alleles, several of which were also found in wild banteng animals. The tools we have described are suitable for the detection of species in introgression studies, which are essential for the genetic description of local breeds and the preservation of their economic and cultural value.

Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Zhu J, Yang L. "Hybrid photonic molecules.". In: CLEO: Science and Innovations. Optical Society of America; 2012:. Abstract
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K. MJ, O. KDB, A. OH. "A Hybrid MOM/FDTD Formulation for EMC/EMI Problems Of Metallic Enclosures with Apertures.". In: KSEEE-JSAEM 2010 International Conference. MMUCK, Nairobi: International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE); 2010. Abstract

A HYBRID MOM/FDTD FORMULATION FOR EMC/EMI PROBLEMS OF METALLIC ENCLOSURES WITH APERTURES

Josiah K. Makiche1 Dominic B. O. Konditi2, Heywood A. Ouma3
jkmakiche@yahoo.co.uk konditi_dom@yahoo.co.uk houma@ieee.org

1Department of Telecommunication and Information Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. 2Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University College of Kenya. 3Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Nairobi

Abstract—In this work a hybrid Method-of-Moments/Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (MoM/FDTD) formulation for the analysis of a metallic enclosure with an aperture is developed. The equivalence principle is used to divide the problem into two regions, region 1 and region 2, each of which is treated separately. The induced aperture magnetic currents are obtained via a moments method solution of the mixed potential integral equation using the generalized network formulation and triangular patch modeling. The computed magnetic current is directly incorporated into FDTD formulations as a source to determine the fields in the interior of the enclosure (region 2). The formulations are implemented in a computer code and used to analyze a typical problem of a rectangular enclosure with an aperture. The results are validated using data available in literature.
Keywords: Shielding effectiveness, metallic enclosures, method of moments, finite difference time domain, EMI/EMC.

Odero AN. HYBRID METHOD OF MOMENTS (MOM)/FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) FORMULATION FOR PROBLEMS OF TRANSMISSION THROUGH NON-BACKED AND WAVEGUIDE-BACKED CAVITIES OF ARBITRARY SHAPE IN THICK CONDUCTING SCREENS . Benard KD, ed. Juja: JKUAT; 2007. Abstract

Concerted efforts have been made towards developing more elaborate techniques for solving aperture coupling problems. The majority of these techniques, however, deal with apertures of regular shapes and, in each case, only a particular problem has been solved. It is only with the development of numerical methods, such as the Method of Moments and Finite Element Method that it has become possible to treat irregularly shaped apertures.

However, each of the above methods has its own advantages and disadvantages when applied to different problems. The Method of Moments is an integral equation method which handles unbounded problems very effectively but becomes computationally intensive when material and structural inhomogeneities exist. In contrast, the true power of the finite element method is revealed in three-dimensional volume formulations in the presence of material and structural inhomogeneities. The method requires less computer time and storage because of its sparse and banded matrix. The matrix filling time is also negligible when simple basis functions are used. For complex basis functions, the matrix filling time can be significant.

A suitably implemented hybrid method takes advantage of the strengths of the individual methods constituting it while avoiding their weaknesses. This research therefore, as one of its objectives, has developed a hybrid method that combines the method of moments and the finite element method (MOM/FEM). The analysis is based upon the "generalized network formulation" for aperture problems. The cavity region is subdivided into tetrahedral elements resulting in triangular elements on the surfaces of the apertures.

In this work, a hybrid MOM/FEM solution procedure for the general problem of apertures of arbitrary shapes in thick conducting screens and waveguide walls has been developed and used in the analysis of a variety of representative problems. Appropriate modeling of the aperture/cavity has been carried out using tetrahedral and triangular elements. Suitably defined sets of basis functions have been integrated into the formulation which is capable of accurately evaluating fields of apertures of arbitrary shape. The problem has been formulated by invoking the equivalence principles and utilizing boundary conditions on the apertures/cavity to derive equations which have then been transformed into matrices that are then solved numerically by simulation on a digital computer. The finite element method, employing reliable vector formulation, has been employed in the computation of the interior admittance matrix. Here, edge elements or tetrahedra in which the degrees of freedom are assigned to the edges rather than the nodes are utilized. This resulted in the avoidance of nonphysical or spurious modes, a difficulty that arises when node-based elements are used. Based on the preceding formulation, extensive computation of various parameters for apertures/cavities of various shapes has been done and results presented. The two main classes of problems treated in this study comprise apertures of arbitrary shape in thick conducting screens and waveguide-backed apertures.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Hybrid Method Analysis of Electromagnetic Transmission through Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Scree.". In: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS); 2004. Abstract

