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2001
Kaduki KA, Batty W. "Envelope Function Approximation (EFA) bandstructure calculations for III-V non-square stepped alloy quantum wells incorporating ultra-narrow (5 Angstrom) epitaxial layers." Physica Scripta. 2001;61(2):213-221. Abstract

We describe Envelope Function Approximation (EFA) bandstructure calculations based on a 4-band electron (EL), heavy-hole (HH), light-hole (LH) and split-off hole (SO) effective mass Hamiltonian, with Burt-Foreman hermitianisation, which can handle III-V quantum well structures that incorporate ultra-narrow epi-layers. The model takes into account the coupling of EL, HH, LH and SO bands and is suitable for describing quantum wells tuned to the 1.0 - 1.55 µm window exploited by optical fibre communication devices. We have used the multi-band solver to calculate the bandstructure of an illustrative InGaAsSb-AlGaSb non-square quantum well that incorporates 6Å potential "spikes" in its well region. Calculations based on the Burt-Foreman hermitianised Hamiltonian and those based on a Hamiltonian with standard "symmetrised" hermitianisation are presented and compared. When coupling to the conduction band is excluded from the calculation, the latter formulation leads to anomalous electron-like curvature of the dispersion curves for our spiked non-square quantum well structure

2000
Kaduki KA. "Improved performance of strained layer diode lasers by non-square quantum well growth." African Journal of Science & Technology. 2000;1(1):1-8.
Kaduki KA. Modelling of mixed nitride (GaInNAs) quantum well lasers. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Physical Society; 2000.
1996
Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. Quantum well shaping for reduced threshold current in strained layer lasers.. York, U.K.: Institute of Physics; 1996.
2004
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Malaria in Pregnancy: Changing service providers practices for better outcomes(Submitted to the American journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene).". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2004. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Improving women\.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2004. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2003
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Evaluation of World Visions public health interventions in Bunyala, ADP (Report submitted to World Vision, Kenya).". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Reproductive health needs for women with disabilities in Makueni District (Report submitted to the Belgium technical cooperation).". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "DFID scoping mission report on malaria in Uganda.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2001
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Guidelines for Developing Information, Education and Communication Materials for behavior change in malaria control. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2001. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2000
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Framework for the promotion and implementation of community malaria control in the context of Roll Back Malaria, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2000. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1999
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Concerns in Micro-Enterprise Development Policies in Kenya. Published in Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, International Center for Economic Growth (ICEG), Mullei E. and Bokea C. (ed), 1999.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "K. Household management of Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Baringo District. Medical Insights Journal, Vol.1, No.2 pp. 12-18.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Their Own Words: Women Coping with Lymphatic Filariasis in Kwale District, Kenya.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1998
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Community Perceptions and Treatment of Malaria in Baringo District:Implications for Disease Control. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 75 No. 12 pp.687-691.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "K. Social Conditions and Cultural Beliefs on Malaria. African Journal of Medical Practice, Vol. 5 No.6, pp. 286-288.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "The Face of Rural Poverty: The Case of Makueni District in Bahemuka, J.M., Nganda, B. and Nzioka (ed). UNESCO/University of Nairobi Publication.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Kinyanjui, M and Munguti, K. Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi).". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1997
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Lets share with Others: Developing Radio and Illustration Materials with and for Rural Women. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Indigenous Knowledge in the Management of Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis among the Tugen of Kenya. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, Vol. 5 No.1, pp.10-12.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Health Last: The Paradox of Jua Kali Enterprises in Kenya Journal of Social Sciences, Series C, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 44-60.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1996
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Issues in the reporting and Management of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kwale District, Kenya. TDR, World Health Organization.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Munguti, K. Environmental Degradation and Disease in Kenya: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya, Wandiga, S.O and Abuodha N.L (ed), Kenya National Academy of Sciences.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1995
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Health Care: Household Management of Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis in Baringo, Kenya. IDS Working Paper No. 498, May,1995.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1995. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1994
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Issues in the Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) and Malaria. in Wijeyaratne, P., Roberts, J.H., and Kitts, J. (Eds). Gender Health and Sustainable Development, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Ph.D Thesis. Title: Coping with Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in Baringo District, Kenya: Implications for Disease Control, University of California, Los Angeles.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1988
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "MPH Dissertation Title:Maternal Education as a Factor in Child Nutrition in Kibwezi Division, Machakos, Kenya.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1988. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1986
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "MAThesis Title: A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Relating to Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala- azar) in Tseikuru Location, Kitui District, Kenya.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1986. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1985
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "The Health Status in Kitui District. In Socio-Cultural Profiles of Districts. Institute of African Studies and Ministry of Planning and National Development.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1985. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1993
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G.; Karaba W.; Kuria J.K.N.; and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993).Sarcosporidia in domestic chicken in Kenya.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G. and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993). Fish diseases investigation and control in aquaculture ponds in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at KVA Annual Scientific conference at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete on 22nd-23rd April 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G.; Karaba W.; Kuria J.K.N.; and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993). Sarcosporidia in domestic chicken in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at KVA Annual Scientific conference at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete on 22nd-23rd April 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1989
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1989). Diagnosis and Control of Psuedomonas aeruginosa infections: A Review. Bulletin of animal Health and Production in Africa :.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1989. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1989). Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Paper read at a Veterinary Pathology Departmental Seminar on 25th October 1989.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1989. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1978
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. and Waiyaki P.G. (1978) A serological survey of animal brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. Kenya Veterinary, Vol. 2 No. 2 pp.35-38.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Waghela S., Gathuma, J.M. Fazil, M.A. and Kagunya, D.K.J. (1978). A serological survey of Camel brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production Vol. 10 No. 1 pp. 28-29.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Waiyaki, P.G. and Kagunya D.K.J. (1978) orchitis in a ram caused by a Flavobacterium species .". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
1977
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1977). Animal brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1977. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
2003
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Locating Quantitative Trait Loci for maize stem borer resistance in Kenya through molecular markers. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Improvement of drought tolerance through molecular markers in a tropical maize population bred for semi-arid areas of Kenya. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
2002
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Molecular marker breeding for drought tolerance in a tropical maize population developed for semi-arid Kenya;.". In: In International workshop on biotechnological interventions for dryland agriculture opportunities and constraints, July 2002, Hyderabad, India. Pp41-55. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
2001
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "The role of molecular markers in the improvement of drought tolerance and insect resistance in maize.". In: International conference on Biotechnology organized by Biotechnology Trust Africa, September 2nd-5th, Nairobi, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Agricultural Biotechnology Global Genetic Revolution. The role of molecular marker assisted breeding.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
2000
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "The use of genetic diversity in maize breeding in Kenya. In C. Almekinders and Walter De Boef (editors) Encouraging Diversity. The conservation and development of plant genetic resources. Intermediate Technology Publications, 2000, p 156- 160.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
1988
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K.: .". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 1988;2:81-83. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
1983
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K., Ayim E.N.: .". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Mar;60(3):134-9. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1983. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
1980
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K. .". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):490-4. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1980. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
1979
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Clark, G.P.M., Kahuho, S.K. and Ayim, E.N.: .". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1979; 56:362-367. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1979. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Clark GP, Kahuho SK, Ayim EN.Brain death. some medical, ethical, legal, socio-economic and diagnostic considerations: a review.East Afr Med J. 1979 Aug;56(8):362-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Aug;56(8):362-7. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1979. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
1974
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Mati, J.K.G. and Kahuho, S.K.: .". In: J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1974 Jan;81(1):57-60. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1974. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
1970
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Lloyd, I.J., Burnstyn P.G., Horrobin, D.F., Kahuho, S.K., Mulimba, J. and Webala, G.S.R.: .". In: J. Obst. and Gynae.Comm. 1970;77:928-931. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1970. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
2005
I.O JUMBA, V.O M, S.O W. The status of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Lake Victoria Catchment. Proc.. Vol. Vol. II .; 2005. Abstract

The use of most organochlorine pesticides has been banned or restricted in the republic of Kenya under the Rotterdam and Stockholm convention due to high levels of persistence in the environment and toxicity to nontarget organisms. Studies conducted in some parts of the country have revealed that residue levels of these compounds are still in the environment. However, the residues of these compounds have not been exhaustively studied in the Lake Victoria catchment area. This study was set to investigate the residues levels of p,p-DDT, o,p'-DDE, p.p-DDD, g-HCH, D-HCH, a-HCH, Aldrin, and Dieldrin, in water samples from Lake Victoria catchment. Samples were collected during the short rain, dry and wet seasons and analysed using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. Residue levels ranging from below detection limit (BDL)-0.44 ug/l in river Nzoia water, between BDL-0.34 ug/l in river Sio water, BDL- 0.26 ug/l in water from Sio Port, and between BDL-0.31 ug/l in water from lake Victoria at Marenga Beach were detected.
Key words: Organochlorine, residues, Lake Victoria

