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1994
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "WERE EO and KARANJA JG: Low birth weight deliveries at the Nyanza General Hospital Kisumu, Kenya. East Afr.Med.J. 71(10: 667-670, October 1994.". In: East Afr.Med.J. 71(10: 667-670, October 1994. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
1989
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Breastfeeding and Contraception: Editorial. Journal Obstet.Gynae East Centr. Afr. 1989.". In: Journal Obstet.Gynae East Centr. Afr. 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
1982
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Review of Caesarean Section deliveries at Kenyatta National Hospital 1980. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: The value of FSH, LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhoea. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, MATI JKG, LEQUIN RM: Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, MATI JKG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB: The value of FSH LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhea. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, GWAYI-CHORE MO, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, LEQUIN RM and MATI JKG: Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycle in Healthy Black Kenyan women. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycles in healthy black Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
PIP: 17 regularly mentruating young black Kenyan women were studied during a mentrual cylcle for their reproductive hormonal patterns. The serum concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined by World Health Organization Matched Reagent Programme Radioimmunoassay (WHO-MR-RIA). A biphasic basal body temperature (BBT) record was also noted. The hormonal patterns showed a mid-cycle LH surge and rise in plasma progesterone beginning with the LH peak and lasting a maximum of 6-8 days after the LH peak. Cycle lengths ranged from 25-32 days with a mean of 28 plus or minus 2 days. The follicular phase ranged from 10-17 days, and the luteal phase lasted from 13-15 days. When the mean LH and FSH concentrations and the mean BBT curve were synchronized on the day of the mid-cycle LH peak, the temperature elevation occured about 48 days after the LH peak. Along with the LH, the FSH showed a mid-cycle peak. The results of this study are consistent with those already documented for Caucasian, Asian and African females
2005
M MRKARANJAJAMES. "National Statistical System Financial Management Manual.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
PIP: 17 regularly mentruating young black Kenyan women were studied during a mentrual cylcle for their reproductive hormonal patterns. The serum concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined by World Health Organization Matched Reagent Programme Radioimmunoassay (WHO-MR-RIA). A biphasic basal body temperature (BBT) record was also noted. The hormonal patterns showed a mid-cycle LH surge and rise in plasma progesterone beginning with the LH peak and lasting a maximum of 6-8 days after the LH peak. Cycle lengths ranged from 25-32 days with a mean of 28 plus or minus 2 days. The follicular phase ranged from 10-17 days, and the luteal phase lasted from 13-15 days. When the mean LH and FSH concentrations and the mean BBT curve were synchronized on the day of the mid-cycle LH peak, the temperature elevation occured about 48 days after the LH peak. Along with the LH, the FSH showed a mid-cycle peak. The results of this study are consistent with those already documented for Caucasian, Asian and African females
2010
R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

2009
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Njeru SN, Otieno SA, Karimurio J. Prevalence of significant refractive errors in high school students, Meru municipality, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 15(2): 40-45.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in high school students in Meru Municipality, Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional, School based study. Setting:   High school students in Meru Municipality, Meru central District, Kenya. Subjects: 164 high school students of age range 13-18 years from Form one and Form three classes. Results:  The prevalence of significant refractive errors was 8.5% with girls contributing 5.5% and boys 3.0%. The pattern of significant refractive errors showed that myopia was the leading cause decreased visual acuity at 78.6% followed by astigmatism at 14.3% and last was hypermetropia with 7.1%. The proportion significant refractive errors was higher (71.4%) in the older age group of 15-18 years than lower age group of 13-16 years (28.6%). Conclusions:  Significant refractive errors are a common cause visual impairment in secondary schools in Meru Municipality. Myopia was found to be the leading cause of decreased visual acuity (VA <6/12).  
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Mingaine M, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Githeko K. Intraocular pressure changes in eyes receiving intravitreal acetonide in Kikuyu Eye Unit. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 15(2): 46-52.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the magnitude and pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in eyes that received intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in Kikuyu Eye Unit. Study Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Setting: Kikuyu Eye Unit. Subjects: Seventy-two eyes (of 61 patients) injected between January 2007 and August 2008. Methods: Data on intraocular pressure (IOP), diagnosis, additional procedures and treatment was collected using questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 11.5.  Results: The mean pre-injection IOP was 16.0 (SD 5.2) mmHg, which increased to 23.8 (SD 11.5) mmHg after IVTA injection (p<0.001). IOP started increasing significantly within 2 weeks (p=0.006). The median post-injection time before IOP peak was 4.6 weeks, and IOP remained high for 24 weeks after injection. Intraocular pressure increase of 5 mmHg or more was found in 39 (54.2%) eyes, while that of 10 mmHg or more was found in 22 (30.1%). Thirty-three eyes (45.8%) had maximum post-injection IOP beyond 21 mmHg. Twenty-two eyes (30.6%) received treatment for IOP elevation. Eyes with pre-injection IOP of more than 21 mmHg were associated with significantly higher IOP increases (p<0.001) and all received pressure-lowering medication. No associations were noticed between age, sex, other procedures, diagnosis and pattern of IOP change. Conclusions: Intraocular increase was found to be a common complication of IVTA, and the increase occurred in the first six months.  
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Karimurio J, Kollmann M. Biometry in cataract camps : Experiences from north Kenya.Ophthalmologe. 2009 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print][Article in German].". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
2008
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
2007
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Refractive errors in type 2 diabetic patients. East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):259-63. PMID: 18254467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Mwale C, Karimurio J, Njuguna M.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):259-63. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
{ Mansa General Hospital, P.O. Box 710156, Chembe Road, Mansa, Luapula, Zambia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among African type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and establish the relationship between baseline refractive status and degree of glycaemic control. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Diabetic medical and eye clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: Ninety six type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. RESULTS: Ninety six patients aged 28 to 76 years were examined. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 and about half of the patients (52.1%) had good glycaemic control. The prevalence of myopia was 39.5% and that of hypermetropia was 19.0%. Twenty two percent of the study patients had mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). Of the eyes with DR, 20% (15/75) were myopic, 19.4% (7/36) were hypermetropic and 26.6% (21/79) were emmetropic. There was no statistically significant correlation between baseline refractive status with DR (p = 0.358), or HBA1C (glycosylated haemoglobin) (rho = 0.130
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Trachoma control using the who adopted "safe with azithromycin". East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):127-35. PMID: 17600982 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Karimurio J, Ilako F, Gichangi M.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):127-35. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
{ Community Eye Health Training, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To report on and share the experiences, accomplishments and lessons learnt by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Sight Savers International (SSI), University of Nairobi (UON) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) during implementation of a three year Shompole trachoma control pilot study using azithromycin. The target of the project was to reduce the prevalence of active and potentially blinding trachoma by 50% by the year 2005. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Shompole location, Magadi division, Kajiado district of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and twenty six randomly selected households from 166 manyattas (bomas/ homesteads) proportionately distributed in all the 13 villages of the four sub-locations of Shompole location were visited. Nine hundred and ninety eight children (1-9 years) and 898 adults (215 years) were examined for active trachoma (TF) and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children has dropped from 46.4% in 2002 to 16.0% in 2006 and that of potentially blinding trachoma (TT) from 4.5% to 1.7% in the same period. Women have more TT than men. Out of the 15 cases of TT reported in the survey, only two were recurrences. The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) is higher in boys than girls
2006
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a Nairobi urban population. East Afri. Med. J. 2006; 83: 69-72 Ndegwa L, Karimurio J, Okelo R, Adala H.". In: East Afri. Med. J. 2006; 83: 69-72. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among Kibera slum dwellers. DESIGN: Population based Survey. SETTING: Kibera Slums, Kibera Division, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One thousand four hundred and thirty eight randomly selected slum dwellers. RESULTS: The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.0), and 6.2% (95% CI: 4.95 to 7.15) respectively. 37.5% of those found blind were due to cataract followed by refractive errors 25.0%. 58.1% of those with visual impairment had refractive errors while 35.5% had cataracts. Females had a higher prevalence of visual impairment compared to males but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.104). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of blindness in Kibera slums is slightly lower than the estimated national average (0.7%) while that of visual impairment is almost three times higher. The leading causes of blindness are cataract followed by refractive errors. For visual impairment, refractive error was the leading cause followed by cataract. Recommendation: Kibera slum dwellers are in need of comprehensive eye care services offering cataract surgery and low cost spectacles.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Prevalence of trachoma in six districts of Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Karimurio J,Gichangi M,Ilako DR,Adala HS,Kilima P.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection seen at two hospitals in Kenya.J.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):267-70 Chisi SK,Kollmann MK,Karimurio.". In: J.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):267-70. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
2005
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Barriers to utilisation of eye care services in Kibera slums of Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):506-8 Ndegwa LK, Karimurio J, Okelo RO, Adala HS.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):506-8. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Kibera slums, Nairobi City, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over two years. RESULTS: Majority of subjects (83.3%) do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care. RECOMMENDATION: There is need to establish a comprehensive primary eye care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.
2001
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "2001: Topic .". In: Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Kibera slums, Nairobi City, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over two years. RESULTS: Majority of subjects (83.3%) do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care. RECOMMENDATION: There is need to establish a comprehensive primary eye care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.
2000
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Karimurio J. National Prevention of Blindness Programmes and VISION 2020; Africa programme: Kenya. J. Comm Eye Health 2000; 13: 53-54.". In: J. Comm Eye Health 2000; 13: 53-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Abstarct not available yet.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "African Programme: Kenya Community Eye Health. 2000; 13 (36) : 53.". In: Community Eye Health. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Kenya is one of the East African countries with a coastline bordering the Indian Ocean and astride the equator. The country has an area of 225,000 square miles and a population of about 30 million people. The prevalence of blindness is estimated as 0.7%, with cataract contributing 43%, trachoma 19% and glaucoma 9%. The Kenya Ophthalmic Programme (KOP) is a Ministry of Health (MOH) programme receiving administrative support from the Kenya Society for the Blind (KSB). It started as a small project in 1956 but has grown into a major National Programme rendering comprehensive eye care (CEC) through a network of about 70 Government and NGO static and outreach service delivery points scattered all over the country. About half a million patients are treated annually.
1992
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Karimurio, J. Epidemiology of concomitant esotropia at Kenyatta National Hospital. E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 42 .". In: Community Eye Health. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Kenya is one of the East African countries with a coastline bordering the Indian Ocean and astride the equator. The country has an area of 225,000 square miles and a population of about 30 million people. The prevalence of blindness is estimated as 0.7%, with cataract contributing 43%, trachoma 19% and glaucoma 9%. The Kenya Ophthalmic Programme (KOP) is a Ministry of Health (MOH) programme receiving administrative support from the Kenya Society for the Blind (KSB). It started as a small project in 1956 but has grown into a major National Programme rendering comprehensive eye care (CEC) through a network of about 70 Government and NGO static and outreach service delivery points scattered all over the country. About half a million patients are treated annually.
2003
2002
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Skills and Literacy Training for Better Livelihoods:A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
2001
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Strengthening of Livelihoods with Literacy,Institute of International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association, Bonn, Germany.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
2000
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Kenya: The African Medical Research Foundation in Case Studies of Non-formal Education by Distance and Open Learning, Commonwealth of Learning Vancouver, Canada and the British Development for International Development, UK (DFID) 2000,.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
This study documents the experience of the Distance Education Project of the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF), Kenya Country Office. The African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) is an independent, non-profit organisation founded in 1957. It is one of the few international Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs) based in Africa, with headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The Distance Education Project focuses on workers who have little or no access to any other form of continuing education. (Brye et al, 1990). As a result, their medical skills and capabilities often deteriorate which inevitably leads to poor service delivery. (DE Proposal to USAID, 1989/94). Some observations of the study were that: There seems to be a fairly wide geographical distribution of learners. However, a closer look reveals that learners seem to come in clusters from certain areas, especially where there is a larger health care facility. This suggests that information on availability of the AMREF courses is obtained by word of mouth rather than by an aggressive effort to advertise the project in areas with low enrolment. On the other hand, while the majority of learners stated that they find the courses relevant to their work, almost 20% indicated that the course they are taking is not directly related to their work. 30% of respondents stated that AMREF courses should be upgraded, recognised by employers and educational institutions and considered for promotions. Perhaps, if the courses offered by AMREF are aimed at a particular category of health worker and are so structured as to start from the basic training level, bringing the learner up to a higher level through a series of related courses, there would be a stronger case for recognition of the certificates. When planning an education programme, it is important to see it as a continuing programme, bringing a learner from a lower level to a higher level of learning. The respondents noted an increase in knowledge and acquired a variety of skills as a result of the completion of the AMREF DE course(s). Generally, DE learners learned about new medical conditions especially in the area of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), gained new skills in physical examination, refreshed their knowledge in areas previously studied and noted an increase in confidence in the workplace. One of the most common complaints amongst correspondence learners was that it took too long for course materials to be received after registration for a course. In addition, most active correspondence learners had not had an opportunity to meet with their tutors. Fifty five (55) learners from the sample population stated that they had never met their tutors. For distance learners who study alone, it is important to establish a system of quick response and promote a caring attitude to encourage learners to complete their course of studies. This is even more important in this case where face to face sessions have been discontinued.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Report on the National Accreditation Workshop, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and UK Department for International Development (DFID), 2000.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
1995
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi A, Matiru, B and Schlete R (eds) Teach Your Best: A Handbook for University Lecturers, Institute for Socio-Cultural Studies, University of Kassel .". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995.
1992
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P and Macheru N.,Project Proposal Writing, Kenya Adult Education Association.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
1990
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers, English Units 1-6,Institute of In-service Teacher Training and Ministry of Education, Mogadishu - Somalia.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990.
1986
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part One, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Education,Science and Technology, 81 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part Two, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of EducationScience and Technology, 68 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
2005
KARIMI DRMUTUNGIALICE. "Samuel R, Almedom AM, Hagos G, Albin S, Mutungi A. Promotion of handwashing as a measure of quality of care and prevention of hospital-acquired infections in Eritrea: the Keren study. Afr Health Sci. 2005 Mar;5(1):4-13.". In: Afr Health Sci. 2005 Mar;5(1):4-13. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract

