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MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstracthiv.pdf

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HIV-1 Env-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, uninfected Kenyan sex workers: a prospective analysis. Kaul R, Rutherford J, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Onyango JI, Fowke K, MacDonald K, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA. AIDS. 2004 Oct 2.". In: AIDS. 2004 Oct 21;18(15):2087-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Mabuka J, Goo L, Omenda MM, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 maternal and infant variants show similar sensitivity to broadly neutralizing antibodies, but sensitivity varies by subtype." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1535-44. Abstract

To protect against HIV infection, passively transferred and/or vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) need to effectively target diverse subtypes that are transmitted globally. These variants are a limited subset of those present during chronic infection and display some unique features. In the case of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), transmitted variants tend to be resistant to neutralization by maternal autologous NAbs.

Simonich CA, Williams KL, Verkerke HP, Williams JA, Ruth Nduati, Lee KK, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies with Limited Hypermutation from an Infant." Cell. 2016. Abstract

HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of infected adults and exhibit high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) due to years of affinity maturation. There is no precedent for eliciting highly mutated antibodies by vaccination, nor is it practical to wait years for a desired response. Infants develop broad responses early, which may suggest a more direct path to generating bnAbs. Here, we isolated ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) contributing to plasma breadth of an infant at ∼1 year post-infection, including one with cross-clade breadth. The nAbs bind to envelope trimer from the transmitted virus, suggesting that this interaction may have initiated development of the infant nAbs. The infant cross-clade bnAb targets the N332 supersite on envelope but, unlike adult bnAbs targeting this site, lacks indels and has low SHM. The identification of this infant bnAb illustrates that HIV-1-specific neutralization breadth can develop without prolonged affinity maturation and extensive SHM.

Lehman, Dara A.; Chung MSGJ; RBKJ; KJ; OJH; CA. "HIV-1 persists in breast milk cells despite antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission.". 2008. Abstract

Background: The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined. Methods: Women in Kenya received short-course zidovudine (ZDV), single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), combination ZDV/sdNVP or short-course highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Breast milk samples were collected two to three times weekly for 4–6weeks.HIV-1 DNA was quantified b yreal-time PCR.Cell-free and cell associated RNA levels were quantified by the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay. Results: Cell-free HIV-1 RNA levels in breast milk were significantly suppressed by sdNVP, ZDV/sdNVP or HAART therapy compared with ZDV between day 3 and week 4 postpartum (P0.03). Breast milk HIV-1 DNA levels (infected cell levels) were not significantly different between treatment arms at any timepoint during the 4–6-week follow-up. At 3 weeks postpartum, when the difference in cell-free RNA levels was the greatest comparing HAARTdirectly with ZDV(P¼0.0001),medianlog10 HIV-1 DNA copies per 1106 cells were 2.78, 2.54, 2.69, and 2.31 in the ZDV, sdNVP, ZDV/sdNVP and HAART arms, respectively (P¼0.23). Cell-associated HIV-1 RNA levels were modestly suppressed in HAART versus ZDV/sdNVP during week 3 (3.37 versus 4.02, P¼0.04), as well as over time according to a linear mixed-effects model. Conclusion: Cell-free and,to a lesser extent,cell-associated HIV-1 RNA levels in breast milk were suppressed by antiretroviral regimens used to prevent MTCT.However,even with HAART, there was no significant reduction in the reservoir of infected cells,which could contribute to breast milk HIV-1 transmission.

Lehman DA, Chung MH, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 persists in breast milk cells despite antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission." AIDS. 2008;22(12):1475-85. Abstract

The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HIV-1 Specific Mucosal CD8+ Lymphocyte Responses in the Cervix of HIV-1 resistant Prostitutes in Nairobi. Kaul R, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, MacDonald KS, Bwayo J J, McMicheal AJ, Rowland-Jones SL, J Immunol 2000 Feb 1 ;164.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;181(1):58-63. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HIV-1 specific mucosal IgA in a cohort of HIV-1 resistant Kenyan sex workers. Kaul R, Trabattoni D, Bwayo JJ, Arienti D, Zagliani A, Mwkangi FM, Kariuki C, Ngugi EN, MacDonald KS, Ball TB, Clerici M, Plummer FA. AIDS. 1999 Jan 14;13(1):23-9.". In: AIDS. 1999 Jan 14;13(1):23-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Ronen K, McCoy CO MFABDFEO-DJMMCRSRBAOSKWK, J. "HIV-1 Superinfection occurs less frequently than initial infection in a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women." PLoS Pathogen. 2013;9(8):e1003593.
Luzzi A, Morettini F, Gazaneo S, Rogena EA, Bellan C, Leoncini L. "HIV-1 Tat induces DNMT over-expression through microRNA dysregulation in HIV-related non Hodgkin lymphomas." Luzzi et al. Infectious Agents and Cancer. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background:
A close association between HIV infection and the development of cancer exists. Although the
advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of AIDS-associated malignancies, a better understanding on how HIV can induce malignant transformation will help the development of novel
therapeutic agents.
Methods:
HIV has been reported to induce the expression of DNMT1
in vitro, but still no information is available about the mechanisms regulating DNMT expression in HIV-related B-cell lymphomas. In this paper, we investigated the expression of DNMT family members (DNMT1, DNMT3a/b) in primary cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of HIV-positive subjects.
Results:
Our results confirmed the activation of DNMT1 by HIV in vivo, and reported for the first time a marked up-regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b in HIV-positive aggressive B-cell lymphomas. DNMT up-regulation in
HIV-positive tumors correlated with down-regulation of specific microRNAs, as the miR29 family, the miR148-152 cluster, known to regulate their expression. Literature reports the activation of DNMTs by the human polyomavirus BKV large T-antigen and adenovirus E1a, through the pRb/E2F pathway. We have previously demonstrated that the HIV Tat protein is able to bind to the pocket proteins and to inactivate their oncosuppressive properties, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Therefore, we focused on the role of Tat, due to its capability to be released from infected cells and to dysregulate uninfected ones, using an
in vitro model in which Tat was ectopically expressed in B-cells.
Conclusions:
Our findings demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Tat was per sesufficient to determine
DNMT up-regulation, based on microRNA down-regulation, and that this results in aberrant hypermethylation of target genes and microRNAs. These results point at a direct role for Tat in participating in uninfected B-cell lymphomagenesis, through dysregulation of the epigenetical control of gene expression.
Keywords:
HIV, Aggressive B-cell lymphomas, microRNAs, DNMTs, Tat

Kiarie G, Nduati RW;, Koigi K;, Musia J;, John G. "HIV-1 Testing In Pregnancy: Acceptability And Correlates Of Return For Test Results.". 2007.
Kiarie J, Nduati R, Koigi K, Musia J, John G. "HIV-1 testing in pregnancy: acceptability and correlates of return for test results." AIDS. 2000;14(10):1468-70.
Mulinge M, Lemaire M, Servais J-Y, Rybicki A, Struck D, Santos da Silva E, Verhofstede C, Lie Y, Seguin-Devaux C, Schmit J-C, Perez Bercoff D. "HIV-1 tropism determination using a phenotypic Env recombinant viral assay highlights overestimation of CXCR4-usage by genotypic prediction algorithms for CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG [corrected]." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e60566. Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) entry into target cells involves binding of the viral envelope (Env) to CD4 and a coreceptor, mainly CCR5 or CXCR4. The only currently licensed HIV entry inhibitor, maraviroc, targets CCR5, and the presence of CXCX4-using strains must be excluded prior to treatment. Co-receptor usage can be assessed by phenotypic assays or through genotypic prediction. Here we compared the performance of a phenotypic Env-Recombinant Viral Assay (RVA) to the two most widely used genotypic prediction algorithms, Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] and webPSSM.

12. Fowke KR, Kaul R RKLOKRWJNNJBTBBJJSJNSGMJJ. "HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses among HIV-1-resistant sex workers." Immunol Cell Biol. 2000. Abstract

Abstract
The goal of the present study was to determine whether there were HIV-1 specific cellular immune responses among a subgroup of women within a cohort of Nairobi prostitutes (n = 1800) who, despite their intense sexual exposure to HIV-1, are epidemiologically resistant to HIV-1 infection. Of the 80 women defined to be resistant, 24 were recruited for immunological evaluation. The HIV-1-specific T-helper responses were determined by IL-2 production following stimulation with HIV-1 envelope peptides and soluble gp120. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were determined by lysis of autologous EBV-transformed B cell lines infected with control vaccinia virus or recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the HIV-1 structural genes env, gag and pol. Resistant women had significantly increased HIV-1 specific T-helper responses, as determined by in vitro IL-2 production to HIV-1 envelope peptides and soluble glycoprotein 120, compared with low-risk seronegative and HIV-1-infected controls (P < or = 0.01, Student's t-test). Seven of the 17 (41%) resistant women showed IL-2 stimulation indices > or = 2.0. HIV-1-specific CTL responses were detected among 15/22 (68.2%) resistant women compared with 0/12 low-risk controls (Chi-squared test, P < 0.001). In the two resistant individuals tested, the CTL activity was mediated by CD8+ effectors. Many HIV-1-resistant women show evidence of HIV-1-specific T-helper and cytotoxic responses. These data support the suggestion that HIV-1-specific T-cell responses contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi. Kaul R, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(.". In: J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(3):1602-11. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi.Kaul R, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Dong T, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(3.". In: J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(3):1602-11. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2000. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
E.N. PN. "HIV-1-specific mucosal IgA in a cohort of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan sex workers.". 1999. Abstract