2004
I.O JUMBA, Mbakaya CFL, P.A O, W B, W K, H N, J W, P N, P O. "Micronutrient Zinc Deficiency as a possible co-factor in the transmission and progression of HIV/AIDS in Kenya. Afri. J. Food, Agric., Nutr. and Development Vol. 4 (2). Also available at www.talcuk.org:." Community Nutrition Material for healthcare workers in resource-Poor areas .UNICEF. 2004;vol 4 (2)(0-9549467-9-0/978-09549467-9-1). AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Thirty-four HIV/AIDS patients at various stages of disease progression volunteered to manage their health using a nutritional supplement that contained several micronutrients that included a 15 nig daily dose of elemental zinc. This initial publication only focuses on trends in the serum zinc levels and the observed biochemical changes following intervention, considering the critical role this trace element plays in human immunity. At baseline and after 30 months of follow-up, the patients' serum zinc levels were determined as was their clinical status. Four women who were found to be HIV negative at baseline and who had lost their husbands to HIV/AIDS, yet they had regularly had un-protected sex with them, had a mean serum zinc level of 116.2 ± 32.7 meg/100 ml. The serum zinc levels of asymptomatic, moderately symptomatic and severely symptomatic HIV/AIDS patients in the cohort reduced from baseline to post intervention levels of 92.5+12.1 to 78.0 + 8.2 meg/100 ml (P = 0.056); 81.9+ 17.6 to 73.2 + 12.2 meg/100 ml (P = 0.267) and 72.7+ 8.0 to 66.8 + 14.3 meg/100 ml (P = 0.022), respectively, all being far below the mean serum zinc level of 120.0 + 22.0 meg/100 ml reported in normal control subjects in Western literature. For all patients combined, the serum zinc levels fell from 79.2 + 14.5 to 71.0 + 13.0 meg/100 ml (P= 0.016) notwithstanding that the patients had used zinc supplements at recommended daily allowances (RDA) over a period of 30 months. Notably, micronutrient zinc sufficiency plays a key role in promoting cell-mediated immunity and it is probably partly due to this reason that the high-risk women in this study, who also had comparably high serum zinc levels fell from 79.2 +/-14.5 to 71.0 +/-13.0 mcg/100 ml (p=0.016) notwithstanding that patients had used zinc supplements at recommended daily allowances (RDA) over a period of 30 months. Notably, micronutrient zinc sufficiency plays a key role in promoting cell -mediated immunity and it is probably partly due to this reason that the high risk women in this study, who also had comparably high serum zinc levels, remained negative for HIV antibodies despite repeated exposure to the virus. thus from this preliminary data shows HIV/AIDS patients to be deficient in zinc in a manner consistent with their status of disease progression and considering that this trace element is recognized to possess antiviral and antibacterial properties, it is now apparently evident that zinc supplementation may play a key role in the fight against HIV/AIDS not only in Kenya but also in other African countries where the disease has reached epidemic proportions against a background of rampant malnutrition

Key words: Micro nutrient zinc, underutilized arsenal, combating, hiv/aids, SUB-SAHARAN Africa

2003
I.O JUMBA, O WANDIGAS, W.G M, J.O L. "The Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of 14C-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment.". In: Toxicol and Environ. Chem. 84, 253-268 (Trailer & Francis Group). Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted on the distribution, fate and metabolism of DDT in a model ecosystem simulating a tropical marine environment of fish, Gabions nudiceps, Leihrinuf haruk, Cohious keineiis, Gnhiota nebutosis and white shrimp iPanaeus seliferus), show that DDT concentration in the water decreases rapidly within the first 24 h. Rapid accurr. • ution of the pesticide in the biota also reaches a maximum level in 24 h before graJuiiiy declining The bioaccumulution factors calculated for the fish specie.! (G. keinesis) and white shrimp '(P. Stiiferu!) were 270 and 351, respectively, after 24 h There was a steady build up of DDT residues in the sediment during the first 24 h which continued to a maximum concentration of 6 66 ng g in the sea-water fish sediment ecosystem after 3 weeks and 5.27ngg in the seawater/shrimps/sediment ecosystem after 2.7 days The depuration of the accumulated pesticide was slow with only 54% lost in G. nudiceps within 3 days of exposure in fresh sea water. By contrast, depuration was fast in the while shrimp, which lost 97% of the accumulated pesticide under the same conditions. DDT was found to be toxic to two of the fish species, (G. nebulmis and /_. huruk) and to white shnmp, and the degree of toxicity was dependent on the particular species. The 24 h LCyj al room temperature lor the fish species G. nebulous and white shrimp was found to be 0.011 and O.I 16mg kg. respectively. These levels are comparable to the ones recorded for the temperate organisms. Degradation of DDT to its primary metabolites. DDE and DDD. uas found in all the compartments of the ecosystem with DDE being the major metabolite in the fish, shrimps and sediment, while in se.iwater. DDD dominated as the major metabolite.

I.O JUMBA, J.O L, S.O W. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in Tana and Sabaki Rivers in Kenya. Bull." Environ. Contam. and Toxicology.. 2003;71:298-307.
I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, J.O L. "Dissipation, Distribution and Uptake of 14C-Chloropyrifos in a Model Tropical Seawater/Sediment/Fish Ecosystem. Bull.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxicology, 70 883-890. Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate, is one of the most widely used organophosphorous pesticides worldwide due its high efficacy (Carvalho et al. 1992; Liu et al. 2001, Meikle and Youngson 1978). In Kenya, Dursban formulations are mainly used for protection of horticultural fruits and vegetables (Lalah 1994), Because of its low water solubility (0.4 mg/L) and high hydrophobicity (log Kow of 5.27), it is believed that chlorpyrifos would be able to partition easily onto aquatic sediments and macrophytes where it can pose dangers to benthic organisms (Ronday et al. 1998). It is also quite a volatile toxicant due to its low vapour pressure (2.5 mPa at 25 °C) and low air-to-water partition coefficient (8.9 10"4 at 25 °C) and its residues have been detected in air and rainwater samples (Liu et al. 2001).Increasing use of chlorpyrifos also causes a lot of anxiety to environmentalists and toxicologists because it is toxic to both humans and wildlife. As an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, it can cause impairment in mammalian brain cell development (Lund et al. 2000; Jeanty et al 2001; Jett et al 1999; Slotkin et al. 2001). Widespread use of this compound is therefore considered to be of great danger particularly to pregnant women and children Some of its reported toxicities to aquatic organisms include 96 hr LCNo of 0.13 |.ig/L and 96 hr LC?o of 0.035 Ug/L in adult Neomysis integer and Americamysis bahia, respectively (Roast et al. 1999). Although its toxicity in mammalian and aquatic organisms has been well documented, its fate and effects on aquatic ecosystems in tropical conditions where it is expected to degrade and dissipate faster (Carvalho et al 1992) are little known. In a laboratory model aquarium simulating a tropical marine environment, we studied the persistence and accumulation of HC-chlorpyrifos in sediment, fish and oysters. The results obtained from these studies are reported in this paper.

2002
I.O JUMBA, B.M MWASHOTE. "Quantitative aspects of inorganic nutrient fluxes in the Gazi Bay (Kenya): implications for coastal ecosystems.". In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44 (11): 1194-1205. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients: NH+4, NO-2, N-3, PO34 and Si(OH)4 from near shore sediments of Gazi Bay were measured in situ within mangrove, sea grass and coral reef biotopes using benthic flux bell-jar chambers of cross-sectional area 0.066 m2 and volume 0.0132 m3. The objectives were: (1) to determine the influence of benthic fluxes, fluvial discharge and seasonal variations on the nutrient budget in the Bay waters; (2) to determine the effect of tidal and spatial variations on nutrient loads in the water column and (3) to establish the relative importance of the nutrient sources with regard to total community production of the Bay.
The directly measured fluxes ranged from -270 to +148 µmol NH+4-N/m2/h; -60 to +63 µmol NO-2-N/m2/h; -79 to +41 µmol N-3-N/m2/h; -79 to +75 µmol PO34-P/m2/h and +30 to +350 µmol Si(OH)4-Si/m2/h for and respectively. It was established that benthic fluxes are the major sources of dissolved inorganic NH+4, NO-2and Si(OH)4 while fluvial sources are important for N-3 and PO34into Gazi Bay waters. Seasonal variations had an appreciable effect on the PO3-4, fluxes, N:Si ratio, river nutrient discharge, plankton productivity and important environmental factors such as salinity and temperature. Tidal and spatial variations had no significant effect on nutrient concentrations and net fluxes within the water column. The results imply that benthic fluxes are largely responsible for the nutrient dynamics of the near shore coastal ecosystems especially where direct terrestrial inputs do not contribute significantly to the nutrient budget.
© 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Gazi bay; Nutrient sources; Benthic fluxes; Fluvial discharge; Community production; Coastal ecosystems