In this paper a hybrid numerical technique is presented, suitable for analyzing transmission properties of an arbitrarily shaped slot in a thick conducting plane. The slot is  excited by an electromagnetic source of arbitrary orientation. The analysis of the problem is based on the "generalized network formulation" for aperture problems. The problem is solved using the method of moments(MOM) and the finite element method(FEM) in a hybrid format. The finite element method is applicable to inhomogeneously filled slots of arbitrary shape while the method of moments is used for solving the electromagnetic fields in unbounded regions of the slot. The cavity region has been subdivided into tetrahedral elements resulting in triangular elements on the surfaces of the apertures.  Validation results for rectangular slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published results is observed.  Thereafter, new data has been generated for cross-shaped, H-shaped and circular apertures.

Nijimbere D, Zhao S, Liu H, Peng B, Zhang A. "A hybrid metaheuristic of integrating estimation of distribution algorithm with tabu search for the max-mean dispersion problem." Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2019;2019. Abstract
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Kitonyi PM, Segera DR. "Hybrid Gradient Descent Grey Wolf Optimizer for Optimal Feature Selection." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-33.
Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "A Hybrid Finite Element/Moment Method for Solving Electromagnetic Radiation Problem of Arbitrarily-Shaped Apertures in a Thick Conducting Screen.". In: The KSEEE (Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ) Conference. The Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (KSEEE); 2004. Abstract

In this paper a hybrid numerical technique is presented, suitable for analyzing transmission properties of an arbitrarily shaped slot in a thick conducting plane. The slot is  excited by an electromagnetic source of arbitrary orientation. The analysis of the problem is based on the "generalized network formulation" for aperture problems. The problem is solved using the method of moments(MOM) and the finite element method(FEM) in a hybrid format. The finite element method is applicable to inhomogeneously filled slots of arbitrary shape while the method of moments is used for solving the electromagnetic fields in unbounded regions of the slot. The cavity region has been subdivided into tetrahedral elements resulting in triangular elements on the surfaces of the apertures.  Validation results for rectangular slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published results is observed.  Thereafter, new data has been generated for cross-shaped, H-shaped and circular apertures.

Cheng TEC, Peng B, Lü Z. "A hybrid evolutionary algorithm to solve the job shop scheduling problem." Annals of Operations Research. 2016;242:223-237. Abstract
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Muiruri CK, Ruhiu S, Moturi CA. "A Hybrid Algorithm for Detecting Web Based Applications Vulnerabilities." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):15-20 . AbstractWebsite

Web vulnerability scanners (WVS) are tools for discovering vulnerabilities in a web application. However, they are not 100% accurate. In this paper we develop a hybrid algorithm for detecting web based applications vulnerabilities and compare its performance with other open source WVS. The comparison is based on three metrics namely time taken to scan, detection accuracy and consistency.

Karumba MC, Ruhiu S, Moturi CA. "A Hybrid Algorithm for Detecting Web Based Applications Vulnerabilities." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):15-20. AbstractWebsite

Web vulnerability scanners (WVS) are tools for discovering vulnerabilities in a web application. However, they are not 100% accurate. In this paper we develop a hybrid algorithm for detecting web based applications vulnerabilities and compare its performance with other open source WVS. The comparison is based on three metrics namely time taken to scan, detection accuracy and consistency.

ohn-Stewart, G.C; Mbori-Ngacha DA; PFREOODSBL; C;. "HV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and breast milk HIV-1 transmission.". 2009. Abstract