AIDS. 1999 Jan 14;13(1):23-9.
HIV-1-specific mucosal IgA in a cohort of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan sex workers.
Kaul R, Trabattoni D, Bwayo JJ, Arienti D, Zagliani A, Mwangi FM, Kariuki C, Ngugi EN, MacDonald KS, Ball TB, Clerici M, Plummer FA.
Source
Department of Medical Microbiology and Community Health, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Most HIV-1 transmission is sexual; therefore, immune responses in the genital mucosa may be important in mediating protection against HIV infection. This study examined HIV-1-specific mucosal IgA in a cohort of HIV-1-resistant Kenyan female sex workers.
METHODS:
HIV-1-specific immune responses were compared in HIV-1-resistant and HIV-1-infected sex workers, and in lower risk uninfected women. Cervical and vaginal samples from each group were tested for HIV-1-specific IgA and IgG by enzyme immunoassay. Systemic T-helper lymphocyte cell responses to HIV-1 envelope peptide epitopes were assayed using an interleukin 2 bioassay. HIV-1 risk-taking behaviours were assessed using standardized questionnaires.
RESULTS:
HIV-1-specific IgA was present in the genital tract of 16 out of 21 (76%) HIV-1-resistant sex workers, five out of 19 (26%) infected women, and three out of 28 (11%) lower risk women (P < 0.0001). Among lower risk women, the presence of HIV-1-specific IgA was associated with HIV-1 risk-taking behaviour. Systemic T-helper lymphocyte responses to HIV-1 envelope peptides were present in 11 out of 20 (55%) HIV-1-resistant women, four out of 18 (22%) infected women, and one out of 25 (4%) lower risk women (P < 0.001). T-helper lymphocyte responses did not correlate with the presence or titre of virus-specific mucosal IgA in any study group.
CONCLUSIONS:
HIV-1-specific IgA is present in the genital tract of most HIV-1-resistant Kenyan sex workers, and of a minority of lower risk uninfected women, where it is associated with risk-taking behaviour. These data suggest a role for mucosal HIV-1-specific IgA responses in HIV-1 resistance, independent of host cellular responses.
PMID:
10207541
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "HIV-associated lymphoma: report of three cases.Mwangi JW.East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):176-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):176-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 1999. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

Nyong’o AO;, Othieno-Abinya NA. "HIV-associated malignant lymphomas: Nairobi Hospital experienc.". 1999.
McLaren, Paul J; Ball B; WC; JW; KDDA; KJ; PFTJ;. "HIV-Exposed seronegative commercial sex workers show a quiescent phenotype in the CD4+ T cell compartment and reduced expression of HIV-dependent host factors.". 2010. Abstract

Studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed seronegative individuals are crucial to informvaccine design. In the present study we demonstrated that HIV-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers produce lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines at baseline than HIV-negative control subjects. We also showed that CD4+ T cells of HIV-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers have a characteristically lower level of gene expression that can be seen in differentially expressed genes and systems crucial for HIV replication, such as the T cell receptor pathway and previously identified HIV dependency factors. This apparent lowered activation results in a phenomenon we term “immune quiescence,” which may contribute to host resistance to HIV.

Afran L, Garcia Knight M, Nduati E, Urban BC, Heyderman RS, Rowland-Jones SL. "HIV-exposed uninfected children: a growing population with a vulnerable immune system?" Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2014;176(1):11-22. Abstract

Through the successful implementation of policies to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 infection, children born to HIV-1-infected mothers are now much less likely to acquire HIV-1 infection than previously. Nevertheless, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have substantially increased morbidity and mortality compared with children born to uninfected mothers (unexposed uninfected, UU), predominantly from infectious causes. Moreover, a range of phenotypical and functional immunological differences between HEU and UU children has been reported. As the number of HEU children continues to increase worldwide, two questions with clear public health importance need to be addressed: first, does exposure to HIV-1 and/or ART in utero or during infancy have direct immunological consequences, or are these poor outcomes simply attributable to the obvious disadvantages of being born into an HIV-affected household? Secondly, can we expect improved maternal care and ART regimens during and after pregnancy, together with optimized infant immunization schedules, to reduce the excess morbidity and mortality of HEU children?

Nduati EW, Nkumama IN, Gambo FK, Muema DM, Knight MG, Hassan AS, Jahangir MN, Etyang TJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC. "HIV-exposed uninfected infants show robust memory B cell responses in spite of a delayed accumulation of memory B cells: An observational study in the first two years of life." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2016. Abstract

Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV infected women. Although uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV-exposure predisposing them to increased post-natal infections.

E.N. PN. "HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers.". 2008. Abstract

AIDS. 2008 Mar 30;22(6):727-35. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f56b64.
HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers.
Hirbod T, Kaul R, Reichard C, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Hasselrot K, Li B, Moses S; Kibera HIV Study Group, MacDonald KS, Broliden K.

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Source

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) and HIV-specific cellular immunity have been described in highly exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals, but well controlled studies have not been performed. We performed a prospective, nested case-control study to examine the association of genital IgA and systemic cellular immune responses with subsequent HIV acquisition in high-risk Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs).
DESIGN AND METHODS:

A randomized trial of monthly antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted disease/HIV infection was performed from 1998 to 2002 in HIV-uninfected Kenyan FSWs. After the completion of trial, FSWs who had acquired HIV (cases) were matched 1: 4 with persistently uninfected controls based on study arm, duration of HIV-seronegative follow-up, and time of cohort enrolment. Blinded investigators assayed the ability at enrolment of genital IgA to neutralize primary HIV isolates as well as systemic HIV-specific cellular IFNgamma-modified enzyme-linked immunospot and proliferative responses.
RESULTS:

The study cohort comprised 113 FSWs: 24 cases who acquired HIV and 89 matched controls. Genital HIV-neutralizing IgA was associated with reduced HIV acquisition (P = 0.003), as was HIV-specific proliferation (P = 0.002), and these associations were additive. HIV-specific IFNgamma production did not differ between case and control groups. In multivariable analysis, HIV-neutralizing IgA and HIV-specific proliferation each remained independently associated with lack of HIV acquisition. Genital herpes (HSV2) was associated with increased HIV risk and with reduced detection of HIV-neutralizing IgA.
CONCLUSION:

Genital HIV-neutralizing IgA and systemic HIV-specific proliferative responses, assayed by blinded investigators, were prospectively associated with HIV nonacquisition. The induction of these immune responses may be an important goal for HIV vaccines.

Mabuka, Jennifer; Nduati RW; O-DK; PD; OJ. "HIV-Specific Antibodies Capable of ADCC Are Common in Breastmilk and Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Transmission in Women with High Viral Loads.". 2012. Abstract

There are limited data describing the functional characteristics of HIV-1 specific antibodies in breast milk (BM) and their role in breastfeeding transmission. The ability of BM antibodies to bind HIV-1 envelope, neutralize heterologous and autologous viruses and direct antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) were analyzed in BM and plasma obtained soon after delivery from 10 non-transmitting and 9 transmitting women with high systemic viral loads and plasma neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Because subtype A is the dominant subtype in this cohort, a subtype A envelope variant that was sensitive to plasma NAbs was used to assess the different antibody activities. We found that NAbs against the subtype A heterologous virus and/or the woman's autologous viruses were rare in IgG and IgA purified from breast milk supernatant (BMS) – only 4 of 19 women had any detectable NAb activity against either virus. Detected NAbs were of low potency (median IC50 value of 10 versus 647 for the corresponding plasma) and were not associated with infant infection (p=0.58). The low NAb activity in BMS versus plasma was reflected in binding antibody levels: HIV-1 envelope specific IgG titers were 2.2 log10 lower (compared to 0.59 log10 lower for IgA) in BMS versus plasma. In contrast, antibodies capable of ADCC were common and could be detected in the BMS from all 19 women. BMS envelope-specific IgG titers were associated with both detection of IgG NAbs (p=0.0001)and BMS ADCC activity (p=0.014). Importantly, BMS ADCC capacity was inversely associated with infant infection risk (p=0.039). Our findings indicate that BMS has low levels of envelope specific IgG and IgA with limited neutralizing activity. However, this small study of women with high plasma viral loads suggests that breastmilk ADCC activity is a correlate of transmission that may impact infant infection risk.

Kiai W. HIV/AIDS and Communication among the Youth in Nairobi . Nairobi: AAWORD-Kenya; 2000.
Othieno C, Abdelrahman A, Sebit MB, Musisi S, editor Ndetei, D.M., Ovuga E. "HIV/AIDS and Mental Health."; 2006.
Kimani M, Kiragu K, Mannathoko C. HIV/AIDS and Teachers in Kenya. Nairobi: UNICEF; 2006.
Kiai Wambui, Mwangi Wagaki B. HIV/AIDS and the Land Issue in Kenya: A Research Report. South Africa: FAO; 2002.
Odundo P; EN; UKKHN & J. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: IDASA. Pretoria: IDASA; 2008. Abstract

Substantial financial and human resources from donors, governments, civil society organisations and the private sector have been committed to fighting HIV/AIDS since it was first discovered in Africa. As more resources are allocated, there is a growing need for countries to properly account for these funds. This book measures the financial response to the pandemic in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania Malawi and Zambia. This publication emerges out of an extensive multi-country resource tracking project conducted by Idasa’s Governance and AIDS Programme that analysed the national budgets of these countries from an HIV/AIDS perspective; investigated and evaluated how HIV/AIDS resources are disbursed, for what activities and for whose benefit; and made recommendations on effective and efficient HIV/AIDS financing and spending.

Paul O, NJERU E, U. K, J. K. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa." Pretoria: IDASA; 2010.
Odundo P, NJERU E, Kioko U, Korir J. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa." Pretoria, South Africa: IDASA Publishing; 2010.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "HIV/AIDS Orphanhood A situational Analysis of its impact on HIV/AIDS Orphaned Children and their caregivers in Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1998. Abstracthiv__aids_orphanhood.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.