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, L MBUVI, J.O L, I.O JUMBA. "Accumulation, distribution and Metabolism of 14C-1, 1-Trichloro-2, 2- bis-(p-Chlorophyenly) ethane (ppDDT) residues in model tropical marine ecosystem.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1285-1292. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of ring labelled, "C-1,1,1, - trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) in a model marine aquatic ecosystem consisting of sea water, sediment, oysters (Isognomonon alatus) and Humbug fish (Dascillus aruanus) were studied in the laboratory. "C-p,p'-DDT distributes rapidly in the ecosystem immediately after application on the water surface with reduction of its concentration in the water phase from 1.18 ng g"1 to 0.71 ng g'after 2 hours and an increase in its content in the sediment and oysters. The bioconcentration factor reached a maximum of 19x 10* in oysters, and 1657 in Humbug fish after 24 hours. The sediment concentration reached 117 ng g"1 after 168 hours from start of application. A peak bioconcentration factor of 111 x 103 was calculated after 120 hours when 0.24 mg kg"1 of '^>p,p'-DDT was maintained through dosing every 24 hours with 0.002 mg kg' of a mixture of labelled and non-labelled pesticide. The rate of depuration of accumulated "C-p,p'-DDT sediment residues was up to 78.3% after 24 hours while oysters lost only 14.0% during the same period. The loss in Humbug fish was only 22.2% in three days. Volatilisation and sorption losses from seawater alone (without sediment/biota) were found to be very high in the range of 73.8 - 91.5% over 24 h for p,p'-DDT in aerated and non-aerated ecosystem. Gas chromatograph and TLC analysis of water, sediment and oyster samples revealed presence of p,p'-DDT and substantial amounts of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD three days after pesticide dosage.

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, LALAH JO, YUGI PO, BARASA MW. "The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1235-1246. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

The concentrations of organochlorine residues of lindane, aldrin, <*- endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in samples of seawater, sediment, fish and seaweed from different locations along the coast of Kenya are discussed in relation to the geographical location of the sampling sites and potential sources of residue over a period of two years. All sediment samples were found to contain very low levels of organic carbon except those sampled from Sabaki River that had high (4.7%) organic carbon due to greater primary activity. Most of the pesticides residues (112 samples analysed in 1997 and 258 analysed in 1998/99) were detected in fish, water, sediments and seaweed. The concentration of some residues was higher during the wet season than the dry season in 1997, but no marked seasonal variation was observed in 1998/99. Lindane, aldrin, p,p'-DOT and p,p'-DDE were the most frequently observed residues in all samples while «-endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p'-DDD and endrin were either present in low concentrations or absent in most samples. Water samples had the lowest concentrations of residues (range 0.503 - 9.025 ng g'1). Sediments had the second highest levels of pesticides residues with a range of 0.584 - 59.00 ng g'1 while fish lipid content had the highest levels of residues in 1989/99 with p,p'-DDT concentration of 1011 ng g'1 and 418 ng g"1 p,p'-DDD 'mSiganus rivulatus.

S.M KISIA, I.O JUMBA, R.A KOCK. "The waterbuck Kobus Ellipsipyrmniss defassa (Ruppel 1835) as an indicator of ecosystem health in the Central Rift Valley Lake Systems of Kenya.". In: Afr. J. Ecology 40, 1-3. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Introduction
The use of free ranging mammals in monitoring ecosys-tem health has been suggested (Costanza, Norton & Haskell, 1992). In Lake Nakuru National Park of Kenya, a high frequency of dental abnormalities has been reported in the waterbuck (Foley & Atkinson, 1984). This was attributed to inbreeding and increased homozyg-osity, which led to a higher frequency of genetic abnor¬malities. It was also noted that waterbuck in the north¬eastern part were in poorer body condition than in other parts of the park (Kock et al, 1994). Maskall & Thornton (1989) carried out a study of the mineral status of soils in the park, which showed some def¬iciencies. Because the waterbuck is territorial and has a small feeding range, an environmental factor, amongst others, might also play a role in the poor health status of the antelope in the north-eastern part of the park.
The purpose of the present study was to correlate the mineral status of the waterbuck to its health status in lake Nakuru National Park. A comparison was also made with waterbuck around Lakes Elementaita and Naivasha, which are located in the same region. Furthermore the study would be useful in assessing the suitability of Lake Nakuru National Park for rearing endangered species.

2001
I.O JUMBA, T.LIKIMANI. "Chemistry and its applications. ISBN 9966 846 247.". In: Nairobi University Press. 315 pp. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE
To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased.
The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life.
The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards.
Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

The annual domestic consumption levels and patterns of various common biofuels in Kenya were surveyed. The main fuelwood sources were farmland trees, indigenous forests, woodlands and timber off-cuts from plantations. In 1997, about 15.4 million tonnes of firewood (air-dried) were consumed and an equivalent of 17.1 million tonnes round wood wet weight (w/w) was converted to charcoal. In the same year, 1.4 million tonnes of a variety of crop residues were also consumed as domestic fuel. Biofuel availability was the major factor influencing the reported annual spatial species use and consumption patterns. Competing demand for the commonly-used tree species (mainly eucalyptus trees) for commercial and other purposes accounts, to a large extent, for the reported dwindling amounts. Communities in various regions have responded by gradually shifting to other available types including those in gazetted forests. Such a response strategy has implications on the long-term spatial and temporal biofuel use patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

Abstract
A questionnaire survey was conducted in rural and urban Kenya to establish biofuel consumption rates and patterns. The survey targeted households, commercial catering enterprises and public institutions such as schools and colleges. Firewood was the main biofuel used, mostly by rural households, who consumed the commodity at average consumption rates in the range 0.8-2.7 kg cap"1 day~'. Charcoal was mostly consumed by the urban households at weighted average rates in the range 0.18-0.69kgcap~' day"1. The consumption rates and patterns for these fuels by restaurants and academic institutions, and those for crop residues are also reported. The rates largely depended on the fuel availability but differed significantly among the three consumer groups and between rural and urban households. Other factors which may have influenced consumption rates are discussed. Although good fuelwood sufficiency was reported in the country in 1997, there were increasing difficulties in accessing these resources by most households, a situation having both short- and long-term implications for biofuel consumption rates and patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Biofuels; Per capita consumption; Kenya

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, MARUFU L, KITUYI E, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Carbon Monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya." Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542.. 2001. Abstract

Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO2 are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO2 ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol molt-1for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean d/NO/d/CO2 ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol molt-1, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO2 ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dCO/dCO2 ratios. The dCO/dCO2 ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidised compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the "energy ladder" leads to a reduction in the CO ER, an important result for emission mitigation policy design.
© 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Etd.
Keywords: Trace gases: Emission ratios; Biofuels; Stoves; Biomass burning

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO. "Worker exposure and health risks from volatile organic compounds utilized in the paint manufacturing industry in Kenya.". In: Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene (U.S.A.)16 (11):1035-1042. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

This study provides a means for the evaluation of cleaner manufacturing and the provision of cost-effective worker health improvements in developing nations. Individual worker exposure to volatile organic compounds was measured in the paint manufacturing plants of Nairobi, Kenya. A variety of different paint production jobs were monitored, including laboratory researchers, mixers, tinters, fillers, cleaners, raw materials deliverers, and resins producers.
Exposure levels were calculated based on a time-weighted average over an entire 8-10 hour workday. The paint solvents used can cause both acute and chronic health problems for the workers exposed. For example, over half of the or-ganics monitored, i.e. benzene, styrene, and xylene, exhibit carcinogenic properties. The lifetime cancer risk from exposure to these paint solvents was estimated utilizing published cancer potencies, and the risks range from 1.90 x 10-4for raw materials deliverers to 2.60 x 10-2for cleaners.
The highest exposure tasks included cleaning the mixing vats and mixing the paint product, ranging from risks of 8.5 x 10-4 to 2.6 x 10-2, providing evidence that solvent exposure occurs due to point sources. Because of this, simple and inexpensive technologies should significantly reduce the excess exposure of workers in these manufacturing facilities. The cost of minor innovations in the plants themselves, such as fans, drum and mixing vat covers, and respirators, could amount to as much as five times less than the estimated cost of treating workers who develop cancer due to paint solvent exposure.
Keywords Benzene Exposure, Developing Countries, Kenya, Occupational Exposure, Paint Manufacturing, Risk As-assessment, Volatile Organic Compounds

2000
Jumba IO, ODUOR FD, Wandiga SO. "Evaluation of the trace mineral Status of lactating during cattle in Trans Nzoia District, Western Kenya. In: A.M. Roussel, R. A. Anderson and E., E. Favier eds." TRACE ELEMENTS IN MAN AND ANIMALS. 2000;10:786. Abstract

A number of diseases and production problems have been observed in grazing ruminants in many countries around the I world Some of these problems and health effects have been attributed to dietary imbalances in mineral supply and appear \ to be geographically distributed. Grazing cattle require different levels of minerals in their diet depending on the stage of class of development; young and growing, lactating or pregnancy. Common findings indicate that the lactating and young} and growing animals are the most vulnerable to mineral problems, thus providing a sufficient ground for their choice in\ experimental studies. In this preliminary review of the project, the nutritional status of cattle grazing on a range of farms in \ Irons Nzoia District are assessedfrom the mineral content of blood from young and growing as well as lactating animals] sampled during the dry and wet seasons of the study period. Data -will be evaluated in terms of established criteria normality.