Breast-feeding by infants exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) provides an opportunity to assess the role played by repeated HIV-1 exposure in eliciting HIV-1-specific immunity and in defining whether immune responses correlate with protection from infection. Breast-feeding infants born to HIV-1-seropositive women were assessed for HLA-selected HIV-1 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte interferon (IFN)-gamma responses by means of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Responses were deemed to be positive when they reached > or = 50 HIV-1-specific sfu/1 x 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and were at least twice those of negative controls. A total of 807 ELISpot assays were performed for 217 infants who remained uninfected with HIV-1 at approximately 12 months of age; 101 infants (47%) had at least 1 positive ELISpot result (median, 78-170 sfu/1 x 10(6) PBMCs). The prevalence and magnitude of responses increased with age (P = .01 and P = .007, respectively); the median log(10) value for HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma responses increased by 1.0 sfu/1 x 10(6) PBMCs/month (P < .001) between 1 and 12 months of age. Of 141 HIV-1-uninfected infants with 1-month ELISpot results, 10 (7%) acquired HIV-1 infection (0/16 with positive vs. 10/125 [8%] with negative ELISpot results; P = .6). Higher values for log(10) HIV-1-specific spot-forming units at 1 month of age were associated with a decreased risk of HIV-1 infection, adjusted for maternal HIV-1 RNA level (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.09 [95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.72]).. Breast-feeding HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants frequently had HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma responses. Greater early HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma responses were associated with decreased HIV-1 acquisition.

W DROMOLOANTHONYJ. "Hutchinson A.J., Were A.J.O, Boulton H.F., Mawer E.B., Laing I., Gokal R., Manchester Royal Infirmay, U.K. Control of hypercalcemia, phosphatemia and hyperaluminemia in CAPD by reduction in dialysate calcium concentration.". In: Presented at the International Society of Nephrology congress in Jerusalem, Israel. June 1993. In book of abstracts. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1993. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
A B, E O, P M, M N, Y M, Kiambi S, Muturi M, Mwatondo A, Muriithi R, Cleaveland S, Hampson K, MK N, M KP, M TS. "A hundred years of rabies in Kenya and the strategy for eliminating dog-mediated rabies by 2030." AAS Open Res. 2019;1:23.
KAAYA GP. "Humoral immunity in tsetse.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Molecular Insect Science. Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A; 1989.
KAAYA GP, DARJI N. "The humoral defense system in tsetse: Differences in response due to age, sex and antigen types." Developmental and Comparative Immunology . 1988;12:255-268.
KAAYA GP. "Humoral antibacterial immunity in tsetse.". In: In "Molecular and Physiological Basis of Vector Parasite Interactions and Its Epidemiological Implications". Dormy House Hotel, Broadway, Worcestershire; 1990.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Humantarian relief logistics at the Kenya Red Cross, a paper presented at Operations Research Society 50th anniversary in , UK.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
Wasamba P. "The Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) in the Age of Disruptions: Boon or Bane?". In: Makerere Humanities and Social Sciences Symposium. Kampala, Uganda; 2018.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Humanitarian Intervention: Its Legality and Applicability to Internal Armed Conflicts in Africa".". In: In Volume 7 Number 1 East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights pp.16-54. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2001. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. "Humanitarian intervention and State Sovereignity in Africa: The Changing Paradigms in International Law Occasional Paper Number 3 Centre for Refugee Studies, MUP, ISSN: 1727-1746.". In: In Volume 3 Number 1 African Human Rights Law Journal pp. 97-117. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Maina MJ. Human-wildlife conflict in Laikipia district: area specific strategy recommendations .; 1994. Abstract

