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Uchino A, Sawada A, Takase Y, Kudo S. "Variations of the superior cerebellar artery: {MR} angiographic demonstration." Radiation Medicine. 2003;21:235-238. Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe variations of the proximal segments of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) detected by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 145 consecutive MR angiograms. All patients were studied with a 1.5-Tesla imager using the three-dimensional time-of-flight technique. RESULTS: There were 16 duplicated SCAs in 13 patients, seven SCAs originating from the posterior cerebral arteries in six patients, four early bifurcations of the SCAs in four patients, and one SCA arising from the internal carotid artery. Because the SCA is small in caliber, the bilateral SCAs in nine patients could not be identified on MR angiograms owing to patient movement. In two patients with duplicated SCA, one of the duplicated trunks compressed the trigeminal nerve at the root entry zone, resulting in trigeminal neuralgia. CONCLUSION: Although most of these SCA variations have no clinical significance, preoperative identification of SCA variations is important for avoiding complications during surgery and/or for interventional procedures of the distal basilar artery.

Uchino A, Sawada A, Takase Y, Kudo S. "Variations of the superior cerebellar artery: {MR} angiographic demonstration." Radiation medicine. 2002;21:235-238. AbstractWebsite
n/a
UD A, K K, Gachago MM, A M. Outcome Of Age-Related Cataract Surgery At Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria In Year 2015. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Udomkun P, Wossen T, Nabahungu NL, Mutegi C, Vanlauwe B, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay. "Incidence and farmers’ knowledge of aflatoxin contamination and control in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo." Food Science & Nutrition. 2018.
Ueckermann EA, Theron PD, Knapp M. "The tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) of Kenya and a redescription of the species Peltanobia erasmusi Meyer (Acari: Tetranychidae) based on males.". 2009. Abstractfull_text_.pdfWebsite

This paper reports 18 tetranychid mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) from various plant hosts in Kenya. Four species of these belong to the subfamily Bryobiinae and the other 14 belong to the subfamily Tetranychinae. Eight of the mite species identified belong to the genera Bryobia, Petrobia, Peltanobia, Paraplonobia, Duplanychus, Eutetranychus and Mixonychus and are being reported for the first time in Kenya while the other ten had already been reported before. The paper provides a list of these species and their brief descriptions as well as a redescription of Peltanobia erasmusi Meyer (Acari: Tetranychidae) to include male characters that were not included in the original description.

Ueda Y, Aizawa M, Takahashi A, Fujii M, Isaka Y. "Exaggerated compensatory response to acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder is induced by increased lactic acid production." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2009;24:825-828. AbstractWebsite

Background. In acute respiratory alkalosis, the severity of alkalaemia is ameliorated by a decrease in plasma [HCO3−] of 0.2 mEq/L for each 1 mmHg decrease in PaCO2. Although hyperventilation in panic disorder patients is frequently encountered in outpatients, the drop in plasma [HCO3−] sometimes surpasses the expectation calculated from the above formula. The quantitative relationship between reduced PaCO2 and plasma [HCO3−] in acute respiratory alkalosis has not been studied in panic disorder patients. Our objective was to provide reference data for the compensatory metabolic changes in acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder patients. Methods. In 34 panic disorder patients with hyperventilation attacks, we measured arterial pH, PaCO2, plasma [HCO3−] and lactate on arrival at the emergency room. Results. For each decrease of 1 mmHg in PaCO2, plasma [HCO3−] decreased by 0.41 mEq/L. During hypocapnia, panic disorder patients exhibited larger increases in serum lactate levels (mean ± SD; 2.59 ± 1.50 mmol/L, range; 0.78–7.78 mmol/L) than previously reported in non-panic disorder subjects. Plasma lactate accumulation was correlated with PaCO2 (P {\textless} 0.001). Conclusions. These results suggest that the compensatory metabolic response to acute respiratory alkalosis is exaggerated by increased lactic acid production in panic disorder patients. Here, we call attention to the diagnosis of acid–base derangements by means of plasma [HCO3−] and lactate concentration in panic disorder patients.