K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "HIV/AIDS Orphanhood A situational Analysis of its impact on HIV/AIDS Orphaned Children and their caregivers in Kisumu, Kenya B.A. (Hons) Sociology dissertation.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
Fujita M;, Ngugi EN;, Rotha EA. "HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Data from a 2003 survey of sexual behaviour (n = 400) conducted in the Ariaal community of Karare, Marsabit District, northern Kenya, were used to delineate patterns of risk and worry about contracting HIV/AIDS. Despite widespread reporting of high-risk sexual behaviours (including multiple partners, concurrency, sexual mixing and not using condoms) by survey participants, logistic regression analysis found only one statistically significant positive association between these behaviours and self-assessment of being at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. In contrast, log-linear analysis of worry patterns found highly significant relationships between self-assessment of high risk of HIV/AIDS and worry about one's partner's sexual behaviour. These findings indicate that in relation to contracting HIV/AIDS currently Ariaal are more concerned about the sexual behaviour of others, rather than their own behaviour. More generally, results point to the potential for combining concepts of worry with risk assessment in HIV/AIDS research to generate insights into how both concepts are linked to individual, dyadic and population-level factors within specific cultural settings.

Odundo P., O. W. "HIV/AIDs Scourge in Nyanza Province; Culture, Poverty and Behaviour Change." IPAR Discussion Paper, Nairobi, Kenya . 2004;Series No. 056/2004.
Otieno CF. "HIV: Situation Analysis for Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):1-2.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Hjort, A., K. O. Farah, and T. Teka. 2000. Cooperative research for local and regional exchange of experiences.". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Kung'u A, Brubaker G. "HLA antigens in East African Black patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in controls: a pilot study." Hum. Immunol.. 1982;5(2):91-105. Abstract

A pilot study is reported of HLA-A, B, and C antigens in 141 East African Blacks comprising patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma, either with active disease or in long-term remission, together with comparable controls. This study forms part of a wider program investigating host factors in these diseases. A protocol was selected for optimal testing of cells processed and cryopreserved between 1972 and 1976, largely under field conditions, which employed a two-color fluorochromasia typing procedure. Antigen distribution and computed haplotype frequencies in the total unrelated population are given. New findings include an approximately equal frequency of Aw23 and Aw24, a high (18%) incidence of Bw21, and the gametic associations of Aw36 with Bw44, and Aw30 with Bw45. Of the major group of B15-related antigens reported earlier. SV is the most common, and there are strong linkages of SV with Cw2 and Bu with Cw3. The possible presence of further variants at the A- and B-loci is reported. The proportion of B-locus antigen "blanks" in this study is 5.9%. Relationships have been sought between the HLA antigens and diseases studied: the antigen A29, possibly in linkage with Bw42, shows a correlation with disease susceptibility, and associations are suggested between Bw44 (in possible combination with Aw36) and resistance to both BL and NPC, and between Bw45 and long-term remission in NPC.

E.N. PN. "HLA class I associations with rates of HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort.". 2013. Abstract

Tissue Antigens. 2013 Feb;81(2):93-107. doi: 10.1111/tan.12051.
HLA class I associations with rates of HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort.
Peterson TA, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Bielawny T, Mendoza L, Thavaneswaran S, Narayansingh MJ, Kariri T, Liang B, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Luo M.
Source
HIV and Human Genetics, National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Abstract
Class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA) play an important role in the adaptive immune response by presenting antigens to CD8+ T cells. Studies have reported that several HLA class I alleles are associated with differential disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, however, few class I associations with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection have been reported. We typed HLA-A, -B and -C of >1000 women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort using a sequence-based typing method. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to identify alleles influencing seroconversion and disease progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (CD4 < 200/mm³). A*01 (P = 0.020), C*06:02 (P = 0.042) and C*07:01 (P = 0.050) are independently associated with protection from seroconversion. Women with any of these alleles are less likely to seroconvert [P = 0.00001, odds ratio (OR): 0.503, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.320-0.790]. Conversely, A*23:01 (P = 0.004), B*07:02 (P = 0.003) and B*42:01 (P = 0.025) are independently associated with rapid seroconversion. Women with any of these alleles are twice as likely to seroconvert (P = 0.002, OR: 2.059, 95% CI: 1.290-3.285). The beneficial alleles confer threefold protection from seroconversion when compared with the susceptible alleles (P = 0.000001, OR: 0.268, 95% CI: 0.132-0.544). B*07:02 is the contributing allele, within the B7 supertype, to the rapid seroconversion. A*74:01 (P = 0.04/P = 0.006), B*14 (P = 0.003/P = 0.003) and B*57:03 (P = 0.012/P = 0.038) are independently associated with slower CD4+ decline and LTNP phenotype, while B*07:02 (P = 0.020), B*15:10 (P = 0.022) and B*53:01 (P = 0.007) are independently associated with rapid CD4+ T-cell decline. B7 supertype (P = 0.00006), B*35*-Py (P = 0.028) and B*35-Px (P = 0.001) were also significantly associated with rapid CD4+ T-cell decline. Understanding why these HLA class I alleles are associated with protection/susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression could contribute to the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HIV-1.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
PMID:
23330720
[PubMed - in process]

"HLA system and cancer." East Afr Med J. . 2003;80(11):553.
ABINYA NO. "HLA system and cancer.". 2013.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HLA-A and HLA-B in Kenya, Africa: allele frequencies and identification of HLA-B*1567 and HLA-B*4426.Tissue Antigens. Luo M, Embree J, Ramdahin S, Ndinya-Achola J, Njenga S, Bwayo JJ, Pan S, Mao X, Cheang M, Stuart T, Brunham RC, Plummer FA. 2002 May;59(5.". In: Plummer FA. 2002 May;59(5):370-80. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Prentice HA, Porter TR PMACHFPKKKLSEJAAPNEDA, Allen S, Hunter E KRAGTIAVIAHIVRNJJ;. "HLA-B*57 versus HLA-B*81 in HIV-1 Infection: Slow and Steady Wins the Race?" J Virol. . 2013;87(7):4043-51.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HLA-DR 52-and 51-associated DRB1 alleles in Kenya, East Africa. V. A. Dunand, C,-M.Ng2, J.A. Wade, Bwayo JJ, F. A. Plummer, and K. S. MacDonald. Tissue Antigen 1997 49:397-402.". In: Tissue Antigen 1997 49:397-402. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
HENRY DRM&#39;IKIUGUMUTEMBEI. "HM Mutembei, ER Mutiga, VT Tsuma 2000: A Retrospective study on Reproductive Parameters of dogs. J South African Vet Ass 71(2): 115-117.". In: Animal Reproduction Science 109 (2008) 319. Elsevier; 2000.
HENRY DRM&#39;IKIUGUMUTEMBEI. "HM Mutembei, MP Kowalewski, B Hoffmann 2005: Sus scrofa steroid sulfatase mRNA partial CDs. A Gene Bank Submission, Accession number DQ139314.". In: Animal Reproduction Science 109 (2008) 319. Elsevier; 2005.
HENRY DRM&#39;IKIUGUMUTEMBEI. "HM Mutembei, S Pesch, G Schuler, B Hoffmann B (2004). Expression of estrogen receptor beta in the boar testis. Vet. Med. Austria/ Wien. Tier.". In: Animal Reproduction Science 109 (2008) 319. Elsevier; 2004.
HENRY DRM&#39;IKIUGUMUTEMBEI. "HM Mutembei, S Pesch, M Kowalewski, G Schuler, B Ugele,W Song and B Hoffmann 2006: Expression of Estrogen sulfotransferase in the testis of Immature and Mature boars.Reprod Dom Animal 41 (Suppl.1): 24.". In: Animal Reproduction Science 109 (2008) 319. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
estrone sulfate (E1S) by far exceeding those of free estrone (E1). Expression of estrogen receptors has been observed in Leydig-, Sertoli- and germ cells. This suggests a paracrine and/or autocrine activity of the Leydig cell derived estrogens. In vitro studies with boar testicular tissue have demonstrated activity of both StS and EST. The bioavailability of free estrone might result from the interplay of both enzymes. We investigated for the localisation of EST enzyme in the testes of immature and mature boars by immunohistochemistry using samples from animals aged 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 days. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human EST alongside negative controls with the rabbit serum were used. In all age groups both the EST was localised, with their signals restricted to the cytoplasm of the Leydig cells. The intensity of EST decreased as the boars matured. RT-PCR confirmed testicular expression of EST, in situ hybridisation confirmed localisation of EST in the Leydig cells. For a functional interpretation further studies are necessary. However, in respect to the lower activity of EST determined in the testis compared to the epididymis and the local circulatory system, rather the epididymis than the testis seems to be the origin of the high E1Sconcentrations determined in the testicular vein plasma.
M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Holistic Programme Evaluation. Dar es Salaam: Legal and Human Rights Center.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Wang Y, Shang B, Liu M, Shi F, Peng B, Deng Z. "Hollow polydopamine colloidal composite particles: Structure tuning, functionalization and applications." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2018;513:43-52. Abstract
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Odada EO, Olago, D. O. "Holocene Climatic, Hydrological and Environmental Oscillation in the Tropics with Special Reference to Africa.". In: Climate Change and Africa. London: Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Odada E, Olago D. "Holocene climatic, hydrological and environmental oscillations in the tropics with special reference to Africa.". In: Climate Change in Africa. London: Cambridge University Press; 2005. Abstract

The tropics have experienced large and sometimes abrupt fluctuations in the water balance since the beginning of the Holocene period. Water levels were generally high in the equatorial region and northern hemisphere at the beginning of the Holocene, a trend that was asynchronous with many southern hemisphere records. Apart from a desiccation event in many African lakes between 8, 000 and 7, 500 yr BP (Before Present), water levels continued to be high until c.5, 000 yr BP. Southern hemisphere sites experienced intermediate to high lake levels at c.6, 000 yr BP. The tropical lakes experienced a drying phase between 5, 000 and 3, 000 yr BP, and these arid conditions have continued to the present day. Tropical glaciers have, on the other hand, been gradually receding during the Holocene period, but there have been several minor advances. After about 8, 000 yr BP, glacial events show much less spatial consistency. The environmental response has been less marked, but the major trend is from wet/moist vegetation in the early Holocene to drier vegetation from the middle Holocene to the present. The climatic, hydrological and environmental oscillations of the low-latitude regions during the Holocene are linked to changes in earth surface temperatures, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns, regional topography, land surface albedo, etc.