The evolution of conflict often arise from divergent view points and the manner to derive benefits from a common resource. The increasingly limited supply of natural resources especially, in Arid and Semi Arid Lands exacerbates tension between various actors with vested interests in the use of the same resources. Wildlife is an important natural resource in Kenya as an environmental heritage, and cultural source of both food and revenue. Thus the government of Kenya has taken important measures to protect wildlife through gazetting certain areas for exclusive use by wildlife such as Parks and Reserves. Recent research findings have indicated that protected areas only contains less than 20 percent of the total wildlife species found in Kenya. The other 80 percent resides outside the protected areas in privately owned land where the wildlife is often in conflict with human settlement. Laikipia District is a case in point which is an important wildlife refuge outside these protected areas. Continued presence of wild animals in the District is now threatened by changes in land use brought about by demographic changes occasioned by continued influx of population from the high potential areas of Central Province. The incoming population bring with them intensive agricultural land use practices which are incompatible with migratory regimes of the wild animals in the region. The farms are thereby exposed to continuous destruction by elephants and other wild animals. This. problem is more serious in Ngobit, Sirima, and Salama Locations where this study was carried out. This study aimed to investigate the types, intensity and effects of human-wildlife conflict and to suggest a mechanism for spatial resolution of the conflict. It further sought to assess how the government and the community reach at resolutions aimed to abet conflict, and the types of solutions in the context of existing policy. In order to achieve the above broad objectives three conflict zones namely, Kariunga/Mutirithia, Ngobit ISirima and Ethi ILaikipia East were selected for detailed data collection and analysis. The three areas do have land use conflicts generated between wild animals on the one hand; and farming of livestock and crop rearing. A number of methods were used to collect data on the field, the most widely used being questionnaires, interviews, filed obserVations and photography among others. Respondents were mature household heads or their representatives. randomly selected .

Mazyala EJ, Revocatus M, Manyama M, Msuya S, Rambau P, Kimwaga E, Magelle N, Machimu Y, Joshua M, Magori CC. "Human {Bodies} {Bequest} {Program}: {A} {Wake}-{Up} {Call} to {Tanzanian} {Medical} {Schools}." Advances in Anatomy. 2014;2014:e940472. AbstractWebsite

Introduction. Studying anatomy through dissection of human cadavers requires a regular supply of human bodies. Tanzanian medical schools depend entirely on collecting unclaimed bodies in hospital mortuaries. This method is no longer reliable. This study aimed at evaluating sources and profile of cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools and addressing challenges and suggests appropriate lasting solutions. Methods. Seven spreadsheets were sent electronically to seven medical schools in Tanzania to capture data related to sources and profiles of cadavers received. Only 2 out of 7 responded timely. Results. 100&\#x25; of all cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools are unclaimed bodies of black population. Female cadavers accounted for 0&\#x2013;20&\#x25;. About 9 days elapse before embalmment of cadavers. Conclusion. It is the time to jump onto body bequest wagon.

Togoch H. Kemboi, Irandu M. Evaristus TT. "Human Wildlife Conflicts and Livelihood Diversification among Kamnnarok National Reserve Adjacent Communities in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of the School of Environmental Studies. 2018;3(1).
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Human Trafficking in Kenya: Is Poverty and Sex Discrimination to Blame?" International Journal of Women, Social Justice and Human Rights. 2007;2(1):65-84.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Human Sexuality: Meaning and Purpose in Selected Communities in Contemporary Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Nov;84(11 Suppl):S96-100. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti in regard to the risk posed by bovine brucellosis and determine the prevalence of the disease in urban dairy cattle. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Urban and Peri-urban dairy farming and non dairy farming households in Dagoretti division, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred ninety nine dairy farming and 149 non dairy farming households. INTERVENTION: Segregated focus group discussions, administration of a household questionnaire and collection of unboiled milk from dairy and non dairy farming households were the instruments used to gather data on the practices, attitudes, perceptions and prevalence of bovine brucellosis. RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety three milk samples were collected and analysed for the presence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in an indirect ELISA. The apparent prevalence of bovine brucellosis from milk was estimated at 1% for the samples collected while in dairy farming households the prevalence was 1.1% [0.2, 3.4%] and 0.7% [0.4%] in non dairy farming households.. Thirty percent (90/296) of dairy respondents and 22% (32/147) of non-dairy respondents knew of the existence of brucellosis. Risk of contracting brucellosis was very low considering that milk is boiled together with other ingredients used in making tea and porridge. However, 31% (93/296) and 22% (31/143) of dairy and non dairy farming households respectively made traditionally fermented milk without first boiling the milk. This practice may predispose this group to brucellosis. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of bovine brucellosis requires constant surveillance in case the prevalence rates do change. Education of dairy farming households who are more at risk of contracting brucellosis on the transmission pathways and risk factors is required in order to lower further the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in Dagoretti.
MALECHE MRZACHARIAH. "Human Settlements strategy for Rural and Urban Development. In collaboration with the Physical Planning Department, Ministry of Lands and Settlement, Republic of Kenya,1978.". In: KISE Bulletin, July 1987. Vol. 1 No. 2. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1978.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Human Settlements and Rural Development in Nyeri District. Draft report \ritten for the National Council for Science and Technology. 1986.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1986. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Ayiemba EHO. "Human Settlement Sector.". 1998.Website
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement in South Nyanza.". In: Procedings of a Conference sponsored by the Swedish agency for Research co-operation with Development Countries (SAREC) and organised by the Centre for Archaelogy and Antiquties, University of Tananarive Madagascar, SAREC, Sweden. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement in South Nyanza.". In: Procedings of a Conference sponsored by the Swedish agency for Research co-operation with Development Countries (SAREC) and organised by the Centre for Archaelogy and Antiquties, University of Tananarive Madagascar, SAREC, Sweden.; Submitted. Abstract