1999
I.O JUMBA, E.O O, J.O B, D.O O. Environmental impact assessment of the proposed National Oil Corporation of Kenya Truck Loading Facility, Industrial Area, Nairobi, Kenya.. NAIROBI: Ministry of Energy; 1999. AbstractWebsite

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
An environmental impact assessment study was carried out in the area covering the proposed National Oil Corporation of Kenya (NOCK) truck loading facility which is located in Nairobi's industrial area. The main objective of the study was to assess the state of the environment before the development and commissioning of the facility, in order that the design of the facility can objectively take into account the minimisation of the risk of possible negative environmental impacts that may be generated by activities at the facility, and that a baseline of the current environmental state in the area be provided for monitoring such changes in the future.
This environmental impact assessment study included: a geological/geophysical survey to establish the geology and structures of the proposed construction site; establishment of baseline levels of groundwater and existence of water wells within the area; determination of current levels of pollution in air, soil and groundwater by chemical analysis of samples collected in the area; qualitative investigation of noise pollution status; assessment of existing factory activities in the vicinity of the site vis a vis their effect on the environment and complementarity of the proposed facility; determination of possible effects of various pollutants on human settlements adjoining the area; and rating the potential health risk to workers within the truck loading facility.
Black cotton soils with a thickness of about 70cm overlie relatively thick (51m) phonolites which characterise the geology of the area. There are a number of fractures/cracks traversing the area in a nearly north-south direction. These are believed to be shallow fractures, and it is recommended that pits be dug 3 to 4 m deep to establish the depth of the fractures. Beneath the phonolites (>51m depth) are the Athi tuffs and lake beds where most of the groundwater in the area occurs. This is consistent with water strike levels in boreholes drilled in the Industrial Area. Given the thickness and impermeability of the phonolites and shallow depth of the fractures, contamination of groundwater (>52m depth) by infiltration of pollutants from the surface is most likely insignificant. Groundwater quality in the area does, however, not appear to be suitable for drinking due to its high Fl and Fe content, but is suitable for other domestic and factory use. Heavy metal analysis of the soils reveals that the only metal that could threaten ground water quality in the area is lead, which appears to come from automobile exhaust emissions and atmospheric loading and fall-out of the volatile gasoline additive, lead tetraethyl. This may contaminate the transient (seasonal) groundwater that accumulates in the near surface zone (weathered, fractured phonolite and soil <8m deep) during the rainy seasons, and dries up soon after the rains.
Analysis of organic volatiles reveals the presence of hydrocarbons (hexane, benzene and xylenes) which are components of petrol. The source of these hydrocarbons appears to be the Kenya Pipeline Company pumping station to the West and Shell, Caltex and Mobil loading facilities to the East of the proposed site. Although the concentrations are not of serious concern, it is recommended that frequent monitoring be done to check any danger that might be posed to the new facility. The air concentrations of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, ammonia and nitrogen-dioxide suggest a low acid and base deposition in the area. Nitrogen
dioxide levels are, however, close to critical limits. Concentrations of the various air pollutants warrant further monitoring, to check the likely risk on human health within the facility. The nearest human settlements are located at least two kilometres to the North and East of the area, so air pollutants and noise that may emanate from the facility are unlikely to pose a threat to them.
The overall finding of the environmental impact assessment study is that the site is suitable for development of a truck loading facility as proposed by National Oil Corporation of Kenya. It is, however, strongly recommended that this baseline study should form the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the environmental conditions as site development proceeds, and when the facility is operational.

1998
I.O JUMBA, S.M KISIA. "Skull abnormalities in the Waterbuck Kobus Ellipsiprymnus Defassa (Ruppel 1935) in the Rift Valley Lake Systems of Kenya.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian (Journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association) 23, 85-86. August 1998 Issue. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract

|7 Skulls of the waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprynnus defassa) ithree lake systems of the central Kenyan Rift Valley (viz. tfakuru, Elementaita and Naivasha) were examined for bnormalities, as a result of chronic signs of ill health, in ome of the animals in the region. The waterbuck were ulled randomly and weighed. Several parameters were leasured. A post mortem examination was carried out on ach of the animals culled. Bone samples were stripped F all tissue by boiling. The skulls were weighed and amined for any abnormalities. The teeth were used for eing the animals.
lemean age of the waterbuck was 5.1±1.7 years. 67% of Bimals in poor body condition showed skeletal normalities including pathological eruption and growth • wear of teeth. The teeth had black stains along the gual and buccal surfaces but no evidence of fluorosis. |je abnormalities observed in the skulls could be uted to mineral imbalances in some of the areas in the al Kenyan Rift Valley region. Abnormal eruption of i could in turn play a role in poor feeding of the affected als thus contributing to poor health.

I.O JUMBA, Musungu F, Nyaoro J. The Energy Sector: A case study on Hydropower. In: Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation.. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Statement of the Problem
\
Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have been increasing rapidly (IPCC 1994). This increase has been attributed mainly to human activities. The composition of the atmosphere has thus changed considerably and will continue to do so in future. Such changes are capable of affecting the surface climate of the earth and can have possible consequences on both natural and man-made resources, thereby threatening both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Deleterious effects of these consequences will affect the well-being of man through impacts on important sectors such as health, agriculture, transport, industry, and water resources (IPCC 1990; 1995). To these sectors, energy is crucial for their development but energy itself is also vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Negative changes in energy production will therefore seriously affect global industrialization programs as well as national economies considering that global demands for energy have been rising at an annual rate of 2% (IPCC, 1995).
Kenya, like most developing countries relies on biomass (mostly woodfuel and charcoal^as the biggest source of energy, contributing about 73% of the total energy requirements. It is used by over 80% of the rural population, mostly for cooking and heating. In addition to biomass, the other two major sources of energy in Kenya are petroleum and electricity. The domestic sector is the largest consumer (59%), followed by industry (15%), transportation (11%), agriculture (10%), and commercial (5%) sectors (Kenya/Canada Energy Advisory Project, 1991).
When considered in terms of social-economic development, human settlement infrastructure, as well as manufacturing, electricity is the most important form of energy in Kenya Currently, it is generated from several sources including hydropower, gas turbines, geothermal power and diesel engines. Of the total amount generated, hydropower contributes over 76%.
Hydroelectricity generation depends on availability of water, which in turn depends on the prevailing climate. Fluctuations in rainfall and temperature can affect evapotranspiration rates which in turn can determine the channel flow and power generation rates. In this regard, the hydro-power source of electricity becomes the most vulnerable to climate change effects. This study therefore focuses on hydro-power development in Kenya in relation to the impacts of climate change that are anticipated in future.

1997
I.O JUMBA, GATARI MJ, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ, MAINA C, A.M.KINYUA, D.M.MAINA. "Non-destructive analysis of mercury by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique in beauty creams sold in Kenya. Proc. Int.". In: Proceedings of an international Symposium on Harmonization of Health RelatedEnvironmental Measurements using Nuclear and Isotopic techniques, IAEA Vienna, 361- 368. Association of Africa Universities; 1997. Abstract

NON-DESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF MERCURY BY THE ENERGY DISPERSIVE X RAY FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE IN BEAUTY CREAMS SOLD IN KENYA.
Analysis of mercury in 100 different beauty creams by the energy dispersive X ray fluorescence technique is described. Each sample was brought to a melt by warming on a water bath at 40-50eC, and then poured onto a 2.5 cm diameter Mylar backed aluminium ring so as to acquire the configuration of a homogeneous pellet when cooled. No other physical or chemical treatments were applied to the sample. The results of our mercury level measurements and analysis (u,g/g) showed that: (a) the detection limit for the detector system was 3.3; (b) 'Madonna' (green) (n= 10) had the highest level of mercury: 29 000 + 2800; (c) 'Madonna' (red) (n = 10) had a level of 18 000 ± 1700; (d) 'Pimplex' cream (« = 10) had 6800 ± 690; (e) 'Shirley' (original) (n = 10) registered 14 000 ± 1100; (0 'Bestlady' cream registered 13 000 ± 1300; (g) 'Topsine' (n = 10) had 1600 ± 150; (h) 'Fennel' (n = 10) had 4300 ± 430; (i) 'Shirley' (new), 'Dermovate' and 'Topshirley' creams (n = 10 each) registered mercury levels below the detection limit; (j) there was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the results for 'Madonna' (red), 'Pimplex' and 'Shirley' (original) for batches bought during March and September 1995. The health implications of some of these high levels of mercury present in some beauty creams in Kenya are discussed.

