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Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
Z. Q. "Obstetrical emergencies in relation to millennium development goals." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(2):53-5. Abstract

At the turn of this century, 189 countries endorsed the Millennium Declaration and signed up to meeting eight goals. "These eight commitments are simple but powerful objectives that every man and woman can easily understand and support. They are also different from other bold pledges that became broken promises over the past 50 years: first, because they have unprecedented political support; second, because they are measurable and time-bond, with most of this agenda meant to be attained by the year 2015; and third - and most important - because they are achievable." Koffi Annan.

Children are the future of society and their mothers the guardians of that future: Childbirth is a very special life changing event - a joyful experience when all goes well but it can also be a difficult period bringing with it new problems as well as the potential for suffering. When obstetric emergencies occur, if not dealt with immediately they can cause severe morbidity or mortality for the mother or baby or both.

Z. Q. "Editorial Maternal Health." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr . 2010;22(2):i-iii. Abstract

As we approach 2015 the time for achieving the MDG’s let us take stock of the progress made towards MDG 5 whose targets and indicators are as listed:-
Goal 5: improve maternal health
• Target 5A: reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.1: maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.2: proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
• Target 5B: achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
o Indicator 5.3: contraceptive prevalence rate
o Indicator 5.4: adolescent birth rate
o Indicator 5.5: antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) one visit
o Indicator 5.6: unmet need for family planning.
Most of the statistics for the above indicators have not changed much between the KDHS of 2003 and 2008/9. The maternal mortality has increased from 414 in 203 to 488 in 2008 and the target of reduction three quarters from 1990 to 2015 seems more of a dream considering we need a figure of 170 by 2015.

Z.B A. "Business Strategy, Internal Resources, National Culture And Competitive Advantage: A Critical Review ." 1st DBA Africa Management Review International conference ( 2015). 2015;1(1).
Z.M K, Narla RD, Waudo SW. Pyrethrum Wilt Caused by Fusarium Oxysporum in Kenya.; 1998.
Z.P. Q, C. S-K, S.M. M. "Rapid assessment of partograph utilization in selected maternity units in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(6):235-41. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Prolonged labour causes maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Its sequela include obstructed labour, uterine rupture, maternal exhaustion, postpartum haemorrhage, puerperal sepsis, obstetric fistula, stillbirths, birth asphyxia and neonatal sepsis. These complications can be reduced by using the partograph to assess the progress of labour. The Ministry of Health, Kenya has adopted this tool for labour management in the country and the standardised partograph is recommended for use in all delivery units.

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the utilisation of the partograph in the management of labour in selected health facilities in Kenya.

DESIGN:
A descriptive cross sectional study.

SETTING:
Nine health facilities -ranging from a tertiary hospital to health centre, including public private and faith based facilities in four provinces in Kenya.

RESULTS:
All facilities apart from Pumwani Maternity Hospital and one health centre were using the partograph. The correct use was low, the knowledge on the use of the tool was average and there was minimal formal training being provided. Staff shortage was listed as the most common cause of not using the tool. Contractions were recorded 30-80%, foetal heart rate 53-90% and cervical dilatation 70-97%. Documentation of state of the liquor, moulding and descent as well as maternal parameters such as pulse, and blood pressure and urinalysis were minimally recorded. Supplies for monitoring labour such as fetoscopes and blood pressure machines were in short supply and sometimes not functional. Overall, the poor usage was contributed to staff shortages, lack of knowledge especially on interpretation of findings, negative attitudes, conflict between providers as to their roles in filling the partograph, and senior staff themselves not acting as role models with regards to the use, advocacy and implementation of the partograph.

CONCLUSION:
The partograph was available in most units. However, accurate recording of parameters to monitor the foetus, the mother and progress of labour as recommended was mostly not done. Shortage of staff, lack of knowledge, lack of team work, lack of supplies and negative attitude among healthcare providers were some of the obstacles noted to hamper partograph use.

Z.P. Q. "Current management of hypertensive disease in pregnancy." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(4):169-71. Abstract

Hypertensive disorders occur in 6-8% of all pregnancies with the incidence varying with geographic location. Studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital have noted a prevalence of 5.4% of hypertensive disease and 0.56% for eclampsia. Pregnant mothers with hypertension are predisposed towards the development of potentially lethal complications, notably abruption placentae, disseminated vascular coagulation, cerebral haemorrhage, hepatic failure and acute renal failure. The baby many have intra-uterine growth retardation, suffer the consequences of being born to early, or die in utero. Causes of hypertensive disease especially pre-eclampia remain unknown.