Uhl GR, Arinami T, Teasenfitz L, Macharia D, Iwasaki S, Inada T, Lujilde J, Hope B, Akinshola EB, Brusco A, Gardner E, Tagliaferro PA, Mora Z, Perchuk A, Myers L, Meozzi PA, Patel S, Gong J-P, Ishiguro H, Onaivi mail ES. "Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.". 2008.
Ujeneza E, Njenga HN, Mbui D, Kariuki DN. "Optimization of Acid ACtivation Conditions for Athi River Bentonite Clay and Application of the Treated Clay in Palm Oil Bleaching." IOSR-Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(8):29-38.
Ujiji OA;, Rubenson B;, Ilako F;, Marrone G;, Wamalwa D;, Wangalwa G;, Ekström AM. "Is 'Opt-Out HIV Testing' a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya?". 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND: An 'opt-out' policy of routine HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa to expand prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Although the underlying assumption is that pregnant women in rural Africa are able to voluntarily consent to HIV testing, little is known about the reality and whether 'opt-out' HCT leads to higher completion rates of PMTCT. Factors associated with consent to HIV testing under the 'opt-out' approach were investigated through a large cross-sectional study in Kenya. METHODS: Observations during HIV pre-test information sessions were followed by a cross-sectional survey of 900 pregnant women in three public district hospitals carrying out PMTCT in the Busia district. Women on their first antenatal care (ANC) visit during the current pregnancy were interviewed after giving blood for HIV testing but before learning their test results. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Of the 900 women participating, 97% tested for HIV. Lack of testing kits was the only reason for women not being tested, i.e. nobody declined HIV testing. Despite the fact that 96% had more than four earlier pregnancies and 37% had been tested for HIV at ANC previously, only 17% of the women surveyed knew that testing was optional. Only 20% of those surveyed felt they could make an informed decision to decline HIV testing. Making an informed decision to decline HIV testing was associated with knowing that testing was optional (OR = 5.44, 95%CI 3.44-8.59), not having a stable relationship with the child's father (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.02-3.03), and not having discussed HIV testing with a partner before the ANC visit (OR = 2.64 95%CI 1.79-3.86). CONCLUSION: High coverage of HIV testing appears to be achieved at the cost of pregnant women not understanding that testing is optional. Good quality HIV pre-test information is central to ensure that pregnant women understand and accept the reasons for testing and will thus come back to collect their test results, an important prerequisite for completing PMTCT for those who test HIV-positive.

Ulrich W, Soliveres S, Maestre FT, Gotelli NJ, Quero JL, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Bowker MA, Eldridge DJ, Ochoa V, Gozalo B, others. "Climate and soil attributes determine plant species turnover in global drylands." Journal of biogeography. 2014;41:2307-2319. Abstract
n/a
Ulzen TPM, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Mental Retardation."; 2006.
Umar M, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Kamau Werũ-inĩ wa Mũthanga . London: Salaam Publishing; 2019.
Umar M, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Kamau Mũtitũ-inĩ . London: Salaam Publishing; 2019.
Umpierrez GE, Latif K, Stoever J, Cuervo R, Park L, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Efficacy of subcutaneous insulin lispro versus continuous intravenous regular insulin for the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 2004;117:291-296. Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous insulin lispro with that of a standard low-dose intravenous infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized open trial, 20 patients treated with subcutaneous insulin lispro were managed in regular medicine wards (n=10) or an intermediate care unit (n=10), while 20 patients treated with the intravenous protocol were managed in the intensive care unit. Patients treated with subcutaneous lispro received an initial injection of 0.3 unit/kg followed by 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia (blood glucose levels {\textless}250 mg/dL), followed by 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textgreater} or =7.3, bicarbonate {\textgreater} or =18 mEq/L). Patients treated with intravenous regular insulin received an initial bolus of 0.1 unit/kg, followed by an infusion of 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia, then 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Mean (+/- SD) admission biochemical parameters in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro (glucose: 674 +/- 154 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 9.2 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.17 +/- 0.10) were similar to values in patients treated with intravenous insulin (glucose: 611 +/- 264 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 10.6 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.19 +/- 0.08). The duration of treatment until correction of hyperglycemia (7 +/- 3 hours vs. 7 +/- 2 hours) and resolution of ketoacidosis (10 +/- 3 hours vs. 11 +/- 4 hours) in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro was not different than in patients treated with intravenous regular insulin. There were no deaths in either group, and there were no differences in the length of hospital stay, amount of insulin until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis, or in the rate of hypoglycemia between treatment groups. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in the intensive care unit was associated with 39% higher hospitalization charges than was treatment with subcutaneous lispro in a non-intensive care setting (\$14,429 +/- \$5243 vs. \$8801 +/- \$5549, P {\textless}0.01). CONCLUSION: Treatment of adult patients who have uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous lispro every hour in a non-intensive care setting may be safe and more cost-effective than treatment with intravenous regular insulin in the intensive care unit.