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Paul O; SRA. "Human Settlement Housing in Africa: Bibliographical Survey. ." Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Press; 2012.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement along the Kenyans Coast. Proceedings of the SAREC conference in Harare, Zimbabwe, SAREC, Sweden.". In: Indiana State University Press. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1992. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
Kameri-Mbote P, Ikdahl I, Hellum A, Kaarhhus R, Benjaminsen TA. Human Rights, Formalisation And Women's Land Rights In Southern And Eastern Africa.; 2005.Website
Mwangi IPI, Muthee MW, Ndohvu JB. Human Rights, African Values and Traditions: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Nairobi: 2011; 2011.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. "Human Rights, African Values and Traditions (Ed. Iribe Mwangi).". In: The Status of Women in the Traditional Swahili Society. Danish Institute for human Rights; 2011.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Human Rights', ibid., 24-34.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1997. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Human Rights Situation in Kenya: Co-statement',.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
H.J. OJWANG. "Human Rights in a Multi -Cultural Context:Implications for Kenya." Governance and Development/International Commission for Jurists, Kenya Section; 1996. Abstract

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MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Human Rights and Diplomacy in Africa: A Critical Perspective.". In: Kent papers in Politics and International Relations, serires, No 5 (K. Kbwana & K.Acheampong). University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Human Rights.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2004. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
K'Obonyo P, Omari S. "Human Resources Practices, the relationship between Locus of Control and Employee Outcomes." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;Vol 3(Issue No. 1). Abstract

This paper explores the effect of human resource practices on the relationship between locus of control and employee outcomes. Personality is a stable characteristic that employees bring to the work place. It is presumed that locus of control will influence employee outcomes but the strength of its effect will be influenced by the implementation of human resource practices in the organization. Human resource practices were expected to moderate these relationships. Predicted relationships were drawn from prior theory that identified how human resource practices influence employee outcomes and on how locus of control affected employee outcomes. The individual’s locus of control was evaluated based on the external and internal continuum. Employee outcomes studied were job satisfaction, trust, employee commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour. Results obtained from 181 questionnaires from respondents in Kenyan public corporations indicated that human resources practices influenced the relationship between locus of control with job satisfaction, employee commitment, trust and organizational citizenship behaviours. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and the moderating effect was shown by the changes in r values. Implications for theory and managerial practice are given.
Keywords: Locus of control, Human resource Practices, employee outcomes

Okumbe JA. Human Resources Management: An Educational Perspective. Nairobi: Educational Development and Research Bureau; 2001.
C. M, F. M, M. MOM. "Human Resources Management Practices, Employee Competence and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
C. M, F. M, M. M, m O. "Human Resources Management Practices and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2021;8(9).
Okumbe JA. "Human Resources Management in Dynamic Educational Institutions: The Case of Kenya." Journal of the Open University of Tanzania. 2002;Vol. IV, No. 1.
M OM, F. M, J. AM. Human Resources Management. Mombasa, Kenya ; 2014.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Human Resources Development for the Water Sector in the Next Decade.". In: Proceedings of 4th African Water Technology Conference,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

