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MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "High Resolution, So What? Hargeisa City, Somaliland. August 2004.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "The High Return to Private Schooling in a Low Income Country.". In: Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C., Working Paper No. 279.; 2011.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "High Sensitivity CRP Type 2 Diabetics at Kenyatta N Hospital.". In: Cardiovascular J of South Africa. 2007;2:123. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
Ogana W. "High subsonic flow past a steady two-dimensional lifting airfoil, in M. Tanaka, C.A. Brebbia and T. Honma (eds.).". In: Boundary Elements XII - Vol. 2: Applications in Fluid Mechanics and Field Problems( pp. 15 - 23). Berlin: Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer-Verlag, Southampton; 1990.
Peng B, Mei H, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Jin Q, Soukoulis CM, Zhu H. "High thermoelectric efficiency in monolayer PbI 2 from 300 K to 900 K." Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers. 2019;6:920-928. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Lu H, Zhang DW, Zhu H. "High thermoelectric performance of Weyl semimetal TaAs." Nano Energy. 2016;30:225-234. Abstract
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Zimmermann MB, Ito Y, Hess SY, Fujieda K, Molinari L. "High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes." The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;81:840-844. AbstractWebsite
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C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstracthigh_uptake_of_postpartum_hormonal_contraception.pdf

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women.
PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women.
Mulanda E. S., Adero M. O., Amugune N. O., Akunda E., J.I. K. "High- frequency regeneration of the drought-tolerant tree Melia volkensii Gurke using low-cost agrochemical Thidiazuron." Biotechnology Research International. 2012; 2012(818472, 5):10.
Njoroge K, Kanampiu NN, Otsyula RM, Muthamia ZK, Gathuri CG, Chivatsi WS. "The High-Altitude maize programme." Review of National Maize Research Programme. KARI/ISNAR. 1992:20-31.
Ondieki DEO. "High-density housing policies and practices in large African Cities:.". In: Annual East Africa Regional Exhibition and Workshop 2016 - University of Nairobi . School of The Built Enviroment - University of Nairobi; 2016.abstract-_ea_workshop_2016.pdfhigh_density_housing_policies_.pdf
Xia Y-J, Lin J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Gan F-X, Huang W. "High-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting devices with 4, 4′, 4 ″-tris (N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine as the hole/exciton-blocking layer." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2006;39:4987. Abstract
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Kimilu RK, Huang RF, C.M H. "High-frequency excited non-premixed jet flames in crossflow." Journal of Marine Science and Technology. 2017;25(1):96-107.
Odera(3) BO, Papo MJ, Couperthwaite R, Rading GO, Billing D, Cornish LA. "High-Order Additions to Platinum-Based Alloys for High Temperature Applications." J Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 115. 2015:241-250.
Adam, A.M; Rogers HJ, Bradbrook ID;, Rogers HJ. "High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and acetylaminoglutethimide in biological fluids.". 1985. Abstract

A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide.

Muchohi, SN; Newton CRJC, Ogutu BR;, Newton CRJC;, Kokwaro GO. "High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of diazepam in plasma of children with severe malaria .". 2001.
Czeglédy, J; Rogo KEWO; M; G. "High-risk human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal cervical scrapes from Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

Seventy-seven women with normal cervical cytology on routine visit to a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were analysed for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We applied a general primer pair (GP60/GP124) recognising sequences conserved among HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33. Of the 77 specimens tested 15 (19.5%) proved to be positive for genital HPV. Amplification products were examined for the presence of high-risk HPV types by Slot-blot hybridization. Out of the 15 PCR-positive samples, 4 were positive for HPV 16.3 for HPV 18, while 1 contained both HPV 16 and 33. HPV DNA prevalence in this group of women from a "high-risk" area is similar to that in "low-risk" Swedish women but much lower than in cervical cancer samples from the same region.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients with and without the metabolic syndrome.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Apr;85(4):178-186. East African Med J; 2008. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients, and relate it to cardiovascular disease risk. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety seven type 2 diabetic outpatients and fifty age- and sex-matched non-diabetic hypertensive outpatients. RESULTS: The distribution of hsCRP in the diabetic population was skewed, with a mean of 4.33 mg/L and a median of 2.53 mg/L. The majority (42%) of diabetics had hsCRP levels in the high-risk category (hsCRP > 3 mg/L). The median hsCRP was non-significantly higher in the diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without (2.68 vs 2.30 mg/L
Zhao L, Shang Q, Gao Y, Shi J, Liu Z, Chen J, Mi Y, Yang P, Zhang Z, Du W, others. "High-temperature continuous-wave pumped lasing from large-area monolayer semiconductors grown by chemical vapor deposition." ACS nano. 2018;12:9390-9396. Abstract
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Wu Y, Hua J, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Liu S, Peng B, Fang Y, Ning X, Nie Z, Li F, others. "High-throughput injection–acceleration of electron bunches from a linear accelerator to a laser wakefield accelerator." Nature Physics. 2021;17:801-806. Abstract
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Peter M. F. Mbithi, Judith S. Mbau, Nzioka J. Muthama, Hellen Inyega JKM, Kala JM. "Higher education and skills development in Africa: An analytical paper on the role of higher learning Institutions on sustainable development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment & Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
Mbithi PMF, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ, Inyega H, Kalai JM. "Higher Education and Skills Development in Africa: An Analytical Paper on the Role of Higher Learning Institutions on Sustainable Development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
P.M.F. M, Mbau SJ, N.J. Muthama, Inyega H, Kalai JM. "Higher Education and Skills Development in Africa: An Analytical Paper on the Role of Higher Learning Institutions on Sustainable Development. ." Journal of Sustainable Environment and Peace, . 2021;2:55-70.
Bahemuka MJ. "Higher Education for 21st Century: Challenges Facing African Universities." Kalamazoo College, Michigan; 2005.
Lenga F, J.M.Bahemuka. "Higher Education in Africa and knowledge Economy.". In: Going Global Forum. London; 2012.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Higher Education in Africa".". In: The second symposium on East Africa in Transition: Images, Identities and Institutions. 2 nd to 4 th July 2001. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Higher Education in Africa".". In: The second symposium on East Africa in Transition: Images, Identities and Institutions. 2 nd to 4 th July 2001. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