Umpierrez GE, Jones S, Smiley D, Mulligan P, Keyler T, Temponi A, Semakula C, Umpierrez D, Peng L, Cerón M, Robalino G. "Insulin analogs versus human insulin in the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized controlled trial." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1164-1169. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of insulin analogs and human insulins both during acute intravenous treatment and during the transition to subcutaneous insulin in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a controlled multicenter and open-label trial, we randomly assigned patients with DKA to receive intravenous treatment with regular or glulisine insulin until resolution of DKA. After resolution of ketoacidosis, patients treated with intravenous regular insulin were transitioned to subcutaneous NPH and regular insulin twice daily (n = 34). Patients treated with intravenous glulisine insulin were transitioned to subcutaneous glargine once daily and glulisine before meals (n = 34). RESULTS: There were no differences in the mean duration of treatment or in the amount of insulin infusion until resolution of DKA between intravenous treatment with regular and glulisine insulin. After transition to subcutaneous insulin, there were no differences in mean daily blood glucose levels, but patients treated with NPH and regular insulin had a higher rate of hypoglycemia (blood glucose {\textless}70 mg/dl). Fourteen patients (41%) treated with NPH and regular insulin had 26 episodes of hypoglycemia and 5 patients (15%) in the glargine and glulisine group had 8 episodes of hypoglycemia (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Regular and glulisine insulin are equally effective during the acute treatment of DKA. A transition to subcutaneous glargine and glulisine after resolution of DKA resulted in similar glycemic control but in a lower rate of hypoglycemia than with NPH and regular insulin. Thus, a basal bolus regimen with glargine and glulisine is safer and should be preferred over NPH and regular insulin after the resolution of DKA.

Umpierrez GE, Cuervo R, Karabell A, Latif K, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous insulin aspart." Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1873-1878. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: In this prospective, randomized, open trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of aspart insulin given subcutaneously at different time intervals to a standard low-dose intravenous (IV) infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 45 consecutive patients admitted with DKA were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous (SC) aspart insulin every hour (SC-1h

Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Oyugi J, Schnabel D, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence and factors influencing the distribution of influenza viruses in Kenya: Seven-year hospital-based surveillance of influenza-like illness (2007-2013)." PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237857. Abstractumuhoza_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses remain a global threat with the potential to trigger outbreaks and pandemics. Globally, seasonal influenza viruses' mortality range from 291 243-645 832 annually, of which 17% occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of influenza infections in Kenya, identifying factors influencing the distribution of these infections, and describe trends in occurrence from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted at eight district hospital sites countrywide. Participants who met the case definition for influenza-like illness were enrolled in the surveillance program. The nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from all participants. We tested all specimens for influenza viruses with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Bivariate and multivariate log-binomial regression was performed with a statistically significant level of p<0.005. An administrative map of Kenya was used to locate the geographical distribution of surveillance sites in counties. We visualized the monthly trend of influenza viruses with a graph and chart using exponential smoothing at a damping factor of 0.5 over the study period (2007-2013). RESULTS: A total of 17446 participants enrolled in the program. The overall prevalence of influenza viruses was 19% (n = 3230), of which 76% (n = 2449) were type A, 21% (n = 669) type B and 3% (n = 112) A/ B coinfection. Of those with type A, 59% (n = 1451) were not subtyped. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was found in 48% (n = 475), influenza A/H1N1/pdm 2009 in 43% (n = 434), and seasonal influenza A/ H1N1 in 9% (n = 88) participants. Both genders were represented, whereas a large proportion of participants 55% were