I.O JUMBA, kituyi E.N, S.O W. "Occurrence of chlorfenvinvos in cow's milk sampled at a range of sites in western Kenya.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxic. (USA) 58(6), 969-975. Association of Africa Universities; 1997. Abstract

Kenya's fast growing human population is expected to reach 35 million by the year 2000. In order to cope with such a rapid rate of growth, efforts must be directed towards adequate agricultural and livestock production to counter the disproportionate increase in demand for food. To provide sufficient animal protein (milk and beef products) attempts must be made to eliminate the current constraints hindering livestock production and expansion in Kenya (KARI,1989). One such constraint (in terms of both health effects and economic losses) is the presence of several important infectious diseases affecting cattle, characterized by the occurrence of parasites in the animal's blood (haemoparasites) (Mutugi et al, 1989).
There are two major groups of haemoparasitic diseases that occur in Kenya: tick-transmitted, and tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted (trypanosomiasis) diseases. Tick-borne diseases are considered to be the most important animal health problem in the high potential areas, while trypanosomiasis is a major threat in the low potential range lands (Mutugi, 1986). These diseases restrict introduction of higher producing but susceptible stock in certain areas of the country; inflict high mortalities in susceptible stock; lead to productivity losses in recovered animals; and necessitate exclusion of highly productive breeds of livestock from locations where there is an outbreak (FAO, 1984).
Tick-borne diseases frequently encountered in Kenya are theileriosis, anaplasmosis, cowdriosis and babesiosis. Theileriosis comprises a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Theileria, which are transmitted by the ixodid ticks. Four different species of this genus are recorded in cattle; clinical theileriosis is associated with one species, Theileria parva transmitted by the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This species causes the notorious East Coast Fever (ECF), a highly fatal disease of cattle. A closely related form, corridor disease (T.parva Tawrencei infection) transmitted by the same tick is a buffalo derived parasite that causes very high mortalities in infected cattle (Mutugi et al, 1989). In Western Kenya, both ECF and anaplasmosis are common practical animal health problems that are seriously affecting the livestock industry. Outbreaks of these diseases are frequent and have continued to pose great challenges in terms of control for over 80 years.

Currently, the most conventional method of controlling ECF and anaplasmosis in cattle involves the use of acaricides. In Western Kenya, many types of acaricides are available but presently, the most commonly used chemical is chlorfenvinphos (ILRAD, 1991). It is frequently applied on cattle either through plunge dips or sprays. Little, however, is known about the fate of this compound and its residual effect in milk and beef. A recent survey in Kenya (KEMRI,1988) suggests that chronic or acute exposure to chlorfenvinphos can result in serious health effects in humans. Residue levels exceeding 8jug/kg of butterfat in cow's milk are currently regarded as dangerous for human consumption (Codex Alimentarius,1993), although concentrations as high as 20/ig/kg have been reported in Australia (Shell, 1969).
The purpose of this project was to establish the levels of chlorfenvinphos typically occurring in Kenyan cow's milk; and to determine the influence of season (climate changes) variation in butterfat content, and method of acaricide application (plunge dip or spray) on the residue content in milk sampled at a range of sites in Western Kenya.

Correspondence to: I. O. Jumba

1996
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER, S.O W. "Effects on botanical composition on mineral concentrations in dry pastures in "Western Kenya. In: Appleton, J.D., Fuge, R. and MaCall, G.J.H. (eds).". In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health with Special Reference to Developing Countries, British Geological Society Special Publication No. 113, 39-45. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

Abstract: The influence of botanical (pasture species), geographical (altitude) and pedological (bedrock type, soil pH and extractable mineral concentration) factors on mineral concentrations in dry season pasture was studied in samples of topsoil and herbage from 135 sites on 84 farms in the Mt Elgon region of western Kenya. Of the four major elements measured in herbage, only S was affected by geology, low values being found above Tertiary volcanic (TV) and metamorphic gneiss (MG) bedrocks. By contrast, only P was not affected by species, Setaria being low and Kikuyu grass usually high in macro minerals. Of the seven trace elements analysed in herbage, geology influenced only one: Cu; low values were again found above TV and MG but Cu availability to grazing ruminants would be relatively high because of the associated low S values. By contrast, only Se was unaffected by species, Kikuyu grass being high in all but Mn. Soil bedrock had a greater influence on soil composition but correlations between extractable soil and herbage mineral concentrations were poor for all elements, even within botanical species after correction for soil pH and soil contamination. Concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, S, Cu and Zn were often less than tabulated requirements for grazing livestock. However, risks of deficiency could not be predicted from the pedological factors measured.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, N.F SUTTLE. "Mineral composition of tropical forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya. I. Macro-minerals.". In: Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 73 No. 2 (April) 108-112. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

A survey of the macro-mineral concentrations in herbage in the Mt Elgon region of western Kenya is described. A total of 135 samples of dry-season herbage from 84 farms covering 30 000 km2 was analysed for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and sulphur (S). Mean (±standard deviation) concentrations were Ca, 1.5 (0.52); P, 1.4 (0.76); Mg, 1.6 (0.53); S, 1.5 (0.59) g kg'1 dry matter. Calcium, P, and Mg concentrations were low compared with surveys in other tropical countries but this may partly reflect the mature stage at which herb¬age was sampled. Comparisons with recent estimates of the mineral requirements of ruminants indicated that most of the samples were deficient in Ca and P while a minority was deficient in Mg and S. However, such deficits are not synonymous with constraints upon livestock pro¬duction, and supplementation trials with grazing livestock should be conducted.
Keywords: Calcium; Phosphorus; Magnesium; Sulphur; Tropical pasture

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, Suttle NF, Wandiga SO. "Mineral composition of tropical forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya. II. Trace Elements.". In: Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 73 No. 2 (April) 113-118. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

A survey of trace mineral concentrations in herbage in the Mt Elgon region of western Kenya is described. A total of 135 samples of mature herbage from 84 farms covering 30 000 km2 was analysed for cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), sele¬nium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Mean (±standard deviation) concentrations [mg kg'1 dry matter (DM)] were Co, 0.2 (0.16); Cu, 4.0 (1.6); Fe, 300 (169); Mn, 220 (128); Mo, 1.1 (0.23); Se, 0.1 (0.03); Zn, 23.6 (9.4). Copper and Zn concentrations were low compared with surveys in other tropical countries but this may partly reflect the mature stage at which herbage was sampled. Comparisons with recent estimates of the mineral requirements of ruminants indicated that most of the samples were deficient in Cu. A minority of the pastures contained less Se and Zn than ruminants are thought to require, but deficiencies of Co, Fe, and Mn were rare. Iron may be more significant as an antagonist of Cu but Mo rarely reached concentrations high enough to be antagonistic to Cu. The possibility of constraints upon livestock production should be inves¬tigated by supplementation trials with grazing livestock beginning with Cu.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, Wandiga. SO, Oduor FDO. "Evaluation of the mineral status of grazing cattle in Trans Nzoia: Preliminary assessment of Data. Proc.". In: 2nd Kenya Chemical Society Conference. 2nd-6th September 1996 pp 20-24. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

Abstract
A number of diseases and production problems have been observed in grazing ruminants in many countries around the I world Some of these problems and health effects have been attributed to dietary imbalances in mineral supply and appear \ to be geographically distributed. Grazing cattle require different levels of minerals in their diet depending on the stage of class of development; young and growing, lactating or pregnancy. Common findings indicate that the lactating and young} and growing animals are the most vulnerable to mineral problems, thus providing a sufficient ground for their choice in\ experimental studies. In this preliminary review of the project, the nutritional status of cattle grazing on a range of farms in \ Irons Nzoia District are assessedfrom the mineral content of blood from young and growing as well as lactating animals] sampled during the dry and wet seasons of the study period. Data -will be evaluated in terms of established criteria normality.

1995
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, S.O W, E.A HUNTER. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition of herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya I. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur.". In: Tropical Grasslands (Journal of Australian Grassland Society) 29, 40-46. Association of Africa Universities; 1995. Abstract

Samples of topsoil (0-30 cm) and dry season herbage from 135 sites in the Mt Elgon region of Kenya were classified according to farm (n = 84), site altitude, underlying soil bedrock (6 types) and botanical composition (6 classes). Effects on pasture concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and S were determined using a mixed model for unbalanced data sets and the Wald (W) statistic to assess the significance of fixed effects. Associated effects on pH, plus extractable Ca and P concentrations in the topsoils were also evaluated.
Soil bedrock influenced herbage concen-trations of S (P < 0.001) but not those of Ca, P or Mg. Mean herbage S concentrations were lowest on volcanic and metamorphic gneiss associations (1.2 g/kg DM) but only extreme values would be inadequate for grazing livestock. Altitude appeared to affect the concentration of P (P < 0.01) and not those of Ca, Mg and S in herbage but the effect on P was dependent on soil P. Geological and topographical maps cannot be used to predict macro-mineral disorders in live¬stock in the Mt Elgon region.
Herbage species differed markedly in their concentrations of S (P < 0.001), Ca (P < 0.001) and Mg (P < 0.05) but not P. Ca deficiency may arise on setaria, S deficiency on some napier grass pastures and P deficiency on some dry season pastures irrespective of botanical compo¬sition.
Low herbage P concentrations may reflect advanced maturity rather than low soil P status (mean value 20 mgP/kg DM). The correlation between soil P and herbage P was significant (r = 0.595), and similar in slope and intercept for all herbage classes but not strong enough to predict deficient Ijerbages. Herbage Ca was not corre¬lated with soil Ca.