Ojango JM;, Panandam JM;, Bhuiyan AKFH;, Khan MS;, Kahi AK;, Imbayarwo-Chikosi VE;, Mwai OA. "Higher education in animal breeding in developing countries–challenges and opportunities."; 2010.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Higher levels of Agricultural Production: The Role of Least Developed Farmers', paper presented to a conference on The Role of State in Agricultural Development and Participation of Population, Khartoum, Sudan, December, 1979.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1979. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Rees PH. "Highland malaria.". 1994.
Macharia WM. "Highlight on childhood lymphomas.". 1996.
Chung, Michael H; Kiarie JRBLDOJ; KNF; J-SN; A; A;. "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) versus Zidovudine/Nevirapine Effects on Early Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA: A Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial.". 2008. Abstract

Background Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV-1 levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Methods Pregnant HIV-1 seropositive women (CD4 >250 and <500 cells/mm3) electing to breastfeed in Nairobi, Kenya were randomized to HAART (zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine) during pregnancy and 6 months postpartum or to short-course zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/NVP). Breast milk samples were collected 2-3 times per week in the first month postpartum. Findings Between November 2003 and April 2006, 444 breast milk samples were collected from 58 randomized women during the first month after delivery. Between 3 and 14 days postpartum, women in the HAART and ZDV/NVP arms had a similar prevalence of undetectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA. From 15 to 28 days postpartum, women in the HAART arm had significantly lower levels of breast milk HIV-1 RNA than women randomized to ZDV/NVP (1.7 log10 copies/ml (limit of detection) vs. > 2.10 log10 copies/ml, P < 0.001). In contrast to breast milk HIV-1 RNA, suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA during the neonatal period was consistently several log10 greater in the HAART arm compared to the ZDV/NVP arm. Conclusions HAART resulted in lower breast milk HIV-1 RNA than ZDV/NVP, however, ZDV/NVP yielded comparable breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels in the first 2 weeks postpartum. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA remained suppressed in the ZDV/NVP arm despite increased plasma HIV-1 levels, which may reflect local drug-effects or compartmentalization.

Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Njiri F, John-Stewart GC. "Highly active antiretroviral therapy versus zidovudine/nevirapine effects on early breast milk HIV type-1 Rna: a phase II randomized clinical trial." Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 2008;13(6):799-807. Abstract

Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV type-1 (HIV-1) levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission.

Xie Y, Peng B, Bravić I, Yu Y, Dong Y, Liang R, Ou Q, Monserrat B, Zhang S. "Highly efficient blue-emitting CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals through neodymium doping." Advanced Science. 2020;7:2001698. Abstract
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JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Highly Structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS for Photovoltaic Application.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 89 (2005) 13 -19.; 2005. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Highly Structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS to be used in Photovoltaic.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Comptes Rendus Chimie 9 5-6 (2006) 73-734.; 2006. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
kinyua OH, Murray E, Greyling C. "hild protection.". In: child protection. South Africa: World Vision International; 2012.cp_1_guiding_principle_reflection_full_set_edit_n_send_2_oct.doc
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Hillman DA, Roy AD, Gatei DG. A virilizing tumour derived from cells of the foetal cortex in a year-old African child. East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. ].". In: East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1972. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "HINDIA, M.L., AKAMA, M.K., AWANGE, D.O., GUTHUA, S.W.: Occurrence of Ameloblastic fibroma over a ten-year period. East African Medical Journal, 82 (8) 42-45, 2005.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82 (8) 42-45, 2005. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
Mutinda KP. "Hindrances of Secondary School Principals to effective Management of public secondary schools; Gatundu North, Kenya." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN:. 2015;20(9, Ver. III):126-132.
Migosi J, Nanok, D., Ombuki, C., Metet J. "Hindrances to pupils’ access and participation in primary school education in Kakuma and Lokichoggio divisions, Turkana County." Universal Journal of Education and General Studies. 2012;1(10):308-315.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "The Hindu view of God, Humanity and Mother Nature.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Nyabuga G. "Hip Hop Music, and its Causation of Moral Panic in Kenya.". In: Popular Cultures in Africa. University of Texas at Austin; 2007.
Kaviti LK. "Hip Hop Music: Artistic Creativity Gone Bad." Academic Journal of Daystar University. 2008;Vol 1(1):96-119.
Okoth S. "Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia." PLOS One. 2017:1-13. Abstractjournal.pone_.0171150.pdfWebsite

More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

MULIMBA JAO. A histological microbiological and immunological study of patients undergoing tonsillectomy for recurrent Sore throats at the Kenyatta national hospital..; 1977. Abstract

A histological, microbiological, virological and immunological study of tonsils removed from patients Buffering recurrent attacks of sore throat was done. The study was done on patients seen in Ear., Nose and Throat (E. N. T.) Clinic and wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H.) over a period of three months, September to November, 1977. The
patients' ages ranged between 2 years and 38 years. First 29 tonsils were examined histologically, no specific diagnostic features were demonstrable in any. Of 54 throat swabs taken in the clinic only 9 grew pathogens i.e. 6%. Of the 63 tonsils and
63 throat swabs iros same patients examined microbio-logically, 40 tonsils grew pathogens as compared to only 17 throat swabs. No fungi were isolated in any
specimen although they were looked for.67 specimens of tonsillar arid adenoid mater ial were cuItured for viruses, only 9 grew adenoviruses types 1, 2 and 5. 25 tonsillar and adenoid materials were examined immunologically for lymphocyte activity the result
of which was compared w ith lymphocyte activity in the peripheral blood of the same patients. Serum globulin levels were determined in 30 patients. These levels were generally low. The results were analysed, the literature on the various aspects of management of recurrent attacks of sore throat was examined; and this was followed by
discussion. COG81usions wsre drawn based on the above views expresseJ by many authors of articles on this issue