undefined, S. P, M OJ. "School feeding program and pupils’ participation in primary schools in Kenya. A study of Taita Taveta and Nairobi districts." Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) . 2013;Vol 1 No 1.khatete_5.pdf
undefined. "Reforming the Duties of Directors under the Kenyan Company Law: A Critique." European Business Law Review. 2019;30(4):617.
undefined. Effects of lactoperoxidase system in camel milk for preservation and fermentation purposes. Wangoh J, Lamuka PO, eds. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Summary
This study was conducted to investigate preservative effect of the LPsystem
on both raw and pasteurized camel milk. The effect of the LPsystem
on selected starter cultures in the raw and pasteurized camel
milk was also investigated. Experiments were therefore conducted to:
 evaluate the effect of LP-system activation on shelf-life of raw
camel milk with the underlying activities being to:
o determine the duration of antibacterial effect in camel milk
stored at different temperatures after activation of its LPsystem
and
o monitor effect on keeping quality of increasing
concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and hydrogen
peroxide within physiological limits.
 determine the effect of the LP-system on keeping quality in
pasteurised camel milk
 determine the effect of the LP-system on starter culture activity in
camel heat treated and raw camel milk.
The concentration of thiocyanate occurring naturally in the milk used in
the present investigations ranged from 9.7 to 36.4 mg/l. No addition of
thiocyanate was therefore necessary to activate the LP-system. The
average thiocyanate values of camel milk from different sites were
2
15.8, 32.9 and 9.74 mg/l and were significantly different (p<0.001)
across the three sampling sites in this study.
Changes in total viable counts between LP-activated and LPinactivated
camel milk were determined during storage at 10, 20 and
30°C. Viable counts increased with storage temperature. Microbial
growth was halted for 15, 17 and 76 hours at 30, 20 and 10°C
respectively by activation of the LP-system in raw camel milk. At 30°C
the effect was mainly bacteriostatic and at 20°C, there was an initial
bactericidal effect in the first 15 hours. At 10°C, the bactericidal effect
was noted throughout the period of 76 hours.
The titratable acidity between LP-activated and LP-inactivated camel
milk was determined during storage at 10, 20 and 30°C. There lag in
acid production of 14, 23, and 10 hours at 10, 20 and 30°C
respectively as compared to the controls and was significantly different
(p>0.05) across the three incubation temperatures. Shelf life difference
between LP-system activated samples and their respective controls
was 19 hours at both 10 and 20°C and 4 hours at 30°C.
The differences in mean acid produced between the control samples
and the activated samples, however, were 0.12, 0.61 and 0.49 for 10,
20 and 30°C respectively. Inhibition of acid production by the LPsystem
increased from significant (p<0.05) during storage at 10°C to
highly significant (p<0.01) during storage at 20 and 30°C. The present
investigation therefore shows that by activating the LP-system it is
3
possible to extend the storage period of raw camel milk and that the
effect of the LP-system on the microbes present varies with
temperature of storage.
The effect of increasing levels of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide
on antibacterial activity of LP-system in raw camel milk at 30ºC was
investigated. Changes in total viable counts and lactic acid
development in raw camel milk at concentrations of 0, 10:10, 20:20,
30:30 and 40:40ppms, NaSCN
-
:H2O2 were monitored. The delay in
multiplication of bacteria increased significantly with an increase in the
LP-system components from no lag phase in the control to 4, 6, 11.5
and 9.5 hours in the 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm levels of
NaSCN/H2O2 respectively.. The lag in acid production was 0, 4.8, 6, 12
and 8 hours for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm dose of
NaSCN:H2O2, respectively. The shelf life of the camel milk was 4, 6,
12, 16 and 16 hours, respectively, for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40
ppm dose of NaSCN:H2O2.
Lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was activated in camel milk followed by
pasteurization after 0, 4, and 8 hours after of storage.
This resulted in a shelf life of 15, 32, 17 and 17 days for the nonactivated
control and those activated after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage
respectively during storage of samples at 10ºC. At 20°C, the shelf life
was 6, 13, 9 and 7 days for non-activated control and those activated
after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage respectively. These results showed
4
a significant effect of storage time prior to pasteurisation on the effect
of the LP-system on the surviving microflora between the control and
activated samples at all the 3 times of storage prior to pasteurisation
(p<0.001). The number of viable bacteria in untreated sample reached
108 after 45 days compared to 105-107 in treated samples during
storage at 10ºC and 108 after 15 days in untreated compared to 107-
106 in treated samples under storage at 20ºC. The mean specific
growth rates at 10ºC storage temperature were 0.51, 0.2, 0.41 and 0.5
for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively and were significantly lower in the LP-treated camel
milk samples than in the control (p<0.001). At 20ºC storage
temperature, the mean specific growth rates were 1,46, 0.27, 0.69 and
1 for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively. These were also significantly lower in the LPtreated
camel milk samples than in the control (p<0.001)
Sensitivity of lactic starter cultures to LP-system was investigated by
monitoring acid production by mesophillic, thermophillic and Suusac
starter cultures in both LP-system treated and untreated camel milk.
Inoculation with starter was done after zero, 4 and 8 hours of storage
of LP-activated samples.
In all the three starters, LP-system activation resulted in a significant
slow down in acid development in raw camel milk activated and
inoculated immediately. For the thermophillic starter mean lactic acid
5
was 0.41, 0.32, 0.35 and 0.36 for the inactivated control sample and
those activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and the
activated samples were very highly significant (p<0.001), highly
significant (p<0.01) and not significant (p>0.05) at the inoculation times
o, 4 and 8 respectively. For the Suusac starter, mean lactic acid was
0.67, 0.62, 0.67 and 0.52 for the inactivated control sample and those
activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and
activated samples were highly significant (p<0.01) at all the inoculation
times after activation. However, for mesophillic starter culture the mean
values of lactic acid produced were 0.53, 0.48, 0.42 and 0.54 for the
inactivated control and activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4,
and 8 hours respectively. The differences in means between the
control and activated samples were significant (p<0.01) at 0 and 4
hours and non-significant (p>0.05) at 8 hours. This implied that camel
milk preserved using this method could support satisfactory mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity if the milk is held prior to
processing.
The investigation on the effect of the LP-system on starter activity in
camel milk heat-treated prior to inoculation showed that heat treatment
reduced starter inhibition by the LP-system for the mesophillic and
thermophillic starter cultures for samples LP-system activated, heat
6
treated and inoculated at immediately. For the mesophillic starter mean
lactic acid values for the inactivated control sample, activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40
respectively. The differences in mean lactic acid values between the
control and activated samples showed that a non-significant effect of
inoculation time at time 0 (p>0.05), a significant effect after 4 hours
(p<0.05), and a very highly significant effect (p<0.001) after 8 hours.
Mean lactic acid values for the thermophillic starter for the inactivated
control sample and those activated and then inoculated after 0, 4 and 8
hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40 respectively. The inhibition
changed from insignificant (p>0.05) on inoculation at time 0 and 4
hours (p<0.05) and was highly significant (p<0.01) on inoculation after
8 hours. Thus the inhibitory effect of the LP-system on mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity in heat treated camel milk
apparently is reactivated and increases with time of preservation of raw
milk by LP-system. However with suusac starter, the mean lactic acid
values inactivated control sample and those activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours respectively were 0.69, 0.58, 0.64
and 0.71. At zero and four hours after activation inhibition was
significant (p<0.05) compared to a non-significantly different inhibition
(p>0.05) on inoculation after 8 hours of storage.
The use of the LP-system might therefore have a significant influence
on the time taken to reach the desired pH in the vat, which is a critical
7
factor for the manufacturer of fermented camel milk and this influence
is dependent on the time of preservation of raw camel milk prior to
processing of fermented products.