Zablon O. Ochomo, Elisha Opiyo WO-O(E) KLNJMKR, J. A. "Agent Based Model For Localized Secure Payment Systems Integration.". 2010. Abstract
n/a
Zaccara S, Crosa G, Vanetti I, Binelli G, Harper DM, Mavuti KM, Balarin JD, Britton RJ. "Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa." Conservation genetics. 2014;15(2):429-440.
Zaccara S, Mavuti KM, Crosa G, Vanetti I, Binelli G, Harper DM, Balarin JD, Britton RJ. "Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa." Conservation Genetics. 2013. Abstract

Alcolapia is a minor genus of small-bodied, polymorphic cichlids inhabiting the lagoons and hot
springs surrounding the soda lakes Natron (largely in Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya). Three
Alcolapia species are present at Natron (Alcolapia alcalicus, Alcolapia ndalalani and Alcolapia
latilabris) and one at Magadi (Alcolapia grahami). All are IUCN Red Listed as either vulnerable
or endangered. We performed analyses of morphometric and genetic structure on 13 populations
of the Natron Alcolapia flock, and one A. grahami population of Lake Magadi as an out-group.
Morphometric analyses revealed significant differentiation in the head and mouth shape of the
species at Natron. From a genetic perspective, among 70 mtDNA control region sequences 17
haplotypes were found, showing in the minimum spanning network a star-like pattern around the
widespread haplotype 2lat. At Natron, there was limited genetic differentiation between the
different populations of A. alcalicus and A. latilabris, despite apparent ecological barriers of
extreme alkalinity that suggested their populations were isolated. Instead, there appeared to be
some population connectivity, with a rate of 0.5–2.3 migrants per generation suggesting that
natural factors, such as intense rains or transmission by large piscivorous birds, facilitate
population connectivity and maintain genetic similarity. The outputs of high population
connectivity and one genetic unit at the basin level (despite morphological divergence) suggest
that any human activities that disrupt the connectivity of the freshwater resources of the Natron
catchment could further threaten the integrity and current status of these already threatened fish
populations.

Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Zachariah R, Kumar AMV, Reid AJ, den Bergh VR, Isaakidis P, Draguez B, Delaunois P, Nagaraja SB, Ramsay A, Reeder JC, Denisiuk O, Ali E, Khogali M, Hinderaker SG, Kosgei RJ, van Griensven J, Quaglio GL, Maher D, Billo NE, Terry RF, Harries AD. "Open access for operational research publications from low and middle-income countries: who pays?" Public Health Action . 2014;4(3):141-144.open_acess_for_operations_research_who_pays.pdf
Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

Investigations into the plasticity of eye growth and refractive error development have significantly expanded our knowledge of animal models of myopia in the last 15 yr. The applicability of this information is as yet undetermined, but hopefully this information will be useful in learning more about human myopia. This paper presents a critical review of the animal myopia literature as those data relate to the human condition. Differences between the chicken, tree shrew, and primate animal models of myopia are outlined, and the various experimental paradigms used to investigate refractive error development and ocular growth in the chicken are compared. Specific arguments against the application of animal models of myopia to the etiology of human juvenile onset myopia include the following: (1) there is no deprivation of form vision in the environment of the school-aged child as severe as that required to induce myopia in animals; (2) the sensitive period for deprivation myopia in animals appears to be too early to account for human juvenile onset myopia; and (3) studies in the chicken using spectacle lenses to create dioptric blur involve a choroidal thickness modulation that has no human analog. Ultimately, the results of investigations into the cellular and biochemical modulation of eye growth in animals may be the most relevant to human myopia.

Zadnik K, Mijtti DO. "How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia?" Vision Research. 1995;35:1283-1288. AbstractWebsite
n/a
ZAHIDA DRQURESHI, C S-K. "A Survey determine the knowledge attitude and practice of Family Planning among the Nursing Staff of Kenyatta National Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991. 1991;9(1):41-45. AbstractWebsite

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

ZAHIDA DRQURESHI. "Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?" East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(1):1. AbstractWebsite

Safe motherhood refers to a woman's ability to have a safe and healthy pregnancy and delivery. The goal of safe motherhood is to ensure that every woman has access to a full range of high-quality affordable sexual and reproductive health services especially maternal care and treatment of obstetric emergencies to reduce deaths and disabilities

Zaja JO. "Short Distance Runners .". 1986.Website
Zaja JO. "Translating The Language Of Development Communication Into Kiswahili: A Case Of Mediating Meaning, Difference And Ambiguity In Cross-cultural Communication .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

Communicating the concepts and practices of development by way of translation across languages and cultures is always intertwined with linguistic and conceptual tensions which blur meaning, distort communicative intention and nurture conceptual ambiguity in target paradigms. In order to create linguistically viable and functional cross-cultural communication, translation has to rely on myriad strategies entailing mediating meaning, that is, rendering cross-cultural communications in ways that make intended meaning accessible and usable. Meanings of concepts and their practices are subtly nuanced and understood in different languages and cultures. Meaning nuances as such denote tensions between incongruent linguistic and cultural interests and in situations of such tensions, translation provides a forte for mediating both linguistic and cultural differences of the interacting languages. This paper seeks to argue that translations of specialized terminologies in any field of human activity do not always result in explicit meaning equivalences, but rather in meanings that are contextually situated and culturally nuanced. Translating in such situations requires that we identify and account for how people and language communities make meaning of concepts on the basis of their own circumstances, worldviews and in their local languages. Thus, lack of linguistic equivalencies and the presence of meaning indeterminacy in translation is not a reflection of translational failure but rather, a calling to attention of the differences in the perceptions and interpretations of concepts across languages, which in subtle ways represent modes of thinking and communicating (Hoppers 2002). Successful and functional translation of specialized terminologies must be underpinned by the realization that conceptual meanings are always situated in cultural, contextual and temporal terms. Their transmission through translation into ‘new’ contexts can never be straightforward but rather mediated.