Sammy M;, Awori K;, Odula P;, Munguti J. "Histological Organization of the Portal Vein: a Structural Adaptation.". 2013. Abstract

The extra hepatic portion of the portal vein has been known to physiologically act as a capacitance vessel while its intra hepatic portion behaves as a resistance vessel. However, the histological basis for these observations has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the histological organization of the portal vein in reference to the observed functional differences in its intra- and extra hepatic portions. Sections of the portal vein were harvested from 24 livers during autopsies at the Chiromo funeral parlor, University of Nairobi, Kenya. They were processed for light microscopic histological evaluation. The structure of both portions was then noted and described. The extra hepatic portion had circular, oblique and longitudinal muscle bundles in its tunica intima, media and adventitia respectively. On the other hand, the intra hepatic portion had abundant fibro-elastic fibers with longitudinal smooth muscles scattered in their tunica media and adventitia. From the results of the current study, the functional differences of both the extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic portions of the PV are accounted for by their different histological structures.

Huang, TT; Lewis SR, Amayo E;, Lewis SR. "A histological study of the lower tarsus and the significance in the surgical management of a involutional (senile) entropion.". 1981. Abstract

The dimension of the lower tarsus diminishes with aging. Changes in the number and size of the meibomian glands and in the character of intermingling fibroconnective tissues are thought to be responsible. Furthermore, such alterations of the structural integrity play an important role in the pathogenesis of entropion encountered commonly in the elderly. We have advocated the use of an autogenous cartilage graft harvested from the ear to correct the deformity, especially in instances where the conventional methods of correction have failed.

Saidi H, Gichangi P MAPK. Histology Module I: Basic Histology. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
Waweru W. "Histology of endophalmitis.". 2005.
Dr. Wairimu waweru DM. "Histology of endophalmitis.". In: Kenya Association of Clinical Pathologists Workshop . College of Health Scinces, KNH; 2005.
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Bebora L.C, P. M, G. GM, L.W N. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (hardware disease) in peacocks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference , . Nairobi; 2008.2008_-_hostomoniasis_and_traumatic_gastritis_in_peacocks.pdf
Mbuthia P G, C BL, G M, Njagi L W. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (Hardware disease) in peacocks: Case Reports .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-histomoniasis_and_hardware_disease_in_peacockc.pdf
G GC, C BL. "Histomoniasis in a Peafowl (Pavo Cristatusl." Indian Veterinary Journal. 1992;69:944-945.
Aseta FB, Mwachaka PM, Odula PO, Malek A. "Histomorphological changes in the cornea of the rat following monocular eyelid closure." Anatomy, an international journal of experimental and clinical anatomy . 2016;10(2):87-93.cornea.pdf
Ogeng’o J, Ominde BS, Ongeti KW, Olabu B, Maseghe P, Machira J, Murunga A. "HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN THE LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY ARTERIES AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2017;6(3):1033-1044. Abstracthistomorphological_features_of_atherosclerosis_in.pdf

The pattern of coronary artery atherosclerosis is valuable in informing mitigation strategies for coronary
heart disease. Histomorphological data on this disease among Africans living in Sub Saharan Africa are,
however, scarce. The left anterior descending is one of the most commonly afflicted arteries. This
study, therefore, examined the left anterior descending artery of 213 black Kenyans [Mean age 36.8
years, range 5 – 82 years] who had died of non cardiovascular causes for features of atherosclerosis.
The individuals were divided into male and female, then into 10-yr age groups. Specimens were
obtained from the proximal segment of the artery during autopsy at the Department of Human
Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. They were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and
sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Haematoxylin/Eosin and Mason’s trichrome and
examined with light microscope. Micrographs of representative features were taken using a high
resolution digital camera. At least one feature of atherosclerosis was present in 54 (25.4%) of the
individuals. The features observed included severe intimal hyperplasia (34; 63%), disintegration of the
internal elastic lamina [30; 55.6%]; atherosclerotic plaque (20; 37%), adventitial thicknening (14;
26%) and mural neovascularization (10; 18.5%). The mean age of those with features of
atherosclerosis was 38.4 years, range 6 – 62 years with 25 (46.3%) being aged 40 years and below. Of
these, the male: female ratio was 1.7:1. In conclusion, features of atherosclerosis are present in over
25% of the population studied. The disease affects young people, including women. Proactive
preventive measures including follow – up should commence early, and involve both men and women

Karau PB, Ogeng’o JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "The Histomorphological organization of the hepato caval Interface in the human." J Morpho sci. 2010;27(3 - 4):148-151.
OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "The histomorphological organization of the hepato-caval interface in the human.". In: J. Morphol.Sci, 27(3-4): 148-351. Karau P.B, Ogeng; 2010.
T
H
Ogeng’o JA, Kilonzi J, Saidi H, Hassanali J. "Histomorphometric evidence of early onset coronary artery disease among Kenyans. MEDICOM." The Afr J Hosp Med. 2010;19 – 24:11-14.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometric evidence of early onset coronary artery disease among Kenyans. Ogeng’o JA, Kilonzi J, Saidi H, Hassanali J. Afr. J. Hosp. Med. 2010; 19-24: 11-14.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
Kilonzi PJ, Saidi HS, Hassanali J, Ogeng’o JA. "Histomorphometry of the left anterior descending coronary artery among Kenyans. ." . Eur J med Res. 2008;13(suppl 1):2.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometry of the left anterior descending coronary artery among Kenyans. Kilonzi PJ, Saidi HS, Hassanali J, Ogeng’o JA. Eur. J. Med. Res., 2008; 13(suppl 1): 2.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