A complex interplay of cognitive, socio-economic and technical factors may determine hand-washing practice among hospital-based health workers, particularly doctors, regardless of the location of the country or hospital they work in. OBJECTIVES: To assess quality of care with respect to handwashing practice as a routine measure of infection prevention in Keren hospital, a provincial referral hospital, second largest in Eritrea; with a view to putting in place quality standards and effective means of monitoring and evaluation. DESIGN: Qualitative study with a participatory and iterative/dynamic design. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with 34 members of the hospital staff; and a total of 30 patients in the medical, surgical and obstetric wards were interviewed. Direct observation of handwashing practice and facilities were also employed. RESULTS: Although only 30% of health workers routinely washed their hands between patient contact, the study revealed genuine interest in training and the need to reward good practice in order to motivate health workers. Educational intervention and technical training resulted in significant improvements in health workers' compliance with hospital infection prevention standards. Patient satisfaction with health workers' hygiene practices also improved significantly. CONCLUSION: Hospital-based health workers' handwashing practice needs to improve globally. There is no room for complacency, however, in Eritrea (as indeed in other African countries) where public health services need to keep patients' welfare at heart; particularly with respect to women in childbirth, as mothers continue to bear the lion's share of post-war rebuilding of lives, livelihoods, and the country as a whole.

2003
KARIMI DRMUTUNGIALICE. "Weeks AD, Alia G, Ononge S, Mutungi A, Otolorin EO, Mirembe FM. Introducing criteria based audit into Ugandan maternity units. BMJ. 2003 Dec 6;327(7427):1329-31.". In: BMJ. 2003 Dec 6;327(7427):1329-31. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
PROBLEM: Maternal mortality in Uganda has remained unchanged at 500/100 000 over the past 10 years despite concerted efforts to improve the standard of maternity care. It is especially difficult to improve standards in rural areas, where there is little money for improvements. Furthermore, staff may be isolated, poorly paid, disempowered, lacking in morale, and have few skills to bring about change. DESIGN: Training programme to introduce criteria based audit into rural Uganda. SETTING: Makerere University Medical School, Mulago Hospital (large government teaching hospital in Kampala), and Mpigi District (rural area with 10 small health centres around a district hospital). STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE: Didactic teaching about criteria based audit followed by practical work in own units, with ongoing support and follow up workshops. EFFECTS OF CHANGE: Improvements were seen in many standards of care. Staff showed universal enthusiasm for the training; many staff produced simple, cost-free improvements in their standard of care. LESSONS LEARNT: Teaching of criteria based audit to those providing health care in developing countries can produce low cost improvements in the standards of care. Because the method is simple and can be used to provide improvements even without new funding, it has the potential to produce sustainable and cost effective changes in the standard of health care. Follow up is needed to prevent a waning of enthusiasm with time.
1996
1993
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. "Contributor in the environmental group in the report and recommendations of the National City Convention "The Nairobi we Want" 27th - 29th July, 1993.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993.
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. "Contributor in the environmental group in the report and recommendations fo the National City Convention "The Nairobi we Want" now published as "Actions Towards a Better Nairobi" 27th - 29th July, 1993.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993.
1992
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. ""The risks Of Water Pollution from Urban Refuse - A paper presented in the Second National Conference on Rainwater Harvesting systems at UNEP, Nairobi.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. ""The risks Of Water Pollution from Urban Refuse - A paper presented in the Second National Conference on Rainwater Harvesting systems at UNEP, Nairobi.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
1989
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. "Master of Arts Thesis - "Low-income Housing Finance Programs in Kenya".". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989.
2008
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
2006
BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM. "Kassim BA, Noor MA, Chindia ML.Oral health status among Kenyans in a rural arid setting: dental caries experience and knowledge on its causes.East Afr Med J. 2006 Feb;83(2):100-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Feb;83(2):100-5. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental caries experience and knowledge on the causes and preventive measures for dental diseases. DESIGN: A community based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Elwak sub-district hospital, North Eastern Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty one adults who presented themselves during a dental check up at a sub-district hospital and gave written consent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries status and knowledge on its causes and preventive measures. The importance of outreach programmes in obtaining information as well as helping to alleviate the pain and suffering caused by dental diseases among communities living in remote areas is also revealed. RESULTS: Of the one hundred and forty one individuals, who were included in the study, 63.1% were women and 36.9% were men. Their ages ranged between 18 and over 65 years. 41.1% were in the 18-24-year age bracket. Regarding the oral health knowledge, 43% did not know any causes of dental diseases while 36%, 17% and 12% knew that diet, "dirt" on teeth and bacteria were possible causes, respectively. Fifty percent did not know any preventive measures for dental diseases while the rest indicated abstention from the consumption of sugary foods; and only 0.8% mentioned use of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the subjects were caries free. The mean DMFT for all ages was 3.4. Of those with caries 72.1% were women. CONCLUSION: There is a low level of oral health awareness and a moderately high level of dental caries experience in this community with women apparently carrying the biggest burden of dental caries.
2001
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "The Community Participatory AIDS Murals.". In: FPPS. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1994
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Production of Corporate Brochure for Family Planning Private Sector.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Published Photographs.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1993
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Youth Forum. A magazine for Young People.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1992
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Understanding Family Planning, Facts and Misconceptions.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Graphic Design for Students.". In: Kenya Institute of Education. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Illustrations and design of understanding Family Planning.". In: Family Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1991
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Murals and the Development Artists.". In: Family Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Layout of a special issue of the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE).". In: Newsletter; The Spider. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Consolidating and Deepening the Movement; Design and Layout of the second General Assembly of AALAE.". In: Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Editorial, design and Illustration of the "Youth Forum" Magazine.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1990
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Layout of KAEA.". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1988
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Effective Graphics for New Readers in Third World.". In: Journal of the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "The use of Folk Media for Community Motivation.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Murals for Development: A Manual for Artists.". In: FPPS. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "The Use of Folk Media in Community Motivation.". In: FPPS. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1986
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Reaching the People. A Guide for Field Educators.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Reaching the Community: A Manual for Field Educators.". In: FPPS. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1984
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Communication Guide for Extension Workers.". In: Ministry of Finance and Planning, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1983
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Producing Low-cost literacy materials in Kenya.". In: Clearing house on Development Communication. Washington D.C. USA. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1983. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1980
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Illustrations for Development.". In: Afrolit Society. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1980. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
2010
MAGUTU MRPETERSONOBARA, MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "Formulation and Implementation Of Operation Strategies Used In Solid Waste Management: Case Study Of City Council Of Nairobi.". In: Journal of African Research in Business & Technology. IBIMA Publishing; 2010.
2009
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN, Magutu PO, Mwove MN. "Formulation And Implementation Of Operation Strategies Used In Solid Waste Management: Case Study Of Nairobi City Council.". In: Presented at The 12th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference on Creating Global Economies through Innovation and Knowledge Published in Communications of the IBIMA (ISSN: 1943-7765) and IBIMA Business Review (ISSN: 19. IBIMA Publishing; 2009. Abstract