Keywords

Tropical Africa; Holocene climate; hydrological fluctuations; environmental oscillations

Odada E, Johnson TC, Kelts K. "The Holocene History of Lake Victoria." AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 2000;29(1):2-11. AbstractAMBIO

Abstract

Recent investigations by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) have significantly advanced our knowledge on the history of Lake Victoria. Seismic reflection profiles confirm the origin of the lake as a result of regional tilting and provide an estimated age of 400 000 years for the lake basin. Three major desiccation events are recorded in the seismic records that may reflect the 100 000 year Milankovitch cycle of climate forcing. The most recent arid period resulted in complete desiccation of the pre-existing lake. Lake Victoria arose from a dry landscape 14 600 calendar years ago (14.6 ka). Primary production was extremely high as lake level rose in its first 500 years, nourished by the high input of nutrients from the flooded landscape. A few species of cichlids and other fish swam out of their fluvial refugia to colonize the new lake, generating hundreds of new endemic species over the ensuing 14 000 years. Lake level rose until a brief overflow event at about 14.2 ka to 13.6 ka. Closed-basin conditions returned during the Younger Dryas until 11.2 ka, when major outflow and open-basin conditions were permanently established. The lake experienced progressively stronger stratification and water-column stability through the first half of the Holocene, and diatom productivity dropped to a minimum from 9.8 to about 7.5 ka. This period coincides with, but is much longer than, the 8.2 ka climatic event that has been observed in many Holocene records from throughout the world. The degree of water-column mixing appears to have steadily increased over the last 6000 years. Short cores from the open lake, document a shift in lake conditions beginning in the 1930s that progressed to the major ecosystem collapse of the early 1980s. The coincidence of the shift in sediment properties in the 1930s with the beginning of rapid expansion of human population and agricultural activity suggests cause and effect. It is conceivable that the lake experienced similar conditions due to natural causes between about 9800 and 7500 years ago.

Ongong’a E, Ongaro J, Silvestrov S. "Hom-Lie Structures on Complex 4-Dimensional Lie Algebras." Dobrev V. (eds) Lie Theory and Its Applications in Physics. Springer Nature. 2020;335:373. Abstract

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Samuel SM, Mulwa DM, Migosi J, Kamau LM. "Home based Factors and Educational Wastage in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2017;5(2):116-119.
Crabtree MM, Stuart-Shor E, McAllister M. "Home blood pressure monitoring: An integrated review of the literature." The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2013;9:356-361. Abstract
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Nyamongo IK. "Home Case Management for Malaria: An Ethnographic Study of Lay People's Classification of Drugs.". In: Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 4(11): 736-743. Wiley Interscience; 1999. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

MUTHONI MRSMUTHAMIJOSEPHINE. "Home Science Book: Revision Guide for Form III & IVS.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. Journal of Dental Research.; 1999. Abstract

ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

Osoti AO, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Richardson B, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Krakowiak D, Farquhar C. "Home visits during pregnancy enhance male partner HIV counselling and testing in Kenya: a randomized clinical trial." AIDS. 2014;28(1):95-103. Abstract

HIV testing male partners of pregnant women may decrease HIV transmission to women and promote uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions. However, it has been difficult to access male partners in antenatal care (ANC) clinics. We hypothesized that home visits to offer HIV testing to partners of women attending ANC would increase partner HIV testing.

Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite

Monocular deprivation (MD) is a classic paradigm for experience-dependent cortical plasticity. One form is known as homeostatic plasticity, in which neurons innervated by the deprived eye show a remarkable capacity to compensate for degraded visual signals in an attempt to stabilize network activity. Although the evidence supporting homeostatic plasticity in visual cortex is extensive, it remains unclear whether neurons in subcortical visual structures respond to MD in a similar manner. Here we examined whether cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic relay between the retina and visual cortex, show similar forms of experience-dependent homeostatic plasticity following MD. Two-week-old mice were monocularly deprived for a period of 5–7 d and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were obtained from cells located in dLGN regions receiving input from the deprived or nondeprived eye. We found that MD promotes increases in the frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs and were restricted to the monocular segment contralateral to the deprived eye. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the probability of glutamate release at corticothalamic terminals that arise from the deprived visual cortex. Our findings indicate that homeostatic synaptic regulation from MD extends beyond cortical circuitry and shed light on how the brain modulates and integrates activity in the face of altered sensory experience.

Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite

Monocular deprivation (MD) is a classic paradigm for experience-dependent cortical plasticity. One form is known as homeostatic plasticity, in which neurons innervated by the deprived eye show a remarkable capacity to compensate for degraded visual signals in an attempt to stabilize network activity. Although the evidence supporting homeostatic plasticity in visual cortex is extensive, it remains unclear whether neurons in subcortical visual structures respond to MD in a similar manner. Here we examined whether cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic relay between the retina and visual cortex, show similar forms of experience-dependent homeostatic plasticity following MD. Two-week-old mice were monocularly deprived for a period of 5–7 d and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were obtained from cells located in dLGN regions receiving input from the deprived or nondeprived eye. We found that MD promotes increases in the frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs and were restricted to the monocular segment contralateral to the deprived eye. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the probability of glutamate release at corticothalamic terminals that arise from the deprived visual cortex. Our findings indicate that homeostatic synaptic regulation from MD extends beyond cortical circuitry and shed light on how the brain modulates and integrates activity in the face of altered sensory experience.

Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite
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Olago D, Cohen A, Campisano C, Arrowsmith R, Asrat A, Deino A, Feibel C. "The Hominin Sites and Palaeolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Collecting palaeolake drill cores from the East African Rift Valley to document the environmental context of human origins." Quaternary International. 2016;(404):206-207. Abstract

The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to
be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key
fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was devel-
oped to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass crit-
ical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign,
drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas
(1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia
(

3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (

3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (

1.9-1.4Ma);
L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (

0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and
sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the
two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scien-
tific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols
(representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary anal-
yses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in
lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors
of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team

Campisano CJ, Cohen A, Asrat A, Feibel C, Kingston J, Lamb H, Olago D, Owen R, Renaut R, Schabitz F. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) drilling campaigns: the trials and triumphs of trying the unique and new." 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. 2014. AbstractFull Text Link

Between the summers of 2013 and 2014, the HSPDP successfully completed 4 of its 5 drilling campaigns. To date, >1,200m of core has been collected with the final site at Chew Bahir, Ethiopia scheduled for the end of 2014. The initial core description and sampling have been completed on all but the Magadi cores. Despite the challenges associated with a large-scale multinational project, we have accomplished our goal of collecting lacustrine dominated cores proximate to key paleoanthropological sites. Challenges included the availability/import of suitable drill rigs and equipment in country, long supply lines in remote areas, challenging lithologies for coring and recovery, and interpretation of geophysical data. At our oldest site, 600m of Pliocene-age core was collected from 3 boreholes at 2 sites in the northern Awash, Ethiopia. This resulted in a composite depth of ~285m with significant overlap between cores and >96% core recovery. Several unexpectedly thick basalts not originally identified in seismic surveys were interbedded with lake sediments. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target of 500m when rehydrated clays made advancing impractical and work in progress will determine how much of the 2.9-3.8Ma target interval was recovered. A single 228m borehole with ~95% core recovery was drilled at the Plio-Pleistocene Tugen Hills, Kenya location. Just shy of our 250m target depth, preliminary comparisons with outcrop records suggest that this core may cover a time interval of ~2.5-3.45Ma, longer than our original target of 2.5-3.1Ma. A single 216m borehole with ~93% core recovery was drilled at the early Pleistocene West Turkana, Kenya location. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target depth of 350m due to complications likely associated with penetrating a hydrothermal fracture system. Nonetheless, tephrostratigraphic data indicates that the core covers our original target interval of ~1.45-2.0Ma. Recently, 202m of modern to Middle Pleistocene core was collected from 4 boreholes at 2 sites at Lake Magadi, Kenya. Challenging lithologies to core/collect (e.g., trona, chert) resulted in core recovery of 55-60%. Contact with the basement trachyte (~800 ka) at each site occurred at 137m and 197m, respectively, shallower than original estimates from low-resolution geophysical surveys.