Serem Jared K., John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets Global Veterinaria 19 (1): 478-486, .". 2017.
Serem JK, Muturi JK, Wahome RG, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets." Global Veterinaria . 2017;19(1):478-486.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Kiama, S.G., Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological evaluation of spleen, liver and kidneys from pigs fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. Global Veterinaria,.". 2017;19(1):478-486.
Kasili, EG; Cameron HM; RRF; CSA. "Histopathology of brain tumours in the African in Kenya.". 1973.
Timammy R, Nyamasyo E, Wasamba P. "Historia za maisha binafsi kutoka kwale.". 1999.Website
Wasamba P, Timammy R, Nyamasyo, G. "Historia za maisha binafsi kutoka kwale.". 1999.Website
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Historical Origins and Changing Functions of Central Places in Laikipia: A Social and Geographical Assessment", in Mount Kenya Area: Differentiation and Dynamics of a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem - Proceedins of the Intrnational Workshop and Ecology and S.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Historical Overview of the Nature and Patterns of Kenya's External Trade and It's Relationship to Development.". In: ILO Ppaer. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1983. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
L.C. B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G. "Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ; 2012.2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
MWANGI IK. "Historical Trilogy of the Kenya Institute of Planners.". In: Presentation at KIP Induction Training Workshop. Organized by Kenya Institute of Planners Held at Professional Centre, Nairobi; 2020.
"Historically Grounded Symbolism and the Thematic Lacuna in Translation: The Translation of Treasure Island into Kiswahili as Kisiwa Chenye Hazina, ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 3, (Na.1, April 2019, ):Pages 163-194, .
Wanjala AN. "Historiography or Imagination? The Documentation of Traditional Luo Cultural Memory in Kenyan Fiction.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. London & New York: Routledge; 2016.
Ndung'u I. "The History and Sociology of Varieties of English." Submitted to Catholic Diocese of Nyeri Printing Press.; 2002. Abstract
n/a
Nyarwath O. "History and status of African philosophy at the University of Nairobi." Horizons: A Journal of Philosophy. 2009;1(1):13-21.
history of Christianity in East Africa. Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distance Learning ; 2010.
Florence N. History of Daylighting.; 2015.
MARY MWIANDI. "The history of Jeanes School, Kabete, 1925-1939.". In: Mzizi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.
ALANDO MRSOMONDIESTHER. "History of Kenya.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 2006. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
MISIGO MRAMATSIMBIHERBERT. "History of Kenya to 1900. University of Nairobi.". In: X-ray Spectrometry, Vol. 27, 205 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2006. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
Odingo RS, Vogel LC, Muller AS, Onyango. "History of Medicine, and Health Services in Kenya (1900-1950).". 1974.Website
Kyule MD, Ambrose SH, Hlusko L. "History of Paleontological research in the Narok District of Kenya,." Kirtlandia, Journal of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio, USA. 2007;56:1-37. Abstractkirt-56-00-1.pdfWebsite

The geology of the Narok District of southern Kenya was first studied in the 1960s. From 1994 through 2005 more extensive paleontological and geological research was conducted on a series of late Miocene sediments of the Lemudong’o Formation in the region of Lemudong’o Gorge and Enamankeon where the Ntuka and Narok Rivers merge to form the Uaso Ngiro River. Numerous paleontological sites have been located, however all but one are poorly fossiliferous. The exception is the site of Lemudong’o Locality 1, near the village of Enkorika. Here we describe the geological and paleontological research that has been performed in the entire project area, with detailed information about the paleontology at Lemudong’o Locality 1

Odada EO. History of past climatic records in the large lakes of East Africa. Mombasa, Kenya: INQUA-PAGES; 1993.
Kyule MD, Onyango-Abuje JC. "History of Prehistory in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper outlines both the archaeological and later prehistoric research that has so far been undertaken on the Kenyan side of the Lake Victoria basin. We introduce the regions current demographic distribution and geophysical setting to provide a background for the various prominent paleoanthropological findings and discoveries in the region. Significant aspects that require further research have also been highlighted.

Ndetei DM, Mburu J. "History of Psychiatry.". 2006.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "History of Religion in Kenya in W.R. Ochieng (ed) Themes in Kenyan History, Heinemann.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1989. Abstract
n/a
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "A History of the Agricultural Society of Kenya 1901 - 1996 to be published by News Pack Series, Nairobi.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
n/a
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1974. Abstract
n/a
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of the Peoples of Bungoma District, In Bungoma District socio-cultural Profile Nairobi.". In: Indiana State University Press. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1993. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of the Peoples of Bungoma District, In Bungoma District socio-cultural Profile Nairobi.". In: Indiana State University Press.; 1993. Abstract

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Nyanchaga EN, Ombongi KS. "History of Water and Sanitation in Kenya 1895-2002.". In: Environmental History of Water. Global views on Community Water Supply and Sanitation. International Water Association (IWA), ISBN: 1-84339-110-4. http://www.iwapublishing.com/template.cfm?name=isbn1843391104; 2007.
Nyangeri, E N. "History of Water Development in Kenya from 1895 to 2003. Flows from the Past: a trans-disciplinary Conference on the History of Water in Africa. The North West University: Vaal Triangle Campus (Vanderbijlpark, South Africa) in cooper.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.