The major purpose of this study was to document the operations strategy used in solid waste management, alongside the challenges facing implementation. This was a case study. Data was collected from fifty- (50) members and managers from the City Council of Nairobi and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The data was then summarized and presented in the form of proportions, tables and percentages.

The following findings were arrived at: First, the CEO and the employees do the formulation of the operations strategy as part of a planning process that coordinates operational goals with those of the larger organization. The annual objectives on solid waste management are well documented, which is inclusive of improving public health of the people; the environment; and maintain public cleanliness in order to keep public places aesthetically acceptable: by ensuring the proper storage, collection, transportation, safe treatment and disposal of solid waste. Secondly, the heads/managers feel that the current policies adequately support the institutions strategic plan. Thirdly, on the evaluation of the CCN's operations strategies used in solid waste management, it was also found that CCN has not invested on enough time and effort in analyzing environment capabilities and services to develop their operations strategy. On the other hand the CCN has not invested on enough time and effort in implementing its operations strategy. The internal strengths with the highest effect on CCN's competitive advantage, resulting from its operations strategy are: responsive employees in meeting customer needs, highly trained employees and quality control techniques. Lastly, the factors that have strongly limited sound waste management operations strategy implementation are the inability to formulate and implement sound solid waste management policies, inadequate treatment and disposal of solid waste and inadequate landfill disposal. The results have further used to come up with a model which exposes the integration of the operation strategies in solid waste management. Operation Strategy, Solid Waste Management and City Council

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN, Nyaoga RB, Magutu PO, Richard Nyaanga Ongeri, Ombati TO. "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions: The Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: 12th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference on Creating Global Economies through Innovation and Knowledge Management. Published in Communications of the IBIMA (ISSN: 1943-7765) and IBIMA Business Revi. IBIMA Publishing; 2009.
2004
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Kumssa A. "The role of institutions in the development process o African countries.". In: International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 31 no. 9 & 10,. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. and Kumssa(E)A. "Sampling Methods in Data Collection and Analysis.". In: UNCRD Textbook series,. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. "Data preparation: Coding, Editing and Inputting.". In: Data Collection and Analysis. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. and Kumssa(E)A. "Sampling Methods in Data Collection and Analysis.". In: UNCRD Textbook series,. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

2003
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Gichunge H. "Risk management in Building Projects: An Analysis of Time and Cost Risk.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 6 May-September, 2003. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract

Building projects often experience cost and time overruns. This problem is common across the world but it appears to be more pronounced in many developing countries such as Kenya. These overruns, depending on their magnitude can develop into major risks which will threaten the success of these projects. This research surveyed a total of one hundred and twenty (120) building projects and their cost and time overruns were determined. These overruns were used to develop fictional relationships with the probability of both the cost overruns and used to develop prediction equations. The models developed may be used to predict the risk (magnitude) for cost and time overruns for various types of building projects. These predictions should form a basis for allocating risks to various parties involved in building projects.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, S.O.Nyamwange. "Operations Strategies Applied for the Competetitiveness of Kenyan Large Manufacturing Firms.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 6 May-September, 2003. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract

This research sought to survey the manufacturing strategies pursued by the large manufacturing firms in Kenya as a way of remaining a float in the turbulent "libero-global' environment. The survey was carried out among the large manufacturing firms in Kenya. A total of seventy large firms picked through stratified sampling from a sample frame of 260, were sent questionnaires and twenty seven completed and returned them. The findings indicate the presence of trade-offs on one hand and order-winners and qualifiers on the other, also, it was found that all firms, regardless of company characteristics, compete on similar operations strategies. In particular, firms ranked, in order of priority, the following strategies: (1) high quality (2) low cost (3) time/speed, innovativeness and flexibility. The findings of this research indicate the majority of large manufacturing firms acknowledge that operations- based strategies enhance the competitive capabilities of their firms by contributing to long-term business performance and success. In order to mobilize their competitiveness, firms need to emphasize high quality and consistence, low cost and hence low price, time/speed, dependability, innovativeness and high flexibility.

2000
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC. "Project Planning, Implementation and Evaluation: A Training Manual.". In: United Nations Textook Series, No.8,. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This research sought to survey the manufacturing strategies pursued by the large manufacturing firms in Kenya as a way of remaining a float in the turbulent "libero-global' environment. The survey was carried out among the large manufacturing firms in Kenya. A total of seventy large firms picked through stratified sampling from a sample frame of 260, were sent questionnaires and twenty seven completed and returned them. The findings indicate the presence of trade-offs on one hand and order-winners and qualifiers on the other, also, it was found that all firms, regardless of company characteristics, compete on similar operations strategies. In particular, firms ranked, in order of priority, the following strategies: (1) high quality (2) low cost (3) time/speed, innovativeness and flexibility. The findings of this research indicate the majority of large manufacturing firms acknowledge that operations- based strategies enhance the competitive capabilities of their firms by contributing to long-term business performance and success. In order to mobilize their competitiveness, firms need to emphasize high quality and consistence, low cost and hence low price, time/speed, dependability, innovativeness and high flexibility.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC. "Project Preparation .". In: Project Planning, Implementation and Evaluation. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This research sought to survey the manufacturing strategies pursued by the large manufacturing firms in Kenya as a way of remaining a float in the turbulent "libero-global' environment. The survey was carried out among the large manufacturing firms in Kenya. A total of seventy large firms picked through stratified sampling from a sample frame of 260, were sent questionnaires and twenty seven completed and returned them. The findings indicate the presence of trade-offs on one hand and order-winners and qualifiers on the other, also, it was found that all firms, regardless of company characteristics, compete on similar operations strategies. In particular, firms ranked, in order of priority, the following strategies: (1) high quality (2) low cost (3) time/speed, innovativeness and flexibility. The findings of this research indicate the majority of large manufacturing firms acknowledge that operations- based strategies enhance the competitive capabilities of their firms by contributing to long-term business performance and success. In order to mobilize their competitiveness, firms need to emphasize high quality and consistence, low cost and hence low price, time/speed, dependability, innovativeness and high flexibility.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC. "Project Planning Matrix .". In: Project Planning, Implementation and Evaluation. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This research sought to survey the manufacturing strategies pursued by the large manufacturing firms in Kenya as a way of remaining a float in the turbulent "libero-global' environment. The survey was carried out among the large manufacturing firms in Kenya. A total of seventy large firms picked through stratified sampling from a sample frame of 260, were sent questionnaires and twenty seven completed and returned them. The findings indicate the presence of trade-offs on one hand and order-winners and qualifiers on the other, also, it was found that all firms, regardless of company characteristics, compete on similar operations strategies. In particular, firms ranked, in order of priority, the following strategies: (1) high quality (2) low cost (3) time/speed, innovativeness and flexibility. The findings of this research indicate the majority of large manufacturing firms acknowledge that operations- based strategies enhance the competitive capabilities of their firms by contributing to long-term business performance and success. In order to mobilize their competitiveness, firms need to emphasize high quality and consistence, low cost and hence low price, time/speed, dependability, innovativeness and high flexibility.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngunjiri JK. "The Selection of Public Investment Projects: A multicriteria Approach.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management vol. 5 January/April,. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This study examined the process of project selection to determine the priority public investment project portfolio in any given year. since resources are limited and different stakeholders tend to have different, often conflicting objectives, an efficient and effective approach is necessary. The result of the study indicates that the current approach to the selection of public investment projects lacks objectivity and consequently, may not be sensitive to the needs of various stakeholders. It is demonstrated that the use of multicriteria approach to project selection helps to assess projects from a "wholistic thinking" perspective, which is achieved through the adoption of a systems approach to the selection process. Decision makers can be aided by installing and running a Decision support system. This approach promises the selection of a more superior portfolio of public investment projects.