Olago D, Christopher Campisano, Asrat A, Arrowsmith R, Deino A, Feibel C, Hill A, Kingston J, Cohen AS, et al. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling." EGU General Assembly 2015, held 12-17 April, 2015 in Vienna, Austria. id.3134. 2015. Abstractegu2015-3134.pdfFull Text Link

The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

Olago D, Campisano CJ, Cohen AS, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK, et al. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Understanding the Environmental Context of Hominin Evolution." Paleo Anthropology. 2017;1:43. Abstract2017_campisano_et_al._hspdp_drilling_paper.pdfFull Text

The possibility of a causal relationship between Earth history processes and hominin evolution in Africa has been the subject of intensive paleoanthropological research for the last 25 years. One fundamental question is: can any geohistorical processes, in particular, climatic ones, be characterized with sufficient precision to enable temporal correlation with events in hominin evolution and provide support for a possible causal mechanism for evolutionary changes? Previous attempts to link paleoclimate and hominin evolution have centered on evidence from the outcrops where the hominin fossils are found, as understanding whether and how hominin populations responded to habitat change must be examined at the local basinal scale. However, these outcrop records typically provide incomplete, low-resolution climate and environmental histories, and surface weathering often precludes the application of highly sensitive, state-of-the-art paleoenvironmental methods. continuous and well-preserved deep-sea drill core records have provided an alternative approach to reconstructing the context of hominin evolution, but have been collected at great distances from hominin sites and typically integrate information over vast spatial scales. The goal of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) is to analyze climate and other Earth system dynamics using detailed paleoenvironmental data acquired through scientific drilling of lacustrine depocenters at or near six key paleoanthropological sites in Kenya and Ethiopia. This review provides an overview of a unique collaboration of paleoanthropologists and earth scientists who have joined together to explicitly explore key hypotheses linking environmental history and mammalian (including hominin) evolution and potentially develop new testable hypotheses. With a focus on continuous, high-resolution proxies at timescales relevant to both biological and cultural evolution, the HSPDP aims to dramatically expand our understanding of the environmental history of eastern Africa during a significant portion of the Late Neogene and Quaternary, and to generate useful models of long-term environmental dynamics in the region.

Olago D, Cohen A, Campisano C, Arrowsmith R, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits." Scientific Drilling. 2016;21:1. AbstractWebsite

The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human
evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among
paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history
side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils
adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are
found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly
weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea
core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains.
The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address
these issues.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Homocysteine as a Risk Factor for Deep Venous Thrombosis At Kenyatta N Hospital,Nairobi. Magada A, Joshi MD, Ogola EN, Lule GN.". In: Healthline. 2006;10:48-51. Institute of Health Research & Services; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE:To determine the aetiological role of Hyperhomocysteinemia in Deep Venous Thrombosis. STUDY DESIGN: Case Control Study STUDY SETTING: Tertiary National Referral Hospital; Kenyatta N Hospital. STUDY SUBJECTS: Cases: patients with a Compression Doppler Ultrasonography (CDU) index diagnosis of lower limb DVT; Controls: staff & out-patients with no clinical evidence or diagnostic suspicion of DVT. Main Outcome Measure: Odds ratio for Hyperhomocysteinemia Methods: Consecutive patients with a clinical suspicion of Index DVT underwent CDU by a single sonography, if positive were recruited with an equal number of matched controls.. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were assayed, and level > 10umol/l was defined as Hyperhomocysteinemia (HH). Traditional DVT risk factors were evaluated and an Odds ratio for HH calculated. Results: Between September 2000 to March 2001 60 consecutive patients were screened and 57 recruited with 50 healthy hospital staff & 7 non DVT out patients as controls. Mean case age was 36.4 yrs  10.0 with of 18 to 63 yrs range. 94.7% were female and all native Africans. The most prevalent traditional risk factor was hormonal contraceptive use (33.4%); 14 patients (24.6%) had more than one risk factor. Mean case homocysteine levels was 13.2  4.9 mols/l and 11.1  3.49 mols/l. in controls. Odds Ratio for HH 1.58, (95% CI 0.068-3.65). Conclusions: DVT risk factors in our patient population is multifactorial and Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with a 58% relative risk for DVT.
Opere A.O., Mkhandi WSP. "Homogeneity testing for peak discharge in catchments in the equatorial Nile basins." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2009;3(3):13-20.
Oludhe C. Homogenious Climatic Zoning.; 1999.
Ralwala AO. "Honouring National Heroes through Architecture: a case of the Presidential Mausoleum. .". In: Modern Heritage (in the Anthropocene) in collaboration with University of Cape Town; UNESCO; UNESCO World Heritage Centre; African World Heritage Fund; UCL Bartlett School of Architecture; PAMOA; ICCROM; ICOMOS & IUCN. the Cape Town Conference on ‘Modern Heritages of Africa’ 22-24 September ; 2021.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Hooker JA, Muhindi DW, Amayo EO, Mc'ligeyo SO, Bhatt KM, Odhiambo JA Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid studies in patients with clinically suspected tuberculous meningitis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003 Aug;7(8):787-96.". In: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003 Aug;7(8):787-96. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare yields of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in the diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM). DESIGN: Prospective laboratory study, Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. STUDY POPULATION: Consecutive patients with 1) headache, neck stiffness and altered consciousness for more than 14 days, 2) above features plus evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere in the body, and 3) on standard antimeningitic drugs for one week without response, were included. Those with contraindications to lumbar puncture, confirmed causes of meningitis (except TB) and on anti-tuberculosis treatment were excluded. METHODS: CSF cell counts, glucose and protein were assayed. CSF was stained on ZN, cultured on LJ and BACTEC and subjected to PCR and LCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA sequences. Positive tests for M. tuberculosis were classified as definite and the rest as probable TBM. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with a mean age of 33.0 years were recruited. Mean CSF cell count was 71/microl and CSF lymphocyte count up 67%. Mean CFS protein and glucose were 2.10 g/l and 2.05 mmol/l, respectively. BACTEC was positive in 20 cases, LJ 12, LCR eight, and PCR and ZN one each. Twenty-six patients had definite and 32 probable TBM. Patients with definite TBM had significantly higher CSF protein, lower CSF glucose, higher CSF cell count and lower CSF lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: TBM can be confirmed in half of clinically suspected cases. More sensitive tests for confirmation of TBM are required.
Daniel K, Otieno SP. Hope . Kimondo E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Hope on the Horizon: Impact Associates.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Boit LC, Nelson ME. "The Hope that “No Child is Left Behind” in Education in Kenya ." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1). Abstract

Education as a right was reaffirmed during the Jomtien World Education for all forums (1990) and during the African Regional Conference in Johannesburg, South Africa on A Framework for action in Sub-Saharan African: Renaissance (1999). The Sub-Saharan countries agreed to develop successful education systems and reaffirm that education is a basic right that need investment for quality and agreed to remove all barriers to full realization of education for the African child. The new Kenya constitution as the supreme The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research Volume4 No1, 2016 ISSN2304-2885 65 law of the land has, in article 43, guaranteed education for all citizens for all children (53). This paper examines the rights of education in relation to the constitution of Kenya 2010. Research explains that a meaningful education must be available, accessible, acceptable and adaptable; after all, education is to prepare and equip citizens to function effectively in their environment and to be useful members of society (UNESCO, 2010). The above concerns can only be realized by legislating articles 43, 53, 54 and 55 of the Kenyan constitution. The articles are contained in the Bill of Rights chapter and represent the rights of citizens of Kenya and especially the least able to provide for themselves and if fully legislated would ensure that “No Child is Left Behind” in the Kenyan education system.

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Hopes on the Horizon, The Rise of the New Africa".". In: The Association of African Universities. Accra. Ghana. 28 September 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Hopes on the Horizon, The Rise of the New Africa".". In: The Association of African Universities. Accra. Ghana. 28 September 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract

.

Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for a Two Species Periodic Chemostat Model with Discrete Delays." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(3):93-105. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model of two species competing for a single limiting nutrient input varied periodically using a Fourier series with discrete delays. To understand global aspects of the dynamics we use an extension of the Hopf bifurcation theorem, a method that rigorously establishes existence of a periodic solution. We show that the interior equilibrium point changes its stability and due to the delay parameter it undergoes a Hopf bifurcation.
Numerical results shows that coexistence is possible when delays are introduced and Fourier series produces the required seasonal variations. We also show that for small delays periodic variations of nutrients has more influence on species density variations than the delay.

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "HOPPE, P., JOHANSEN, K. MALOIY, G.M.O. and MUSEWE, V.(1975) Thermal panting reduces oxygen uptake in the dik-dik antelope(Rhynchotragus kirkii). Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 95, 9C.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "HOPPE, P., KAY, R.N.B and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1975) Salivary secretion in the camel. Journal of Physiology London 244,32P.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "HOPPE, P., KAY, R.N.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1976) The rumen as a reservoir during dehydration and rehydration in the camel. Journal of Physiology London 254, 76-77P.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Moore C, Adams J, Donaldson T, Shapiro E, Stuart-Shor E, Whiteley J, Samuels M, Rogers M. "HORIZON Center: Promoting Health and Health Equity in Inner Boston.". 2012. Abstract
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Gichaga FJ, Atibu FS, Sahu BK. "Horizontal and Vertical Movements of Red Clay Highway Embankments.". In: Second International Conference on case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. St. Louis. U.S.A.; 1988.
L. Wangai, Butt. F, Mandela P. "Horizontal angle of inclination of the mandibular condyle in a kenyan population." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2012;1(1):46-49. Abstract

The horizontal angle of inclination, is important in maintaining the function of the temporomandibular joint. It should be maintained in the manufacture of condylar prostheses since deviation may lead to disk displacement and degeneration of the articular fossa. While inter-population variations exist in mandibular morphometry, published information on the horizontal angle of inclination in the African population is not available. This study therefore aimed to determine the normal range of the horizontal angle of inclination amongst Kenyans. Sixty three mandibles of African origin were used. The horizontal angle of inclination was measured as the angle between the medio-lateral axis and the coronal plane. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS v.17 for means and variance, and represented using tables, charts and photographs. The horizontal angle of inclination was larger on the right (22.55°) than on the left (20.01°) (p = 0.002). The mean angle was larger on the right (24.76° vs. 21.75° in males) but smaller on the left in females (17.80° vs. 20.37° in males), but the difference was not statistically significant. The difference between right and left angles was larger in females (6.96°, p < 0.05) than in males (1.38°, p > 0.05). It differed significantly between the left and the right. This difference was more pronounced in females than in males for unknown reasons. The horizontal angle of inclination in Kenyans was different from those reported in general literature, and manufacturers of condylar prostheses need to factor these variations during fabrication to avoid post-operative morbidity.
Key words: Mandibular condyle, angle of inclination