Nyanchaga EN. History of Water Supply and Governance in Kenya (1895 – 2005). Lessons and Futures.. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.ISBN 978-952-03-0059-3; ISBN 978-952-03-0060-9(pdf)., https://verkkokauppa.juvenes.fi; 2016.
Ombongi ENK&, Petri S. Juuti, Katko TS, Vuorinen HS, eds. History of water supply and sanitation in Kenya, 1895 – 2002(Environmental history of water). London: IWA; 2007.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "History of West Africa to 1800. University of Nairobi Press.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1988. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of West-African from 1800 to the Present.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of West-African from 1800 to the Present.". In: University of Nairobi Press.; 1999. Abstract

n/a

Nyaga R, Kimani D, Mwabu G. "HIV /AIDS in Kenya: A Review of Research and Policy Issues." KIPPRA . 2003.
E.N. PN. "HIV AIDS Social / Economic Impact.". In: African Health Sciences Congress. KEMRI Headquarters, Nairobi; 2000.ngugi-hiv_aids_soial_economic_impact.pdf
Muriithi MK, Mwai D, Kimaiyo G, Karambi D. "HIV and AIDs Commodity Gap: An Estimate of resource needs and envelop under the UNAIDs 90-90-90 targets towards ART scale up in Kenya." Health Care Academician Journal . 2016;3(3).
ndeti ndati. HIV and AIDS Communication in Secondary Schools in Kenya. Eldoret: Zapf Chancery Publishers; 2012.
Casmir EN, Ondicho TG, Ongolly FK. "HIV and AIDS in Kenya: Forty Years Later." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies (JAIS). 2018;2(5):91-100.hiv__aids_in_kenya_fourty_years_later.pdf
Gichangi P, De Vuyst H, Estambale B, Rogo K, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. "HIV and cervical cancer in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;76(1):55-63. Abstract

To determine the effect of the HIV epidemic on invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HIV and cervical cancer in Kenya. Gichangi P, De Vuyst H, Estambale B, Rogo K, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002 Jan;76(1):55-63.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002 Jan;76(1):55-63. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Magadi M, Agwanda A. "HIV and Fertility Link in Kenya.". In: The 6th African Population Conference. Ougadougou , Burkina Faso; 2011.
Gichuhi S, Arunga S. "HIV and the eye." Community Eye Health. 2020;33(108):76-78. AbstractWebsite

This article summarizes the presentation of ocular HIV in East Africa.
The main ocular effects of HIV are related to immune-suppression and impaired tumour-surveillance. HIV compromises cell-mediated immunity increasing the risk of infection with bacteria (e.g. tuberculosis and syphilis); fungi (e.g. candida and cryptococcus); parasites (e.g. toxoplasmosis); and viruses (e.g. herpes zoster, human papilloma virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus).
Patients with lower CD4 counts are more likely to have ocular manifestations1, however use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the epidemiology of ocular manifestations, and variations in the predominant subtype of HIV may also lead to geographical differences in ocular disease.

Nzioka C. HIV Behavioral Surveillance Survey in Kajo Keji County, Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan. Juba. Juba : HIV Behavioral Surveillance Survey in Kajo Keji County, Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan. Juba; 2010.
Rogstad, KE; Ahmed-Jushuf IH; AMS; TG. "HIV disease in Africans of high social class.". 1993.
W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "HIV education for schools .". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
Gichangi P, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, Estambale B, Rogo K, Njuguna E, Ojwang S, Temmerman M. "HIV impact on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following radiotherapy for cervical cancer." Gynecol. Oncol.. 2006;100(2):405-11. Abstract

To determine the impact of HIV infection on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for cervical cancer.

Ilovi CS, Mecha JO, Wambui M, Njagi LN, Kamau NG. "HIV in the Elderly: Are Outcomes Comparable to Younger Patients? Perspectives from a Kenyan Tertiary HIV Clini.". In: Oral Abstract 1st Annual HIV Clinician’s Conference, .; 2015.
Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, He X, Gichangi P, Rana F, Opiyo A, Hampson IN. "HIV Infection Alters the Spectrum of HPV Subtypes Found in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from Kenyan Women." Open Virol J. 2013;7:19-27.
Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, He X, Gichangi P, Rana F, Opiyo A, Hampson IN. "HIV Infection Alters the Spectrum of HPV Subtypes Found in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from Kenyan Women." Open Virol J. 2013;7:19-27. Abstracthiv_infection_alters_the_spectrum_of_hpv_subtypes_found_in_cervical_smears_and_carcinomas_from_kenyan_women.pdf

Infection with high risk HPV is implicated in pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions and their progression to cervical cancer. In the developed countries, infection with HPV 16 and 18 accounts for ~70% of cervical cancers, but it has been established that HPV type prevalence differs according to worldwide geographical location. In sub Saharan Africa infection with HPV is known to be augmented by HIV, which is endemic in this region. It is not yet clear, however, whether this ultimately influences progression to cervical cancer. Papillocheck(TM) and multiplex PCR were used to determine the range of HPV genotypes found in cervical smears and carcinomas from HIV positive and negative Kenyan women. Smear samples from HIV-positive women had a higher prevalence of: multiple HPV infections; high-risk HPVs 52, 58, 68, potential high risk 53/70, low-risk 44/55 and abnormal cytology compared to HIV-negative women. A low overall prevalence (~8%) of types 16/18 was found in all smear samples tested (n = 224) although this increased in invasive cervical carcinoma tissues to ~80% for HIV-negative and ~46% for HIV-positive women. Furthermore, HPV45 was more common in cervical carcinoma tissues from HIV-positive women. In summary HIV infection appears to alter the spectrum of HPV types found in both cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas. It is hypothesised there could be a complex interplay between these viruses which could either positively or negatively influence the rate of progression to cervical cancer.