Zaja OJ. "Siting text, culture, context and pedagogy in literary translation: a theorization of translation in cultural transfer with examples from selected texts in Kiswahili .". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The study of literary translation in Kiswahili has over a long period of time tended to gravitate towards systematic comparisons based on minimalist classical linguistic formalism. This is a scholarly fact that is attested to by a copious presence of academic dissertations, seminar papers as well as critical essays that have engaged literary translation in various ways and from several perspectives. However, most such studies are characterized by normative generalizations and a lack of clear theoretical rigor, which means that scholars have hardly asked; "in what ways has translation been used as a way of figuring out the relations between cultures, particularly in terms of its encounter with changed contexts, cultures, temporality and the pedagogy engendered in such changed circumstances?" This study has sought to move out of such restrictive stances so as to embrace and foreground what may be considered the muted reality of literary translation, a recognition that besides being essentially linguistic, literary translation is also an engagement that explores culture interaction, about which theorists and practitioners cannot afford to offer explications that are self-effacing. It argues that there is a prudent need to view literary translation as process of mediation between cultures, a means of perceiving words both in their abstract senses and in contexts of use, of treating linguistic forms and textual meanings as cues to the perception of cultural nuances, always amenable to inversions, revisions and reshuffling in the contexts of target cultures. In its broadest sense, this study is a critical theoretical rethinking of literary translation that points out the critical and crucial lapses and inadequacies that have characterized its research in Kiswahili. It points out the critical labyrinth in which such research has been entrapped as well as the puerile generalizations that have been generally emblematic of the studies overall. It outlines and critiques the theoretical lacunae that have punctuated literary translation studies in which it argues that such omissions have been nurtured by the use of single variable theories largely based on the minimalist theories of linguistics and language. It is also an engagement and interrogation of such theories which at the same time proposes a composite theoretical paradigm founded on culture, context, temporality and pedagogy and the interplay between them in informing both the theorizing and explications of literary translation. Instead of making arguments in favour of the fidelity of translation to the anterior text, it has argues in favour of the 'relevance' of any given translation to its specific time and domestic audience, to its environment and historical space. This is an emergent paradigm that is informed by contemporary theoretical advances in text linguistics, reader responses theories, text interaction and meaning retrieval, deconstructionism and postcolonialism. The overriding argument and, therefore, the thrust of this study, is that there is an urgent need for theoretical reorientation in which literary translation theorists and practitioners increasingly understand literary translation as cultural interaction, conceptualize it not merely as a form of linguistic exchange but also a process of interlingual exchange that participates in both text production and discursive formations.