1993
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, S.O W. "Macro and trace element composition of forages in Western Kenya: Implications for sheep and cattle health and production.". In: Kenya Chemical Society Inaugural Conference Proceedings, June 7-11, 1993, pp 149-154. Association of Africa Universities; 1993. Abstract

ABSTRACT
In a preliminary study, 135 samples of mature forages from 84 livestock farms (farm size 10 • 6000 acres) in Bungoma and Trans Nzoia districts were assessed for both macro (Co, S, Mg and P) and trace elements (Co, Cu, Se, Mo, Zn, Fe and Mn) using a variety of chemical techniques. Mean concentrations of these elements were low compared with surveys in other tropical countries. Comparison with recent estimates of the mineral requirements of cattle and sheep indicated that 70 -98 % of the forages were deficient in Co, P and Cu. Several pastures contained less Mg, S, Zn andSe than ruminants are thought to require but deficiencies of Co, Mn and Fe were rare. Re-assessment of the data for Cu availability using two derived prediction equations, one for hay: Cu (%DM)=8.9 -0.7logtMo - 2.61logc S and the other for grass: Cu (%DM) = 5.72 - 1.2975 • 2.785hgf Mo + 0.227 Mo X S showed that forage Mo and S rarely reached concentrations high enough to be antagonistic to Cu. However, Fe concentrations were sufficiently high to implicate this element as an independent Cu antagonist. Since forage mineral deficits are not synonymous with constraints upon livestock production, the possibility of such constraints should be further investigated, first through blood analysis and then by supplementation trials with grazing animals beginning with Cu.

I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER, S.O W. "Botanical composition has a greater influence on mineral concentrations in dry season pastures in W. Kenya than either soil origin or composition.". In: Proceedings of "Environmental Geochemistry and Health in Developing Countries Conference", London, October 20-21. Book of Abstracts, 36-37. Association of Africa Universities; 1993. Abstracteffects_of_botanical_composition.doc

The prediction of mineral deficiencies in grazing livestock requires good correlations between convenient markers of mineral status and animal health or productivity. Correlations are likely to become weaker in moving from animal to pasture to soil in pursuit of a predictor because of the many factors which influence mineral uptake at each interface. However, soils are the easiest to characterize and correlations might be improved by removing the effects of known sources of variation. The influence of botanical (pasture species), geographical (altitude) and pedological (bedrock type, soil pH and extractable mineral concentration) factors on mineral concentrations in dry season pasture was therefore assessed. Samples of topsoil and herbage were gathered from 135 sites on 84 farms in the Mt Elgon region of W. Kenya between January and March, 1987. The underlying parent bedrock was determined from 1:125,000 Geological survey maps and altitude from topographical maps. Botanical composition of the pasture sample was recorded. Soil pH and total (Se) or extractable (not Se) mineral concentrations were determined by standard methods as were total mineral concentrations in unwashed herbage. Distribution of principle botanical species and all bedrock types amongst the sample sites are indicated in Tables 1 and 2 respectively, together with the analytical results. Statistical analysis used a residual maximum likelihood (REML) model for unbalanced data sets.
Pasture concentrations of Ca, P and Cu were generally below the requirement of ruminants, Zn and Se were marginal while Co, Fe and Mn were adequate. Soil bedrock had little influence on herbage composition. Of the four macro-elements, only S was affected by geology, low values being found above TV and MS bedrock. By contrast, only P was not affected by species, Ss being low and PC usually high in macro minerals. Of the seven trace elements analysed, geology influenced only one (Cu); low values were again found above TV and Mfi but Cu availability to grazing ruminants would be relatively high because of the associated low S values. By contrast, only Se was unaffected by species, PC being rich in all but Mn. Soil bedrock had a greater influence on soil composition but correlations between soil and herbage usually accounted for less than 10% of the variation in pasture composition (max r value 0.5 for P): correlations within species were equally poor. The influence of species on herbage Co disappeared if herbage Fe was used as a covariate, suggesting that contamination by soil Co varied between species: however, the correlation with soil Co remained weak. Soil pH was generally low and its use as a covariate did little to improve soil/plant relationships. Herbage Cu increased and Se decreased in curvilinear relationships with altitude.
Mineral deficiencies were therefore likely to occur in grazing livestock, risk being influenced by botanical and topographical but not pedological factors.

1990
I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "Levels of aluminium in green leaf of clonala teas, black tea and black tea liquors and effects of rates of nitrogen fertilizers on the aluminium black tea contents.". In: Food Chemistry 35, 59-68. Association of Africa Universities; 1990. Abstract

Clonal teas have different aluminium content increasing with age of leaf. Although aluminium andfertilizernitrogen enhance teagrowth andteayields, respectively, field trials have shown no relationship between total aluminium content in the leaf and clonal tea yields. Higher aluminium concentrations were found in the dust grades of black tea than in the large size grades. However, aluminium levels decreased in the tea liquor from dust grades compared to the large size grades. Only up to 40% of the total aluminium in tea was infused into tea liquors; the amounts infused varied with clones and grading (sorting). Aluminium content of black tea was lowered by increasing rates of nitrogenous fertilizers, more frequent fertilizer application, and application of NPK 20:10:10 as opposed to NPKS 25:5:5:5.

1982
I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "The determination of mercury in body beauty soaps and creams sold in Kenya and Norway.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (a) 3, 89-91. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

flame-less atomic absorption spcctropholometry technique lias been used to determine mercury concentrations in 14 skin-lightening creams and soaps commonly sold in the Kenyan market and 10 in the Norwegian market. The use of borohydride or stannous chloride as the reducing agents for mercuric salts gave different results. When slannous chloride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 222 to 4920 jjg/kg. When borohydride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 0.95 to 1121.86 |jg/kg. The difference in results has been attributed to the difference in digestion modes and the ability of the boric acid to encapsulate the mercuric salts. In general the Kenya products had slightly higher mercury content.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of cooper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in human head hair using different pulse anodic stripping voltametry method.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol. (A) 3, 9-25. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

Conditions of analyses of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using the mixture HC1; H2O2:HNO3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H2O2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm3 for Cd+2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm3 respectively, at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV conditions of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame atomic absorption spectrophoto-metry methods

I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "The concentrations of heavy metals, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium concentrations in human head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (A) 3, 27-41. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

SUMMARY
An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The per cent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly more sensitive than the AAS instrument used.
The recalculated body burden ratios of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairment symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.