"HIV infection among lower socioeconomic strata prostitutes in Nairobi.". 1990. Abstract

AIDS. 1990 Feb;4(2):139-44.
HIV infection among lower socioeconomic strata prostitutes in Nairobi.
Simonsen JN, Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Black C, Kreiss JK, Gakinya MN, Waiyaki P, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Piot P, et al.
Source
Centre for Microbiologic Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute.
Abstract
A cohort of 418 lower socioeconomic strata prostitutes were enrolled in a study of the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) between January and April 1985. Sixty-two per cent of the women were seropositive for HIV infection at enrollment. Significant associations were found between HIV seropositivity and Tanzanian origin (OR = 2.12, CI 95% = 1.18-3.81, P less than 0.03), younger age, a shorter duration of prostitution, reduced fecundity, use of oral contraceptives (OR = 1.8, CI 95% = 1.1-2.9, P less than 0.05) and genital ulcer disease (OR = 3.32, P less than 0.00001). No associations were noted with other STD. Stepwise logistic regression analysis confirmed independent associations between HIV infection and Tanzanian origin (OR = 2.27, CI 95% = 1.25-4.14, P less than 0.007), reduced fecundity (OR = 0.83, CI 95% = 0.74-0.94, P less than 0.003), oral contraceptive use (OR = 2.02, CI 95% = 1.22-3.35, P less than 0.006) and duration of prostitution (OR = 0.39, CI 95% = 0.23-0.65, P less than 0.004). Oral contraceptives may increase susceptibility to HIV or may be a marker for other factors which increase risk of acquisition. Further studies are necessary to confirm this association.
PMID:
2328096
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "HIV infection among patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

AIDS continues to exert considerable strain on the economy, as well as social aspects of our lives. Previous studies have identified the categories of people most at risk of contracting and developing HIV infection and AIDS. In this study, 20.9% of women with acute pelvic infection at the Kenyatta National Hospital, were found to be seropositive for HIV, much higher than the general population in Kenya. Though there was no direct correlation between one's age and serological status, most of the women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were young, quite sexually active, and involved with several partners. 49.0% of the entire group and 53.7% of the women who were seropositive, were married. This underlines the fact that marital status does not appear to offer any protection against HIV infection. The fact that majority of these women had started coitus quite early, they were not using any protective measure against STDs or HIV infection, and that they were involved with several partners, indicate that we are very far from winning the fight against HIV infection and AIDS. There is need to revise the currently operative programmes with a view to making them more effective, in preventing transmission and spread of HIV infection. PMID: 8261972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "HIV infection among patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1993. Abstract

AIDS continues to exert considerable strain on the economy, as well as social aspects of our lives. Previous studies have identified the categories of people most at risk of contracting and developing HIV infection and AIDS. In this study, 20.9% of women with acute pelvic infection at the Kenyatta National Hospital, were found to be seropositive for HIV, much higher than the general population in Kenya. Though there was no direct correlation between one's age and serological status, most of the women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were young, quite sexually active, and involved with several partners. 49.0% of the entire group and 53.7% of the women who were seropositive, were married. This underlines the fact that marital status does not appear to offer any protection against HIV infection. The fact that majority of these women had started coitus quite early, they were not using any protective measure against STDs or HIV infection, and that they were involved with several partners, indicate that we are very far from winning the fight against HIV infection and AIDS. There is need to revise the currently operative programmes with a view to making them more effective, in preventing transmission and spread of HIV infection. PMID: 8261972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

In K. Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "HIV infection and AIDS in children.". In: , Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd . UNICEF; 2010.
Ndugwa, C.M. N &BRWGJ. "HIV infection and AIDS in children.". In: Primary health care: A manual for medical students and other health workers (2nd ed.). UNICEF. ; 1995.
Lucy Muchiri, Gathari Ndirangu CKPGJMBEMT. "HIV infection and cervical neoplasia in a Kenyan semi-urban population.". In: 9th APECSA Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
Rositch, A F; Cherutich BKNRW; FP; P; J. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner’s HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner’s status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Bhatt KM. "HIV infection at KNH Medicus.". 1988.
Khasakhala" "A. "HIV interventions in Education Systems.". In: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Responses to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.
Amornkul, P.N; Vandenhoudt OMJONRVVMH; F; D. "HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among individuals aged 13-34 years in rural western.". 2009. Abstract

To estimate HIV prevalence and characterize risk factors among young adults in Asembo, rural western Kenya. Community-based cross-sectional survey. From a demographic surveillance system, we selected a random sample of residents aged 13-34 years, who were contacted at home and invited to a nearby mobile study site. Consent procedures for non-emancipated minors required assent and parental consent. From October 2003 - April 2004, consenting participants were interviewed on risk behavior and tested for HIV and HSV-2. HIV voluntary counseling and testing was offered. Of 2606 eligible residents, 1822 (70%) enrolled. Primary reasons for refusal included not wanting blood taken, not wanting to learn HIV status, and partner/parental objection. Females comprised 53% of 1762 participants providing blood. Adjusted HIV prevalence was 15.4% overall: 20.5% among females and 10.2% among males. HIV prevalence was highest in women aged 25-29 years (36.5%) and men aged 30-34 years (41.1%). HSV-2 prevalence was 40.0% overall: 53% among females, 25.8% among males. In multivariate models stratified by gender and marital status, HIV infection was strongly associated with age, higher number of sex partners, widowhood, and HSV-2 seropositivity. Asembo has extremely high HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, and probable high incidence, among young adults. Further research on circumstances around HIV acquisition in young women and novel prevention strategies (vaccines, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, HSV-2 prevention, etc.) are urgently needed.

Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa." Trop Med Int Health. . 2016:doi: 10.1111/tmi.12761.
Delva, W; Michielsen MGWATVK; B; S;. "HIV prevention through sport: the case of the Mathare Youth Sport Association in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA) in Kenya and a control group of 318 non-MYSA members. Multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between MYSA membership and attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy related to condom use as well as sexual experience, age at sexual debut, condom use, history of concurrent relationships and number of partners in the last year. MYSA members were more likely to use condoms during the first sex act (odds ratio (OR)=2.10; 95% CI: 1.10-3.99). Consistent condom use with the current/last partner was 23.2% (36/155) among MYSA members vs. 17.2% (17/99) among the control group. Even after adjusting for media exposure - a factor associated with both MYSA membership and higher frequency of condom use - MYSA members were still found to use condoms more frequently with their current/last partner (adjusted OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.01-2.68). Nevertheless, levels of condom use remain disturbingly low. More rigorous evaluations of sport programmes for HIV prevention are needed. When possible, programmes should be preceded by baseline assessments, trends in risk behaviour of the intervention group should be compared with those of a control group, and protocols for data collection and analysis should include measuring of and adjusting for potentially confounding factors.