1997
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Omutia P. "Issues of Leadership in the implementation of Total Quality Management in a large organization.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 3,. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract

Many organizations in Kenya have adopted and tried to implement the total quality management (TQM) programmes. Many of these firms have failed to achieve the expected results for various reasons. This study examines how TQM implementation is influenced by leadership in a large organization. The result show that control systems, involvement of employees in decision making and the provision of a conducive psychological environment are quiet difficult to provide for by the leadership in a large organization. It is suggested that creating smaller organization and/or autonomous Divisions of firm will help to address these challenges.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Mwadali D. "Management by Projects: Factors which affect the Performance of Project Managers in a developing country.". In: Discovery and Innovation, Vol. 9 no. 3,. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract

Many organizations in Kenya have adopted and tried to implement the total quality management (TQM) programmes. Many of these firms have failed to achieve the expected results for various reasons. This study examines how TQM implementation is influenced by leadership in a large organization. The result show that control systems, involvement of employees in decision making and the provision of a conducive psychological environment are quiet difficult to provide for by the leadership in a large organization. It is suggested that creating smaller organization and/or autonomous Divisions of firm will help to address these challenges.

1996
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, F.N. K. "Business Statistics .". In: Introduction to Business. Kenya Literature Bureau; 1996. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. (Kibera F.N. Ed.)

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Yego SK. "A Survey of the Application of Forecasting Methods in large manufacturing firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol.2,. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. (Kibera F.N. Ed.)

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Kanywiro S, Onchoke C. "The use of Quantitative Forecasting Estimates in Billing Utility.". In: Journal of Management, vol. 1,. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract

The residents of Nairobi on the city council of Nairobi for their provision of water needs. Provision of such an essential service is very challenging for the City Council especially with current population growth rate in the city. Continued provision of water is possible if adequate revenue is generated from water sales to cover capital, operation and maintenance costs. Collection of revenue from water sales has been a perpetual problem to the city council. One of the main problems is attributed to the delay in reading the water meters, an exercise which has to be done before billing consumers. Meter reading is a taxing job especially when the workforce is small. Other problems that hinder smooth operations of meter reading include lack of adequate transport for the meter readers and poor weather conditions. In this paper, it is argued that the meter reading frequency can be reduced through the use of quantitative forecasting methods to provide estimates of water consumption for certain categories of consumers. Such estimates, when used as a basis for billing consumers, have been found to be fairly reliable in some categories of consumers and not others. Although this approach will help to keep down the meter reading expenses, its implementation requires a careful consideration of organizational issues. Important organizational issues such as the co-ordination between the connection and disconnection sections, the finance department and the administration department need to be addressed. For an effective co-ordination and an improved dept collection, an installation of a new computer system will be required to provide easier access to data and provide accurate and timely management information for the billing and revenue collection from consumers. Key words Consumers, Meter reading, billing, quantitative forecasts.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Mwadali D. "Management by Projects .". In: Project Management in the Construction Industry for Eastern Africa Region. Machakos, Kenya: IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract

a paper presented to the Conference on Project Management in the Construction Industry for Eastern Africa Region, 20th - 23rd November, 1996, Machakos, Kenya.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Yego SK. " Operational Research Management Science in Social Issues at the Strategic Level.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 2,. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract

a paper presented to the Conference on Project Management in the Construction Industry for Eastern Africa Region, 20th - 23rd November, 1996, Machakos, Kenya.

1993
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, and J.M. OMW. "A Case Study Analysis on the Effectiveness of Mathematical Modeling ." in Operational Research/Management Science Problems". In Kenya Mathematical Society . 1993. AbstractWebsite

Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, Nairoi, Kenya.

1987
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC. "Statistics .". In: Secondary Mathematics Teachers Guide for Forms I and 2. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1987. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

1986
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Bali SK. "An Investigation Into Factors Contributing to Teaching Effectiveness Among Student Teachers: Towards a Prediction Model for Teaching Effectiveness among student teachers.". In: Msingi Journal of Educational Foundations, Vol.2 No. 1, Kenyatta University. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

Submitted
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, NJIHIA JM. "Road Maintenance in Kenya: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: Conference Proceedings, all Africa Conference of Engineers,. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

2000
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Lagat CK. "An application of the Transportation Model in the distribution of UHT milk.". In: The African Journal of Finance and Management, vol. 8 no. 2 January. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This paper, using data from factories and depots of KCC that handle UHT milk, develops a model for the optimal allocation of milk from factories to the deports in various parts of Kenya. In developing of this model, the paper takes into consideration the characteristics visual depots, such as access roads, demand, storage capacities and KCC's distribution policy. By use of a case study approach, a transportation model is developed. It shows how distribution costs can be reduced through the use of operations research (OR) models. However, given the structures of the industry, the paper suggests that there should be an integrated transportation model that would analyze the allocation of products to individual depots while minimizing both transport and storage costs.

2010
KIRSTEEN DRAWORI, OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "The suprascapula notch: Its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavityin a Kenyan population.". In: Folia morphol 2010; 69:241-5. Folio Morphol; 2010.
2008
KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Saidi H, Odula P, Awori K.Child maltreatment at a violence recovery centre in Kenya. Trop Doct. 2008 Apr;38(2):87-9.". In: Trop Doct. 2008 Apr;38(2):87-9. Folio Morphol; 2008. Abstract