Zaja JO. 2012 Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya, Longhorn Publishing Ltd, Nairobi Kenya. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers Kenya Ltd; 2012.
Zaja JO. "Publicizing the Private: Femini st Locution in Taarab Songs and performance .". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Scholars have for long deliberated and debated what is truly public and private in the articulation of feminist agendas in the world of Kiswahili artistic compositions. This is true for the various written literary texts in all genres as well as the diverse strands of taarab music/poetry compositions. The issues that are central in animating feminist locution in these art forms and which contribute to the incessant making and re-making of the feminist public and private spaces are neither fixed nor immutable—hence the shifting of these factors from time to time dictate the nature and essence of the contestations of what ought to be public and private. In other words, given that women’s voice in both are forms—song and written literature—are ever changi ng, so too is the discussion of what is rightly perceive d as public or private. Thus, what constitutes public and pr ivate in the myriad interests of feminist discourses and therefore what animates locution in such discourses is dependent on concrete material interests as well as the relations those interests evoke. These interests are central in informing disputations with other contending interests, occasioning either expressions of dissatisfaction or affirmation. Consequently, strategic and pragmatic political positioning, control schisms and schemes, ge nder relations and mate rial contestations ar e always constant and continuous themes that get critically nuanc ed in these disputati ons—hence the gist of these compositions. There has been much animated critiquing of feminist image presentations and gender articulation in Kiswahili writing, but there has not been sim ilar and thorough going interest shown in the Swahili taarab song. Yet it is a sphere that is predominantly and conspicuously female in terms of its subject matter, compositi on and performance, a sphere in which there is a subtle politicization and public ization of supposedly private feminist concerns. However, the few studies on the Swahili taarab song and pe rformance have indeed pointed out that the whole taarab discourse is an intimately fema le sphere that foster s and advances women’s voices (Fair, L. 2001, Askew, K. M. 2002). Taarab songs have a long a nd rich history as a medium of social commentary among the inhabitants of the East African coast. This is a hi story that dates back to the last quarter of the 19 th century (1870 onwards) during the reign of Sultan Seyyid Bargash in the Zanzibar Sultanate. Taarab at that time was essentially an elite court music sang in Arabic within the courts of the ruling Arab elite, the merchant cl ass as well as the land owing aristocracy. It was as such inevitably performed on imported E gyptian and Arabic music instruments. Its transition to Kiswahili and therefore, its movement away from the sultan’s courts to the general public is credited to Siti binti Saad a woman of sl ave ancestry (Askew, ibid), who having observed and internalized th e intricacies of taarab music, its artistry and potential as a 2 terrain for social articulation, started com posing and singing taarab songs in Kiswahili. Taarab songs are as such sung Swahili oral poetry, primarily by women as singers and performers and less often as composers. (It should be noted, however, many taarab songs have multiple composers in the sense that one pe rson will be credited with the poem, another with music arrangement and a nother with singing. It is not uncommon for one person to combine all the credits). Taarab, as Askew (102- 3) explains, takes its name from the Arabic tarabun meaning joy, pleasure, delight, rapture, amus ement, entertainment, music, or ecstasy, a complete engagement with music. It is impe rative to add that this “complete engagement with music” spanning poetic composition, music arrangement and performance, is not essentially a private affair but rather a publicly accessible ar t form whose rendition spans both private and public interests, and in which wh at is sung is not only open to multiple interpretations, but also constitutes social action deployed to ne gotiate socioeconomic relations. Both Fair and Askew are agreed that, taarab songs are composed as social commentaries in which women as “composers” respond to and tr ansform local debates about class, gender and social relations into vers e and weave personal and communal experiences into songs, sung as personal statements on mo rals, relations and pr obity. The taarab song lyrics are embellished poetic compositions, rich in literary devices through which the songs ridicule socially unacceptable and deviant beha vior, praise and insult, warn and admonish perceived or imaginary personal or collectiv e enemies. The messages in the songs are sometimes products of true life experiences, po pular beliefs and discer nible lifestyles. They also reflect the nature of relations to social institutions, modes of inte rrelations or material circumstances. They may also be protests to or affirmations of social morals/behaviors such as greed, idleness, gossip, rumour and all manner of abhorrent sexual misconduct. Furthermore, they are also expressions of j oy, elation and personal or collective triumph. In essence, the songs are intricate yet generalized responses to soci al realities, beliefs, traditions, material conditions and institutional dynamics normally projected as personal or collective needs, desires, losses, miseries— in a word, various forms of social, economic and political struggles. They are in essence subtle strategies deployed to question, analyz e and reshape material and social relations. They are strata gems set out to publici ze and politicize private struggles—thus bringing into the public domai n subjects routinely muted, yet important at pointing out marginalized social act ors and competing alliances. By using extracts from three popular taarab s ongs, this paper examines how the taarab song lyrics in performance are viable sphe res for publicizing private pillow business. 3 Analyses of both the songs and their performances show clearly that they intricately articulate desires either denied or unful filled, with nuanced enunciations where the private and the public mutually interconnect a nd interrelate. Consequently the songs are an exposé, depiction and a rendition of underlying interactions tied to multiple and variable feminist locutions. Primarily, this paper, demonstrates how such locutions considered private are enabled— literally aired—through the public performance, recording and airplay of taarab songs

Zaloga GP, Marik PE, Bhatt B. "Critical illness and systemic inflammation.". 2001.Website
Zanchetti A, Mancia G. "Cardiovascular reflexes and hypertension." Hypertension. 1991;18:III13-21. Abstract

Both arterial baroreceptor reflexes and cardiopulmonary reflexes are modified in human hypertension. The arterial baroreceptor reflex regulation of heart rate, when tested by both vasoactive drug injection and the neck chamber technique, has been shown to be reset and blunted. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of blood pressure, studied by the neck chamber technique, has been found to be reset to more effectively buffer increases in blood pressure than blood pressure falls, but without any loss of overall reflex sensitivity. Cardiopulmonary reflexes, tested by passive leg raising and by application of lower body negative pressure, are also blunted, and their dysfunction involves not only control of peripheral vasoconstriction but also that of renin release. These readjustments of arterial and cardiopulmonary reflexes make buffering of blood pressure falls or of blood volume changes less effective in hypertension. These readjustments appear to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of hypertension. In particular, the blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes is induced more by left ventricular hypertrophy than by hypertension. It is very marked in hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and very significantly improves when left ventricular hypertrophy is made to regress by prolonged antihypertensive therapy; significant blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes has also been found in young athletes with marked left ventricular hypertrophy but normal blood pressure. Whether structural changes in the carotid and aortic wall and possibly in the heart are equally important in the readjustment of arterial baroreceptor reflexes is incompletely clarified at the moment, although there are indications that functional and structural modifications may both be involved.