RW. N. "HIV prevention--a public health priority. ." East Afr Med J. 2010 Mar;87(3):89-90. No abstract available. PMID: 23057303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] . 2010.
Chalya, PL; Ssentongo KR; I. "HIV seroprevalence and its effect on outcome of moderate to severe burn injuries: A Ugandan experience.". 2011. Abstracthiv_seroprevalence_and_its_effect_on_outcome...pdf

BACKGROUND: HIV infection in a patient with burn injuries complicates the care of both the patient and the treating burn team. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of HIV among burn patients in our setting and to compare the outcome of these patients who are HIV positive with those who are HIV negative. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study involving burn injury patients admitted to Mulago Hospital between November 2005 and February 2006. Patients were stratified into HIV positive (exposed) group and HIV-negative (unexposed) group. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software version 11.5. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients included in the study, 17 (13.1%) patients tested HIV positive and this formed the study (exposed) group. The remaining 113 patients (86.9%) formed the control (unexposed) group. In the HIV positive group, females outnumbered males by a ratio of 1.4:1 and the mean age was 28.4 ± 21.5 years (range 3 months-34 years). 64.7% of HIV positive patients reported to have risk factors for HIV infection. Of these, multiple sexual partners [Odds Ratio 8.44, 95% C.I. (3.87-143.23), P = 0.011] and alcoholism [Odds Ratio 8.34, 95% C.I. (5.76-17.82), P = 0.002] were found to be independently and significantly associated with increased risk to HIV infection. The mean CD4 count for HIV positive and HIV negative patients were 394 ± 328 cells/μL and 912 ± 234 cells/μL respectively which is statistically significant (P = 0.001). There was no difference in the bacteria cultured from the wounds of HIV positive and negative patients (P = 0.322). Patients with clinical signs of sepsis had lower CD4+ counts compared to patients without sepsis (P < 0.001). ). Skin grafting was carried out in 35.3% of HIV negative patients and 29.4% of HIV positive patients with no significant difference in skin graft take and the degree of healed burn on discharge was the same (P = 0.324). There was no significant difference in hospital stay between HIV positive and negative patients (P = 0.674). The overall mortality rate was 11.5%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, mortality rate was found to be independently and significantly related to the age of the patient, HIV positive with stigmata of AIDS, CD4 count, inhalation injury, %TBSA and severity of burn (p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HIV infection is prevalent among burn injury patients in our setting and thus presents an occupational hazard to health care workers who care for these patients. All burn health care workers in this region need to practice universal precautions in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV infection and post-exposure prophylaxis should be emphasized. The outcome of burn injury in HIV infected patients is dependent upon multiple variables such as age of the patient, inhalation injury and %TBSA and not the HIV status alone.

Eyawo, Oghenowede; de Walque D; FN; GG; LRMET; J. "HIV status in discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.". 2010. Abstract

Background: Most couples affected by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa live in discordant relationships. Men are thought to be the index case in most relationships, and most social marketing and awareness campaigns are focused on men. We investigated serodiscordance in stable relationships to establish the gender balance of index-case infections. Methods: We did a systematic review, random-effects meta-analysis, and meta-regression of published and unpublished studies enrolling discordant couples and assessed the proportion of men and women that were index cases. We repeated the analysis with data from demographic and health surveys (DHS) from the 14 countries that have documented the HIV status of couples. Our primary outcome was the total number of HIV discordant couples, including the proportion of HIV-positive women. Findings: We included data from 27 cohorts of 13 061 couples and DHS data from 14 countries of 1145 couples. The proportion of HIV-positive women in stable heterosexual serodiscordant relationships was 47% (95% CI 43–52), which shows that women are as likely as men to be the index partner in a discordant couple. DHS data (46%, 41–51) and our sensitivity analysis (47%, 43–52) showed similar findings. Meta-regression showed that urban versus rural residence (odds ratio 0·31, 95% CI 0·22–0·39), latitude (β coefficient 0·02, 0·023–0·034), gender equality (β coefficient −0·42, −0·56 to −0·27), HIV prevalence (β coefficient −0·037, −0·04 to −0·030), and older age (β coefficient 0·20, 0·08–0·32) were associated with the proportion of female index cases. Interpretation: Our study shows the need to focus on both sexes in HIV prevention strategies, such as promotion of condom use and mitigation of risk behaviours.

Chersich, MF; Luchters SM; OMJ; YMTE; K; M. "HIV testing and counselling for women attending child health clinics: an opportunity for entry to prevent mother-to-child transmission and HIV treatment.". 2008. Abstract

This study assessed the potential for HIV testing at child health clinics to increase knowledge of HIV status, and entry to infant feeding counselling and HIV treatment. At a provincial hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, HIV testing and counselling were offered to women bringing their child for immunization or acute care services. Most women said HIV testing should be offered in these clinics (472/493, 95.7%), with many citing the benefits of regular testing and entry to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Of 500 women, 416 (83.4%) received test results, 97.6% on the same day. After 50 participants, point-of-care testing replaced laboratory-based rapid testing. Uptake increased 2.6 times with point-of-care testing (95% confidence interval = 1.4-5.1; P = 0.003). Of 124 women who had not accessed HIV testing during pregnancy, 98 tested in the study (79.0%). Measured by uptake and attitudes, HIV testing in child health clinics is acceptable. This could optimize entry into HIV treatment, infant feeding counselling and family planning services.

"HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure.". 2009. Abstract

Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV
testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal
clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women
independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183
chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71%
by men (P , 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these
couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate
disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.

Katz DA, Kiarie JN, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, John FN, Farquhar C. "HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure." Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20(11):765-7. Abstract

Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183 chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71% by men (P < 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.

Katz, DA; John FN;, Kiarie JN;, John-Stewart GC;, Richardson BA;, John FN;, Farquhar C. "HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure.". 2009. Abstract

Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183 chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71% by men (P < 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HIV type 1 resistance in Kenyan sex workers is not associated with altered cellular susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection or enhanced beta-chemokine production. Fowke KR; Dong T; Rowland-Jones SL; Oyugi J Rutherford WJ; Kimani J; Krausa P; Bwayo JJ; Simo.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Nov 20;14(17):1521-30. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To monitor and analyse trends in HIV-1 seroprevalence among antenatal women in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Six sequential surveys were carried out among antenatal clinic attenders at four Nairobi City Council health centres between November 1991 and April 1997. METHODS: A total of 6828 women attending for first antenatal clinic visit were administered a standard questionnaire to obtain demographic information and were screened for HIV-1. RESULTS: HIV-1 seroprevalence rose from 12.1% in the first survey to 16.2% in the third, completed in October 1993. No rise was observed in subsequent surveys, and seroprevalence among women under the age of 20 declined after the third survey. Significant differences in seroprevalence (P < 0.001) were observed in all survey rounds between women who reported that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4% overall), compared with those from other provinces in western Kenya (14.1%), and the eastern group of provinces (8.9%). The rise in HIV-1 seroprevalence observed between 1991 and 1993 was almost entirely attributable to the rising seroprevalence among women from Nyanza. There were considerable differences in HIV-1 seroprevalence among the four health centres, partly accounted for by differences in the proportion of clinic attenders from different provinces of origin, which also changed significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 seroprevalence has stabilized in antenatal women attending these health centres in Nairobi, and may be declining among women in the youngest age group. This may reflect stabilization of HIV-1 incidence, but further observation is required. The levels of infection among Nairobi residents reflect the evolution of the HIV epidemic in their provinces of origin, and changing client composition influences HIV-1 seroprevalence at different clinics. HIV sentinel surveillance should be carried out at multiple sites in large urban centres to monitor accurately the evolution of the HIV epidemic and the impact of control efforts in reducing transmission.
15. Fowke KR, Dong T R-JSLORWJKKBSJNSGMPFAJJP. "HIV type 1 resistance in Kenyan sex workers is not associated with altered cellular susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection or enhanced chemokine production." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. . 1998. Abstract

Abstract
A small group of women (n = 80) within the Nairobi-based Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort demonstrates epidemiologic resistance to HIV-1 infection. Chemokine receptor polymorphisms and beta-chemokine overproduction have been among the mechanisms suggested to be responsible for resistance to HIV-1 infection. This study attempts to determine if any of those mechanisms are protecting the HIV-1-resistant women. Genetic analysis of CCR5 and CCR3 from the resistant women demonstrated no polymorphisms associated with resistance. Expression levels of CCR5 among the resistant women were shown to be equivalent to that found in low-risk seronegative (negative) controls, while CXCR4 expression was greater among some of the resistant women. In vitro infection experiments showed that phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from resistant women were as susceptible to infection to T cell- and macrophage-tropic North American and Kenyan HIV-1 isolates as were the PBMCs from negative controls. No significant difference in circulating plasma levels of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta were found between the resistant women and negative or HIV-1-infected controls. In vitro cultures of media and PHA-stimulated PBMCs indicated that the resistant women produced significantly less MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta than did negative controls and no significant difference in RANTES levels were observed. In contrast to studies in Caucasian cohorts, these data indicate that CCR5 polymorphisms, altered CCR5 and CXCR4 expression levels, cellular resistance to in vitro HIV-1 infection, and increased levels of beta-chemokine production do not account for the resistance to HIV-1 infection observed among the women of the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort.

Bezemer D, Faria NR, Hassan A, Hamers RL, Mutua G, Anzala O, Mandaliya K, Cane P, Berkley JA, Rinke de Wit TF, Wallis C, Graham SM, Price MA, Coutinho RA, Sanders EJ. "HIV Type 1 transmission networks among men having sex with men and heterosexuals in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2014;30(2):118-26. Abstract

We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "HIV-1 and immunological changes during pregnancy:a comparison between HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative women in Nairobi, Kenya. Temmerman M; Nagelkerke N; Bwayo JJ;Chomba EN;Ndinya-Achola J; Piot P. AIDS.1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60.". In: AIDS.1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "HIV-1 and reproductive health in Africa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

In many African countries where HIV infection is mainly heterosexually transmitted a substantial proportion of women of childbearing age are now infected with the virus. This paper will review the consequences of HIV-1 infection on the reproductive health of seropositive women. The adverse effect of HIV-1 infection on children will be outlined, and strategies for preventing HIV-1 transmission in women of childbearing age and their young children will be discussed

McKinnon LR, Nagelkerke NJ KSSYCLKAKWJAAOKRRM, J, Ball TB PFA. "HIV-1 clade D is associated with increased rates of CD4 decline in a Kenyan cohort." PLoS One.. 2012;7(11):e49797.
McKinnon LR, Nagelkerke NJ KSSYCLKAKWJAAOKRRM, J, Ball TB PFA. "HIV-1 clade D is associated with increased rates of CD4 decline in a Kenyan cohort." PLoS One. . 2012;7(11):e49797.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Otieno PA, Brown ER, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nduati RW, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Bosire RK, Emery S, Overba.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstract

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

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