undefined. "Streamline and standardize part-time lecturers’ terms." Daily Nation, August 17, 2019:32.
undefined. "Are universities losing autonomy or just resisting accountability?" Daily Nation, March 15, 2019:14.
UngaiShihembetsa DL. "An Appraisal of Community Initiative in the Provision and Management of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Kiambiu Slum Settlement in Nairobi." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), . 2018;Volume 23, (Issue 10, Ver. 1(October. 2018) 49-62. e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845).
sponsored by UNICEF(DHE). "Essential drugs and rational use of antibiotics AND Childhood Asthma : Primary health Care manual .". In: Essential drugs and rational use of antibiotics AND Childhood Asthma . unicef; 2008.
UNPAD. "Appraisal of the African Problem: A Case of Administration on Crisis Management." UNPAD Journal of International Law. 2005;Vol. 4. No. 1, pp. 31 – 58.
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. "Strategies for Success: A case Study of Food Processing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: SAFIC ( Successful African Firms and Institutional change) Project Third Annual Workshop. Arusha, Tanzania; 2015.
Upadhyaya R. "Corporate Governance: Debates In The Literature And The Experience Of The Kenyan Banking Sector.". In: ESRC Corporate Governance, Regulation and Development Seminar Series. Oriel College, University of Oxford; 2009.
Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "85 Flower formation in Primula vulgaris.". 2002.Website
Upadhyaya R. "Cross border Banking in the East African Community: Regulatory Opportunities and Challanges.". In: Africa and New Global Finance: Macroeconomic Policy and Regulatory Responses. University College, University of Oxford; 2015.
Upadhyaya R, Johnson S. "Financialization at the Margins: Trajectories of Financial Inclusion in Kenya.". In: AHE/IIPPE/FAPE Conference. Paris, France; 2012.
Upadhyaya R. "The Politics of High Level of Adoption of Global Banking Standars in Kenya: "A Case of Alignment of Donor, Government and Banking Sector Interests".". In: Second Annual Workshop - LICs Navigating Global Banking Standards. Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford; 2017.
Upadhyaya R, Johnson S. "Evolution of Kenya's Banking Sector 2000-2012. In A Heyer & M. King (Eds.).". In: The Kenyan Financial Transformation. Nairobi: FSD Nairobi; 2015.
Upadhyaya R. "Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Empirical Literature. In K. Ruziev & N. Perdikis (Eds.).". In: Development and financial Survey in Emerging Economies. London: Pickering & Chatto; 2014.
Upadhyaya R, Tavasci D, Toporowski J. "Niebyl, Money and Development.". In: SOAS Department of Economics Working paper series 157.; 2008.
Upadhyaya R. "The State of Economic Heterodoxy in Research on the Banking sector in Africa.". In: 10th Anniversary Conference of Association of Heterodoxy Economics. Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge; 2008.
URBAC FL, WANDIGA S 0. "H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for the Pseudo-octahedral.". 1970;1572. Abstractpubs.rsc.org