Zander K;, Holm-Mueller K;, Mburu J. "Modelling the value of local cattle breeds – the case of the Borana cattle in East Africa."; 2013. Abstract

The Borana cattle, originated in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia, have been exported to various neighbouring countries as well as to Western countries such as USA and Australia due to the breed’s outstanding reputation of having unique traits that make it suitable for the harsh environment in the lowlands. In Ethiopia and Kenya, Borana cattle are the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is based on the husbandry of these animals. Nevertheless, the Borana breed is deteriorating in these countries and its cultural heritage is threatened due to genetic erosion and dwindling number of pure Borana animals as well as increasing crossbreeding among different breeds. This depletion has many driving factors such as population pressure, ecological changes, natural catastrophes and adverse economic conditions, and provides justification for conservation initiatives that preserve the irreversible loss of the Borana genes. The conservation of these animal genetic resources (AnGR) is crucial for future use and enhancement of global biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation purposes is scarce. Therefore, economic measures are needed to confirm the economic value of the Borana breed as an indicator for conservation justification. This study seeks to quantify the total value of the Borana cattle to the Ethiopian and Kenyan livestock-keepers and to show why it deserves priority in funding by applying a multinomial logit model (MNL) and as its extension a random parameter logit model (RPL). Both models are applied to a data set obtained from a stated preference choice experiment study on the value of different attributes of cattle. Such a data set is characterised by discrete choice data that can be sought as being generated via a random utility process revealing the livestock-keepers’ relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Furthermore, the results of the RPL supports decision-makers in finding appropriate conservation strategies by shedding light on heterogeneity among livestock-keepers’ preferences or utilities for different cattle breeds, showing which group of livestock-keepers could be targeted in conservation initiatives of the Borana cattle.

Zander, Kerstin; Mburu J. Compensating Pastoralists for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources: The Case of Borana Cattle in Ethiopia.; 2013. Abstract

The Borana cattle in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia have unique traits that make them suitable for the harsh environment in the lowlands and have ever been part of the pastoralists’ identity. Almost all the traditional and cultural rites of the pastoralists in these areas revolve around the Borana cattle, which are also the main source of their income. However, genetic erosion of this cattle breed has been occurring at unabated rate due to lack of incentives for conservation and driving factors such as population pressure, ecological changes, natural catastrophes and adverse economic conditions. This depletion contributes immense threats to the livelihoods of the local pastoral communities. Thus conservation efforts of these important animal genetic resources (AnGRs) by governments and other stakeholders would ensure not only the well-being of the pastoralists but also prevent losses in genetic materials for future use. At the moment, there are no compensatory mechanisms targeting pastoralists although exports of Borana cattle genetic materials to developed countries such as USA and Australia has been growing. There is also no documentary evidence that pastoralists do share benefits from such exports. Thus, this paper addresses the following questions: what kinds of pastoralists, due to their involvement in conservation, deserve compensation and how much should be the level of compensation? The empirical data analysed in this paper was collected from Borana pastoralists in Ethiopia. The magnitude of compensation payments is derived from the costs that pastoralists incur for maintaining only Borana cattle in their herds. These costs include costs for not keeping other breeds which are probably more economically attractive (opportunity costs), as well as transaction costs. Finally, several policy implications for community-based conservation of Borana cattle are derived.

Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

Zarins CK, Xu C, Taylor CA, Glagov S. "Localization of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: MD RWA, MD LHH, eds. Vascular {Surgery}. Blackwell Publishing; 2007:. Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: * Arterial structure and function * Physiologic adaptation of the arterial wall * Human atherosclerotic plaque morphology * Mechanical determinants of plaque localization * Susceptible regions of the arterial vasculature * Conclusion

Zavala DE, Bokongo S, Ime JA, Mpanga SI, Mtonga RE, Aminu ZM, Odhiambo W, Olupot-Olupot P. "Special section: a multinational injury surveillance system pilot project in Africa.". 2010.
Zavalaa, Diego E; Bokongo S; JSIM; MRMOWAIA; E. "Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system in Africa: lessons learned.". 2008. Abstract

A multinational injury surveillance pilot project was carried out in five African countries in the first half of 2007 (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Hospitals were selected in each country and a uniform methodology was applied in all sites, including an injury surveillance questionnaire designed by a joint programme of the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 4207 injury cases were registered in all hospitals. More than half of all injury cases were due to road traffic accidents (58.3%) and 40% were due to interpersonal violence. Self-inflicted injuries were minimal (1.2% of all cases). This report provides an assessment of the implementation of the project and a preliminary comparison between the five African countries on the context in which inter-personal injury cases occurred. Strengths and weaknesses of the project as well as opportunities and threats identified by medical personnel are summarized and discussed. A call is made to transform this pilot project into a sustainable public health strategy.

Zegers PV, Harmet KH, Hanzely L. "Inhibition of IAA-induced elongation in Avena coleoptile segments by lead: a physiological and an electron microscopic study." Cytobios. 1976;15(57):23-35. Abstract

A high resolution growth measuring apparatus was used to demonstrate the inhibition of auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments (Avena sativa L. var Holden) by lead at concentrations ranging from 2 x 10-6 M to 2 x 10-3 M. The inhibition was immediate, having no measurable lag period. Electron micrographs of lead-treated and control segments revealed that in the treated material, lead became localized as electron-dense granules in the cell walls and in vesicles associated with dictyosomes. These granules were found to be lead hydroxide phosphate by electron diffraction techniques. The possible significance of this localization and identification with regard to phosphatase activity is discussed.