MANDELA DRIDENYAPAMELA, BUTT DRFAWZIAMOHAMEDA. "Horizontal angle of inclination of the mandibular condyle in a Kenyan population.". In: Anatomy Journal of Africa 1(1): 46-49. Anatomy Journal of Africa 1(1): 46-49; 2012. Abstract
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MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Hormonal contraception and HIV-1 disease progression among postpartum Kenyan women. AIDS . 2007 Mar 30; 21 ( 6 ): 749-53 . PMID: 17413696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Richardson BA, Otieno PA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC.". In: AIDS . 2007 Mar 30; 21 ( 6 ): 749-53 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98194-2499, USA. barbrar@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate and longer-term effects of the use of hormonal contraception on the progression of HIV-1 disease in postpartum women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: Information on contraceptive use, breastfeeding and intercurrent illnesses was obtained from HIV-infected postpartum Kenyan women monthly in the first year postpartum and quarterly in the second year. Blood was collected for T-cell subset analyses and HIV-1-RNA levels at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum. The immediate effect of the initiation of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) was assessed by comparing the change in the HIV-1-RNA plasma viral load and CD4 T-cell counts among women remaining off these contraceptive methods with those initiating them. The longer-term effects of OCP and DMPA on disease progression were assessed using Loess curves and linear mixed effects models to compare changes over the first 24 months postpartum in these same disease progression markers. RESULTS: There were no significant immediate or longer-term effects of the use of OCP or DMPA on HIV-1-RNA plasma viral loads and CD4 T-cell counts in this cohort of HIV-infected postpartum Kenyan women. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive contraceptive counselling for HIV-1-infected women requires an understanding of the effects of various contraceptive methods on HIV-1 disease progression. In this study, hormonal contraception reassuringly had no immediate or longer-term effects on the rate of disease progression in chronically HIV-1-infected postpartum women. This highly effective family planning method may provide a useful and safe option for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. PMID: 17413696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Hormonal contraception, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from the cervix and vagina [see comments] Mostad SB; Overbaugh J; DeVange DM; Welch MJ; Chohan B; Mandaliya K; Nyange P; Martin HL Jr; Ndinya-Achola .". In: Lancet. 1997 Sep 27;350(9082):922-7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Hormonal contraception, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from the cervix and vagina. Mostad-SB; Overbaugh-J; DeVange-DM; Welch-MJ; Chohan-B; Mandaliya-K; Nyange-P; Martin-HL Jr; Ndinya-Achola-J; Bwayo JJ.; .". In: Lancet. 1997 Sep 27; 350(9082): 922-7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
Heffron R, Mugo N, Ngure K, Celum C, Donnell D, Were E, Rees H, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 2013;27(2):261-7. Abstract

For HIV-1-infected women, hormonal contraception prevents unintended pregnancy, excess maternal morbidity, and vertical HIV-1 transmission. Hormonal contraceptives are widely used but their effects on HIV-1 disease progression are unclear.

Heffron R, Mugo N, Ngure K, Celum C, Donnell D, Were E, Rees H, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 2013;27(2):261-7. Abstract

For HIV-1-infected women, hormonal contraception prevents unintended pregnancy, excess maternal morbidity, and vertical HIV-1 transmission. Hormonal contraceptives are widely used but their effects on HIV-1 disease progression are unclear.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycles in healthy black Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
PIP: 17 regularly mentruating young black Kenyan women were studied during a mentrual cylcle for their reproductive hormonal patterns. The serum concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined by World Health Organization Matched Reagent Programme Radioimmunoassay (WHO-MR-RIA). A biphasic basal body temperature (BBT) record was also noted. The hormonal patterns showed a mid-cycle LH surge and rise in plasma progesterone beginning with the LH peak and lasting a maximum of 6-8 days after the LH peak. Cycle lengths ranged from 25-32 days with a mean of 28 plus or minus 2 days. The follicular phase ranged from 10-17 days, and the luteal phase lasted from 13-15 days. When the mean LH and FSH concentrations and the mean BBT curve were synchronized on the day of the mid-cycle LH peak, the temperature elevation occured about 48 days after the LH peak. Along with the LH, the FSH showed a mid-cycle peak. The results of this study are consistent with those already documented for Caucasian, Asian and African females
MS. OGONY DOROTHYA. "Hormonal sex reversal in Oreochronis niloticus (L.) using 17-?-Ethynyltestosterone and 17-?-Methyltestosterone.". In: Ghana Journal of Science, Vol. 37 (1997), 39-46. Kenyan Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "The Horn, Kenyatta Universrity college newspaper.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MULIMBA JAO. "Horrobin D. , Burstyn C., Kahuho S., Mulimba J. , The effect of Progesterone on the Response of cardiovascular system to intravenous infusion of aldosterone. J. Obs. and Gyn. Brit. Comm. 77: 928, 1970.". In: J. Obs. and Gyn. Brit. Comm. 77: 928, 1970. Springerlink; 1970. Abstract

It has been the view of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) that, like primary health care, there is primary surgery. The unit of provision of primary surgery is the district hospital. The training of surgeons for district hospitals starts at the undergraduate level, leading to the attainment of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B. Ch.B.) degree. After internship the doctor works in a district or provincial hospital for 2-3 years, then trains for the degree of Master of Medicine (M. Med. (Surg.)) for a period of 3 years. The training involves rotation through all branches of surgery, so that the surgeon should be able to handle all aspects of routine surgery in a district hospital. To equip the surgeon further, a period in an outside setting is considered advisable. There are arrangements for regional surgical colleges to standardise the form of surgical training in the ASEA region. To keep surgeons in touch with the outside world, specialist training is done outside the region, but arrangements are being made for localised specialised units to offer this training.

ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "A horseshoe kidney with partial duplex systems.". In: Heart Mirror Journal. IJAV; 2011. Abstract
During routine dissection, we identified a horseshoe kidney arrested inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery in a middle-aged male cadaver. On further dissection, the kidneys were fused inferiorly, both hila were wide and the kidneys had bilateral duplicated renal arteries and ureters. Horseshoe kidneys could be associated with bilateral duplex systems.
Ongeti KW, Ogeng'o JA, Saidi H. "A horseshoe kidney with partial duplex systems." International Journal of Anatomical Variations . 2011;4:55-56. Abstract

During routine dissection, we identified a horseshoe kidney arrested inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery in a middle-aged male cadaver. On further dissection, the kidneys were fused inferiorly, both hila were wide and the kidneys had bilateral duplicated renal arteries and ureters. Horseshoe kidneys could be associated with bilateral duplex systems

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Horton RE, Ball TB, Wachichi C, Jaoko W, Rutherford WJ, McKinnon L, Kaul R, Rebbapragada A, Kimani J & Plummer FA (2009) Cervical HIV-Specific IgA in a population of commercial sex workers correlates with repeated exposure but not resistance to HIV. AIDS .". In: UoN research meeting. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 25(1): 83-92; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Horton RE, Ball TB, Wachichi C, Jaoko W, Rutherford WJ, McKinnon L, Kaul R, Rebbapragada A, Kimani J & Plummer FA (2009) Cervical HIV-Specific IgA in a population of commercial sex workers correlates with repeated exposure but not resistance to HIV. AIDS .". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 25(1): 83-92; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Hospital autonomy: the experience of Kenyatta National Hospital. Int J Health Plann Manage . 1999 Apr-Jun; 14 ( 2 ): 129-53 . PMID: 10538935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Collins D, Njeru G, Meme J, Newbrander W.". In: Int J Health Plann Manage . 1999 Apr-Jun; 14 ( 2 ): 129-53 . au-ibar; 1999. Abstracthospital_autonomy.pdf

Management Sciences for Health, Boston, MA 02130, USA.
An increasing number of countries are exploring the introduction or expansion of autonomous hospitals as one of the numerous health reforms they are introducing to their health system. Hospital autonomy is one of the forms of decentralization that is focused on a specific institution rather than on a political unit. It has gained much interest because it is an attempt to amalgamate the best elements of the public and private sectors in how a hospital is governed, managed and financed. This paper reviews the key elements of the concept of hospital autonomy, the reasons for its expanded use in many countries and a specific example of making a major teaching hospital autonomous in Kenya. A review of the successful experience of Kenyatta National Hospital and its process of introducing autonomy, with regard to governance, operations and management, and finances, lead to several conclusions on replicability. The legal framework is a critical element for successfully structuring the autonomous hospital. Additionally, success is highly dependent on the extent to which there is adequate funding during the process of attaining autonomy due to the length of the transition period needed. Autonomy must be granted within the context of the national health system and national health objectives and be consistent with those aims and their underlying societal values. Finally, as with decentralization, success is dependent upon the preparation done with the systems and management necessary for the proper governance and operation of autonomous hospitals.
PMID: 10538935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gathara D;, Irimu G;, Kihara H;, Maina C;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Mwangi J;, Allen E;, English M. "Hospital outcomes for paediatric pneumonia and diarrhoea patients admitted in a tertiary hospital on weekdays versus weekends: a retrospective study.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Quality of patient care in hospitals has been shown to be inconsistent during weekends and night- time hours, and is often associated with reduced patient monitoring, poor antibiotic prescription practices and poor patient outcomes. Poorer care and outcomes are commonly attributed to decreased levels of staffing, supervision and expertise and poorer access to diagnostics. However, there are few studies examining this issue in low resource settings where mortality from common childhood illnesses is high and health care systems are weak. Methods: This study uses data from a retrospective cross-sectional study aimed at “ evaluating the uptake of best practice clinical guidelines in a tertiary hospital ” with a pre and post intervention approach that spanned the period 2005 to 2009. We evaluated a primary hypothesis that mortality for children with pneumonia and/or dehydration aged 2 – 59 months admitted on weekends differed from those admitted on weekdays. A secondary hypothesis that poor quality of care could be a mechanism for higher mortality was also explored. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mortality and the independent predictors of mortality. Results: Our analysis indicates that there is no difference in mortality on weekends compared to weekdays even after adjusting for the significant predictors of mortality (OR = 1.15; 95% CI 0.90 -1.45; p = 0.27). There were similarly no significant differences between weekends and weekdays for the quality of care indicators, however, there was an overall improvement in mortality and quality of care through the period of study. Conclusion: Mortality and the quality of care does not differ by the day of admission in a Kenyan tertiary hospital, however mortality remains high suggesting that continued efforts to improve care are warranted