Kenyan media reports indicate escalating levels of child maltreatment, but the characteristics of the offence are undefined. At the Gender and Violence recovery Center of the Nairobi Women's Hospital, we analysed 342 consecutive children for age, gender, perpetrator characteristics, time and scene of assault and the nature of injuries between February 2003 and April 2004. The children comprised 43.5% of all assault survivors. The mean age was 10.0 years and about 20% of the children were < or =5 years. Most (71.5%) of the child sexual abuse (CSA) was perpetrated by people known to the victim. Intra-family CSA (incest) was highest among the one to five year olds. The proportion of assaults committed against boys reduced with the age of the child. Older children were more likely to be assaulted later in the day and by multiple perpetrators. Most recorded injuries were perineal. The majority of children are assaulted by people they had trusted. The epidemiological correlates of maltreatment differ for younger and older children. More effort is needed to further characterize child violence and protect this vulnerable section of the population.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI, KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2008 May;85(5):244-7.". In: Trop Doct. 2008 Apr;38(2):87-9. Folio Morphol; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected. RESULTS: The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. CONCLUSION: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.
2007
KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Awori KO, Atinga JE.Lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6. Folio Morphol; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital between July 2003 and June 2004. RESULTS: A total of 77 lower limb amputations (LLA) were performed on 74 patients. The age ranged from seven months to 96 years (mean 44.8 +/- 22.5). Forty six patients (62.1%) were male. Majority of the patients (89.1%) had primary or no formal education, forty one (55.4%) were unemployed, with 39% self employed in the informal sector. Peripheral vascular diseases were the main indication for LLA (55.3%), 13 patients (17.5%) due to diabetes-related gangrene. Eighteen patients (24.3%) had tumours, mainly osteogenic sarcoma (16.2%), while trauma accounted for 18.9%. Forty two (55%) of the amputations were above-the-knee, 24 (31%) below-the-knee, four (5%) hip disarticulations and seven (9%) were foot amputations. CONCLUSION: This study found peripheral vascular diseases unrelated to diabetes to be the main indication for lower limb amputations at Kenyatta National Hospital contrary to previous institutional and loco-regional studies which report trauma as the leading cause. Further investigation into vascular causes is therefore recommended.
1991
W DRKIRIMIMARGARET. "Population Geography (1991): A book.". In: Published by University of Nairobi Press. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1990
W DRKIRIMIMARGARET. "Population and Conservation in Lake Nakuru.". In: Published by University of Nairobi Press. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
W DRKIRIMIMARGARET. "Land Use Patterns on Eastern and Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya.". In: Published by University of Nairobi Press. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
1979
W DRKIRIMIMARGARET. "Some Factors Affecting Urban-rural Fertility Differentials in Kenya: A Case Study of Nairobi and Central Province.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1979. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Submitted
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K. "Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques", Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A., Dec. 1991.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
2009
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya.". In: IEK International Conference. IEK International Conference; 2009. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
1996
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Kenya Power System " in August 1996 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Serena Hotel. Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
1995
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Control System Analysis and Design " in August 1995 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Sereiw Hotel, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1995. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
1994
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Optimal Sources of Fncrgy in Kenya" in I. E. K National Engineering Seminar on Engineering for Self Reliance - March 23rd-25lh, 1994 at the KlCC, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Optimal Power Flow in Kenya" on 4th August 1994 at the 4th JKUAT Annual Electrical and Electronic Engineering Seminar on Innovations in Electrical Engineering Technology.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
1992
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y.. and Park, Y.M. "Optimal Real and Reactive Power Control Using Linear Programming", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. I.cc. K.Y,. and Park, Y.M. ""Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques."", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y., and Park. Y.M. "Optimal Power Flow Using Linear Programming", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Lee. K.Y.. Mangoli, M.K., Kirn, J.B., Kirn, J.B. , and Park. Y.M. "" An Operational Planning Tool for Real and Reactive Power Control"", IEE Proc., C.Cen., Trans. and Distrih. 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Lee. K.V.. Mangoli. M.K.. Kirn. J.B., Kirn, J.B. . and Park. Y.M. "" A Three Level Hierarchical Approach lorOptimal Reactive power Planning IEEProc., C. Cat. Trans. and Distrib. 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
2005
OGONYO DRBOSIREKEFA. "Asiatic acid induces apoptosis in SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cells.Park BC, Bosire KO, Lee ES, Lee YS, Kim JA. Cancer Lett. 2005 Jan 31;218(1):81-90.". In: Cancer Lett. 2005 Jan 31;218(1):81-90. Folio Morphol; 2005. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
1998
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "The impact of macroeconomics policy to tax productivity in Kenya.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1998. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
2004
OGONYO DRBOSIREKEFA. "Jae Sung Lee, Jong Suk Lee, Jae Don Yoon, Sung-Mok Beak, Kefa O. Bosire, Yong Soo Lee, Jung-Ae: Production of lignin Peroxidase by Phellinus igniarius and Cytotoxic effects of Ligin hydrolysates derived from wood biomass on cancer cells. J. Appl. Pharmaco.". In: J. Appl. Pharmacol. 12, 3, (2004) 189-193. Folio Morphol; 2004. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
1998
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Adoption of Radio-based agricultural innovation among small scale farmers in The revenue impact and elements of tax reforms in Kenya.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1998. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
OGONYO DRBOSIREKEFA. "Abuga K.O., Bosire K.O., Kokwaro G.O.: Concomitant administration of Theophylline and Oxamniquine in rats: Effects on Theophylline clearance. E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
1997
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Introduction to Microeconomics: Text for distance learners. University of Nairobi.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Tax Reforms and Tax Mobilization in Kenya. Refined final report to AERC ( African Economics Research Consortium).". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "The revenue impact and elements of tax reforms in Kenya.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1997. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
1996
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Monetary Theory and Policy: Text for distance learners. University of Nairobi Publication.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Labour Economics: Text for Distance learners. University of nairobi.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
1995
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Money and Banking: Text for Distance learners. University of Nairobi Publication.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1995. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
2005
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ogutu BR, Nzila AM, Ochong E, Mithwani S, Wamola B, Olola CH, Lowe B, Kokwaro GO, Marsh K, Newton CR.The role of sequential administration of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine following quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in children.Trop Med I.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 May;10(5):484-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstract
Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is often administered with quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria to shorten the course of quinine. The efficacy of SP alone in the treatment of non-severe malaria has been declining rapidly in East Africa, raising concerns of the usefulness of a shortened course of quinine followed SP. We audited the efficacy of quinine/SP in the treatment of severe malaria in Kenyan children. Children with severe falciparum malaria were treated with parenteral quinine followed by a single oral dose of SP. A clinical evaluation was performed 3 weeks later in which a blood sample was obtained for full haemogram, blood slide and analysis of the parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) codons, mutations of which are associated with resistance to SP. A total of 452 children were enrolled, of whom 374 completed the study. Fifty-two (13.9%) children were parasitaemic by 3 weeks of whom 17 (4.5%) had fever as well. The treatment failure group had a significantly higher parasitaemia (129 061 vs. 43 339; P<0.001) and haemoglobin on admission, but only admission parasitaemia independently predicted treatment failure. Those with treatment failure had a significantly lower rise in haemoglobin at 3 weeks compared with treatment successes (9.0 vs. 10.0 g/dl). Of the 76 parasite isolates collected before treatment, 40 (53%) were triple mutant DHFR-double DHPS (Tp-Db), the genotype most associated with SP resistance. Three weeks after SP treatment, the proportion of Tp-Db increased to 72% (31/43). The high treatment failure rate and proportion of parasites with Tp-Db negate the use of SP to shorten the course of quinine treatment in East Africa.
2004
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Cunnington AJ, Kendrick SF, Wamola B, Lowe B, Newton CR.Carboxyhemoglobin levels in Kenyan children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul;71(1):43-7.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul;71(1):43-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Heme oxygenase (HO) is thought to be induced in severe malaria, but the pathophysiologic consequences have not been examined. It is induced by hemolysis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It degrades heme, producing carbon monoxide (CO), which causes elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). In a prospective study of 1,520 children admitted to a Kenyan district hospital, COHb levels were no higher in children with malaria than with other infections. The COHb levels in children with severe malarial anemia were higher than in other children with malaria, but significantly lower than in children with other causes of severe anemia such as sickle cell disease. Levels of COHb were not significantly higher in children with cerebral malaria or in those dying of malaria. These results do not support a systemic increase in HO activity in malaria compared with other infectious diseases, but the roles of HO and CO in malaria require further study.
2003
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "English M, Ngama M, Musumba C, Wamola B, Bwika J, Mohammed S, Ahmed M, Mwarumba S, Ouma B, McHugh K, Newton C.Causes and outcome of young infant admissions to a Kenyan district hospital. Arch Dis Child. 2003 May;88(5):438-43.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2003 May;88(5):438-43. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
AIMS: To provide a comprehensive description of young infant admissions to a first referral level health facility in Kenya. These data, currently lacking, are important given present efforts to standardise their care through the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) and for prioritising both health care provision and disease prevention strategies. METHODS: Prospective, 18 month observational study in a Kenyan district hospital of all admissions less than 3 months of age to the paediatric ward. RESULTS: A total of 1080 infants were studied. Mortality was 18% overall, though in those aged 0-7 days it was 34%. Within two months of discharge a further 5% of infants aged <60 days on admission had died. Severe infection and prematurity together accounted for 57% of inpatient deaths in those aged <60 days, while jaundice and tetanus accounted for another 27%. S pneumoniae, group B streptococcus, E coli, and Klebsiella spp. were the most common causes of invasive bacterial disease. Hypoxaemia, hypoglycaemia, and an inability to feed were each present in more than 20% of infants aged 0-7 days. Both hypoxaemia and the inability to feed were associated with inpatient death (OR 3.8 (95% CI 2.5 to 5.8) and 7.4 (95% CI 4.8 to 11.2) respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Young infants contribute substantially to paediatric inpatient mortality at the first referral level, highlighting the need both for basic supportive care facilities and improved disease prevention strategies.
2002
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Kakai R, Wamola IA.Minimising antibiotic resistance to Staphylococcus aureus in developing countries.East Afr Med J. 2002 Nov;79(11):574-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Nov;79(11):574-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of rational drug use and laboratory service in preventing the emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in developing countries. DATA SOURCE: Literature search on compact disk-read only memory (CD-ROM) Medline and Internet using the key words: Staphylococcus and antibiotic resistance. A few articles were manually reviewed. STUDY SELECTION: Relevant studies or articles on antibiotic resistance with special reference to Eastern Africa, region are included in the review. DATA EXTRACTION: From individual studies or articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: Evidence for the spread of S. aureus multiple antibiotic resistance is synchronized under the headings: Introduction, current situation, antibiotic resistance control strategies, are outlined. CONCLUSION: There is need for concerted efforts between different groups to monitor changes in the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus. Strategies aimed at preventing transmission of resistant strains are remarkably effective when strictly enforced. Necessary attention should be given on the subject so that meaningful control measures preventing the expansion of antimicrobial resistance can be formulated, thereby ensuring the future successful treatment of Staphylococcal infections.
1998
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza NB, Estambale BB, Wamola IA, Kariuki N, Onyono E, Kabiru P, Piollet M.Bacterial meningitis in children admitted in hospitals within Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1998 Feb;75(2):73-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Feb;75(2):73-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Four hundred and ninety nine children (aged between one month and five years) admitted with clinical features of meningitis were recruited in cross-sectional survey of bacterial meningitis in hospitals within Nairobi. Lumbar punctures were done on all of them and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysed bacteriologically and serologically for the common causative organisms. Two hundred and fifty (50.1%) cases were diagnosed clinically as having meningitis. Of these, 132 (52.8%) had turbid CSF specimens, while 118 (47.2%) were clear. When turbid CSF specimens were cultured, 83 (62.8%) yielded three common bacterial micro-organisms namely; Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in that order of frequency. The implications of these findings in paediatric meningitis together with the drug sensitivity patterns is presented and discussed.
1997
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Muriuki SM, McDermott JJ, Arimi SM, Mugambi JT, Wamola IA.Criteria for better detection of brucellosis in the Narok District of Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1997 May;74(5):317-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 May;74(5):317-20. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Monthly disease summary sheets from 1986-1992 of 60 dispensaries, clinics and hospitals in Narok district, Kenya were reviewed for the occurrence of brucellosis and other diseases with "flu-like symptoms". Diseases with these symptoms accounted for about 52% of the 1,037,875 cases reported for the time period. These were classified as malaria (79.3%), rheumatism (7.1%), PUO (2.4%), and brucellosis (0.8%). Brucellosis was diagnosed by a positive Rose Bengal (RB) test routinely conducted in seven out of the 60 health units. In these units, 55% of flu-like cases were classified as malaria and 21.2% as brucellosis. Individual case records of patients at four dispensaries using the RB test during 1991-92 were assessed for specific predictor symptoms. For 625 RB tested patients, a positive test result was associated with joint pain, headache, and the combinations of joint pain with headache and lameness with headache. A logistic regression model correctly predicted the RB test result in 62.3% of the time. For the 465 patients examined by the blood smear examination, identification of malaria parasites was associated with, headache, joint pain and combinations of emesis with pale mucous membranes. This regression model correctly predicted positive results 67.2% of the time. Both models indicate that selected clinical predictors represented significantly increased odds of being positive to the respective tests. However, for both diseases, clinical signs alone appear insufficient for reliable diagnosis and differentiation probably due to resemblance in symptomatology between these two and other diseases.
1995
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Kakai R, Bwayo JJ, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA.Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on local immunity in children with diarrhoea. East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):699-702.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):699-702. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
{ The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between intestinal mucosal immunity and diarrhoea. Stools were tested for total IgA by radial immunodiffusion, cultured for bacteria and examined for ova/cysts by microscopy. Peripheral blood was screened for HIV-1 antibody by ELISA, CD4 and CD8 enumerated by flow cytometry and phagocytic activity by C. albicans engulfment. A total of 271 children were enrolled with a mean age of 20.3 m (range 0.3-60.0 m). HIV exposed (born to HIV seropositive mothers) had more episodes of diarrhoea than HIV unexposed (born to HIV seronegative mothers) children in the first six months of life (26.0% versus 5.5%
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Kakai R, Wamola IA, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO.Enteric pathogens in malnourished children with diarrhoea.East Afr Med J. 1995 May;72(5):288-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 May;72(5):288-9. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract

{ Enteric pathogens were determined from stools of 273 children aged less than 5 years at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), 43.6% (119/273) of whom were malnourished according to the Wellcome criteria. Rotavirus was detected by ELISA test, Salmonella, Shigella and E. coli by culture on MacConkey and Salmonella-Shigella agar at 37 degrees C overnight and Campylobacter on Skirrow's selective media at 42 degrees C for 48 hrs. These were identified by biochemical tests and serotyping using specific antisera. Whereas isolation rate for Campylobacter (0.0% vs 5.0%

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Kakai R, Wamola IA, Bwayo JJ.Association of human rotavirus infection and intestinal rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A in children with diarrhoea. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):217-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):217-9. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intestinal specific rotavirus IgA antibody in protection against diarrhoea due to rotavirus infection. Stool from children aged below 5 years with diarrhoea who reported to the Paediatric Observation Ward, Kenyatta National Hospital were examined for micro-organisms and IgA antibody. Specific rotavirus IgA antibody and antigen were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Out of 153 stool specimens, 22% (34/153) were positive for rotavirus antigen and 15% (23/153) had IgA specific antibody to rotavirus. Children with specific IgA to rotavirus had no rotavirus except in two cases (p < 0.05). There was no difference in levels of specific IgA antibody between normal and malnourished children (p = 0.4). It is probable that intestinal specific IgA to rotavirus protects children against rotavirus diarrhoea.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza NB, Wamola IA, Estambale BA, Mbithi E, Poillet M.Typhim Vi vaccine against typhoid fever: a clinical trial in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):162-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):162-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Safety, tolerance and immunogenicity of the purified Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi) against typhoid fever was evaluated in primary school children aged 5-15 years. A total of 435 children were vaccinated, each with a single intramuscular injection in the left deltoid muscle. One hundred and ten children were randomly selected for blood samples on day 0 (pre vaccination) and day 30 (post vaccination). Vi antibodies studied by Radio immuno assay (RIA) on 97(88%) paired sera showed a seroconversion rate of 76.2% and seroprotection rate after vaccination was 74.2%, while 6.2% of children already had protective immunity before vaccination. The vaccine was well tolerated. Most commonly reported reactions were mild pain at site of injection (83%), and a few complained of mild swelling (4.6%), induration (1.1%), itching (1.1%) and headaches (1.4%). All reactions were of mild severity and disappeared within 24 to 48 hours.
2010
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2010. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
2009
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "F Kassam, KF Damji, D Kiage, C Carruthers, KHM Kollmann: The .". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "RP Finger, V Klauss, KHM Kollmann (book chapter) Anmerkungen zu Augenkrankheiten in den Tropen (Notes on Eye diseases in the tropics: cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, xerophthalmia, traditional eye medicine); In: Importierte Tropenkrankheiten (im.". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "UC Schaller, KHM Kollmann (book chapter): Onkologie (oncology); In: Importierte Tropenkrankheiten (imported tropical diseases): V Klauss, HJ Trojan (Hrsg.), Kadenverlag (Accepted for publication 2009).". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Nderi GJ, Gichuhi S, Kollman M, Matende I. Outcome of glaucoma surgery at Mombasa Lighthouse for Christ Eye Center .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate the outcome of glaucoma surgeries in a centre for eye care in Kenya.   DESIGN: Retrospective case series.   SETTING: The study was conducted at Mombasa Light House for Christ Eye Centre- Kenya.   SUBJECTS: All patients diagnosed to have glaucoma and managed by surgery between 2004-2007.   MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved and data collected on the surgeries done using a structured questionnaire. 2008 was left for follow up to avail a one year minimum follow up time. Analysis was done using SPSS version 13.   RESULTS: 265 operations were recorded in this period. 213 were retrieved and the outcomes analysed. There was good IOP control over the follow up period with a gradual rise post operation, though the pressures remained within normal. Most of the patients were controlled with no need for medications, or much less medication use.   The average intra-ocular pressure at two year follow up was 15.0mmHg against a baseline of 28.7mmHg (p< 0.001). 29 eyes (13.6%) required medication for intra-ocular pressure control. One type of medication was able to control the pressures post operatively. Surgery reduced topical antiglaucoma medication use by 72%.     CONCLUSION: Intra-ocular pressure was well controlled surgically for the two year follow up.   RECOMENDATIONS: Surgical intervention can be taken as a first option for glaucoma control in our set up, especially as most of our patients present late.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Karimurio J, Kollmann M. Biometry in cataract camps : Experiences from north Kenya.Ophthalmologe. 2009 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print][Article in German].". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
2008
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "AN M.". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "KHM Kollmann: Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (Diabetes mellitus und diabetische Retinopathie; Global Vision: Internationale Ophthalmologie, Vol 2 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
1998
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "HIV/AIDS Orphanhood A situational Analysis of its impact on HIV/AIDS Orphaned Children and their caregivers in Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1998. Abstracthiv__aids_orphanhood.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.