Zeh C, Oyaro B, Vandenhoudt H, Amornkul P, Kasembeli A, Bondo P, Mwaengo D, Thomas TK, Hart C, Laserson KF, Ondoa P, Nkengasong JN. "Performance of six commercial enzyme immunoassays and two alternative HIV-testing algorithms for the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in Kisumu, Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Performances of serological parallel and serial testing algorithms were analyzed using a combination of three ELISA and three rapid tests for the confirmation of HIV infection. Each was assessed individually for their sensitivity and specificity on a blinded panel of 769 retrospective sera of known HIV status. Western blot was used as a confirmatory assay for discordant results. Subsequently, one parallel and one serial testing algorithm were assessed on a new panel of 912 HIV-positive and negative samples. Individual evaluation of the ELISAs and rapid tests indicated a sensitivity of 100% for all assays except Uni-Gold with 99.7%. The specificities ranged from 99.1% to 99.4% for rapid assays and from 97.5% to 99.1% for ELISAs. A parallel and serial testing algorithms using Enzygnost and Vironostika, and Determine followed by Uni-Gold respectively, showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The cost for testing 912 samples was US$4.74 and US$ 1.9 per sample in parallel and serial testing respectively. Parallel or serial testing algorithm yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. This alternative algorithm is reliable and reduces the occurrence of both false negatives and positives. The serial testing algorithm was more cost effective for diagnosing HIV infections in this population.

Zeh C, Amornkul PN, Inzaule S, Ondoa P, Oyaro B, Mwaengo DM, Vandenhoudt H, Gichangi A, Williamson J, Thomas T, De Cock KM, Hart C, Nkengasong J, Laserson. K. "Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. A panel of 298, HIV-seronegative individuals aged 13-34 years was randomly selected from participants in two population-based cross-sectional surveys assessing HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted infections in western Kenya. The adolescent (<18 years)-to-adults (≥ 18 years) ratio and the male-to-female ratio was 1∶1. Median and 95% reference ranges were calculated for immunohematological and biochemistry values. Compared with U.S-derived reference ranges, we detected lower hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), neutrophil, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen values but elevated eosinophil and total bilirubin values. Significant gender variation was observed in hematological parameters in addition to T-bilirubin and creatinine indices in all age groups, AST in the younger and neutrophil, platelet and CD4 indices among the older age group. Age variation was also observed, mainly in hematological parameters among males. Applying U.S. NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity grading to our results, 40% of otherwise healthy study participants were classified as having an abnormal laboratory parameter (grade 1-4) which would exclude them from participating in clinical trials. Hematological and biochemistry reference values from African population differ from those derived from a North American population, showing the need to develop region-specific reference values. Our data also show variations in hematological indices between adolescent and adult males which should be considered when developing reference ranges. This study provides the first locally-derived clinical laboratory reference ranges for adolescents and young adults in western Kenya.

ZEKE MRWAWERU. "Jointly edited a book on"Africa communication and the future".". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
ZEKE MRWAWERU. "Paper on"the issue of mass media and the Africa debt crisis (UNPUBLISHED).". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
Zemek J, Bílik V, Zákutná L. "Effect of some aldoses on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibited with molybdenum." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(6):467-9. Abstract

The inhibitory effect of molybdenum ions on growth of yeasts at pH 5.5 was found to be decreased by aldoses in the following order: D-talose greater than L-mannose greater than L-ribose greater than D-lyxose greater than L-galactose greater than L-arabinose greater than L-glucose greater than L-xylose. Increased concentrations of molybdenum brought about morphological changes of yeast cells. Cells grown under these conditions were smaller, had thicker walls and formed clusters.

Zhang J, Pazoki M, Simiyu J, Johansson MB, Cheung O, Häggman L, Johansson EMJ, Vlachopoulos N, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "The effect of mesoporous TiO2 pore size on the performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells based on photoelectrochemically polymerized Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conductor." Electrochimica Acta. 2016;210:23-31.
Zhang H, Thekisoe OMM, Kyan H, Yamagishi J, Inoue N, Nishikawa Y, Zakimi S. "Toxoplasma gondii: Sensitive and rapid detection of infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.". 2009. Abstract

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method amplifies DNA with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity. In this study, we used a conserved sequence in the 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp gene of Toxoplasma gondii to design primers for LAMP test. Detection limit of T. gondii LAMP assay with the primers is 1 pg/μL of T. gondii DNA, which was evaluated using 10-fold serially diluted DNA of cultured parasites. Furthermore, LAMP and conventional PCR methods were applied for amplification of the T. gondii DNA extracted from the lymph nodes taken from pigs which were suspected to be Toxoplasma infection. As a result, 76.9% (70/91) and 85.7% (78/91) of the samples were positive on PCR and LAMP analyzes, respectively. Therefore, the LAMP has a potential to be applied as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool for detection of T. gondii infection from veterinary samples. This is the first study, which applies the LAMP method to diagnose Toxoplasma from veterinary samples.