1998
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Economic Situation in East Africa and Its Implication on Education, in Seppala (ed) Liberalizede and Neglected? Food Marketing Policies in Eastern Africa, (WIDER).". In: World Development Studies No. 12, United Nations University, World Institute for Developemnt Econoics research. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "L'economie Kenyane Face a l'ajustement structural (1978-1995).". In: Frncois Grignon et Gerard Pruntier (eds). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Financing of Political Parties, jointly with Eve Odete, The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam.". In: Frncois Grignon et Gerard Pruntier (eds). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Structure of Kenya's Manufacturing, jointly with others Arne Bigsten and Peter Kimuyu (eds).". In: Structure and Performance of Manufacturing in Kenya, Goterbog,. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
1997
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Green Paper on Relaitons Between the European Union and the ACP Countries: Some Comments.". In: ECDPM Working paper, NO. 26, Maastricht. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Adjustment, Technological capabilities and Enterprise Dynamics in Kenya, jointly with Ganeshan Wignaraja.". In: Sanjah hall (ed), Import Liberalization, Industrialization and Technological Capability in Sub-Saharan Africa, United Nations University, Intech Maastricht. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Employment and Labour Market During Adjustment: The Case of Kenya, jointly with N.S. Ndungu.". In: ILO Working paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Structural Adjustment and the Lome Convention: Isues for the post-Lome IV Negotiaiton.". In: Working Paper No. 48, European Centre for Developemnt Policy Manageemnt (ECDPM), Maastrict. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
1996
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Macro Policy Framework for Small-Scale Industries in Kenya, JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa.". In: Working Paper No. 48, European Centre for Developemnt Policy Manageemnt (ECDPM), Maastrict. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The European Union - ACP Relaitonship: The Case of eastern Africa.". In: Working Paper EU Deveopment Policy, No. 4, Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Bonn, Germany. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Quel avenir por la Convention Lome? Quelles Preoccupaitons pour l'Afrique?". In: Gender, La Convention de Lome en Questions, Editions Karthala, Paris. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1995
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Technological Change and Manufactured Exports.". In: Samuel Wangwe (ed.) Exporting Arica: technology and Industrial Development (United Nations Routledge, London. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "US-Africa Trade in Macharia Munene et al, (ed): The United States and Africa: From Independence to the Independence to the End of the Cold War.". In: East African Publishers Ltd, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Crisis of Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Courier, No. 149. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Transition to Market Economies: The Challenges and Opportunities for the Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Ida Tsuneo and Kshioka Tomihide (eds). ternational Research Center Center for Japanese Studies, International Symposium, No. 9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Cereals Chain in Kenya: Actors, Reforms and Politics, Markets, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya.". In: Nordiska Afrikainstitute, Uppsala. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Political Economy of Poverty Reduction in Kenya.". In: Jointly with Arne Tostensen, Michelsea Institute. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1994
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Entrepreneurship, Industrialization and the national Bourgeoisie in Africa.". In: Jointly with Arne Tostensen, Michelsea Institute. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Political and Economic Reforms in Kenya: The Business Community's Perspectives.". In: La Revue Politique Africane Journal, Vol. 56. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Liberalization and its Impact on African Economies.". In: Kivutha Kibwana et al (eds): Law and Developemnt in the Third World, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Review of Kenya's Budgetary Process.". In: paper presented at the Economic Justice Workshop on the 1994/95 National Budget, held at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Kenya's Service Sector.". In: paper presented at UNCTAD's Conference on Serives Sector, held in Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1993
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Urban Self-employemnt in Kenya: Panacea or Viable Strategy?.". In: World Developemnt, Vol. 21, No. 7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Systems in Africa, in Tukumboth, A. (ed). A Christian Mind in a Changing Africa, AEAM, Nairobi.". In: World Developemnt, Vol. 21, No. 7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Agricultural Decline, Politics and Structural Adjustment in Kenya.". In: Peter Gibbon (ed): Social Change and Economic Reforms in Africa, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "An Integrated Policy Approach to youth employemnt in Kenya.". In: ASPA WORKING PAPER, ILO, East Arican Educational Publishers Ltd., Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Background Economic Issues in the Re-Introduction of Multiparty Politics in Kenya.". In: ASPA WORKING PAPER, ILO, East Arican Educational Publishers Ltd., Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Africa-USA Trade.". In: The Fourth annual East African-American Studies Colloqium, Thika. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Corruption in Kenya: A Review of Literature.". In: A Study Report prepared for SIDA, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Private Domestic Investment in Industry in Least Developed Countries.". In: paper prepared for UNIDO. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1992
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Co-operative Banking in Kenya, (Co-editor with Patrick Alila.". In: Cooperative Bank of Kenya, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Challenge of Health Care Provision in the City of Nairobi.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal, Vol. 7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Rule of Law and the Economic System Conditions of the Grassroot Population.". In: in Kivutha Kobwana (ed.) Law and the Administration of Justice in Kenya, Interantional Commission of Jurists (Kenya Section), Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Africa and the Global Economic System: The Dependency syndrome.". In: in Kivuto Ndeti and Kenneth R. Gray (ed.), The |Second Scramble for Africa: A Response and a Critical Analysis of the Challenges facing Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Public Sector Retrenchment and Redeployment: The Case of Kenya.". In: An ILO Working Paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1991
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Industrialization Dilemma (Co-editor with Coughlin P).". In: Heinemann (K). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Kenya's Participation in International Trade Negotiations.". In: Murray Smith (ed.): Africa and the Multilateral Trade Negotiaitons: Public Institue, Montreal. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Incerasing Africa's participation in International Trade Negotiations, in Murray Smith (ed): Africa and the Multialeral Trade Negotiations: Public Policy Institute.". In: Murray Smith (ed.): Africa and the Multilateral Trade Negotiaitons: Public Institue, Montreal. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Policy Changes and the informal sector: A review.". In: Coughlin, P. and Ikiara G.K. (eds.) The Industrialization Dilemma, Heinemann Kenya Ltd., Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "State Intervention in Small Enterprises: The Case of Kenya Industrial Estates, in P. Anyang Nyongo and P. Coughlin (eds.) Industrialization at Bay, Academy Science Publishers, Nairobi.". In: Coughlin, P. and Ikiara G.K. (eds.) The Industrialization Dilemma, Heinemann Kenya Ltd., Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Industrialization and Environmental Management in Kenya.". In: paper prepared for the Conference of the African Academy of Sciences on Environment and Development in Africa, Swaziland. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Pulp and Paper Industry in Kenya.". In: paper prepared for ILO, Geneva. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Socio-Economic Dimensions of Biodiversity Conservation in Kenya.". In: paper presented for the Country Biodiversity study. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1990
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Kenya's Interests in Trade in Services.". In: International Restructuring Education Network Europe (I.R.E.N.E.). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1990. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Promotion of Self-employment and Small-Scale Enterprises in Urban Kenya: A Case study.". In: International Labour Office, Geneva. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1990. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Increasing the Role of Small Sale Irrigation Projects in Kenya.". In: Riungu and M. Rukuni (eds): Irrigation Policy in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1990. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Trade Liberalization in Kenya in the 1980s.". In: The International conference on Trade Liberalization, Trade Balance Evolution and Industrial Strategies, held in Paris. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1990. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Primary Health Care In Kenya.". In: A background paper, presented for Ministry of Health, Kenya. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1990. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Contemporary Macro-Economic Environment and the Provision of the Basic needs in Kenya.". In: paper presented at Nairobi Workshop on Child Health, Nutrition and School participation, held in Nakuru. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1990. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1989
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Human Crisis at the country Level: Kenya's Experience in John Whalley (ed.).". In: Developing Countries and Global Trading System, Vol. 2, Case Studies from a Ford Foundation Project. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Incentives and Interference: A Response to F. Catherwood's The Diffusion of Economic Power.". In: Transformation, Vol. 6, No. 4. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Services in the Kenya Economy and Its External Trade.". In: paper presented at the International Trade in Serives and Its Consequences fro ACP Countries Brussels, Belgium. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Structural Adjustment Programme in Kenya: Is there an Alternative".". In: paper presented at FKE Workshop on Beyond Structural Adjustment Programme, Belgium. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1988
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Industrialization in Kenya: In Search of a Stragey (Co-editor with Coughlin P).". In: Heinemann (K), Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1988. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Role of Government Institutions in Kenya's Industrialization, in Peter Coughlin and G.K. Ikiara (eds.): Industrialization in Kenya:.". In: In Search of a Strategy, Heinmann, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1988. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Economy (Chapter 5) in Kenya.". In: An Offocial Handbook 1963-88, Ministry of Information and Boradcasting, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1988. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Labour Productivity of Kenyan Workers.". In: paper prepared JASPA, Addis Ababa. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1988. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1987
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Shedding the Ivory Tower Image.". In: Wajibu (Journal of Social and Religious Concern) Vol. 2 No. 4. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1987. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "An Evaluation of the Policy Measures and Incentives for Industry and Agriculture.". In: Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1986, in Lewis O. Odhiambo and John e.o. Odada (eds.), Kenya's Industrial and Agricultural Strategies Towards the Year 2000. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1987. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "World Bank Intervention in Kenya.". In: paper presented at the Joint DTP/IAP seminar on The Politics of Economic Stabilization on Structural Change in developing Countries: The Role of IMF and the World Bank, held in Nairob. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1987. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1986
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Social Indicators and Integrated Developemnt Planning: The Case of Kenya.". In: Social-Economic Studes, No. 12. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Cultural Factors and Development: The Case of Kenya.". In: Courier (E.E.C. Publication). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Small Scale Rice Irrigation Projects in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at the Joint Seminar on Irrigation Policies in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Kenya's Trade Policy.". In: A Background paper, presented at the International Trade Policy Conference, Mexico. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "State Policy on Culture and Economic Developemnt.". In: paper presetned at Regional Workshop on culture and Economic Developemnt, Arusha. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Parastatal Enterprises in Africa at Crossroards.". In: paper presented at the second Triennial Congress of ossrea, held in Eldoret, Kenya. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1986. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1985
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Kenyan Economy: An Overview.". In: The Wall Street Journal. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economic Situation in Kenya: Presentationa nd Analysis.". In: paper presented at the seminar on Economic Policy and Developemtn. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Appropriate Strategies for Industrial Developemnt in Kenya.". In: paper presented at Workshop on Parastatal Efficiency. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Food Situation in Africa and Implication for the Future.". In: paper presented at Alliance YMCA, seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Is Price Control Necessary in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Kenmya Economic Association Monthly Seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Financial Instiutions in Kenya: What is their Future?". In: Paper presented at the economic Association Monthly seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1984
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Industrial Democracy and its Applicability.". In: African Countries in ARLAC, Vol. 1. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1984. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Workers Participation in Decision Making: Joint Consultation Machinery.". In: paper presented at ARLAK Industrial Relations Seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1984. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1983
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Industrial Relations at the Plant level in Kenya.". In: ILO Ppaer. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1983. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Historical Overview of the Nature and Patterns of Kenya's External Trade and It's Relationship to Development.". In: ILO Ppaer. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1983. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "An Evaluation of the Economic Impact of Minimum Wage Legislation in Kenya.". In: ILO Proejct paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1983. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1982
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Effects of Increased Energy Costs on Balance of Payments and Real Incomes in Kenya.". In: ILO Proejct paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1982. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "A Comprehensive Incomes Policy for Kenya: An Aid for Planning Under Conditions of Resoruce Scarcity.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Economic Association Conference. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1982. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1981
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Decentralized Planning System in Kenya.". In: A Project paper writTen for ILO. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Identification of High-linakge sectors using Input-Output Analysis.". In: paper presented to the National Symposium on Industrial Research and Development,Nairobi). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Import Liability of Kenya Industry and Prospects of Reducing this Liability.". In: A research paper presented tot eh National Symposium on Industrial Research and Developemnt, Nairobi). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Industrialization and Urban Employment in Africa.". In: paper presented at ARLA/JASPA seminar. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1980
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Zimbabwe Economic Path: Lessons from the Kenyan Experience.". In: A paper presented at Zimbabwe Economic Symposium held in Harare, Zimbabwe. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1980. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1979
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Economy after Boom.". In: Gardian (London). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1979. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
1974
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Balance of Payment Adjustment Process.". In: A Report for the UNDP/UNCTAD. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1974. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
2011
Michira IN, Richard A, Priscilla B, Immanuel I. "Synthesis, characterization and Application of Sulfonated polyaniline in Construction of a biosensor for Diazinon." International Journal of Polymeric Materials. 2011;60:469-489. AbstractWebsite