Lindley RI;, Amayo EO;, Marshall J;, Sandercock PA;, Dennis M;, Warlow CP. "Hospital services for patients with acute stroke in the United Kingdom: the Stroke Association Survey of consultant opinion.". 1995. Abstract

A national postal survey of all UK hospital consultant geriatricians, general physicians and neurologists was performed in 1992/3 in order to describe the provision of hospital stroke services in the United Kingdom and to assess whether the recommendations of the King's Fund consensus conference on stroke had been widely implemented. Of 3478 survey forms, 2923 (84%) were returned and, of these 1953 (67%) consultants indicated that they routinely cared for patients with acute stroke. On their stated estimates, the survey respondents had admitted approximately 107,000 patients with acute stroke in the previous year, 40% of whom were cared for by geriatricians. Sixty-three per cent (1239/1953) worked in District General Hospitals. Few (5%) had access to an acute stroke unit, and a majority (51%) of consultants were uncertain of the benefits of such units. Less than half (44%) had access to a specialized stroke rehabilitation unit, but a majority (68%) were certain of the benefits of stroke rehabilitation units. Although a majority of consultants had on-site CT scanning, about a third of all UK stroke patients were admitted to a hospital without on-site CT facilities. Most (90%) consultants would want a CT scan themselves if they had a stroke. Only about a third of consultants were aware of a recent audit of stroke care in their hospital, or had a hospital policy for the implementation of minimum standards of stroke care, and less than half routinely provided written information for patients or carers. This survey illustrated that five years after the publication of the King's Fund consensus statement on the treatment of patients with acute stroke UK hospital stroke services are still poorly organized. Access to CT scanning for stroke patients is improving, but is still insufficient

Muriu SM, Muturi EJ, Shililu JI, Mbogo CM, Mwangangi JM, Jacob BG, Irungu LW, Mukabana RW, Githure JI, Novak RJ. "Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya." Malaria Journal . 2008;7(43):7-43. Abstract1475-2875-7-43.pdfMalaria journal link

Abstract
Background
Studies were conducted between April 2004 and February 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of Anopheles mosquitoes in Mwea Kenya.

Methods
Samples were collected indoors by pyrethrum spay catch and outdoors by Centers for Disease Control light traps and processed for blood meal analysis by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Results
A total of 3,333 blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes representing four Anopheles species were collected and 2,796 of the samples were assayed, with Anopheles arabiensis comprising 76.2% (n = 2,542) followed in decreasing order by Anopheles coustani 8.9% (n = 297), Anopheles pharoensis 8.2% (n = 272) and Anopheles funestus 6.7% (n = 222). All mosquito species had a high preference for bovine (range 56.3–71.4%) over human (range 1.1–23.9%) or goat (0.1–2.2%) blood meals. Some individuals from all the four species were found to contain mixed blood meals. The bovine blood index (BBI) for An. arabiensis was significantly higher for populations collected indoors (71.8%), than populations collected outdoors (41.3%), but the human blood index (HBI) did not differ significantly between the two populations. In contrast, BBI for indoor collected An. funestus (51.4%) was significantly lower than for outdoor collected populations (78.0%) and the HBI was significantly higher indoors (28.7%) than outdoors (2.4%). Anthropophily of An. funestus was lowest within the rice scheme, moderate in unplanned rice agro-ecosystem, and highest within the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem. Anthropophily of An. arabiensis was significantly higher in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem than in the other agro-ecosystems.

Conclusion
These findings suggest that rice cultivation has an effect on host choice by Anopheles mosquitoes. The study further indicate that zooprophylaxis may be a potential strategy for malaria control, but there is need to assess how domestic animals may influence arboviruses epidemiology before adapting the strategy.

Muriu, S.M, Muturi, E.J., Shililu, J.I., Mbogo, C.M., Mwangangi, J.M., Jacob, B.G., Irungu, L.W., Mukabana, W.R., Githure J, R.J. N. "Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2008;7:43.
Li X, Price MA, He D, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Host genetics and viral load in primary HIV-1 infection: clear evidence for gene by sex interactions." Hum. Genet.. 2014;133(9):1187-97. Abstract

Research in the past two decades has generated unequivocal evidence that host genetic variations substantially account for the heterogeneous outcomes following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In particular, genes encoding human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have various alleles, haplotypes, or specific motifs that can dictate the set-point (a relatively steady state) of plasma viral load (VL), although rapid viral evolution driven by innate and acquired immune responses can obscure the long-term relationships between HLA genotypes and HIV-1-related outcomes. In our analyses of VL data from 521 recent HIV-1 seroconverters enrolled from eastern and southern Africa, HLA-A*03:01 was strongly and persistently associated with low VL in women (frequency = 11.3 %, P < 0.0001) but not in men (frequency = 7.7 %, P = 0.66). This novel sex by HLA interaction (P = 0.003, q = 0.090) did not extend to other frequent HLA class I alleles (n = 34), although HLA-C*18:01 also showed a weak association with low VL in women only (frequency = 9.3 %, P = 0.042, q > 0.50). In a reduced multivariable model, age, sex, geography (clinical sites), previously identified HLA factors (HLA-B*18, B*45, B*53, and B*57), and the interaction term for female sex and HLA-A*03:01 collectively explained 17.0 % of the overall variance in geometric mean VL over a 3-year follow-up period (P < 0.0001). Multiple sensitivity analyses of longitudinal and cross-sectional VL data yielded consistent results. These findings can serve as a proof of principle that the gap of "missing heritability" in quantitative genetics can be partially bridged by a systematic evaluation of sex-specific associations.

T.M W. "Host influence on the rate of maturation of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs in Kenya. ." Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1993;87:607-609.
Egonyu JP, Ekesi S, Kabaru J, Irungu LW, B. T. Host Odour responses and experience induced learning in the coonut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown ( Heteroptera: Coriedae).. Wageningen, The Netherlands ; 2011.
Ogonyu J, Ekesi S, Kabaru J, Irungu J, Torto B. "Host odour responses and experience-induced learning in the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae)." Symposium on Insect plant Interactions Wagenigen Netherlands. 2011:122.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Host-specific cues cause differential attractiveness of Kenyan men to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.". In: Malaria Journal, 1, 17. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Mukabana, W.R. CR, Takken, W., Knols BGJ. "Host-specific cues cause differential attractiveness of Kenyan men to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae." Malaria Journal. 2002;1:17.
Ondicho TG. "Hosting Tourists in the Cultural Bomas in the Amboseli Region of Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies. 2012;1(2):1-22.
Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Moyal P, Calatayud P-A, LeGall P, Ogol CKPO, Kokwaro ED, Claire, Silvain J-F. "Hostplant diversity of Sesamia calamistis: cytochrome b gene sequences reveal local genetic differentiation." Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2008;128:154-161.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino JO, Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Host–parasitoid population density prediction using artificial neural networks: diamondback moth and its natural enemies." Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 2010;12:233-242.
Agwanda A. "Household and Family Demography in Kenya: An exploratory Essay.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Otieno ATA. "Household and Family Demography in Kenya: An exploratory Essay." Population Association of Kenya, Occasional Publication . 2003;(3):97-111.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Household Composition and Expenditures on Human Capital Formation in Kenya," (with Robert E. Evenson), in T. Paul Schultz (ed.), Research in Population Economics, 8 (1996), pp. 205-232, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Household Composition and Expenditures on Human Capital Formation in Kenya," (with Robert E. Evenson), in T. Paul Schultz (ed.), Research in Population Economics, 8 (1996), pp. 205-232, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
"Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya." Food Additives & Contaminants. 2014;Part A:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.976595.
Agwanda A. Household Dynamics of Kenya 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Mutua J, Kimuyu P. "Household energy conservation in Kenya: estimating the drivers and possible savings." Environment for Development Discussion Paper- (15-04). Resources for the Future (RFF). 2015.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Household Labour Use and Changes in Gender roles on Small Farms in Ndhiwa Division, western Kenya: The Challenge of comparing the Contributions of different Workers.". In: Monograph No 1, (March 1996), Issues in African Rural Development Monograph Series. Published by Winrock International for Agricultural Development. Arlington, Virginia and Morrilton, Arizona, U.S.A. ISBN 1-57360-002-4. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
A.A. Ali, Gitau AN, Hassan MA, Gumbe LO, Gichuki NN. "Household solid waste generation and management practices." Waste Management. 2010;(30):1752-1755.
Gitau, A.N., Ali A.A., Hassan M.A., Gumbe L.O. Gichuki NN. "Household solid waste generation and management practices in Nairobi." Journal of waste management. Elsevier.. 2010;30:1752-1755.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Household survey of injuries in a Kenyan district. Nordberg E, Kimani V, Diwan V. East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):240-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):240-4. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and burden of injuries, their causes and action taken in a rural and urban community in Kenya. DESIGN: Household interview survey and focus group discussions. SETTING: Four rural villages and five urban clusters in Kiambu District, Kenya. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,980 members of 200 rural and 230 urban households. RESULTS: The number of reported injuries was 495, corresponding to 300,000 injuries per 100,000 people per year. Most common were cut or piercing (38.4%), followed by fall (16.2%), burn or scald (14.3%), animal bite or kick (10.1%), hit by moving object (5.9%) and road traffic accident (3.6%). Poisoning, sub-mersion/drowning and explosion were uncommon, each below three per cent. Of all reported injuries, 149 (30.1%) sought care from traditional healers, 91 (18.4%) were subject to self-care, 76 (15.4%) obtained service from drug shops, 22 (4.4%) were brought to a health facility for attention and 17 (3.4%) took no action at all. Additional information was obtained through focus group discussions with students, teachers and members of women groups. These generated detailed information about cases of sexual assault within and outside households which had not been captured during the previous household interviews. CONCLUSION: Injuries are very common but most of them are mild, prompting only home care or no action at all. Only one out of 25 injuries were brought to a health facility for attention. Some types of injury, such as domestic violence and sexual assault, are more likely to be captured through focus group discussions than during household interviews. A combination of methods is likely to best reflect the pattern of injury at community level.
Ritho C, Ng’ang’a SK, Herrero M, Fraval S, Journal TR. "Household-oriented benefits largely outweigh commercial benefits form cattl in Mabalane District, Mozambique." The Rangeland Journal. 2018;(40)6: 565-576.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Households' Livestock Management in Relation to Population Movements and Land Use Practices among the Rendile", Integrated Project in Arid Lands, IPAL Technical Report Number A-5, UNESCO, Nairobi, pp.24-40, 1981.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1981. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
Peter O, Daniel O, William O, Shem W. "Households’ climate change adaptive capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya." Journal Of Humanities And Social Science. 2017;22(3):26-32. Abstractresearchgate.net