Zhang X, Wallace OL, Domi A, Wright KJ, Driscoll J, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Allen S, Fast P, Gilmour J, Price MA, Parks CL. "Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein." Virology. 2015;482:218-24. Abstract

Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.

Zhao Z, Jiang C. "Effect of myopia on ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer measurements: a {Fourier}-domain optical coherence tomography study of young {Chinese} persons." Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. 2013;41:561-566. AbstractWebsite

Background To investigate the change of the ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer under different refractive conditions, as measured by optical coherence tomography. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Participants A total of 107 eyes from 107 subjects were studied. Methods Ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were studied by a spectral-domain system. Their relationship against spherical equivalents and axial length was studied. Main Outcome Measures The thickness of ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer at different area and under different refractive conditions as measurements by optical coherence tomography. Results The average, superior and inferior macular ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.05) and axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thicknesses from the superior, inferior and temporal quadrants were associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.01), axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05) and ganglion cell complex thickness (all P {\textless} 0.001), except for the nasal part. However, if the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness was studied in sections, then some parts of the upper and lower temporal part showed no correlation with either spherical equivalents or axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Conclusions The thicknesses of the ganglion cell complex and most of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer were correlated with refraction and axial length. Therefore, when using these for clinical purposes, attention must be paid to the refractive state of the patient.

Zhao S, Tian H, Ma L, Yuan Y, Yu RC, Ma M. "Activity-{Dependent} {Modulation} of {Odorant} {Receptor} {Gene} {Expression} in the {Mouse} {Olfactory} {Epithelium}." PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69862. AbstractWebsite

Activity plays critical roles in development and maintenance of the olfactory system, which undergoes considerable neurogenesis throughout life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) stably expresses a single odorant receptor (OR) type out of a repertoire of ∼1200 and the OSNs with the same OR identity are distributed within one of the few broadly-defined zones. However, it remains elusive whether and how activity modulates such OR expression patterns. Here we addressed this question by investigating OR gene expression via in situ hybridization when sensory experience or neuronal excitability is manipulated. We first examined the expression patterns of fifteen OR genes in mice which underwent neonatal, unilateral naris closure. After four-week occlusion, the cell density in the closed (sensory-deprived) side was significantly lower (for four ORs), similar (for three ORs), or significantly higher (for eight ORs) as compared to that in the open (over-stimulated) side, suggesting that sensory inputs have differential effects on OSNs expressing different OR genes. We next examined the expression patterns of seven OR genes in transgenic mice in which mature OSNs had reduced neuronal excitability. Neuronal silencing led to a significant reduction in the cell density for most OR genes tested and thinner olfactory epithelium with an increased density of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that sensory experience plays important roles in shaping OR gene expression patterns and the neuronal activity is critical for survival of OSNs.

Zheng JW, Qiu WL, Zhang ZY, Lin GC, Zhu HG. "[{Anatomical} and histologic study of the cervical vessels in goats]." Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology. 2000;9:39-41. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the normal anatomic relations and histologic features of the cervical arteries and veins of goat, with the aim of providing a basis for resection and reconstruction of the common carotid artery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical dissection was performed on 15 healthy adult goats under general anaesthesia. The external diameters of the common carotid artery (CCA) and external jugular vein(EJV) were measured at their midpoints. 1 cm of the CCA and EJV was subject to light microscopic examination. Direct carotid angiography was performed on 2 selected goats to observe the course and branches of the carotid artery and normal blood flow mapping of the CCA was recorded using Laser Doppler Flowmeter. RESULTS:The average external diameter of the EJV was 5.4 mm for the left side and 5.3 mm for the right side. The average external diameter of the CCA was 3.8 mm for the left side and 3.6 mm for the right side. Histologic examinations found that the media of the carotid artery had 10-15 layers of smooth muscles. The EJV had valvulae, its wall was thin, only 1-2 layers of smooth muscle were contained in its medium. CONCLUSION:The CCA and EJV of the goat had a longer course in the neck, and a larger diameter (3-5 mm). Their histologic structures were similar to that of the human being, which makes it advantageous to be more often used as an animal model in experimental surgery.

Zhou X, An J, Wu X, Lu R, Huang Q, Xie R, Jiang L, Qu J. "Relative axial myopia induced by prolonged light exposure in {C}57BL/6 mice." Photochemistry and photobiology. 2010;86:131-137. Abstract

Ambient lighting is essential for ocular development in many species, however, disruption in diurnal lighting cycle can affect the development in refraction and axial growth of the eye. This study investigated the effects of prolonged daily lighting on refraction and various optical components of the eye by raising C57BL/6 mice under three different light/dark cycles (18/6, 12/12 and 6/18). Egr-1 mRNA expression, apoptosis and histology of the retina and size of the scleral fibrils were evaluated in these three lighting cycles. Results showed that there was a trend of myopic development, increasing vitreous chamber depth and thinning of the retina in eyes from 6/18 to 18/6 groups. Retinal Egr-1 mRNA expression and diameter of scleral fibrils were reduced with the prolongation of daily lighting from 6/18 to 18/6. However, retinal apoptosis was not detected in all the groups. These results suggest that prolonged lighting can induce axial myopia in inbred mice. This model, which uses mice with similar genetic backgrounds, provides an alternative to the currently available models and therefore is useful for evaluation of refractive errors caused by changes in environmental illumination.