Summary From lH n.m.r. studies the trigonal hexadentate complex, [ 1,1,l-tris(pyridine-2-carboxaldiminornethy-l ) ethane]iron(~~is) ,s hown to possess a pseudo-octahedral geometry and to racemize readily.
M-E report here the observation of raceniization of the pseudo-octahedral complex [ lI1,l-tris(pyridine-2-carboxaldiminomethyl) ethane]iron( 11), [Fe(py,tame)I2+, as deduced from the lH n.m.r. behaviour of the diastereotopic methylene protons. The complex, synthesizcd by the literature niethod,l was isolated as red-purple crystals having the stoicheiometry Fe(py3tame)C1,,2H,O. The lH n.m.r. spectrum of [Fe(py,tame)I2+ in D,O was measured with a Varian HA-100 MHz spectrometer with sodium 3-(trimethylsilyl)propane-l-sulphonatea s an internal reference. The observation of one resonance (6 9.26 p.p.m.) for the azomethine protons and a single set of resonances for the pyridine protons (6 7-50, 7.70, 8.24, and 8-41 p.p.m.) confirms the hexadentate co-ordination of the intact Schiff -base iigand. At 25” the methylene protons exhibit an AB pattern with 6, 3.99, 6b 4.12 p.p.m., and Jab 14 Hz. This diastereotopic behaviour of the methylene protons could only arise from a chiral, pseudo-octahedral geometry of the complex.