A series of sulfonated polyaniline=derivatized polyaniline nanocomposites was chemically synthesized in the presence of anthracene and naphthalene sulfonic acids. UV-vis and FTIR results indicated the emergence of new bands at 420 and 700nm and1100cm-1 in their spectra, respectively, meaning the dopant/polymer intercalations involved electronic interactions between dopant/polymer sub-lattices. The electroactive
composites displayed moderately fast electrode kinetics. A composite-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide reached a steady state current of 9.2 and 5.3 mA, and when fine-tuned for diazinon detection gave % inhibitions to be 41 and 81% for thepolyaniline and poly-o-methoxyaniline biosensors, respectively.

2007
MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Anthracene sulfonic acid-doped polyanilines: Electrodynamics and Application as amperometric peroxide biosensor.". In: International Journal of Polymeric Materials. Research signpost, T.C 37166(2), Fort Post Office, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of 1,2-Naphthaquinone-4-Sulfonic acid Doped Polypyrrole.". In: Electroanalysis, 19, No.2-3, 303-309. Wiley Interscience; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Synthesis, characterisation of novel polyaniline nanomaterials and applications in amperometric biosensors." Macromolecular Symposia, 2007, 255, 57-69.. 2007;255:36-49. AbstractWebsite

Summary: Anthracene sulfonic acid doped polyaniline nanomaterials were prepared through the chemical oxidative polymerisation process. Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) was employed as oxidant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show the resultant polyaniline (PANi) materials exhibited nanofibrillar morphology with diameter sizes less than 300 nm. Using the nanofibrillar PANI, amperometric biosensors for H2O2 and erythromycin were constructed through the drop-coating
technique. Anthracene sulfonic acid (ASA) doped PANi and the test enzymes horseradish peroxidase, (HRP), or cytochrome P450 3A4, (CYP4503A4) were mixed in phosphate buffer solution before drop coating onto the electrode. The resultant biosensors displayed typical Michaelis-Menten behaviour. The apparent Michaelis-
Menten constant obtained was 0.18-0.01 mM and 0.80-0.02 µM L-1 for the peroxide and erythromycin biosensor respectively. The sensitivity for the peroxide sensor was 3.3x10-3A .cm-2 mM-1, and the detection limit was found to be 1.2x10-2 mM respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity for the erythromycin sensor was
in the same order at 1.57x10-3 A . cm-2 mM-1 and detection limit was found to be 7.58x10-2 µM.

MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Spectroelectrochemical reactivities of novel polyaniline nanotube pesticide biosensors,.". In: Macromolecular Symposia, 2007, 255, 36-49. V. Somerset, M. Klink, R. Akinyeye, I. Michira, M. Sekota, A. Al-Ahmed, P. Baker, E. Iwuoha; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Electrocatalytic Sensor Applications of Nanostructured Polypyrroles and Polythiophenes.". In: Macromolecular Symposia, 2007, 255, 36-49. Research SignPost, T.C, 37166(2), Fort Post Office, Trivandrum-695023, Kerala, India; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2006
MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Electrochemical Interrogation and Sensor Applications of Nanostructured Polypyrolles.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2007
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. "Capacity Building for Regional Development Planning and Plan Preparation in Nyandarua District of Kenya". Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 2007; pp.155-185.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2006
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. (2006) Book Review Article. KUMSSA, A. AND MCGEE, T. G. (2001 EDS) New Regional Development Paradigms Volume 1: Globalization and the New Regional Development Connecticut, USA: Published by Greenwood Press, 88 Post Rod West, Connecticut, USA.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. (2006) Planning in Kenya on the Brink of a Precipice: Who will save the discipline and the profession. Nairobi: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Nairobi. Discussion Paper. 12 pages.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2005
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Regional Development Strategies for Enhancing Urban-Rural Linkages: Experiences and Implications for Local Economic Development in Kenya. In UN-HABITAT (2005) URBAN-RURAL LINKAGES APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT. HS/.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Regional Development Strategies for Enhancing Urban-Rural Linkages: Experiences and Implications for Local Economic Development in Kenya. In UN-HABITAT (2005) REPORT ON THE INTER-REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON URBAN-RURAL LINKAGES APPROACH TO DEVELO.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2004
MWANGI DRISAACK. "NGAU., P. and MWANGI, I.K. (2004 ed) District Regional Development Plan: An Integration Plan for Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. UNCRD Textbook Series No. 11.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Comment. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 2004 pp14-17; on WANYANDE, P. Decentralization and Local Governance: A Conceptual and Theoretical Perspective. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 2004 pp1-13.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "KOSURA, W. AND MWANGI, I. K. Methods of Data Collection. In NGAU, P. AND KUMSSA, A. (2004 EDS) RESEARCH DESIGN, DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A TRAINING MANUAL. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. UNCRD Textbook Series No. 12. Chapter 7.pp97-113.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Preparation and Administration of Data Collection Instruments. In NGAU, P. AND KUMSSA, A. (2004 EDS) RESEARCH DESIGN, DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A TRAINING MANUAL. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. Chapter 9. pp.141-175.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. AND MBECHE, I. M. Field Operations for Data Collection. In NGAU, P. AND KUMSSA, A. (2004 EDS) RESEARCH DESIGN, DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A TRAINING MANUAL. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. UNCRD Textbook Series No. 12. Chapter 10. pp177-187.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2003
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, S.W. (2003) Challenges of Urban Environmental Governance: Participation and Partnerships in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. AGIDS, University of Amsterdam. 319 pages. [Co-supervised PhD Research with Prof. Dr. G. A. Bruijne, Prof. Dr. Isa Baud and Dr.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2003. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "NGAU, P. M. AND MWANGI, I. K. (2003 EDS) Nyandarua District Regional Development Plan, 2001 .". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2003. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2002
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. (2002) Using Urban Planning Instrument in Improving Urban Food Security. Workshop Paper. Organized by UN-Habitat in Partnership with Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Development Research Centre (IDRDC) and Strategic Ini.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. Challenges of Urban Land Development and Managing Development in the City of Nairobi and Bordering Urban Areas. In KREIBIC, V. AND OLIMA, W.H.A. (2002 EDS) LAND MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA. Dortmund: SPRING Centre, University of Dortmund. SPRING Cen.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2001
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Canadian Planning Education in East Africa. Plan Canada April, May, June 2001, Vol 41. No. 2. pp26.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
2000
MWANGI DRISAACK. "TIRFIE, A., NGAU., P. MALECHE, Z. MWANGI, I.K. AND DE LEEUW, M.(2000 eds) Regional Development Plan for Hard Regional, Nambia. Nairobi: UNCRD Textbook Series No. 7.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2000. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1998
MWANGI DRISAACK. "TIRFIE, A. NGAU, P. AND MWANGI, I.K. (1998 eds) Regional policy in Africa:Problems and prospects Towards 21st Century. Nairobi: UNCRD: UNCRD Proceedings Series No. 29.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "FLURY, M., MWANGI, I.K. ET AL Stakeholders in the Limelight: Principles of Actor-Centred Resource Management. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal Vol. 8. Special Number 1998: 97-105.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. Comment. Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 19. No.2 Autumn 1998:65-68; on ADARKWA, K.K. The Role of Regional Development in Closing the Gap Between Rural and Urban Areas: The Ghanian Experience. Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 19. No.2, A.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1997
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. The Nature of Rental Housing in Kenya. Environment and Urbanization Vol. 9. No.2 October 1997:141-159.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1997. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1995
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. Research Funding: The Remaining Option. University of Nairobi, Varsity Focus November 1995:6-9.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1993
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. (1993) Urban Planning in Developing Countries: The Case of Kenya. Nairobi: ACTS. Research Memorandum No.5.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
1991
MWANGI DRISAACK. "Association of Graduate Planners (1991) Green Cities: Visioning A More Livable Habitat. Waterloo: School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Waterloo, Canada. Working Paper No. 28.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

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