Zimmermann MB. "Iodine deficiency." Endocrine reviews. 2009;30:376-408. AbstractWebsite
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Zimmermann MB, Ito Y, Hess SY, Fujieda K, Molinari L. "High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes." The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;81:840-844. AbstractWebsite
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Zin AAM, Shakir KAR, Aminuddin AR, Mahedzan MR, Irnawati WAR, Andee DZ, Hassan SA, Ezane MA, Hasnan MN. "Solid-pseudopapillary carcinoma: a case study and literature review." BMJ case reports. 2012;2012:bcr2012006495. AbstractWebsite
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Zipf WB, Bacon GE, Spencer ML, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, Hawker CD. "Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 1979;2:265-268. Abstract

The effects of intravenous administration of potassium phosphate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis were studied in nine children, ages 9 9/12 to 17 10/12 yr. During phosphate infusion (20–40 meq/L of fluid), all children maintained normal serum concentrations of phosphorus. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in six and transient hypomagnesemia in five patients. One child developed carpopedal spasms refractory to intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate but responsive to intramuscular injection of magnesium sulfate. In three patients, serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were low at the time of hypocalcemia, an observation that suggests transient hypoparathyroidism. This study indicates that the use of potassium phosphate as the sole source of potassium replacement might potentiate ketoacidosis-induced hypocalcemia through multiple mechanisms.

Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Rohit P, Robinson M, Ralph S. "First-principle investigation of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Co2VIn and CoVIn Heusler compounds." AIP Advances. 2017;7. Abstract

Investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of full-Heusler Co2VIn as well as half-Heusler CoVIn Cobalt based Heusler compounds using density functional theory (DFT) leads to the general conclusion that Co2VIn and CoVIn are half-metallic materials with a gap at the Fermi level in the minority states and majority states respectively. A Hubbard-like Coulomb correlation term U has been included in the DFT (DFT+U) for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties of the compounds. The structural properties have been calculated for the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, and both Co2VIn and CoVIn are found to be stable in the ferromagnetic phase. The calculated magnetic moments are 2 μB2 μB and 0.9 μB0.9 μB per formula unit for Co2VIn and CoVIn respectively.

ZL T, CS K, DW M. "Prevalence of non thyroidal illness among HIV patients on HAART." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87(1):34-41.
and Zubeda Mucheke DNBS. "Challenges to electronic conveyancing in Kenya." Open University of Tanzania Law Journal. 2018.
Zuriel D, Fink-Puches R, Cerroni L. "A case of primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with a 22-year indolent clinical course.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare type of cytotoxic lymphoma involving mainly the upper aerodigestive tract and associated with Epstein-Barr virus. The disease has usually a poor prognosis related to several factors. The skin is the second most common affected organ, and cases may be localized to the skin only without any other extracutaneous manifestations. Although primary cutaneous cases may have a better prognosis, survival usually is still poor. We report a case of primary cutaneous extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in a 77-year-old woman with an indolent course for more than 22 years and still limited to the skin.

Zuzarte JC;, Kasili EG. "Hepatitis B antigen--a review.". 1978.
Zziwa E, Kironchi G;, Gachene CK, Mugerwa S;, Mpairwe D. "Production systems, land cover change and soil factors affecting pastur e production in semi1arid Nakasongola.". 2011. Abstract

The current pace of rangeland degradation imparted by appalling land use and management systems is greatly limiting the potential of the soil resource to support pasture production in semi - arid rangeland s of Uganda. Our objectives were to determine the effects of land cover change and production systems on pasture biomass yield and to identify the critical soil factors affecting pasture production in Nakasongola. The area was stratified into three product ion systems and three land cover types from which six pasture and soil samples were collected following a Modified - Whittaker sampling method. Pasture biomass was significantly high (p < 0.0001) under herbaceous cover (2019 kg/ha) compared to woody (1302 kg /ha) and bare which had no pasture biomass. The settled production system had a significantly (p = 0.013) high pasture biomass (1266 kg/ha) compared to non settled (1102 kg/ha) and semi settled systems (953 kg/ha). Biomass yield was more associated with hi gh levels of organic matter (r = 0.91), calcium (r = 0.91), magnesium (0.83), nitrogen (r = 0.77) and base saturation (r = 0.88). It can be concluded that maintaining native vegetation cover of the rangelands and increasing levels of limiting nutrients are the major strategies for increasing pasture production in semi - arid rangelands of Nakasongola

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