Urthaler F, Walker AA, Hefner LL, James TN. "Comparison of contractile performance of canine atrial and ventricular muscles." Circ. Res.. 1975;37(6):762-71. Abstract

This study compared the contractile performance of a canine right atrial trabecula with that of a macroscopically indistinguishable trabecula isolated from the right ventricular apex. The heart was removed from nine mongrel puppies weighing 6-8 kg and placed in Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate solution. The bathing solution contained only 1.25 mmoles of Ca2+ and was bubbled with a 95% O2-5% CO2 gas mixture. Each atrial trabecula was specially selected from the right atrial appendage. Histologically, these trabeculae showed a remarkable longitudinal orientation of the fibers. At Lmax (the length of the muscle at which developed tension was maximum) under identical conditions of temperature, rate of stimulation, ionic milieu, pH, and O2 and CO2 supply, right atrial trabeculae achieved the same developed and total tensions but in a much shorter time than did ventricular trabeculae. In both muscle groups the maximum developed tension averaged about 2.5 g/mm2. Since Lo (expressed as a fraction of Lmax) was less in atrial muscle than it was in ventribular muscle, we concluded that atrial muscle can be stretched considerably more than can ventricular muscle before optimum length is reached. At any given initial muscle length, the maximum of tension rise for atrial trabeculae amounted to at least twice that for ventricular trabeculae. At any given load up to 1.5 g/mm2, the maximum velocity of shortening of an atrial trabecula was about three to four times that of a ventricular trabecula. These results collectively indicate that the contractile performance of the right atrial muscle is in many respects superior to that of the right ventricle, at least under the conditions of these experiments.

Uwakwe R, Dhadphale M, editor Ndetei, D.M., Nakasujja N, Maru HM, Musisi S. "Old Age and Mental Health."; 2006.
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Mwanja WW, Akol MA, Bugenyi FW, Mwanja MT, Banga JM, Msuku BS. "Status of rural aquaculture in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: African Journal of Ecology 45: 165-174. African Journal of Ecology; 2007. Abstract

Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities

UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Abubakar L. U., Zimba G., Wells C., Mulaa F., Osir E. O. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. Abubakar L.U; 2003. Abstract
Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro. Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells. Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds. Key words: Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Burugu, M. W., Mbatia, B. N., Osir, E. O., Kenya, E. U., Abubakar, L. U. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science; 2008. Abstract
Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Osir E. O., Abubakar L.U., Abakar, M. .". In: 25th Meeting of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research & Control (ISCTRC) Mombasa, KENYA. ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro. Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells. Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds. Key words: Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kyallo M, Pelle R. "Vector genomics and arthropod-borne diseases in Africa.". In: Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Congress. Drakensberg, South Africa: 1. Abubakar L.U., Mwangi C. N., Uku J., Ndirangu S.; 2012. Abstractabstract_fasbmb.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. Microalgae species biodiversity and abundance and their potential for biofuel in Kenya. Nairobi, KENYA; 2011. Abstractabstract-ncst.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts.
Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Uwizeyimana, D., Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi, G. " Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi, G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Mureithi SM, Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Karuku G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana, D., Mureithi, S.M., and Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi, S.M., Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana, D., SM M, Karuku G, G K. " Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research.. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi G. "Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.

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