1989
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "HIV/AIDS Orphanhood A situational Analysis of its impact on HIV/AIDS Orphaned Children and their caregivers in Kisumu, Kenya B.A. (Hons) Sociology dissertation.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
1986
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "Technical Training and work experience in Kenya: A National Tracer Study of the leavers of Harambee Institutes of Technology and Youth Polytechnics.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Informal Apprenticeship Training and Skill Acquisition: A case study of Informal Technical Training in Nairobi Kenya.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Adult Literacy Programme: How functional? A case study of Metkei Location.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "The Informal Apprenticeship Training and Skill Acquisition: A case study of Informal Technical Training in Nairobi Kenya.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
1995
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Kakai R, Bwayo JJ, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJ, Anzala AO, Plummer FA.Breastfeeding and immunity to intestinal infections.East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):150-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):150-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
{ The purpose of this study was to compare immune response in breast and non breastfed children presenting with diarrhoea at Paediatric Observation Ward, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH-POW) and Maternal and Child Health Clinic, Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH-MCH). Blood and stool samples were collected from the first four consecutive children aged 5 years and below per day, presenting with or without diarrhoea from January to December, 1992. The stools were tested for total IgA by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) and specific IgA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 enumeration was done by flow cytometry. Stools were cultured for bacteria on selective media while ova and cysts of parasites were identified by wet preparation microscopy. A total of 457 children were enrolled into the study, 69.6% of whom presented with diarrhoea. Breastfed children tended to have a shorter duration of diarrhoea than either mixed fed or bottle fed (8.3 vs 9.8 vs 11.2 days
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Petit PL, Haarlem JV, Poelman M, Haverkamp MC, Wamola IA.Bacteraemia in patients presenting with fever. East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):116-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):116-20. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
In three studies, in Ghana and Kenya, blood from 639 patients admitted with fever was cultured. Standard treatments were antimalarials (54-100%) and antibiotics (39-90%). According to the criteria in use, however, only 10-31% had malaria alone; of those who received antibiotics, 66% were diagnosed with malaria, gastrointestinal infections, post-operative recuperations, circulatory problems, central nervous system disorders or FUO, and did not need antibiotics at the first encounter. For those with wounds and abscesses (8%), generalised antibiotic treatment can also be questioned. Bacteraemia was found in 71 (11.3%) patients; in the HIV patients, however, 5 (23%) of 22 had bacteraemia. This is a minimum incidence, since culture techniques were not optimal for the isolation of fastidious microorganisms. The most prevalent organisms isolated were Salmonella, Klebsiella/Enterobacter and S. aureus. Resistance (intrinsic and extrinsic) in the Gram- bacteria was high: 31-100% were resistant to amoxycillin, 0-80% to cotrimoxazole, 15-95% to chloramphenicol and 9-15% to gentamicin. The need for cultures and sensitivity tests for patients with prolonged or undiagnosed fever is stressed. Specific treatment should be given only when infections, whether malarial or bacterial, have been positively diagnosed.
1994
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Petit PL, Wamola IA.Typhoid fever: a review of its impact and diagnostic problems. East Afr Med J. 1994 Mar;71(3):183-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Mar;71(3):183-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
A retrospective analysis was done on the diagnosis of typhoid fever based on clinical symptoms and available laboratory data over the last 16 years from rural areas of four African countries. This analysis concentrated on the reliability of diagnosis without cultures which cannot be performed in most rural hospitals due to lack of the necessary expertise and equipment. The analysis showed the problem to be increasing perhaps because of interaction of salmonella infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition and other infections together with neglected sanitary facilities and lack of clean water. The use of certain cardinal clinical symptoms combined with available laboratory tests were shown to enhance the diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in vulnerable persons. In conclusion the paper suggests that using the approach followed to obtain this data in rural tropical areas one can confidently make a diagnosis of typhoid fever.
1992
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Embree J E, Datta P, Stackiw W, Sekla L, Braddick J, Kreiss J K, Pamba HO, WAMOLA I.A . Increased risk of early measles in infants of HIV-1 seropositive mothers. J. Inf. Dis. 165: 262-7, 1992.". In: J. Inf. Dis. 165: 262-7, 1992. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
An increase in illness due to measles is one of the potential consequences of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Africa. During a study of perinatal HIV transmission conducted in Kenya, the risk of acquiring measles before vaccination (9 months of age) was found to be 3.8 times higher in infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers than in control infants (10 [9%] of 109 vs. 5 [3%] of 194 infants; P = .02; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.2). The majority of infants who developed measles in this study had significant sequelae related to their measles infection. The increased risk of measles appeared to be related to relatively lower anti-measles antibody titers detected in cord blood samples of affected infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers. However, 94% of all infants were susceptible to measles on the basis of ELISA testing at age 6 months regardless of maternal HIV serology. These observations highlight the need for improved measles vaccination strategies in Africa and for studies to delineate the effects of HIV infection on the incidence,
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Wamola IA.Microbial contamination of commercial food products: fact or fiction.East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):121-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):121-2. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
An increase in illness due to measles is one of the potential consequences of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Africa. During a study of perinatal HIV transmission conducted in Kenya, the risk of acquiring measles before vaccination (9 months of age) was found to be 3.8 times higher in infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers than in control infants (10 [9%] of 109 vs. 5 [3%] of 194 infants; P = .02; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.2). The majority of infants who developed measles in this study had significant sequelae related to their measles infection. The increased risk of measles appeared to be related to relatively lower anti-measles antibody titers detected in cord blood samples of affected infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers. However, 94% of all infants were susceptible to measles on the basis of ELISA testing at age 6 months regardless of maternal HIV serology. These observations highlight the need for improved measles vaccination strategies in Africa and for studies to delineate the effects of HIV infection on the incidence,
1991
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Paton S, Nicolie L, Mwongera M, Kabiru P, Mirza N, Plummer F and WAMOLA I.A. Salmonella and Shigella Gastroenteritis at a public teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Inf. Control and Hosp. Epidemiol. 12(12): 710 1991.". In: Inf. Control and Hosp. Epidemiol. 12(12): 710 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with Salmonella and Shigella species. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month survey. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a developing country. PATIENTS: Pediatric and adult patients admitted with the previous 24 hours and all consenting adult or pediatric medical patients with nosocomial diarrhea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella species isolated from rectal swabs at admission and among subjects with nosocomial diarrhea. RESULTS: Salmonella species and Shigella species were isolated from 3.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of 667 patients screened on admission. All admission Salmonella isolates were identified in children under 13 years of age; Shigella prevalence was similar for children and adults. Children with Salmonella at admission were significantly older and more likely to have diarrhea, fever, and some indicators of malnutrition than those from whom Salmonella was not isolated. Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from rectal cultures in 36 (10%) and 9 (2.5%) of 360 nosocomial gastroenteritis cases, respectively. Nosocomial cases occurred equally in adults and children. In adults, nosocomial Salmonella acquisition was associated with sharing a room with a diarrhea patient and previous institutionalization. In children, it was associated with recent antimicrobial therapy, crowding at home, and age between 6 months and 6 years. Nine (41%) of 22 nosocomial Salmonella cases in adults occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while none of 79 HIV-1-positive patients had Salmonella isolated at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella is a frequent cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis in this tertiary care institution in a developing country. Risk factors appear to differ for children and adults, and HIV-1-infected subjects may be at increased risk of acquisition. Control measures feasible for the limited resources available to such institutions require evaluation. PIP: Researchers analyzed data on 667 patients admitted between March 9 and September 14, 1988 to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to verify the contribution of Salmonella and Shigella species to hospital acquired infections and to identify factors associated with admission and nosocomial infection. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella and Shigella in 12.5% (10% and 2.5% respectively) of the 360 patients with nosocomial diarrhea. Their overall prevalence was 3% and 2.5% respectively. These 2 bacteria were isolated from rectal swabs from 19 of the 27 hospital units. Most of the isolates were restricted to 5 units. All of the Salmonella isolates at admission were children under 13 years old (3.6% of 556 children). Shigella prevalence at admission was 2.5% for children and 3.6% for adults. The risk of nosocomial diarrhea caused by these 2 bacteria was much greater in children older than 6 months and younger than 6 years than in children of other ages (odds ratio [OR]=21.7; p=.006). The most significant variables which independently affected nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria in children were recent antimicrobial therapy (OR=26.4; p=.001) and living in crowded homes (OR=1.2; p=.02). Another determinant was poor hair color indicating malnutrition (p=.03). Even though there were no significant differences between adults with nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria and those with no nosocomial diarrhea, sharing a room with people with diarrhea, being in the hospital within the last 30 days, and being HIV-1 positive were factors that almost reached significance. In fact, 9 of their 22 (41%) adults with positive cultures of Salmonella were HIV=1 positive yet Salmonella was not isolated from any of the 70 HIV-1 positive patients at admission. Salmonella contributed greatly to nosocomial diarrhea at this hospital. The hospital should evaluate and redesign its control measures within available limited resources.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Cameron W, Clementson D, D.". In: J. Inf. Diseases. 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with Salmonella and Shigella species. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month survey. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a developing country. PATIENTS: Pediatric and adult patients admitted with the previous 24 hours and all consenting adult or pediatric medical patients with nosocomial diarrhea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella species isolated from rectal swabs at admission and among subjects with nosocomial diarrhea. RESULTS: Salmonella species and Shigella species were isolated from 3.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of 667 patients screened on admission. All admission Salmonella isolates were identified in children under 13 years of age; Shigella prevalence was similar for children and adults. Children with Salmonella at admission were significantly older and more likely to have diarrhea, fever, and some indicators of malnutrition than those from whom Salmonella was not isolated. Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from rectal cultures in 36 (10%) and 9 (2.5%) of 360 nosocomial gastroenteritis cases, respectively. Nosocomial cases occurred equally in adults and children. In adults, nosocomial Salmonella acquisition was associated with sharing a room with a diarrhea patient and previous institutionalization. In children, it was associated with recent antimicrobial therapy, crowding at home, and age between 6 months and 6 years. Nine (41%) of 22 nosocomial Salmonella cases in adults occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while none of 79 HIV-1-positive patients had Salmonella isolated at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella is a frequent cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis in this tertiary care institution in a developing country. Risk factors appear to differ for children and adults, and HIV-1-infected subjects may be at increased risk of acquisition. Control measures feasible for the limited resources available to such institutions require evaluation. PIP: Researchers analyzed data on 667 patients admitted between March 9 and September 14, 1988 to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to verify the contribution of Salmonella and Shigella species to hospital acquired infections and to identify factors associated with admission and nosocomial infection. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella and Shigella in 12.5% (10% and 2.5% respectively) of the 360 patients with nosocomial diarrhea. Their overall prevalence was 3% and 2.5% respectively. These 2 bacteria were isolated from rectal swabs from 19 of the 27 hospital units. Most of the isolates were restricted to 5 units. All of the Salmonella isolates at admission were children under 13 years old (3.6% of 556 children). Shigella prevalence at admission was 2.5% for children and 3.6% for adults. The risk of nosocomial diarrhea caused by these 2 bacteria was much greater in children older than 6 months and younger than 6 years than in children of other ages (odds ratio [OR]=21.7; p=.006). The most significant variables which independently affected nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria in children were recent antimicrobial therapy (OR=26.4; p=.001) and living in crowded homes (OR=1.2; p=.02). Another determinant was poor hair color indicating malnutrition (p=.03). Even though there were no significant differences between adults with nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria and those with no nosocomial diarrhea, sharing a room with people with diarrhea, being in the hospital within the last 30 days, and being HIV-1 positive were factors that almost reached significance. In fact, 9 of their 22 (41%) adults with positive cultures of Salmonella were HIV=1 positive yet Salmonella was not isolated from any of the 70 HIV-1 positive patients at admission. Salmonella contributed greatly to nosocomial diarrhea at this hospital. The hospital should evaluate and redesign its control measures within available limited resources.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Odhiambo F A, WAMOLA I.A and Ndinya-Achola J O. Aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates from blood cultures of children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia.East Afr Med J. 1991 Nov;68(11):869-74.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Nov;68(11):869-74. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