WAMBUI JANE. "Human resource utilization and Kenya." Paper presented at Kenya Education Staff Institute first National Conference on innovations in education management; 2012. Abstract
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Harriet J. Kidombo, Peter K’Obonyo, Chistopher M Gakuu. "Human Resource Strategic Orientation and Organizational Commitment in Kenyan Manufacturing Firms." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2012;Vol. 1 (Number 7).ijac_paper_2013.pdf
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "HUMAN RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS IN SSA LOCAL AUTHORITIES, Expert Group Meeting on Low Cost Mobility in African Cities, June 2000, "Velo Mondial 2000"/IHE Delft, The Netherlands.". In: Expert Group Meeting on Low Cost Mobility in African Cities, June 2000, "Velo Mondial 2000"/IHE Delft, The Netherlands. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
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NZUVE SNM, Mwarey CD. "Human Resource Planning In faith Based Hospitals in Kenya." Social Science Research Network. 2013.ssrn-id2144691.pdf
Bulinda DM. Human Resource Planning and organizational performance in Education. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
K'Obonyo PO, Sagwa VE, Ogutu M. "Human Resource Management Practices and Performance of Firms Listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015. Abstract

Most research demonstrating the link between (HRMP) and firm performance has focused on the private sector, yet understanding this relationship in publicly listed firms, in the Developing World setting is equally important. The role of HRMP on firm performance of the NSE listed firms has not been established using the selected set of variables, yet theory has demonstrates that these HRMP can have an effect on firm performance. This study was motivated by the desire to fill this gap in knowledge. The study objective was to establish the relationship between HRMP and firm performance. The research design was cross sectional descriptive survey. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, from a population of 60 NSE listed firms. The response rate was 60%. Simple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The results of the study show a statistically significant relationship between HRMP and performance of firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. This study contributes to understanding of the link between HRMP and firm performance, while at the same time confirms the findings of previous studies that have found a significant link between HRMP and firm performance. It was recommended that firms have to ensure that the HRMP that they adopt assist them to attain and sustain a superior competitive advantage in their operations.

OMONDI G. "Human Resource Management Manual for Kenya Small Scale Traders Society.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme. Nairobi: Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1994. Abstract

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This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Matula P.D & Kanori E. "Human resource Management in Education. Nairobi." University of Nairobi Press.; 2012.
M.M K, K’ Obonyo P., M. O. "Human resource information system and competitive advantage of companies listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal Of Economics, Commerce And Management. 2018;6(1).
European journal of business and managementKariuki MM. "Human resource information system and competitive advantage of companies listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange." European Journal of Business and Management. 2015;7(21):198-206.
C N. "Human Resource Development in Makueni District, Kenya 1989 - 1999.". In: Policy Requirements for farmer investment in semi-arid Africa: Makueni District Profile. Crewkerne, UK: Drylands Research; 2000.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Human Resource Development for Open Learning and Distance Education in Kenya.". In: National Consultative Forum on Policy for Open Learning and Distance Education held at Windsor Golf and Country Club Nairobi . Thought and Practice; 2004. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
K'Obonyo PP, Kilika JM, Ogutu PM. "Human Resource Development Drivers for University-Industry Collaboration: Empirical Evidence from Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Volume 1(Issue No. 4):81-98. Abstract

The study leans towards the human capital development nature of universities and applies the philosophy of human resource development to explain the phenomenon of University-Industry Collaboration (U-C-I) in Kenya. The study reports the findings of an empirical research investigating the patterns of U-I-C and the human resource develpment (HRD) driving factors for the identified patterns of collaboration in Kenya using data gathered from 16 universities both public and private. The findings of the study reveal a significant correlation between the Motivation to pursue Collaboration and the Level of U-I-C among key decision makers in universities in Kenya (n=16; r=492; p<0.05). While the findings provide an empirical explanation on the Motivation, Level and Types of collaboration prevailing in Kenya together with the managerial issues universities need to address in order to strengthen links with the productive sector, they strengthen the call for future research to focus on strategic HRD issues offering a viable pillar for supporting U-I-C.

WAMBUI JANE. "Human Resource Development." A Case Study of Kenya Railways Corporation; 1994. Abstract
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C.K. M, Mungai NN. "Human Poisoning with Plants in Kenya." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(1):10-13.
Maitai CK, Mungai NN. "Human poisoning with plants in Kenya." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(1):10-13.
Maitai CK;, Mungai NN. "Human poisoning with plants in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Human poisoning with plants is uncommon as often people only eat material known to be non-toxic. In times of food shortage, people are willing to experiment with new plant material such as roots, fruits and mushrooms and this often leads to poisoning. Cooking, a common practice' among humans, often destroys plant poisons. Poisonous plants which cause acute and sub-acute poisoning are well known to the local community where they grow, as the cause-effect relationship is easy to establish, unlike those that cause chronic toxicity. Herbal medicine may cause poisoning, but this is rare particularly among experienced practitioners of herbal medicine. In this article several known poisonous plants in Kenya are briefly discussed.