A households’ climate change adaptive (CCA) capacity simply refers to the household head’s potential to effectively respond to climate change induced forcings. The households’ adaptive capacity hinges on several factors. This paper reports the evaluation results of the households’ CCA capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya. The knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of households are said to be predictors of households’ CCA capacity. There is evidence that over the past 30 years, a number of permanent streams in the LVB, Kenya, have dried up. Across sectional survey was conducted in Gwasi and Nyando areas within the LVB, Kenya. The level of education of respondents was 44.2% (n=523) primary, 35% high school and 20.8% diploma training and above. The level of awareness of CC was 62% and 94.6% among the male respondents in Gwasi and Nyando respectively. About 57.9% (n=523) stated that both human activities and natural changes are responsible for the CC. Approximately 27.2% (n=261) and 33.5 % (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively store roof catchment water. Approximately 35.3 % (n=261) and 22.2% (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively keep donkeys for water transport. These results reveals that the CCA was positively influenced by household heads’ KAP
Keywords: Households, adaptive capacity, climate change and variability.

Addisu A, Daniel O, Shem W, Philip O, Silas O. "Household’s adaptive capacity level to climate change impacts and food security in Northern Ethiopia, Kolla Temben District." International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Innovations . 2017;5(3):9-13. Abstractresearch publish

This study was conducted in Kolla Temben district of the Tigray regional state, north Ethiopia. The main
aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between households’ adaptive capacity to climate change and
food security status. Data on generic and area specific indicators of food security status, adaptive capacity and
other factors were collected from 400 households and were statistically analysed. The study revealed that there was
a statistically significant positive relationship between adaptive capacity to climate change and food security status.
Rainfall fluctuation, small land holding, pest and insect infestation were found to be among the area specific
determinants of household’s food security status in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern Ethiopia. The
recommended solutions to improve household’s food security in the ever-changing climate were: institutionalize
measures to improve household’s adaptive capacity to climate change; reverse household’s vulnerability level to
climate change impacts through evidence based policy initiatives, and; revise existing system to deal with new
infestations of pests. Policy decision makers should also give attention to climate change impact research to
moderate damages related to climate change as the climate will continue to change for many decades regardless of
the extent of global efforts on mitigation.

Mwoka M, Biermann O, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Rashid SF, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Valladares LM, others. "Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Evidence from Singapore, the UK, and Kenya: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:15-30. Abstract
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Kamweru K. "Housing as Process: An Approach Based of a Multiple Client Approach.". In: 8th Annual East Africa Workshop and Exhibition,. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
R. TRBO &. "Housing clusters and typologies in the slums: a case of Korogocho slum Nairobi, Kenya. ." (http://ijcrs.org/issue-details/171. 2019;Vol. 3(No. 2):171.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Housing Delivery in Kenya: The Lost Decades (2003 Forthcoming).". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2003.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Housing Development and Management in Kenya.". In: Training Programme for Mhasibu Estate Companies on Governance in the Context of Property Development and Management . Gracia Hotel,Nairobi.; 2011.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. Housing Provision; Are the Low Income Earners Catered For? A Case Study of Thika Town. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1991.
.orago N. "Housing rights in comparative perspective.". In: Public Interest Litigation on the Right to Housing. Serena-Amboseli, Amboseli National Park. ; 2014.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Housing-design as a predisposing factor for injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi and E M Mogoa.". In: Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011. Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. ""How about the Hawkers". Wajibu, Vol. 1 (4), November 1989.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1989. Abstract
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Mweri JG. "How access to health care for deaf people can be improved in Kenya ." The conversation. 2017;march(2):1-3.
Makunda CS, Edeholt H. How African design perspectives challenge sustainable development. Lisbon, Portugal: International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS); 2016.
Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

"How Are Husbands to Know about the Health of Their Menopausal Wives? Kisima." An Ecumenical Magazine for Christian Mothers. 2020;1(1): 20-22.
M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Chibale K. "How can natural products serve as a viable source of lead compounds for the development of new/novel anti-malarials?" Malaria J. . 2011;10((Suppl 1) ):S2. Abstract

Malaria continues to be an enormous global health challenge, with millions of new infections and deaths reported annually. This is partly due to the development of resistance by the malaria parasite to the majority of established anti-malarial drugs, a situation that continues to hamper attempts at controlling the disease. This has spurred intensive drug discovery endeavours geared towards identifying novel, highly active anti-malarial drugs, and the identification of quality leads from natural sources would greatly augment these efforts. The current reality is that other than compounds that have their foundation in historic natural products, there are no other compounds in drug discovery as part of lead optimization projects and preclinical development or further that have originated from a natural product start-point in recent years. This paper briefly presents both classical as well as some more modern, but underutilized, approaches that have been applied outside the field of malaria, and which could be considered in enhancing the potential of natural products to provide or inspire the development of anti-malarial lead compounds.

BEN SIHANYA. "How can we Constitutionalize innovation Technology and intellection property in Kenya Africa Techonology and Policy Studies (ATPS Technology. Brief No. 2. (Nairobi) (february 2002, Peer received by ATPS) (Dr Osiri Ogbu e.t.c) being used to teach MSc and B.". In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, Vol. 30: 161-162. Taylor & Francis; 1998. Abstract

A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

Mbuge DO. "How can we generate money from lost and wasted food? .". In: Frontiers of Engineering for Development symposium: From Feeding People to Nourishing People. Antananarivo, Madagascar; 2019.
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "How Children Fail in Schools, Educational Research and Publications 2000.". In: Educational Research and Publications 2000. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
Olaka LA. "How Closed are Closed Lakes in Rifts? Significance of Hydraulic Gradients for the Budgets of Paleo-Lakes in East Africa.". In: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2015. San Fransisco; 2015. Abstract

The hydrogeology of rift lakes is complex due to the potential influence of faults and porous volcanic and volcanoclastic media on groundwater flow. We conducted a comprehensive study that integrated geological and hydrogeological data as well as the application of a linear decay model to estimate the groundwater flow between the two of the best-studied lake systems in East Africa, the adjacent Lakes Naivasha and Nakuru- Elmenteita in the Central Kenya Rift. Whereas both lake basins host relatively shallow lakes today, paleo-shorelines and sediments suggest >100 m deep lakes during a wetter climate during the Early Holocene during the so-called African Humid Period. Stable isotope data show variations form highly depleted to more enriched d18O waters. The linear-reservoir depletion model simulates the decline of the Early Holocene lakes in both basins to the modern levels. The altitude difference of ca. 100 m of both paleo-lake levels enables us to estimate the duration of the groundwater decline and the connectivity of the two basins via the Eburru/Gilgil barrier. The results suggest a decline of the groundwater levels during ca. 5 kyrs if there is no recharge, and between 2-2.7 kyrs based on the modern recharge of 0.52 m/yr as the end members of the delay time introduced by subsurface water flow to the hydrology of the lake system. The latter value suggests that ca. 40.95 cubic kilometres of water flowed from Lake Naivasha to Nakuru- Elmenteita at maximum lake level in the Early Holocene following the hydraulic gradient concurrent to the topographic slope. The unexpectedly large volume, more than half of the volume of the paleo-Lake Naivasha during the Early Holocene, emphasizes the importance of groundwater in hydrological modelling of paleo-lakes in rifts. Moreover, the subsurface connectivity of rift lakes also causes a significant lag time to the system introducing a nonlinear component to the system that has to be considered while interpreting paleo-lake records.

Njeri KM. "How did some Detour to Indigence?" Daily Nation (2011).
Aggarwal NK, Lam P, Castillo EG, Weiss MG, Diaz E, Alarcón RD, van Dijk R, Rohlof H, Ndetei DM, Scalco M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bassiri K, Deshpande S, Groen S, Jadhav S, Kirmayer LJ, Paralikar V, Westermeyer J, Santos F, Vega-Dienstmaier J, Anez L, Boiler M, Nicasio AV, Lewis-Fernández R. "How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial." Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40(4):584-91. Abstract

This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences.

Wamalwa H, Kamau P, McCormick D. "How do food processing firms in Kenya learn? Empirical insights from potato processing in Nairobi." . DBA Africa Management Review. 2020;10(5):79-96.

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