A total of 120 sets of blood cultures were performed aerobically from 60 children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Out of these, 36 (30%) sets from 19 (31.7%) patients yielded bacterial growth while 84 (70%) sets from 41 (68.3%) were negative. Salmonella typhimurium was the most frequently isolated bacteria (63%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.8%). Salmonella typhimurium isolates were mostly multi-antibiotic resistant, most of them only sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, while all were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, the most frequently used antibiotic in this hospital. PIP: Between March 1987-January 1988, physicians enrolled 60 pediatric patients with a fever who were admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya for various clinical conditions in a study to determine the types, frequency, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates. Most of the patients were 13 months-4 years old (45%). 31.7% of the patients had positive blood cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the 2nd most common bacteria (15.8%) among these patients. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella typhimurium in most patients (63%). In fact, during the same period, the Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory at the hospital identified Salmonella species in 48% of all isolated bacteria and 35% of these were S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium tended to be present in children with gastroenteritis (41.8%) or a fever of unknown origin (33.3%). S. typhimurium was very sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, but resistant to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Health workers in Kenya have frequently administered ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, but not amikacin and cefotaxime. 67% of the strains of S. typhimurium were resistant to gentamicin and 33% to chloramphenicol. These results along with those of other reports from this hospital indicated a dramatic rise in Gram negative bacteria resistance to antibiotics. Therefore physicians should no longer consider gentamicin as a 1st line antibiotic in treating suspected septicemia patients.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Temmerman M, WAMOLA I.A and Piot P. A review of the impact of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection pregnancy outcome in Nairobi. J. Obs Gynae. East Africa 9: 54, 1991.". In: J. Obs Gynae. East Africa 9: 54, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
A total of 120 sets of blood cultures were performed aerobically from 60 children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Out of these, 36 (30%) sets from 19 (31.7%) patients yielded bacterial growth while 84 (70%) sets from 41 (68.3%) were negative. Salmonella typhimurium was the most frequently isolated bacteria (63%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.8%). Salmonella typhimurium isolates were mostly multi-antibiotic resistant, most of them only sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, while all were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, the most frequently used antibiotic in this hospital. PIP: Between March 1987-January 1988, physicians enrolled 60 pediatric patients with a fever who were admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya for various clinical conditions in a study to determine the types, frequency, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates. Most of the patients were 13 months-4 years old (45%). 31.7% of the patients had positive blood cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the 2nd most common bacteria (15.8%) among these patients. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella typhimurium in most patients (63%). In fact, during the same period, the Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory at the hospital identified Salmonella species in 48% of all isolated bacteria and 35% of these were S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium tended to be present in children with gastroenteritis (41.8%) or a fever of unknown origin (33.3%). S. typhimurium was very sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, but resistant to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Health workers in Kenya have frequently administered ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, but not amikacin and cefotaxime. 67% of the strains of S. typhimurium were resistant to gentamicin and 33% to chloramphenicol. These results along with those of other reports from this hospital indicated a dramatic rise in Gram negative bacteria resistance to antibiotics. Therefore physicians should no longer consider gentamicin as a 1st line antibiotic in treating suspected septicemia patients.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Nduati RW and WAMOLA I.A. Bacteriology of acute septic arthritis J. Trop. Paed 37: 172-175, 1991.". In: J. Trop. Paed 37: 172-175, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
In a study of septic arthritis infants formed the bulk of patients though, notably, neonates were not encountered. Gram-negative bacterial of the Salmonella species, especially Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella species were the most important cause of septic arthritis in infants. Staphylococcus aureus was also isolated. The combination of blood cultures and joint aspirate cultures resulted in very high rate (72 per cent) of bacteria isolation. It is strongly recommended that every effort should be made to obtain two bacteriological specimens for culture to improve bacteriological diagnosis of the disease.
2008
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "CL Schoenfeld, KHM Kollmann, P Nyaga, OM Onyango, V Klauss, A Kampik Training programme for vitreoretinal surgery in Nairobi, Kenya from 2000 .". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT. "SS Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of s. aureus: an ocular normal flora East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 2 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008.
2007
CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K Githeko, KHM Kollmann, HS Adala, P Courtright: Prevalence, pattern and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "KHM Kollmann, P Wangai Jr.: The quality of eye care services in Kenya: implications for management of eyecare services; Management perspectives: A Journal of Management Studies, RBS Vol. 6, No.1 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "V Klauss, KHM Kollmann, UC Schaller (book chapter: HIV Infektionen und die dritte Welt, In: M Zierhut, L Hansen, G Jahn (Hrsg.):Viruserkrankungen des Auges, Kadenverlag 2007.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
1990
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Temmerman M, Moses S, Kiragu D, Fusallah S, WAMOLA I.A and Piot P. Impact of single session post-partum counseling of HIV infected women on their subsequent reproductive behaviour. Aids Care vol. 2 (3), 1990.". In: Aids Care vol. 2 (3), 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
During an ongoing study investigating the impact of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcome at a large maternity hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, asymptomatic HIV positive women who had recently delivered were informed of their HIV sero-status and counselled by a trained nurse regarding contraception and reproductive behaviour in a single session. Both HIV infected women and a comparison group of uninfected women matched for pregnancy outcome were followed up after an interval of one year. Contraceptive use, condom use and pregnancy rates were similar in both groups. Only 37% of HIV infected women had informed their partners of their sero-status. The single session of counselling for the HIV positive women did not seem to influence decisions on subsequent condom use or reproductive behaviour. More intensive approaches to counselling need to be developed and evaluated, but may be difficult to implement in the busy maternity and antenatal clinics commonly found in developing countries.
1989
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Chunge R, WAMOLA I.A, Kinoti J, Mutunga LN etc. Mixed infections in childhood diarrhoea: Results of a community study in Kiambu district, Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1989 Nov;66(11):715-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Nov;66(11):715-23. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
One thousand four hundred and twenty diarrhoea specimens from 846 children aged 0 to 60 months were collected and analysed for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus over a 16 month period, from June 1985 to September 1986 inclusive. The study was conducted in 4 villages situated in Kiambu District, Kenya. All the specimens were analysed for rotavirus and parasites, including Cryptosporidium. The majority of the specimens were analysed for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Aeromonas. Only 387 specimens were analysed for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). However, of this proportion analysed for ETEC, 33% were positive. A total of 344 specimens were negative for any organisms while a further 140 were only positive for parasites which have been implicated as being pathogenic, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis and Blastocysts hominis were considered to be at least potentially pathogenic and capable of causing diarrhoea. An average of only 29.4% of these organisms occurred as single isolates. The remaining infections were mixed, with a maximum of 7 potentially pathogenic organisms occurring together in a single specimen. The associations of certain organisms were significant, notably Campylobacter with Giardia lamblia. Campylobacter with EPEC, EPEC with Ascaris, and G. lamblia with rotavirus. The latter was a negative association.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mutanda LN, Omari AM and WAMOLA I.A. Adaptation of a method of measuring zone diameters of bacterial growth inhibition by antibiotics to suit developing countries. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jul;66(7):441-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jul;66(7):441-7. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ajusi JD, Onyango FE, Mutanda LN and WAMOLA I.A. Bacteriology of unheated expressed breast milk stored at room temperature. EAMJ 66(6): 381 1989.". In: EAMJ 66(6): 381 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1984
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Role of the Laboratory in Infectious Disease. Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th .". In: Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th . IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1982
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mutanda LN, WAMOLA I.A and Kaviti JN. The Relationship Between the most commonly occurring Shigella serotypes and ages of patients. Medicom 4: 147, 1982.". In: Medicom 4: 147, 1982. IBIMA Publishing; 1982. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1981
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB and Nsazumuhire H. Penicillin resistant Pneumococcal Meningitis in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ Vol 58: 112. Jan 1981.". In: EAMJ Vol 58: 112. Jan 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Nsanzumuhire, WAMOLA I.A and Mirza. Clinical Presentation and Management of Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcal Meningtitis. EAMJ 58: 611, 1981.". In: EAMJ 58: 611, 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB and Ichoro O. Bacteriology of Septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Medicom, vol 3 (6): 1981.". In: Medicom, vol 3 (6): 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza NB, WAMOLA I.A and Bubi J. Resistance Patterns of Gram Negative Pathogens from Clinical Material. Medicom Vol 3 (4): 105. 1981.". In: Medicom Vol 3 (4): 105. 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB. Problems of Salmonella infections in a hospital in Kenya. EAMJ vol 58 (9): 677, 1981.". In: EAMJ vol 58 (9): 677, 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1980
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Bacterial Stool Pathogens in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. EAMJ 57: 867-871, 1980.". In: EAMJ 57: 867-871, 1980. IBIMA Publishing; 1980. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mirza and WAMOLA I.A. Meningococcal meningitis over the past thirteen years (1967-79) at Kenyatta National Hospital, EAMJ 57: 883-890, 1980.". In: EAMJ 57: 883-890, 1980. IBIMA Publishing; 1980. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1979
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ngoka, WAMOLA I.A and Dunlop. The role of Neisseria gonorrhoea in causing infertility. Paper read and published by Society of Obs and Gynae. Nairobi, (1979).". In: Society of Obs and Gynae. Nairobi, (1979). IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Slack RCB and WAMOLA I.A. Amoxil Single Dose in Treatment of Male Uncomplicated Gonorrhoea. Brit. J. of Venerology (1979).". In: Brit. J. of Venerology (1979). IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Mutanda, Kaviti and WAMOLA I.A. Patterns of Shigella Species and Serotypes in East Africa. EAMJ 56: 381, 1979.". In: EAMJ 56: 381, 1979. IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Kasili, WAMOLA I.A, Pamba, Shiramba and Broakman. Various Pathological Manifestations of Leprosy .". In: EAMJ 56:59 (1979). IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1978
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A and Slack RCB. Anaerobic Infection in Kenyatta National Hospital: Bacteriological Isolations. EAMJ Vol. 55 (6): 278, 1978.". In: EAMJ Vol. 55 (6): 278, 1978. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1977
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. and Slack, RCB. Bacterial Sensitivity to Minocycline (Minocin) of clinical isolation, EAMJ. Vol. 54 No. 11 (Nov. 1977).". In: EAMJ. Vol. 54 No. 11 (Nov. 1977). IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Zimmerman, R R and WAMOLA I.A. A case of Acinetobacterial menegitis. EAMJ Vol. 54 No. 3 (March 1977 pp. 152).". In: EAMJ Vol. 54 No. 3 (March 1977 pp. 152). IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Slack, RCB, WAMOLA I. A and Douglas, S W. Antimicrobial Sensitivities of Neisseria gonorrhoea in Nairobi and Treatment of Schedules. EAMJ research, Vol. No. 2.3 (1977), Pg 83-87.". In: EAMJ research, Vol. No. 2.3 (1977), Pg 83-87. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Slack, RCB, WAMOLA I.A Githahu K and Kabiru, J. Non-specific Urethritis diagnosis and Treatment with Viramycin: Paper presented to Kenya Medical Association meeting .". In: Paper presented to Kenya Medical Association meeting . IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Sack D A, Slack, RCB, WAMOLA I.A and Kamnisky. Travellers.". In: John Hopkins Medical Journal Vol. 14:63-79. (Aug. 1977). IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
1976
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I. A, Zimmerman, R R; and Slack RCB. Salmonella typhimurium .". In: Proceedings of the 1976 Annual Scientific Conference of the East African Medical Research Council (Book on Delivery of Health Care in Africa). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Hillman, DA and Kiugu, SK. The Incidence of Bacterial Opthalmia Neonatorum at Kenyatta National Hospital .". In: Proceedings of the 1976 Annual Scientific Conference of the E.A. Medical Research Council. IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.

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