Mitei. K, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Opot. B, Osuna. F, Njiri. J, Wurapa. EK. Human Parainfluenza Viruses Infections in Children, Kenya (2007-2011). . Crowne plaza, Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
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De Vuyst H, Gichangi P, Estambale B, Njuguna E, Franceschi S, Temmerman M. "Human papillomavirus types in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya." Int. J. Cancer. 2008;122(1):244-6. Abstract

To evaluate the fraction of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) that could be prevented in HIV-infected women by vaccines currently available against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, we conducted a cross-sectional study in women with ICC in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-one HIV-positive women were frequency-matched by age to 153 HIV-negative women. Cervical cells were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction-based assays (SPF10-INNO-LiPA). Comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity of HPV types. As expected, multiple-type infections were much more frequent in HIV-positive (37.2%) than in HIV-negative (13.7%) women, but the distribution of HPV types was similar. HPV16 was detected in 41.2% versus 43.8% and HPV16 and/or 18 in 64.7% versus 60.1% of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women, respectively. The only differences of borderline statistical significance were an excess of HPV52 (19.6% versus 5.2%) and a lack of HPV45 (7.8% versus 17.0%) in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women, respectively. We have been able to assess an unprecedented number of ICCs in HIV-positive women, but as we did not know the age of HIV acquisition, we cannot exclude that it had occurred too late in life to affect the type of HPV involved in cervical carcinogenesis. However, if our findings were confirmed, they would suggest that the efficacy of current vaccines against HPV16 and 18 to prevent ICC is similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, provided vaccination is administered before sexual debut, as recommended.

Cornet I, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Burk RD, Sylla BS, Tommasino M, Clifford GM. "Human papillomavirus type 16 genetic variants: phylogeny and classification based on E6 and LCR." J. Virol.. 2012;86(12):6855-61. Abstract

Naturally occurring genetic variants of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are common and have previously been classified into 4 major lineages; European-Asian (EAS), including the sublineages European (EUR) and Asian (As), African 1 (AFR1), African 2 (AFR2), and North-American/Asian-American (NA/AA). We aimed to improve the classification of HPV16 variant lineages by using a large resource of HPV16-positive cervical samples collected from geographically diverse populations in studies on HPV and/or cervical cancer undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In total, we sequenced the entire E6 genes and long control regions (LCRs) of 953 HPV16 isolates from 27 different countries worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously described variant lineages and subclassifications. We characterized two new sublineages within each of the lineages AFR1 and AFR2 that are robustly classified using E6 and/or the LCR. We could differentiate previously identified AA1, AA2, and NA sublineages, although they could not be distinguished by E6 alone, requiring the LCR for correct phylogenetic classification. We thus provide a classification system for HPV16 genomes based on 13 and 32 phylogenetically distinguishing positions in E6 and the LCR, respectively, that distinguish nine HPV16 variant sublineages (EUR, As, AFR1a, AFR1b, AFR2a, AFR2b, NA, AA1, and AA2). Ninety-seven percent of all 953 samples fitted this classification perfectly. Other positions were frequently polymorphic within one or more lineages but did not define phylogenetic subgroups. Such a standardized classification of HPV16 variants is important for future epidemiological and biological studies of the carcinogenic potential of HPV16 variant lineages.

Chen AA, Heideman DA, Boon D, Gheit T, Snijders PJ, Tommasino M, Franceschi S, Clifford GM. "Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide." J Virol. . 2014;88(8):4514-21.
"Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide." IARC HPV Variant Study Group. 2014;88(8):4514-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03534-13.
Chen AA, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Tommasino M, GM; C, IARC HPV Variant Study Group. "Human Papillomavirus 18 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide." J Virol. . 2015;89(20):10680-7.

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